WO2003060940A1 - Micro-electromechanical system and method for production thereof - Google Patents

Micro-electromechanical system and method for production thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003060940A1
WO2003060940A1 PCT/CH2002/000722 CH0200722W WO03060940A1 WO 2003060940 A1 WO2003060940 A1 WO 2003060940A1 CH 0200722 W CH0200722 W CH 0200722W WO 03060940 A1 WO03060940 A1 WO 03060940A1
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Prior art keywords
micro
element
surface
position
substrate
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CH2002/000722
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Ralf Strümpler
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Abb Research Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to PCT/US2002/001662 priority Critical patent/WO2002058089A1/en
Priority to USPCT/US02/01662 priority
Priority to EP02405334A priority patent/EP1357571A1/en
Priority to EP02405334.0 priority
Application filed by Abb Research Ltd filed Critical Abb Research Ltd
Priority claimed from DE2002504300 external-priority patent/DE50204300D1/en
Priority claimed from US10/501,979 external-priority patent/US7109560B2/en
Publication of WO2003060940A1 publication Critical patent/WO2003060940A1/en

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H59/00Electrostatic relays; Electro-adhesion relays
    • H01H59/0009Electrostatic relays; Electro-adhesion relays making use of micromechanics
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H1/00Contacts
    • H01H1/12Contacts characterised by the manner in which co-operating contacts engage
    • H01H1/14Contacts characterised by the manner in which co-operating contacts engage by abutting
    • H01H1/20Bridging contacts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H1/00Contacts
    • H01H1/50Means for increasing contact pressure, preventing vibration of contacts, holding contacts together after engagement, or biasing contacts to the open position
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H1/00Contacts
    • H01H1/0036Switches making use of microelectromechanical systems [MEMS]
    • H01H2001/0042Bistable switches, i.e. having two stable positions requiring only actuating energy for switching between them, e.g. with snap membrane or by permanent magnet
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H1/00Contacts
    • H01H1/0036Switches making use of microelectromechanical systems [MEMS]
    • H01H2001/0078Switches making use of microelectromechanical systems [MEMS] with parallel movement of the movable contact relative to the substrate

Abstract

The invention relates to a micro-electromechanical system comprising a substrate (S) and at least two micro-elements (1, 2), of which a first one is a switchable bistable. The micro-elements (1, 2) comprise surfaces (3a, 4a) facing each other, generated by means of a structuring method and with a minimum separation characteristic for the structuring method. The first micro-element (1) is then switched to the other stable state (B), whereupon the separation between the surfaces (3a, 4a) facing each other is smaller than the minimal separation characteristic for the structuring method. The micro-electromechanical system can be embodied as an electrostatically operated micro-switch with improved switching. Laterally and horizontally working micro-electromechanical systems with new functionality and relays with current-free closing can be produced.

Description

MICRO ELEKTROMESCHANISCHES SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ITS

DESCRIPTION

technical field

The invention relates to the field of micro-electromechanical systems, in particular

- a micro-electro-mechanical system according to the preamble of claim 1 and

- to a method for manufacturing a micro-electro-mechanical system according to the preamble of claim 21st

State of the art

A such, the preamble of claims 1 and 21 forming micro-electromechanical system (Micro Electro-Mechanical System, MEMS) and a corresponding method are known from DE 198 00 189 AI known. There, a micromechanical switch is described which comprises a flat supporting substrate, a fixed set on the carrier substrate contact piece, a movable electrode and a fixed connected to the support substrate counter electrode. The movable electric i has a free end and a fixed end connected to the carrier substrate end. The movable electrode and the counter electrode each have facing surfaces. By electrostatic attraction forces between these surfaces facing each other, the movable electrode can be bent in such a way, which means are elastically deformed that the free end of the movable electrode the counter electrode and thereby also the contact piece approximates until the contact between the free end of the movable electrode and the contact piece comes. The movement of the free end of the movable electrode takes place laterally, ie parallel to the flat supporting substrate.

The electrostatic attraction forces between the mutually facing surfaces of the movable electrode and the counter electrode is generated by applying a voltage between the movable electrode and the counter electrode. A short circuit, that is to avoid electrical contact between the movable electrode and the counter electrode are placed stoppers in the counter electrode, which protrude on the side facing the movable electrode surface of the counter electrode, and do not lie on the same potential as the counter electrode. For the same purpose also springs may be provided, which are mounted on the counter electrode side remote from the movable electrode and restrict the movement of the movable electrode toward the counter electrode. In addition, the surface facing the counter electrode surface of the movable electrode can for the same purpose also be provided with an electrically insulating layer.

The electrostatic attractive force F between two parallel surfaces of area A at a distance d with application of a switching voltage U between the two surfaces is given by

Figure imgf000004_0001
The force increases linearly with the surface, the square of the voltage and inversely proportional to the square of the distance to.

The method disclosed in the aforementioned DE 198 00 189 AI microsystem was generated using a Siliziumtiefenätzprozesses from the carrier substrate. In this case, by applying a mask to the carrier substrate at the locations where the mask is opened, etched material from the carrier substrate. Resulting trenches or etch channels, which have at least one characteristic of the etching minimum width.

In order to achieve mobility of the free end of the movable electrode, a sacrificial layer process is applied, which separates the free end of the movable electrode of the carrier substrate. For this purpose, one below the moving parts of the micromachine switch disposed in the carrier substrate sacrificial layer is selectively removed by an etching process, wherein the sacrificial layer at locations at which a connection is desired to the substrate, such as on the counter electrode, the contact piece and fixed to the fixed end of the movable electrode , persists.

DE 42 05 029 CI showing an electrostatically driven micro-electro-mechanical relay that operates horizontally. This means that the switching movement of this relay is substantially perpendicular to a carrier substrate. Of a silicon substrate, a tongue-shaped electrode with contact piece is etched. The substrate is then applied to such a counter substrate having a counter electrode and a mating contact that the electrode with the counter electrode includes a wedge-shaped gap. By applying a switching voltage between the electrode and the counter electrode, these are movable towards each other, thereby possible to achieve an electrically conductive connection between the contact and mating contact. Large contact forces can be achieved by relatively wide electrodes. In DE 197 36 674 CI is also a micro-electro-mechanical relay and a method is disclosed for the production thereof, which operates horizontally. A movable contact is mounted on a cantilevered on a substrate anchor tongue, which is curved away from the substrate in the rest state. This contact acts to produce a high contact force with a fixed contact, which is fixed to a likewise curved away from the substrate spring tongue. The curvature of the contacts is realized by the application of a tensile stress layer on both contacts. Achieving a high reproducibility of a thus produced curvature of the contacts and the contact distances at rest (open) has been designed in not easy.

In US 5'638'946 and US 6'057'520 more horizontally operating MEMS switches are described.

J. Qiu et al., "A Centrally-Clamped parallel beam bistable MEMS Mechanism", Proc. of MEMS 2001, Interlaken, Switzerland, January 20 to 22, 2001, shows a bistable switchable micro-electro-mechanical mechanism. This consists of two parallel spring tongues on both sides suspended or membranes describing a cosine curve. In the middle of the spring tongues are connected to one another, and at their ends they are fixed to a supporting substrate. This bistable micro-element is deep etching using lonen- and generates sacrificial layer technology from the silicon supporting substrate, so that the spring tongues are laterally movable, and two stable states are exhibited. By applying a directed perpendicular to the Fe ¬ derzungen and parallel to the carrier substrate force of the bistable mechanism between the two stable states is reciprocally herschaltbar, wherein the respective mirror-image to the initial position end ¬ position ranges replaced by snapping the mechanism finally independently is , In order to achieve on the one hand and on the other elastic mobility mechanical stability of the micro-element, the 3 mm long spring tongues are only 10 microns to 20 microns wide, but 480 microns high.

. More laterally movable micro-electromechanical mechanisms A. Saif, "On a bistable MEMS Tunable - Theory and Experiment" in M. Taher, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol 9, 1 57-170 Ouni 2000).

In US 5'677'823 a electrostatically switchable bistable memory element is disclosed which operates horizontally. A substantially to a carrier substrate aligned parallel, bridge-like movable contact is arranged above a permanently connected to the carrier substrate fixed contact. At its two ends the movable contact to the supporting substrate is fixed, while curved away in the center of the carrier substrate (first stable position) or curved in the direction of the supporting substrate (second stable position). In the second stable position the movable contact and the fixed contact touch: the switch is closed. In the first stable position of the switch is open. The Bista- stability of the switch is obtained by mechanical stresses which are introduced during the production of the switch in the movable contact. Also below the movable contact two electrodes are arranged laterally adjacent to the fixed contact. By applying electric voltages to the movable contact and to these electrodes and contact electrodes can be electrically charged, so that the electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces arising between them, through which the switch between the two stable positions can be moved back and hergeschaltet. Another horizontal working bistable MEMS mechanism is described in Sun et al., "A Micro Bistable relay Based on Two-Segment multimorph cantilever Actuators", IEEE Catalog no. 98CH36176.

Summary of the Invention

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a micro-elektomechanisches system (MEMS) of the type mentioned in the introduction, which enables a more flexible MEMS design. In particular, an improved ability to switch and new functionality to be enabled. This object is achieved by a MEMS having the features of claim 1.

It is another object of the invention to provide an improved method for the production of MEMS. This object is achieved by a method having the features of claim 21st

Improved ability to switch can mean for example that a Schaltvor ¬ transition can be triggered even at low switching voltages. New functionality can mean both energized open as well as closed-energized terminals such as the implementation of energized closed connections or micro-relay.

The inventive MEMS comprises a substrate and a first micro-element and a second micro-element,

- the first micro-element and the second micro-element are connected to the substrate,

- the first micro-element having a first surface and the second micro ¬ member having a second surface, which surfaces face each other and are generated by a patterning process, - the first micro-element incorporates a switching part, by which it is bistable between an initial position and a working position is switchable, and

- is the distance between the first surface and the second surface in the working position of the first micro-element is less than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the first surface and the second surface.

a first, stable between the two positions it is therefore initial position and working position switchable micro-element so used in combination with a second micro-element that the first micro-element after switching from the initial position into the working position at a smaller distance to the second micro- element has, as in the initial position. Both micro-elements are connected to the substrate and produced using a patterning method. Said lower spacing in the working position according to the invention is smaller than a characteristic of the patterning methods minimum distance between two microelements.

In this way ensures that new degrees of freedom be gained in the design of MEMS because of process engineering given constraints are overcome. A wide variety of micro-actuators can be new or simply realized in an improved form or.

In a preferred embodiment of the subject invention, the second micro-element is a firmly connected to the substrate first fe ¬ Stes end and a movable part, whereby in the working position of the first micro-element, the movable part of the second micro-element by electrostatic forces between the first micro-element and the second micro-element from a switched-off position into a switch-on position is movable, and wherein the two micro-elements in the region of the location at which said smaller distance between the two micro-elements is present, contact points comprise and electrically are formed non-conductive. means that there are points of contact, that said lower spacing is zero.

Thus, it becomes possible to produce elekrostatisch working actuators whose electrostatically switchable electrodes contact (electrode and counter-electrode) to each other. The thus achieved little or disappearing electrode spacings have improved the ability to switch the consequence. An actuator switching at very low switching voltages is possible.

In a further advantageous embodiment of the subject invention, the first micro-element is additionally configured such that it includes a matched counter electrode which is adapted to the shape of the second micro-element: The adjusted counter electrode is formed such that in the switch-on of the second micro-element the adjusted counter electrode and the second micro-element in the area of ​​said contact points grössflächig overlap. In the switch-on of the second micro-element, therefore, the customized counter electrode and the second micro-element cling to each other. Characterized a maximization of the surfaces is achieved between which act the electrostatic attractive forces, which has greater electrostatic attraction forces and thus an improved ability to switch the result. An actuator switching at very low switching voltages is possible.

In a further advantageous embodiment, said adjusted counter electrode further comprises a second portion which is stepped back with respect to the osculating itself to the second micro-element portion of the counter electrode. In the switch-on of the second micro-element while the second portion of the reasonable fit counter electrode and the second micro-element include a gap. In this way can be tailored and selected very large a force that is able to exert the second micro-element in its on position, by the length, width and height of the gap is dimensioned accordingly. The large-selectable in this manner power may be, for example, a contact force of the second micro-element to one or two electrical contacts, which contacts the second micro-element is in its ON position, thereby forming a secure electrical contact can be produced.

In a further preferred embodiment, a change of switching relay is realized.

In other advantageous embodiments of the subject invention relays or changing switching relays are realized with spannunglos closed ports.

In particular, in a preferred embodiment, the movable part of the second micro-element can be elastically deformed by switching the first micro-element from the initial position into the working position. This makes it possible to realize energized closed ports.

The erfmdungsgemässe method includes, after the patterning of two micro-elements with surfaces facing each other the switching of the bistable switchable micro-element. This allows new or improved MEMS, such as those mentioned above were prepared.

Further preferred embodiments follow from the dependent patent claims ¬ and the figures produced. Brief Description of Drawings

In the following, the subject invention will be described with reference to preferred exemplary embodiments which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. Show it:

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of an inventive MEMS with kosinusförmigem bistable element, in a plan view.

Figure 2 is a schematic representation of an inventive MEMS with schwingungsbauchförmigem bistable element, in a plan view.

Figure 3 is a schematic representation of an inventive MEMS with kosinusförmigem bistable element and adapted counter electrode in plan view.

Figure 4 is a schematic representation of an inventive for micro-relay with kosinusförmigem bistable element and adapted counter electrode in plan view.

Figure 5 is a schematic representation of an inventive for micro-exchange switching relay with two cosinusoidal bistable elements and adapted counter electrode in plan view.

Figure 6 is a schematic representation of an inventive for micro-relay with kosinusförmigem bistable element and stepped counter electrode in plan view.

Figure 7 is a schematic representation of an inventive micro-relay with kosinusförmigem bistable element and gestuf ¬ ter counter electrode and two-movable part of the second micro-element, in a plan view.

Fig. 8 is a schematic representation of an inventive

Alternately switching relay with monostable second micro-element and NO and NC terminals in plan view; Fig. 9 is a schematic representation of an inventive

Alternately switching relay bistable second micro-element and NO and NC terminals in plan view;

10a is a schematic representation of an inventive micro-relay with NC terminal. Condition: the first micro-element in the initial position; in supervision;

Figure 10b is a schematic representation of an inventive micro-relay with NC terminal. Condition: the first micro-element into the working position, second micro-element in the off position; in supervision;

Figure 10c is a schematic representation of an inventive micro-relay with NC terminal. Condition: the first micro-element into the working position, second micro-element in the on position; in supervision;

Fig 1 1 a is a schematic representation of an inventive horizontally operating microrelay with NC port side sectional view; FIG.

Fig. 1 1 b is a schematic illustration of an inventive horizontally operating microrelay with NC terminal, in plan view;

The reference symbols used in the drawings and their meaning are summarized in the reference numeral list. In principle, equivalent parts are given the same reference numerals in the figures.

Ways of carrying out the invention

Fig. 1 shows a schematic top view on a first erfindungsgemä- sses micro-electromechanical system (MEMS). It comprises a first micro-element 1 and a second micro-element 2, both of which are rigidly connected to a substrate S.

The substrate S is a disc (wafer) made of monocrystalline silicon, wherein one of the two major surfaces constituting a main surface of the substrate. In Fig. 1, this major surface is located in the plane of the paper. Using lonen- deep etching (DRIE dry reactive ion etching) and sacrificial layer technology have been formed, the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 from the substrate S.

The patterning method DRIE has the property of being an abrasive process; it is an etching process. It has also the property to be good for producing narrower yet deeper channels, gaps or grooves capable of which a preferred direction may be attributed to the DRIE, which indicates the direction of preferential material removal, and thus is perpendicular to the main surface of the substrate. Perpendicular to turn this preferred direction, the width of a trench produced by DRIE is down, so to narrow trenches limited. This means that there is a by the patterning process (for example, DRIE) given minimum producible grave width. For the two surfaces forming the lateral boundaries of such a trench, there is thus a minimum distance. Details as schittechnologie means lonentiefätzen and sacrifice the micro-elements 1, 2 may be formed from the substrate, is known in the art and also the said Offenlegungsschrift DE can 198 00 189 are removed AI, for example, which hereby with their entire disclosure content in the description is incorporated.

Means typically DRIE generated micro-elements have side surfaces that are oriented almost perpendicular to the main surface of the substrate S, in other words, the (local) surface normal vectors of the side surfaces virtually parallel to the main surface of the substrate S. Such micro-elements thus have substantially the form of a straight (right angle) prism whose base surface is oriented parallel to the main surface of the substrate S. In addition, typically the amount of such micro-element (perpendicular to Haupfläche) is very large compared to the (narrowest) width of such a micro-element. The first micro-element and the second micro-element are of this type.

The first micro-element 1 is designed as a bistable elastic mechanism MEMS mechanics, as described in said publication J. Qiu et al., "A Centrally-Clamped Parallel Beam Bistable MEMS Mechanism", Proc. of MEMS 2001, Interlaken, Switzerland, January 20 to 22, 2001, is described. Details of embodiments, features, and for manufacturing such a micro-element of this publication can be found, which is hereby incorporated in the description by their entire disclosure content. The first micro-element 1 is fixed at a first end 6 and a second end 7 on the substrate S. Therebetween, the first micro-element 1 has two parallel, curved cosine spring tongues, which are joined in the middle 8 between the two ends 6,7 to each other. can be understood, this spring tongues as parallel membrane in view of its narrow width and its great height (perpendicular to the substrate principal surface).

The first micro-element 1 is bistable switchable between an initial position A and an operative position B (shown in dotted lines in the latter Fig. 1). That is, the micro-element 1 has two mechanically stable states or positions A and B between which it is movable to and fro by applying a la ¬ eral, ie substrate parallel force; the movement takes place here substantially laterally. Any Zwischenpositio- not nen are stable, but self lead to a rapid transition in one of the two stable states A or B. The transition is carried out by preferably elastic deformation of the first micro-element 1. The first micro-element 1 is therefore restricted from a switching part 5, through which it is bistable switching.

The first micro-element 1 has the second micro-element 2 side facing a shaped by means of DRIE side surface, which is referred to as the first surface 3a. This first area 3a has a first coating 3b which is electrically insulating and the outer, so facing away from the first surface 3a of surface forms the first surface 3 of the first micro-element. 1 The first coating 3b is typically generated by oxidation of the silicon.

The second micro-element 2 comprises a first fixed end 10, to which it is fixed on the substrate S, and a movable part 1 1; it is disposed adjacent to the first micro-element. 1 On the side of the second micro-element that is facing the first micro-element 1, the second micro-element 2 by means of a shaped DRIE side surface, which is referred to as a second surface 4a. This second surface 4a has a second coating 4b which is electrically insulating and the outer, so facing away from the second surface 4a of the surface forms the second surface 4 of the second micro-element. 2 The first upper ¬ surface 3 and the second surface 4 are facing surfaces, as well as the first surface 3a and the second surface 4a facing each other. The second coating 4b is also typically generated by Oxida ¬ tion of the silicon.

After forming the first surface 3a and the second surface 4a by means of DRIE is the first micro-element 1 in the initial position A and the second micro-element 2 in an off position A '. Because the faces 3a and 4a Mittes DRIE are formed, they have a distance apart which is at least as large as a value given by DRIE minimum distance. With the distance between the surfaces from each other, the distance is meant to have such two points from each other, which are closest to each other, wherein the one point on the first surface 3a and the other point on the second surface 4a is located. The distance is thus the width of the trench between the first surface 3a and the second surface 4a at its narrowest point. In Fig. 1, this point is at a corner of the first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element 2 and near the first end 6 of the first micro-element 1 at the membrane of the first micro-element 1, which has the first surface 3a.

The initial position A of the first micro-element 1 is a production-related initial position. The arrangement of the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 is chosen such that after switching the first micro-element 1 from the initial position A to working position B, the distance of the first surface 3a of the second surface 4a is smaller given as said, by the manufacturing method (for example, DRIE) minimum distance. In the MEMS in FIG. 1, the distance is even zero, that is, in the working position A to contact the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2. In the working position A may be an intended cooperation of the first micro-element 1 with the take place within the MEMS second micro-element. 2

The MEMS in FIG. 1 illustrates a micro-actuator, which is formed by the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2, together with the substrate S. Here, the second micro-element 2 acts as a movable electrode electrostatically switchable and bistable switchable first micro ¬ member 1 as an associated electrostatic counter electrode. The first micro-element 1 is in the working position A. The operation of the micro-actuator, when in the working position B, is substantially known from the prior art: On the first fixed end 6 of the first micro-element 1 is a Kontaktierungselektrode C, and to the first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element 2 a Kontaktierungselektrode C is provided. This Kontaktierungselektro- the C, C serve for applying switching voltages to the micro-elements 1, 2, through which the microelements electrostatically charged, so that electrostatic forces between the micro-elements act. 1 and 2 For this purpose, the material from which the micro-elements are made must be sufficiently conductive, which is achieved for example by appropriate doping of the silicon. Due to the electrostatic forces between the micro-elements (more precisely, between the first surface 3 and the second surface 4) of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 by the switch-off position A 'in a switch-on position B 1 of the second micro-element 2 movable. The switch-on position B 1 is represented by dashed lines in Fig. 1. In the MEMS in FIG. 1 is an opposite charge of the micro-elements 1, 2 and thus an attractive electrostatic force is provided. To return the second micro-element 2 to the off position A 1, the charges of the micro-elements 1, 2 are reduced. That no undesirable discharges take place, particularly when the micro-elements 1, 2 touch, 4b is achieved by the non-conductive coatings 3b.

As equation (1) can be removed, the electrostatic force increases in inverse proportion to the distance. The inventive MEMS in FIG. 1 thus has the great advantage of being switched even with smaller switching voltages as they would be required for a MEMS, whose distance between the electrode and the counter electrode is greater than or equal to the given by the patterning process minimum distance. The micro-actuator of FIG. 1 can be used for example as an optical micro-switches, by passed in to switching light beam or is interrupted by the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2, depending on whether the second micro-element 2 is in the off position A 'or in the switch-B1. Equally well to the deflection of a light beam to the micro-actuator in Fig. 1 is possible, for example when in the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2, a reflective area is arranged (not shown). The switch-B 1 is by definition present when suitable switching voltages are applied; otherwise there is the off position A 'before.

The bistable switchable first micro-element 1 is used as an electrostatic electrode or counter electrode.

The embodiment in Fig. 1 has been described in great detail. For the sake of clarity and are hereinafter referred to some of the aforementioned details of the workings of the inventive MEMS, which should have become clear by now in the art, not specially mentioned.

Fig. 2 shows a MEMS, which largely corresponds to the MEMS in FIG. 1; al ¬ lerdings is the first micro-element 1 structured differently. The first micro-element 1 is here than another laterally, and preferably bistable elastic mechanism switchable formed. The first micro-element 1 is fixed see also here at a first end 6 and a second end 7 on the substrate. But in between, the first micro-element 1 to a ge ¬ curved spring tongue, which has the shape of an antinode. In view of its narrow width and its great height can also refer to this spring tongue as a membrane (perpendicular to the substrate principal surface).

is in the initial position A, that is, in the state in which the first micro-element 1 structured in the first micro-element 1 describes a symmetrical antinode in the working position B an asymmetrical antinode (the latter shown in phantom in Fig. 2). The asymmetrical antinode represents the second stable position of the first micro-element 1, and arises from the fact that a firmly connected to the substrate S stop, the first micro-element 1 B touches in the working position and the corresponding deformation of the first micro-element 1 executes. This stop is formed here by a correspondingly designed and arranged first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element. 2 The corresponding point of contact is zweckmä- ssigerweise right of a connection path extending from the second end 7 towards the first end 6 of the first micro-element 1 when the symmetrical antinode in the initial position A to the left of this link is arranged. The value of a run parallel to said link positional coordinate of the touch point is not 0.5 (no asymmetrical antinode) and is preferably between 0:52 and 0.92 of the length of the link; He here is about 0.84. The stop may be formed by a correspondingly shaped first end 6 and second end 7 of the first micro-element 1 or as a separately on the substrate S fixed stop (then as a first micro-element 1 to be considered belonging which is).

As with the embodiment of FIG. 1, the bistable micro-element 1 in the initial position A is generated (structured), wherein the distance between the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 is at least as large as a value given by the patterning method Minimalab- stand (between the micro-elements 1, 2). Still in the context of the manufacture of the MEMS, after applying coatings 3b, 4b, the first micro-element 1 from the initial position A is switched to the work position B, wherein in the working position B, the distance between the two micro-elements 1, 2 is smaller than said minimum distance. In the MEMS thus two micro-elements with a non-producible small by structuring methods distance from each other are realized (by taking advantage of the bistable switching capability of the micro-elements). For further details on the embodiment of FIG. 2, reference is made to the written in connection with FIG. 1,.

Fig. 3 shows an inventive MEMS, which largely corresponds to the embodiment shown in FIG. 1; However, there is here the first micro-element 1, not only from a switching portion 5, but still an electrode additionally comprises 9. The electrode 9 has an elongated portion, the first surface 3a, the first coating 3b and the first surface 3 of the first micro element 1 includes. This part is by means of another elongated member that is approximately perpendicular to said out rich ¬ tet, connected to the switching portion 5 in the middle 8 between the ends 6,7 of the first micro-element. 1

Since the electrode 9 is fixed to the switching portion 5, it moves with the switching portion 5, if from the initial position A to working position B (and possibly back again) is switched. Are produced by applying appropriate switching voltages electrostatic attraction forces between the first micro-element 1 (of course, in the working position A) and the second Mi ¬ kro element 2, so the movable part 1 1 of the second micro ¬ element 2 is elastically deformed and approaches the electrode 9 is switched from the off position A 'in the switch-on position B'. The shape of the electrode 9, and in particular the shape of the first surface 3 is preferably pre-shaped such that the first surface 3 and the second surface 4 in the switch-on to touch the entire surface. This means that there is a planar contact between the two surfaces 3,4, which does not mean that the two surfaces have to 3.4 completely touching. The first surface 3 is so adapted to the shape of the second surface 4 in the on position. The two surfaces 3,4 are nestled together in the on position B '. Can be described such an electrode 9 as an adapted electrode. 9 Owing to the matched electrode 9 which is effective for the electrostatic forces area is maximized and minimizing the effective distances. Consequently, already are switched at low Schaltspanungen. For further details on the embodiment of Fig. 3, reference is made to the written in connection with FIG. 1,.

Fig. 4 shows a MEMS, which is a micro-relay. The embodiment largely corresponds to the 3d of Fig It also includes a (customized) electrode 9 and a cosine formed elastically bistable switchable micro-element 1. In addition, the second micro-element 2 or, more precisely, the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2, a contact portion 16 which is electrically conductive. Preferably, the contact region 16 is arranged in the region of that end of the moving part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 that is not adjacent to the first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element. 2 The contact area 16 forms a part of a side surface of the second micro-element 2 and is preferably designed as a coating which is applied to the second micro-element 2 by means of vapor deposition or sputtering techniques.

Further, the MEMS comprises two fixed on the substrate S, elec trically conductive ¬ Fixkontakte 1 7.18. The arrangement of the Fixkontakte 17.1 8 and the contact region 16 is selected such that upon application of an appropriate switching voltage to the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 (that is, in the switch-B 'of the second micro-element 2) of the contact region 16 an electrically conductive connection between the Fixkontakt 17 and the Fixkontakt generated 18th In the OFF A 1, this is not the case. There is therefore an electrostatic micro-relay, through which a 7.1 8 formed connecting the Fixkontakten 1 can be switched by means of switching voltages.

It is very advantageous in this, but also to the embodiments discussed below, that the distance in the open state between the contact portion 16 of the second micro-element 2 and the Fixkontakten 1 7.1 8 is selectable and has been designed in very reproducible.

The contact region 16 is located in Fig. 4 on the side of the second micro-element 2, which is facing the first micro-element 1, ie on the side, which includes the surface 4. By attractive electrostatic forces between the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2, an electrical contact between the Fixkontakten 1 7.1 8 is effected.

It is also possible (not shown), 17,18 to arrange the Fixkontakte that they are located in that region of the substrate S, which is on the first micro-element 1 opposite side of the second micro-element. 2 The contact region 16 is then positioned accordingly on the side of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 which is remote from the first micro-element. 1 So configured, the relay means of repulsive electrostatic forces can be switched. Naturally, it is also possible to construct this micro-relay or the one shown in Fig. 4 microrelay without (adjusted) electrode 9 (analogous to the construction in Fig. 1). Fig. 5 shows an inventive micro-exchange switching relay. It includes all the features of such a MEMS, as described in connection with Fig. 4. In addition, the MEMS but still comprises a third micro-element T and two other Fixkontakte 1 7 ', 18'; and the second micro-element 2 has a further electrically conductive contact region 6 'which is disposed on one side of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2, which is opposite to the side having the contact portion sixteenth The third micro-element 1 'and the other Fixkontakte 1 7', 8 1 'with respect to the elongated movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 disposed in mirror image to the first micro-element 1 and the Fixkontakten 1 7.18. Of course, the arrangement need not be an exact mirror image; it is sufficient if the third micro-element T is connected in a region of the substrate S with the substrate, on the first micro-element 1 opposite side of the second micro-element (2) and the further Fixkontakte 1 7 ', 18' are connected in a region of the substrate S with the substrate, which lies on the the Fixkontakten 7.18 1 opposite side of the second micro-element. 2 The structure of the third micro-element T corresponds to the structure of the first micro-element. 1 The other Fixkontakte 17 ', 18' are formed of the same kind as the Fixkontakte 17.1. 8

The interaction between the third micro-element T and the second micro-element (2) and the further Fixkontakten (1 7 ', 18') Complies the interaction described above between the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 and the Fixkontakten 1 7.1 8. concern suitable switching voltages to the third micro-element T and the second micro-element 2 may be an electrically conductive connection between the further Fixkontakten 1 7 ', 18' are created by the further contact portion 16 '. Thus, there is with this embodiment, a three-position switch or a changeover switch relay before having three defined states: (. 1) contacts between the two Fixkontaktpaaren 17,18; 1 7 ', 18' open, (2) contacts between the further Fixkontakten 17 ', 18' open and contacts between the Fixkontakten 7.1 1 8 is closed and (3) contacts between the Fixkontakten 1 7.18 open and closed contacts between the further Fixkontakten 1 7 ', 18'.

Fig. 6 shows a further inventive MEMS, which largely corresponds to the MEMS in FIG. 4. It includes the characteristics of the MEMS in FIG. 4, for which please refer to the corresponding part of the description. However, the electrode 9 of the first micro-element 1 is specially designed here. The electrode 9 has a (optional step-shaped) recess. The electrode 9 comprises a gap-forming surface 12 which is stepped back with respect to the first surface 3 of the first micro-element. 1 One can refer to this electrode 9 as a stepped electrode. 9 In this MEMS attractive electrostatic forces for the switching of the switch-off position A are used 'in the switch-on position B'. the first micro-element 1 is in the working position B and the second micro-element 2 in the switch-on position B ', so closing the gap-forming surface 12 and the second micro-element 2, or more precisely, the movable part 1 1 of the second micro- item generated 2, a gap 13 a. Thereby, the size of a contact force exerted by the second micro-element 2 to the Fixkontakte 1 7.18 may be selected. In particular by a very good, reliable contact and a large contact force can be reached. The choice of the geometry of the gap allows targeted predetermination and election of the contact force. In particular, the length of the gap and the width of the gap (the distance between the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 and the gap-forming surface 12 so) and optionally the course of the width of the gap can be selected for this purpose. Typically, the length of the gap by about one order of magnitude, preferably by about two orders of magnitude greater than the width of the gap. a (about) is selected evenly wide gap advantageous and the first surface 3 in contact with the second surface 4 over the entire surface. The relative arrangement of the micro-elements 1, 2 and the Fixkontakte 17.1 8 on the substrate must be carried out carefully.

Furthermore, such MEMS has the advantage that problems that may arise when switching from the on position B 'to the off position A' (by a slow or poor peeling of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 from the electrode 9 is called the more precisely, may occur from the first surface 3) for example due to surface effects, can be reduced. The (air) gap 13 allows rapid detachment of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 from the electrode 9 when switching from the on position B 'to the off position A', while still 'large in the switch-B electrostatic attraction forces between the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 in effect when the gap width is selected correspondingly low.

In Fig. 7 a further advantageous embodiment of the invention is shown. It is similar to the embodiment shown in Fig. 6 and will be described on the basis thereof. The movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 is specially designed here. It comprises a first portion 14 and a second portion 1 5, wherein the first portion 14 is less stiff, that is easily deformable, is formed as the second region 1 5. And the first region is between the fixed first end 10 of the second micro- element 2 and the second region 1 5 is arranged. The contact ¬ region 16 is advantageously arranged in the second region 1 5, in particular in the area of the first region 1 5 opposite end of the second portion 16. Preferably, the second region comprises at least 15 nevertheless jenigen portion of the movable member 1 1, in which the movable part 1 1 and the second micro-element 2 do not face each other. Especially advantageous is a (low) overlap of the second region 5 1 to the area of ​​the movable member 1 1, in which the movable part 1 1 and the second micro-element 2 face each other. In the example shown in Fig. 7 embodiment with graded electrode 9, the second region 1 5 advantageously comprises at least also that portion of the movable part 1 1, in which the movable part 1 1 and the gap-forming surface located opposite are 12. It is particularly advantageous in this case, when the second region 1 5 also has a (small) overlap with the first surface. 3 Advantageously, a full-surface contact between the first surface 3 and a portion of the second surface 4 is in the ON state B 'instead of, said part of the second surface 4 is complete in the first region fourteenth

The greater stiffness of the second portion 1 5 with respect to the first region 14 is achieved in the embodiment of Fig. 7 in that the second portion 15 is formed thicker or wider than the first range 14. It is also possible to severe the second portion 15 bendable to make, for example by applying a coating therein; For example, a base area of ​​the straight prismatic body, which forms the second region 1 5, or at least one of the side surfaces. By means of a corresponding (large, long) formed contact area which is aussgebildet as a coating, this could be achieved.

Due to the two different rigid portions 14.1 5 even at low switching voltages and attractive forces between the two micro ¬ elements 1, 2 is a switching of the second micro-element 2 by the switch-off position is allowed A 'in the switch-on position B'; the movable part 1 1 (more precisely, the first region 14) of the second micro-element 2 nestles, unroll, even with small forces of attraction to the electrode 9 at. This, while in the second region and preferably in the contact region 1 6 is no or only a slight deformation of the second micro-element 2 to be expected. A reliable electrical contact can be produced in this way by means of the contact area 16 between the Fixkontakten 17,18.

The features mentioned can of course also mutatis mutandis to the above and can be applied to the below-described embodiments (Fig. 1 to Fig. 6 and Fig. 8 to Fig. 1 1 b).

Fig. 8 shows a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, namely, a change of switching relay, which besides a normally-open-Connection (NO terminal) additionally comprises also a normally-closed-connection (NC terminal). NO connection means that the connection is open when not concern a suitable switching voltage (open-energized), as in the above embodiments (Fig. 4 to Fig. 7) is the case. However, NC terminals which are closed when not concern a suitable switching voltage (energized closed), are difficult to realize, and but can be realized in the embodiment ¬ ser. In particular, here a NC terminal is realized in a structured by means of DRIE MEMS.

The MEMS in FIG. 8 is constructed in mirror image and includes a first Mi ¬ kro element 1, a third micro-element T, a fourth micro-element 19 and a fifth micro-element 20, which are capable of bistable switching all and ei ¬ ne stable initial position a (shown solid) and a stable Ar ¬ beitsposition B having (shown in phantom). They are designed as such a bistable micro-elements, such as are described in more detail in connection with Fig. 1 (two parallel cosinusoidal, at its center comparable Thematic spring tongues). The position in which these micro-elements are structured by means of DRIE, the initial position A. The first micro-element 1 and the third micro-element is T correspond to each other substantially in their function. They consist only of a switching part 5. The fourth micro-element 19 and the fifth micro-element 20 correspond to each other also largely in their function. They each have a Kontaktierungselektro- de D, D '(for applying a switching signal to, for example an electric current), and an electrically conductive contact electrode 21, 22. The conductivity of the contact electrodes 21, 22 is preferably formed by a metallic coating. The contact electrodes 21, 22 are oblong, finger-shaped and is approximately in the middle between the two ends 8 of the respective micro-element 19,20 attached to the respective micro-element 19,20. Further, the MEMS two integral with the substrate S connected Fixelektroden 1 to 7.18 (for applying a further electric current to be switched).

. The MEMS in Figure 8 further comprises a second micro-element 2. The second micro-element 2 is a monostable switchable micro-element; so it has only one stable position. It comprises a first fixed end 10 and a second fixed end 10 ', which ends 10,10' on the substrate S are fixed, and a fixed between these two ends 10,10 'arranged movable part 1. 1 The movable part 1 1 is provided as a prior ¬ preferably antinode shaped, curved structure, which is fixed to the two fixed ends 10,10 'of the second micro-element 2 and has an electrically conductive contact region sixteenth The movable part 1 1 further comprises a second surface 4 which is formed by an optional second coating 4b, and which second is Oberflä ¬ surface 4 of a first surface 3 of the first micro-element 1 faces. Analogously, it is the same with a fourth surface 4 'of the second micro-element 2 and a third surface 3' of the third micro-element V. The second surface 4 is arranged between the first fixed end 10 and the contact portion sixteenth Similarly, the fourth surface 4 'between the second fixed end 10' and the contact area 16 is arranged. After the patterning of the second micro-element 2, the movable member 1 1 is in the off position A ', the stable position of the second micro-element. 2

Due to the existence of the above-mentioned minimum distance between two already generated by DRIE micro-elements or surfaces, the bistable micro-elements 1, 1 ', 19, 20 are spaced apart from the second micro-element 2 with at least such a minimum distance. After application of the optional non-conductive coatings 3b, 3b 'of the first and the third micro-element 1, 1' and the optional electrically conductive coatings of the contact electrodes 21, 22 are within the scope of the inventive manufacturing method of the MEMS the bistable micro-elements 1, 1 ', 19, 20 switched from the initial position A to working position B. Thereby, the distance between the micro-elements or surfaces is less than said minimum distance; in Fig. 8, the micro-elements even touch. In particular, touching both of the contact electrodes 21, 22 the contact area 16. As a result, an electrically conductive connection between the two contact electrodes 21, 22 and thus the NC terminal. Thus, a closed-energized, but releasable contact is realized. The surfaces 3,4 and the surfaces 3 ', 4' touch each other also in each case. This relatively low switching voltages between the second micro-element 2 and the first micro-element 1, and between the second micro-element 2 and the third micro may already by applying element T sufficiently large electrostatic STIC attractive forces between the second micro-element 2 and the micro-elements 1 'are produced which to a switching of the second micro-element 2 by the switch-off position a' 1 would result in the switch-on position B '. in the switch-B 'of the NC terminal is now open, while the NO port is closed due to its mono-stability, the second micro-element 2 on upon non-application of an appropriate switching voltage by itself in the off position. NC port closed, NO connection opened.

. Various modifications of the embodiment of Figure 8 are conceivable and advantageous: Here are some examples:

- It is possible to not build the MEMS mirror symmetry.

- One can do without the Fixkontakte 1 7.18 and has an NC connection micro-relay.

- One can dispense with the micro-elements 19,20 and has a no-connection micro-relay.

- When it is omitted, the Fixkontakte 7.1 1 8 or the micro-elements 1 9.20, it is sufficient if the contact area 16 of the second micro-element 2 is electrically conductive only on one side.

- One can micro-elements 1, 1 '(adjusted, optional: stepped) electrodes provided 9 (see FIG 3 to FIG. 7.).

- You can see the contact electrodes 21, 22 form different; or completely without them and then contacting the contact portion 16 of the second micro-element 2 by means of preferably electrically conductive coated shifting member.

- It is possible to arrange the micro-elements 1, 1 'on the other side of the second micro-element 2, ie in the area of ​​the substrate S, which lies on the the Fixkontakten 1 7.1 8 opposite side of the second micro-element 2 , Then the micro-relay is by electrostatic waste stossungskäfte switchable.

- It is also possible to arrange the first micro-element 1 in another area (of the substrate S, with respect to the second micro-element 2) as the third micro-element 1 '. - One can dispense with the third micro-element T and to use only the first micro-element 1 as an electrostatic counter-electrode to the second micro-element 2 as the movable electrode. These features can be advantageous jointly or individually or in any combination.

Fig. 9 shows a change of switching relay, which besides a normally-open-Connection (NO terminal), in addition also a normally-closed-connection (NC terminal) comprises. The MEMS is very similar to the one described in Fig. 8; for corresponding features are referred to the above text. However, the second micro-element 2 is not carried out monostable here but bistable. In particular, it has a structure with two parallel cosinusoidal, connected in its center spring tongues, such as is described in detail in connection with FIG. 1,. The two stable positions of the second micro-element 2, the switch-off position A 'and the switch-on position B'. A greater advantage of the bistability of the second micro-element 2 is that it requires no switching voltage applied to hold the second micro-element 2 in the switch-off position A 'or the switch-B'. After applying an appropriate switching voltage and the switching operation caused thereby in the other state A ', B', the second micro-element 2 remains automatically in this state, A ', B'. As a result, each of the two pairs of contacts to which a signal is to be switched (Fixelektroden 17,18 or microelements 19,20) may be a NO port or NC terminal.

In addition, the MEMS in Figure 9 two further bistable switchable micro ¬ elements:. The sixth micro-element 23 and the seventh micro ¬ element 24. These are here also constructed with two parallel cosinusoidal, connected in its center spring tongues and each having a (customized) to electrode 9 are in the region of the substrate S angeord- net that lies on the side of the second micro-element 2 which is remote from the micro-elements 1, 1 '. The micro-elements 23,24 cooperate in a similar manner to the second micro-element 2 as the micro-elements 1, 1 '. For example, to this, the second micro-element 2 has a sixth surface 26a and an eighth surface 26a ', which having a fifth surface 25a (the sixth micro-element 23) and a seventh surface 25a' (the seventh micro-element 24) interact. By means of electrostatic Anziehnugskräfte between the second micro-element 2 and the sixth micro-element 23 (more precisely, between the respective faces or surfaces) 24 (more precisely, between the respective faces or surfaces) and the seventh micro-element, the second micro-element 2 of the on state B 'to the off state A' are switched.

Several advantageous modifications of this embodiment possible:

- It is possible to not build the MEMS mirror symmetry.

- One can do without the Fixkontakte 17.18.

- One can dispense with the micro-elements 19,20.

- When it is omitted, the Fixkontakte 1 7.18 or to the micro-elements 19,20, it is sufficient if the contact area 16 of the second micro-element 2 is electrically conductive only on one side.

- One can micro-elements 1, 1 '(adjusted, optional: stepped) electrodes provided 9 (see FIG 3 to FIG. 7.).

- You can use the micro-elements 23,24 without matched electrodes. 9

- You can form the contact electrodes of the micro-elements 19,20 different; or completely without them and then contacting the contact portion 16 of the second micro-element 2 by means of preferably electrically conductive coated shifting member. - It is possible to switch the microrelay by electrostatic Abstossungskäfte; or to turn it on by means of electrostatic Abstossungskäfte and electrostatic Anziehungskäfte.

- can be dispensed with one, two or three of the micro-elements 1, 1 ', 23, 24; in particular diagonally to each other gegenüberleigenden micro-elements 1, 24, or the micro-elements l ', 23rd

- if a switching operation by cooperation of at least two micro-elements 1, T, 23,24 is generated with the second micro-element 2, it is particularly advantageous if at least one of the respective switching voltages having a time delay relative to at least one of the other switching voltages is applied. Thereby, the movement, which makes the moving part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 during the switching operation, are supported. In particular, the asymmetric movement of the two parallel cosinusoidal arcuate spring tongues of the second micro-element 2 Rechnunng can be carried. It can also be used appropriately adapted temporal switching voltage profiles.

- If instead of a bistable cosinusoidal second micro-element 2 an antinode shaped is used, the Fixkontakte 7.1 1 8 or the fourth and / or fifth micro-element 19,20 are advantageously arranged such that at least one of those for the Asymmetric training the antinode provides.

These features can be advantageous jointly or individually or in any combination.

Fig. 10a to Fig. 10c show a further advantageous embodiment of the invention in different positions. It is in this MEMS is a micro-relay with an NC connection, which is difficult to achieve in general. The MEMS will be described starting from the in Fig. 4 Darge ¬ exemplary embodiment illustrated, since it comprises the same constituents. Fig. 1 Oa shows the MEMS, in the condition that it has after the patterning by means of DRIE. The first micro-element 1 is in the initial position A. Figure 10b shows the MEMS in a state in which the first micro- element 1 is in the working position B, and the second micro-element 2 is in the off-A '. Fig. 10c shows the MEMS in a state in which the first micro-element 1 B is located in the working position, and the second micro-element 2 is in the ON state B '.

In contrast to the above discussed embodiments, it is here so that the first micro-element 1, not only simply the second micro-element 2 is closer to the switching from the initial position A to working position B than the given by DRIE minimum distance and the second micro- element 2 only (easily) be affected. Rather, here the arrangement of the micro-elements 1, 2 on the substrate S and the configuration of the micro-elements 1, 2 is chosen such that the first micro-element 1 in the working position B, a force to the movable part 1 1 of the second micro element 2 exerts, which leads to a (significant) elastic deformation of the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 (see Fig. 10b). The movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 is deformed in such a manner that the electrically conductive contact portion 16 of the second micro-element 2 conductively connects the Fixkontakte 17,18: the NC terminal is closed. There is realized a closed-energized, but releasable contact; in a structured using DRIE MEMS. In other words, by switching the first micro-element 1 from the initial position A to B Arbeitspositon a switching operation of the second micro ¬ element 2 is caused. Since no switching voltage must be applied for is the second micro-element 2 according to this switching operation in the switch-off position A \ To open the NC terminal again, must have a suitable switching voltage between the first micro-element 1 and the second micro-element 2 are applied. By means of electrostatic attraction forces of the NC terminal is opened, and the second micro-element 2 is in the ON state B '(see Fig. 10c).

In combination with above-mentioned characteristics further advantageous embodiments can be created on the basis of Figures l Oa-l Oc. In particular, the electrode can be dispensed with. 9 Or the electrode 9 can be formed differently. In particular, it is advantageous to the electrode 9 form such a manner, and arranging the micro-elements 1, 2 to each other such that the points of contact between the two micro-elements 1, (when the first micro-element is 1, and 2 in the working position A, the second micro- element 2 in the switch-off position a ') lie substantially on a straight line with the center 8 in the initial position a and the center 8 in the working position. This can achieve a low mechanical load on the first micro-element 1, at the same time large contact forces can be exerted on the Fixkontakte 1 7.18 (secure contacts).

It is also advantageous, in analogy to the embodiment shown in Fig. 5, a second pair Fixkontakte 17 ', 1 8' (not shown in Fig. 10) to provide, said Fixkontakte are 1 7 ', 1 8' to be arranged in such a way 1 that the contact area 6 of the second micro-element 2 this Fixkontakte 1 7 ', 18' connecting an electrically conductive manner, when the second micro-element 2 is in the on position B '. The result is an exchange switching relays, similar to that of Fig. 5, but with only a bistable Mi ¬ kro element 1. Advantageously, it may be 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 formed in two parts also the movable part (analog to the embodiment of Fig. 7). In the above, only laterally operating MEMS were discussed. It is also possible to construct the MEMS described (in a similar form) as a horizontally operating MEMS. For the production is then typically not DRIE used, but it is resorted known methods rather different from the MEMS and semiconductor technology, as mentioned, for example, in the aforementioned patents US 5,638,946, US 5'677'823 or DE 42 05 029 CI , The Offenbarungsgehelt these patents is therefore incorporated into the present specification.

Fig. 1 1 A and FIG. 1 1 B show a possible embodiment in which the moving parts of the MEMS are horizontally movable substantially. Fig. 1 1 a is a sectional side view of the MEMS b shown in plan view in FIG. 1 1. In Fig. 1 1 b is provided with XIa-XIa the line of section of Fig. 1 la shown. The MEMS is a micro-relay with an NC connection.

The first micro-element 1 is formed as an antinode shaped elastic bistable switchable micro-element here, analogous to that shown in Fig. 2 first micro-element 1. In the initial position A of the symmetrical antinode is curved away from the substrate S. The second end 7 of the first micro-element 1 is formed like a bridge here. Thereby, the below the antinode disposed second micro-element 2 may extend outside the region between the first end 6 and second end 7 of the first micro-element. 1 The first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element 2 serves as a stop for the formation of the asymmetrical antinode of the first micro-element 1 in the working position B.

The movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 initially runs (after patterning) is substantially parallel to the main surface of the substrate S. After the switching of the first micro-element 1 from the initial position A to working position B exerts the first micro- element 1 is a pressure force on the moving part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 out. The second micro-element 2 is elastically deformed. It reaches its off position A ', in which a permanently attached to the movable member 1 movable contact 1 touches a fixed electrode E on the Sustrat S Fixelektrode 17th This creates an NC connection between the movable contact electrode E and the Fixelektrode 17. This generation of an NC terminal analogous to that described in connection with FIGS. 10a to 10c method.

Are suitable switching voltages between the two micro-elements 1, 2 is applied, the second micro-element 2 is in the ON state B ', at which the movable part 1 1 of the second micro-element 2 is bent away from the substrate and the NC terminal is open , The contacting electrodes C, C serve for applying switching voltages. serve for applying a signal to be switched contacting electrodes D, D 'The Kontaktierungselektrode D, which is electrically connected to the movable contact electrode E, is disposed here on the first fixed end 10 of the second micro-element. 2 The electrically connected to the Fixkontakt 1 7 Kontaktierungselektrode D 'is disposed on the substrate S.

Other inventive MEMS, such as the MEMS as described above, can also be realized as a horizontally operating MEMS.

An arrangement with a Fixelektrode 1 7 and a movable contact ¬ lektrode E, as shown in Fig. 1, 1 a and 1 1 b is advantageously also in the above-described MEMS, which are described with a contact portion 16 and two Fixelektroden 17.18 , realized.

It is very advantageous in this embodiment of FIG. 1 Ia, b so that the distance in the open state between the movable contact electrode E of the second micro-element 2 and the Fixkontakt 1 7 is selectable and has been designed in very reproducible. The same also applies to the further embodiments discussed above, if one these analogous to FIG. 1 la, b executes with a movable contact electrode E.

An inventive MEMS can be executed not only, as in the above examples, as switches or relays. A wide variety of micro-actuators realized. For example, inventive MEMS micro-valves or micro-pumps can represent or press such.

The substrate S used for the preparation of an inventive MEMS is preferably formed fläching. Typically, it has a major surface which is structured for manufacturing the MEMS, wherein the movement of the moving parts of the MEMS are substantially parallel or perpendicular movement to this main surface. Preferably, the substrate S is made of a semiconductor material, especially silicon, the monocrystalline ¬ advantageous way and particularly advantageous (for a sufficient electrical conductivity) is also doped. When single-crystal silicon is very slow or no SUC ¬ constricting relaxation is expected when under mechanical stress bistable switchable micro ¬ elements 1, 1 ', 2, 1 9, 20, 23, 24 advantageous.

In particular, can be used an SOI wafer (silicon-on-insulator), the substratparalellen of three layers of silicon-silicon oxide-silicon. Since ¬ at the silicon oxide layer serves as a sacrificial layer. The aforementioned patterning method is typical as an abrasive process, preferably an etching process. The LIGA technique or in particular reactive ion etching and the particular advantage that lonen- deep etching (DRIE) come into consideration. The DRIE process has the advantage of being very suitable for the production of surfaces suitable which are closely spaced (relative to its subtratsenkrechten height) and extend substantially perpendicular to the main surface of the substrate S. For the production laterally operating MEMS DRIE is well suited. However, processes which apply material are conceivable, for example, if such generated facing surfaces due to the process having a minimum distance. For example, photopolymerization by means of rapid prototyping methods working.

Except electrostatically actuated actuators according to the invention may for example also electromagnetically or piezoeklektrisch realized operated actuators. The actuating forces may be repulsive or attractive.

An inventive bistable switchable micro-element can also be tri- or otherwise stably multistable switchable. It is for some appli ¬ compounds also not necessary that the micro-elements 1, 1 ', 19,20,23,24 are also after the first switch from the initial position A to working position B again zurückschalbar in the initial position A. One can also draw a unique, such as plastic, shaping into consideration. However, the micro-elements 1, 1 ', 1 9, 20, 23, 24 are preferably bistable ela ¬ cally switchable and again zurückschaltbar in the initial position A. It is particularly advantageous to form the bistable micro-elements 1, 1 ', 2,19,20,23,24 than described or cosinusoidal belly shaped as the described micro-vibration elements, which is also in a modified form and within a MEMS's combined realized.

Depending on the purpose, the micro-elements may optionally be coated electrically conductive or electrically nonconductive. A non-conductive coating is preferably used for preventing discharges between contacting electrostatic electrodes. For example, as an alternative or additional protection against such discharges stopper or springs can be used, as already cited DE 198 00 189 AI are known. The contacting electrodes CC'.DD 'can be prepared (e.g., by sputtering) and, for example, by bonding contacted in a known manner.

The manufacturing process for the inventive MEMS is to be noted that the first-time switching of the first micro-element 1 and also the other bistable switchable micro-elements l ', l 9,20,23,24 as yet from the initial position A to working position B is to be regarded as belonging to the manufacturing process of MEMS. This initial switching operation can be done mechanically. Preferably, this shift is made but as part of a quality or function tests (burn-in) of the MEMS, said other units connected to the substrate can be included in the test case or initialized. The initial switching operation can then take place preferably by generating an attractive force between the bistable micro-element 1, 1 ', 19,20, 23, 24 and the second micro-element 2, which force is advantageously carried out by applying a Schaltspanung. Such a switching voltage is typically higher which is used for switching the second micro-element 2 between off position A 'and on position B' as a switching voltage. These features can be advantageous jointly or individually or in any combination.

The linear expansion of the MEMS as described is typically between 0.2 mm and 5 mm, preferably 0.8 mm to 2 mm. For DRIE as a structuring method of the mentioned minimum distance (minimum grave width) is about 5 microns to 1 5 microns; it has a low dependence on the depth of the patterned trench. Typically, the depth of the patterned trench is 300 microns to 550 microns. the corresponding distance to typically zero or 0.1 microns will be reduced to 1 micron by switching from the initial position A to working position B. Layer thicknesses of the electrically non-conductive coatings 3b, 3b ', 4b, 4b' are typically from 50 nm to 500 nm

The switching voltages for the described MEMS (switching between off position A 'and switch-B') are typically 10 V to 80 V, preferably 25 V to 50 V. When the first switching of the bistable micro-elements from the initial position A to the operative position by electrostatic attractive forces occurs are typically for switching voltages between 70 V and 300 V, preferably between 100 V and 200 V applied.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1 first micro-element T third micro-element

2 second micro-element

3 first surface (the first micro-element); the second surface facing

3a first surface (the first micro-element); the second surface facing

3b first coating (the first surface)

3 'third surface (the third micro-element); the fourth surface facing

3a 'third surface (the third micro-element); the fourth surface facing

3b 'third coating (the third surface)

4 second surface (the second micro-element); the first surface facing

4a second surface (the second micro-element); the first surface facing

4b second coating (the second surface)

4 'fourth surface (the second micro-element); the third upper surface facing ¬

4a 'fourth surface (the second micro-element); Turning to the third surface ¬

4b 'fourth coating (the fourth surface)

5 switching part of the first micro-element

6 first end of the first micro-element

7 of the second end of the first micro-element 8 midway between the first and the second end of the first micro-element

9 (adjusted) electrode of the first micro-element

10 first fixed end of the second micro-element

10 'second fixed end of the second micro-element

1 and 1 movable part of the second micro-element

12 gap-forming surface

13 gap

14, first portion of the movable part of the second micro-element

1 5 second region of the movable part of the second micro-element ¬

16,16 'contact area of ​​the movable part of the second micro-element

17.18 Fixkontakte

1 7 ', 8 1' Fixkontakte

19 fourth micro-element

20 fifth micro-element 21, 22 contact electrode

23 sixth micro-element

24 seventh micro-element

25a fifth surface (the sixth micro-element); the sixth surface facing

25a 'seventh surface (the seventh micro-element); the eighth surface facing

26a sixth surface (the second micro-element); the fifth surface facing

26a 'eighth surface (of the second micro-element); the fifth surface facing

A Initial Position

B working position A 'off position (second micro-element)

B 'on position (second micro-element)

C, C contacting electrodes

D, D 'contacting electrodes

E movable Kontaktierungselektrode (of the second micro-element)

S substrate

Claims

Ü patent claims CHE
1 . Micro-electromechanical system, comprising a substrate (S) and a first micro-element (1) and a second micro-element (2), wherein
(A) the first micro-element (1) and the second micro-element (2) with the substrate (S) are connected and
(B) the first micro-element (1) having a first surface (3a) and the second micro-element (2) having a second surface (4a), which surfaces (3a, 4a) facing each other and formed by a patterning process are, characterized in that
(D) that the first micro-element (1) includes a switching portion (5), by which it is bistable between an initial position (A) and a working position (B) is switchable, and
(E) that the distance between the first surface (3a) and second surface (4a) in the working position (B) of the first micro-element (1) is smaller than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the first surface (3a) and is the second surface (4a).
2. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch l, characterized denotes ge ¬,
(A) that the first micro-element (1) having a first surface (3), which is equal to the first surface (3a), or when the first surface (3a) is provided with a first coating (3b) is equal to the surface of this coating (3b), and
(b) that the second micro-element (2) has a second surface (4) on ¬, which is equal to the second surface (4a) when the second area-provided before (4a) with a second coating (4b) is equal to the surface of this coating (4b).
3. Micro-electro-mechanical system according to Anpruch 2, wherein
(A) the second micro-element (2) has a with the substrate (S) is firmly connected first fixed end (10) and a movable part (1 1), characterized in that
(B) that the first surface (3) and the second surface (4) are electrically non-conductive, and
(C) that the first surface (3) and the second surface (4) in the working position (B) have contact points, and
(D) that the second micro-element (2), characterized by a switch-off position (A ') into an on position (B' can be switched), that in the working position (B) of the first micro-element (1) of the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) can be moved by electrostatic forces between the first micro-element (1) and the second micro-element (2).
4. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 3, characterized in that
(A) that the first micro-element (1) comprises an electrode (9), which electrode (9) includes the first surface (3), and
(B) that the electrode (9) and the second micro-element (2) are formed such that the first surface (3) and the second surface in the on position (B ') of the second micro-element (2) (4) are flat.
5. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 4, characterized in that the electrode (9) has a gap-forming surface (12) which is formed such that it is stepwise recessed from the first surface (3) and (with the second micro-element 2) encloses a gap (3: 1), when the first micro-element (1) in the working position (B) and the second micro-element (2) in the on position (B ') is located.
6. Micro-electromechanical system according to one of Anprüche 3 to 5, characterized in that the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) having a first portion (14) and a second portion (1 5), wherein the first region (14)
- between the second region (1 5) and the first fixed end (10) of the second micro-element (2) is arranged,
- comprising a portion of the second surface (4), and
- is designed to be less stiff than the second region (1 5).
7. Micro-electromechanical system according to one of Anprüche 3 to 5, characterized in that
(A) that the micro-electromechanical system has two fixed connected to the substrate Fixkontakte (17,18), and
(B) that the moving part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) has an electrically conductive contact region (16),
- which contact region (16) is arranged in the region of the first fixed end (10) of the second micro-element (2) opposite end of the second micro-element (2), and
- through which contact area (16) in the on position (B ') of the second micro-element (2), the two Fixkontakte (1 7,1 8) are conductively connected to each other.
8. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 7, characterized ¬,
(a) that the micro-electromechanical system comprises a third micro-element (l 1),
- which is bistable switching,
- which is connected to the substrate (S) is connected, and
- which is arranged in an area, the side of the second micro-element (2) on the first micro-element (1) facing away is located, and
(B) that the micro-electromechanical system has two further Fixkontakte (1 7 ', 18'), which further Fixkontakte (1 7 ', 18') with the substrate (S) are firmly connected and arranged in an area of on the side opposite the Fixkontakten (17.1 8) side of the second micro-element (2),
(C) that the moving part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) comprises a further electrically conductive contact region (16 '), opposite which in the region of the first fixed end (10) of the second micro-element (2) end of the second micro-element (2) on which the contact region (16) remote side of the second micro-element (2) is arranged, and
(D) wherein the third micro-element (V) in an analogous manner with the second micro-element (2) and with the further Fixkontakten (17 ', 18') cooperating as the first micro-element (1) with the second micro-element (2) and with the Fixkontakten (1 7,1 8) cooperates.
9. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 6 and 7 or according Anpruch 6 and 8, characterized in that the contact region (16) disposed in the second region (1 5) of the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) is.
10. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch l, characterized ¬,
(A) that the micro-electromechanical system comprises a third micro-element (T)
- the substrate (S) and
- having a third surface (3a '),
(B) that the second micro-element (2) includes a switching part, which
- a with the substrate (S) is firmly connected first fixed end (10),
- a with the substrate (S) is firmly connected second fixed end (10 '),
- arranged one between these two fixed ends (10,10 ') movable part (1 1) and
- having a fourth surface (4a '), and
(c) by which switching part the second micro-element (2) is switchable between an off position (A ') and an on position (B 1),
(D) the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) comprises an electrically conductive contact region (16),
(E) the second surface (4a) between the first fixed end (10) and the contact region (16) is arranged, and
(f) the fourth surface (4a 1) is arranged between the second fixed end (10 ') and the contact region (16),
(G) the third surface (3a ') and the fourth surface (4a') are produced by the patterning process and facing each other, and
(H) that the third micro-element (V) includes a switching part, by which it is bistable between an initial position (A) and a working position (B) is switchable, and
(I) that the distance between the third surface (3a ') and the fourth surface (4a') in the working position (B) of the third micro-element (V) is smaller than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the third surface (3a is ') and the fourth surface (4a').
1 1. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 10, characterized in that
(a) that the third micro-element (V) a third surface (3 ') which is equal to the third surface (3a 1) or when the third surface (3a' provided) with a third coating (3b ') is equal to the surface of this coating (3b '), and
(b) that the second micro-element (2) has a fourth surface (4 1), which 'is or, if the fourth surface (4a equal to the fourth surface (4a)') having a fourth coating (4b 1) provided is equal to the surface of this coating (4b ') is.
12. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 1 1, characterized in that
(A) that the micro-electromechanical system incorporates two fixed to the substrate (S) connected Fixkontakte (17,18),
(B) that the second micro-element (2), characterized by its switch-off position (A ') into its on position (B') is switchable, that (in the working position (B) of the first micro-element (1) and the third micro-element V) the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) (by electrostatic forces between the first micro-element 1) and the second micro-element (2) and (between the third micro-element T) and the second microstrip element (2) is elastically movable, and
(c) that is in the on (B 1) of the second micro-element (2), the two Fixkontakte (1 7.18) through the contact region (16) are conductively connected to each other ¬.
1 3. Micro-electro-mechanical system according to Anpruch 12, characterized ¬,
(A) that the micro-electro-mechanical system - a fourth micro-element (19) and
- comprises a fifth micro-element (20),
(B) the micro-elements (19,20)
- the substrate (S) are connected in an area of ​​the side of the second micro-element (2) on the Fixkontakten (17,18) facing away is located,
- shifting members include through which they bistable between an initial position (A) and a working position (B) are switchable, and
- one provided with an electrically conductive coating contact electrode (21, 22), and
(C) that in the off position (A ') of the second micro-element (2) in the working position (B) of the fourth micro-element (19) and the fifth micro-element (20), the two contact electrodes (21, 22) through the contact region (16) are electrically conductively connected to one another.
14. Micro-electromechanical system according to one of Anprüche 10 to 13, characterized in that the second micro-element (2) resiliently bistable between its off position (A ') and its on position (B') is switchable.
1 5. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 14, characterized in that
(A) that the micro-electromechanical system
- a sixth micro-element (23) and
- a seventh micro-element (24),
(B) the micro-elements (23,24)
- the substrate (S) are connected,
- on the side of the second micro-element (2) are arranged and fourth surface (4 ') facing away from the second surface (4), - include switching parts by which they bistable between an initial position (A) and a working position ( B) are switchable,
(C) that the sixth micro-element (23) comprises a fifth surface (25a)
(D) that the second micro-element (2) comprises a sixth surface (26a), the side of the second micro-element (2) between the first fixed end (10) and the contact region on the second surface (4) facing away from (16) is arranged,
(E) said fifth surface (25a) and the sixth surface (26a) facing each other and are produced by the patterning process,
(F) that the seventh micro-element (24) has a seventh surface (25a '),
(G) that the second micro-element (2) 'includes those on the fourth surface (4, an eighth surface (26a)' side of the second micro-element (2) between the second fixed end (10 ') and the contact portion facing away from) (16) is arranged,
(H) wherein the seventh surface (25a ') and the eighth surface (26a') facing each other and are produced by the patterning process, and
(I) that the distance between the fifth surface (25a) and the sixth surface (26a) in the working position (B) of the sixth micro-element (23) is smaller than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the fifth surface (25a) and the sixth surface (26a), and
(I) that the distance between the seventh surface (25a ') and the eighth surface (26a ") in the working position (B) of the seventh micro-element (24) is smaller than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the seventh surface (25a '), and 0) that the second micro-element (2), characterized on its Einschaltpositi- of (B') into its off position (A '') and the eighth surface (25a ', 26a can be switched), that in the working position (B) of the sixth micro-element (23) and of the seventh micro-element (24) of the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) by electrostatic forces between the sixth micro-element (23) and the second microstrip element (2) and between the seventh micro-element (24) and the second micro-element (2) is elastically movable.
16. Micro-electromechanical system according to one of Anprüche 14 or 1 5, wherein
(A) the substrate (S) is formed as a flat extended solid having a major surface, and
(B) the micro-elements (1, 1 ', 2,19,20,23,24) are formed as straight prismatic bodies, the bases of which are oriented parallel to the main surface, characterized in that
(C) that the moving part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2)
- is formed as a straight prismatic body and
- is laterally movable, and
(D) that the base of the movable part (1 1) forming the straight prismatic body, either
- in the off position (A ') has the form of a symmetrical antinode and
- in the on position (B ') has the form of an asymmetrical antinode, or
- two parallel cosinusoidal lines describes which are connected in with ¬ te (8) between its two ends (6,7) with each other.
1 7. micro-electro-mechanical system (a), the substrate (S) is formed as a flat extended solid having a major surface according to one of Anprüche 1 to 16, wherein, and
(B) the micro-elements (1, 1 ', 2, 19, 20, 23, 24) are designed as straight prismatic bodies, the bases of which are oriented parallel to the main surface, characterized in that
that at least one bistable between an initial position (A) and a working position (B) switchable micro-element (1, 1 ', 2,19,20,23,24) is present (c), the switching part
- a with the substrate (S) is firmly connected first fixed end,
- a with the substrate (S) is firmly connected second fixed end, and
- includes a arranged between these two fixed ends of the movable part,
(D) which movable part
- is formed as a straight prismatic body and
- is laterally movable, and
(E) that the base of the moving part forming the straight prismatic body, either
- in the off position (A ') has the form of a symmetrical antinode and
- in the on position (B ') has the form of an asymmetrical antinode or
- two parallel cosinusoidal lines describes which are connected in the middle between their two ends together.
8. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 3, characterized ge ¬ indicates that the movable part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) by switching the first micro-element (1) from the initial position A to the operating position A resiliently is deformable.
1 9. Micro-electromechanical system according Anpruch 1 8, characterized in that
(A) that the micro-electromechanical system has two fixed to the substrate Fixkontakte (1 7.18), and
(B) that the moving part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) has an electrically conductive contact region (16),
- which contact region (16) is arranged in the region of the first fixed end (10) of the second micro-element (2) opposite end of the second micro-element (2), and
- through which contact area (16) in the off position (A ') of the second micro-element (2), the two Fixkontakte (1 7,1 8) are conductively connected to each other.
20. Micro-electromechanical system according to one of Anprüche 1 to 9 or 18 or 19, wherein
(A), the substrate (S) is formed as a flat extended solid having a major surface, characterized in that
(B) that the switching part (5) of the first micro-element (1) is horizontally movable, and
(C) that the moving part (1 1) of the second micro-element (2) is horizontally movable.
21. A method for producing a micro-electromechanical system, in which method
(a) of a substrate (S), a first connected to the substrate Mi ¬ kro element (1) is produced, and (b) from a substrate a second substrate connected to the micro-device (2) is generated, and
(C) using a patterning process, a first surface (3a) of the first micro-element (1) and a second surface (4a) of the second micro-element (2) are formed, which surfaces (3a, 4a) facing each other and from each other, are spaced apart, characterized in that
(D) that the first micro-element (1) is formed such that
- it is in an initial position (A)
- it (A) into a working position (B) is switchable bistable from the initial position, and
- the distance of the first surface (3a) of the second surface (4a) in the working position (B) is less than a producible by the patterning process minimum distance between the first surface (3a) and second surface (4a), and
(E) that after forming the first surface (3a) and second surface (4a) by the patterning method of the first micro-element (1) in the working position (B) is switched.
22. The manufacturing method according to claim 21, characterized in that prior to the switching of the first micro-element (1) in the working position (B) the first surface (3a) of the first micro-element (1) having a first electrically conducting or electrically non-conductive coating (3b) is provided, and / or the second surface (4a) of the second micro-element (2) having a second electrically conducting or electrically non-conductive coating (4b) is provided.
3. Preparation process according to any one of claims 21 to 22, characterized in that one of the micro-electro-mechanical systems is prepared according to one of claims 1 to twentieth
PCT/CH2002/000722 2001-01-19 2002-12-23 Micro-electromechanical system and method for production thereof WO2003060940A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

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PCT/US2002/001662 WO2002058089A1 (en) 2001-01-19 2002-01-18 Bistable actuation techniques, mechanisms, and applications
USPCT/US02/01662 2002-01-18
EP02405334A EP1357571A1 (en) 2002-04-24 2002-04-24 Microelectromechanical system and its method of manufacture
EP02405334.0 2002-04-24

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US10/501,979 US7109560B2 (en) 2002-01-18 2002-12-23 Micro-electromechanical system and method for production thereof
AT02796487T AT304736T (en) 2002-01-18 2002-12-23 Micro-electromechanical system and process for its manufacture
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US7724417B2 (en) 2006-12-19 2010-05-25 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS switches with deforming membranes
US7745747B2 (en) 2006-04-26 2010-06-29 Seiko Epson Corporation Microswitch with a first actuated portion and a second contact portion
US7911677B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-03-22 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS switch with set and latch electrodes
US8022896B2 (en) 2007-08-08 2011-09-20 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. ESD protection for MEMS display panels
US8878771B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-11-04 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and system for reducing power consumption in a display
US8928967B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-01-06 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for modulating light
US8971675B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2015-03-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US9110289B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-08-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device for modulating light with multiple electrodes

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Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8928967B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-01-06 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for modulating light
US9110289B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-08-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device for modulating light with multiple electrodes
WO2006036560A2 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-06 Idc, Llc Mems switches with deforming membranes
US7911677B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-03-22 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS switch with set and latch electrodes
US8878771B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-11-04 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and system for reducing power consumption in a display
WO2006036560A3 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-05-04 Clarence Chui Mems switches with deforming membranes
US8971675B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2015-03-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US7745747B2 (en) 2006-04-26 2010-06-29 Seiko Epson Corporation Microswitch with a first actuated portion and a second contact portion
US7724417B2 (en) 2006-12-19 2010-05-25 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS switches with deforming membranes
US8022896B2 (en) 2007-08-08 2011-09-20 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. ESD protection for MEMS display panels

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AT304736T (en) 2005-09-15
EP1468436B1 (en) 2005-09-14
EP1468436A1 (en) 2004-10-20
AU2002361920A1 (en) 2003-07-30
EP1357571A1 (en) 2003-10-29

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