WO2003051189A2 - Improved hartmann-shack wavefront sensor apparatus and method - Google Patents

Improved hartmann-shack wavefront sensor apparatus and method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003051189A2
WO2003051189A2 PCT/EP2002/014257 EP0214257W WO03051189A2 WO 2003051189 A2 WO2003051189 A2 WO 2003051189A2 EP 0214257 W EP0214257 W EP 0214257W WO 03051189 A2 WO03051189 A2 WO 03051189A2
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
light transmission
obscuration
wavefront
generator
image forming
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2002/014257
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2003051189A3 (en
Inventor
Ernst Hegels
Gerhard Youseffi
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Technovision Gmbh Gesellschaft Für Die Entwicklung Medizinischer Technologien
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Priority to US34053001P priority Critical
Priority to US60/340,530 priority
Application filed by Technovision Gmbh Gesellschaft Für Die Entwicklung Medizinischer Technologien filed Critical Technovision Gmbh Gesellschaft Für Die Entwicklung Medizinischer Technologien
Publication of WO2003051189A2 publication Critical patent/WO2003051189A2/en
Publication of WO2003051189A3 publication Critical patent/WO2003051189A3/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B3/00Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes
    • A61B3/10Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions
    • A61B3/1015Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions for wavefront analysis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B3/00Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes
    • A61B3/10Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions
    • A61B3/107Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients' perceptions or reactions for determining the shape or measuring the curvature of the cornea
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01JMEASUREMENT OF INTENSITY, VELOCITY, SPECTRAL CONTENT, POLARISATION, PHASE OR PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFRA-RED, VISIBLE OR ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT; COLORIMETRY; RADIATION PYROMETRY
    • G01J9/00Measuring optical phase difference; Determining degree of coherence; Measuring optical wavelength
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/06Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the phase of light

Abstract

An apparatus, system, and method related to improving the wavefront aberration measurement of an optical system such as an eye made with a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer relies on selectively obscuring the transmission of wavefront light propagating to or from individual lenslets of the microlens array of the aberrometer to be imaged onto a detector. A LCD is disclosed as a preferable light transmission generator/modulator. Obscuration patterns can be controlled spatially, temporally, or in combination. An improved image forming component of the aberrometer is disclosed, as well as an improved aberrometer, method of measuring, and a system for making a corrective optical surface.

Description

IMPROVED HARTMANN-SHACK WAVEFRONT SENSOR APPARATUS AND

METHOD

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Serial No.

60/340,530 filed on December 14, 2001, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its

entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention

The invention is generally directed to wavefront aberration sensing and,

particularly, to an apparatus and a method directed to improved wavefront aberration

sensing based upon Hartmann- Shack principles.

Description of Related Art

Various types of wavefront sensors have been used in a variety of applications for

many years. For example, the monitoring and measurement of wavefront aberrations is

utilized in the production of optical lenses. Similarly, wavefront sensing and correction

is employed to optimize the propagation of high-energy laser beams through the

atmosphere, as well as in the fields of astronomical and retinal imaging. Recently,

wavefront sensing apparatus has been adapted to be used in the field of ophthalmic

refractive correction. For example, the wavefront aberration of a person's eye can be

measured and that information used to develop a corrective profile of the patient's cornea

to improve vision. Conventional and customized corneal refractive surgery is typically performed by photoablating corneal tissue with an excimer laser in a procedure

commonly referred to as LASIK.

Ophthalmic wavefront sensing can be accomplished by various techniques and

associated apparatus. These include, for example, spatially resolved refractometry,

Tscherning aberrometry, sequential scanning (thin beam ray tracing) aberrometry, and

Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing. These techniques and apparatus, and others not

mentioned, are well known to those skilled in the art and are commercially available

from various sources.

Wavefront sensors based on the Hartmann-Shack principle, such as the Zywave®

wavefront sensor (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, New York), use a microlens

array to image an aberrated wavefront exiting a person's eye onto a detector. The images

formed by the microlens array consist of an array of small light spots on the detector.

The displacement of the center of each light spot from the center of a corresponding light

spot formed by the image of an unaberrated wavefront allows the wavefront aberration to

be calculated over the entire exit pupil of the person's eye.

The simultaneous mapping of the exit pupil makes the Hartmann-Shack sensor

susceptible to cross-over of the image light spots on the detector when the magnitude of

certain aberrations is large. This effect is illustrated in Fig. 1. In the figure, a

Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor 10 includes an array of lenslets 12 (numbered L1-L5)

and a detector 16 located at the focal plane of the lenslet array. When an unaberrated

wavefront 13 impinges the lenslet array, each lenslet (1-5) images a portion of the

wavefront 13 at a respective location on the detector denoted as l'-5'. For a highly

aberrated wavefront 15, however, the light spot imaged by lenslet L5, for example, may strike the detector at position 5", that is, in a vicinity of the image spots formed by

lenslets L3 and L . Due to the fact that for moderate wavefront aberrations, the light

spots are expected to fall within certain prescribed areas on the detector, the anomalous

imaging of point 5" will be confusing at best and most likely will result in the complete

loss of that particular wavefront data.

The use of the Hartmann-Shack microlens array has further shortcomings. For

example, a densely packed image array on the detector may be desirable for measuring

higher order (4th- 10th Zernike order) aberrations, but contributes to substantial

background noise which reduces the signal to noise ratio of the measurement. Moreover,

it may be desirable to use the same microlens array for measuring higher order

aberrations or, alternatively, basic refraction comprising spherical defocus and

astigmatism but not 3 rd and higher order aberrations. Yet, resolution and dynamic range

compete for lenslet density and other physical aspects of the array.

Accordingly, the inventor has recognized a need for improvements to a

Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing apparatus and associated method to overcome the

aforementioned shortcomings and others appreciated by those skilled in the art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An embodiment of the invention pertains to the image-forming component of a

Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, such as a microlens array or equivalent component

(MEMS, LCD< for example), wherein each lenslet of the microlens array images a

section of an aberrated wavefront propagating through the microlens array onto a

detector, characterized by a component adapted to generate a controllable light transmission (or equivalently, light obscuration) pattern over at least a selected portion of

the microlens array.

Another embodiment of the invention relates to an improved aberrometer

employing the components and principles of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, in

particular, a microlens array (or equivalent) for imaging the aberrated wavefront from an

eye or other optical system as point images on a detector, wherein the displacements (Δx,

Δy) of each of the point images from the point images (Δx0, Δy0) of an unaberrated

wavefront on the detector give rise to the wavefront aberration calculation, the

improvement being characterized by a controllable light transmission adjuster (or

equivalently, modulator) cooperating with individual lenslets of the microlens array for

selectively controlling the transmission of light through that lenslet. In a preferred

aspect, any or all of the lenslets can be selectively sequenced in time to transmit light

from predetermined sections of the aberrated wavefront. In an aspect of this

embodiment, topographic or other diagnostic data representative of a wavefront,

particularly an extremely deviated wavefront, or an extreme corneal shape, for example,

could be used to drive the modulator (or adjuster) for controlling the transmission (or

obscuration) of light through the lenslets.

Another embodiment of the invention is directed to a system for making an image

correcting surface in an optical system such as the cornea of the eye, for example,

including a Hartmann-Shack diagnostic component having an output that is input to a

control device, a control device that uses the diagnostic input at least in part to control a

laser, a lathe, a deformable mirror, or other device for modifying or ablating a corneal or

material surface, wherein the laser, lathe, deformable mirror, or other device is coupled to the control device, and wherein an imaging component of the diagnostic device is cooperatively associated with a controllable light transmission/obscuration component

that selectively transmits light through the imaging component. In a preferred aspect, the diagnostic component is a wavefront sensor, and the imaging component is a microlens array of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor.

In a method embodiment for improving the performance of a Hartmann-Shack type aberrometer wherein an array of lenslets images an aberrated wavefront exiting the pupil of a person's eye as an array of aerial images on a detector in order to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye, an improvement is characterized by selectively obscuring one or more of the lenslets in a time sequential manner such that an aerial image susceptible to cross-over by an adjacent aerial image is imaged in a different time frame, such that potentially crossed over or overlapping images are not imaged simultaneously.

These and other objects of the present invention will become more readily apparent from the detailed description to follow, and with reference to the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Fig. 1 is a schematic, one-dimensional illustration of a Hartmann-Shack microlens array and detector showing aerial image spots for an unaberrated wavefront and the cross-over of an image spot for a highly aberrated wavefront;

Fig. 2 is a schematic, one-dimensional diagram of a Hartmann-Shack microlens array and detector with selected temporal obscuration of the lenslets according to an embodiment of the invention; Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a topographically driven lenslet obscuration

pattern according to an embodiment of the invention;

Fig. 4 is a line diagram of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor apparatus

according to an embodiment of the invention; and

Fig. 5 is a block diagram of a refractive photoablative laser system according to an embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE

INVENTION

In Fig. 2, an aberrometer 20 includes a microlens array 12 (shown one

dimensionally and comprising lenslets Lι-L6, for ease of description) and a detector 16

nominally located at the focal plane of the microlens array. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the distance between the microlens array and the detector need

not be precisely in the focal plane of the array but may be otherwise located depending upon preferred resolution and dynamic range parameters and image centroiding

techniques. An aberrated wavefront 11 is shown approaching the microlens array 12

from the top coming from a person's eye (not shown). It may be suspected by the practitioner that due to the severity of the wavefront aberration, the spot images formed

by each of the lenslets Lι-L will not fall within their prescribed locations on the detector

shown as ΔLι,ΔL2...ΔL6, but rather certain sections of the wavefront shown as 11', for

illustration purposes, may be imaged by lenslet L2 in the prescribed region of ΔLj. If this

occurs, the composite image at the detector plane may show, for example, two image

spots in the region ΔLi and zero image spots in the detector region ΔL2 giving rise to confusion over which of the two spots within ΔLi is the correct spot imaged by

lenslet L|. According to the invention, an obscuration generator 21 selectively provides

an obscuration 21n of the light transmission through the individual lenslets. As shown,

for illustration, during time period Δti, lenslets Li, L3. and L5 are obscured by

obscuration patterns 21 \, 213, and 215 such that only image spots formed by lenslets L ,

L4, and L6 are formed on the detector during that time interval. During subsequent time

interval Δt2, obscurations 211, 213, and 215 are removed and obscurations 21 , 21 , and

216 are effected. In this manner, image spots from lenslets Li, L3, and L5 only are imaged on the detector. In this manner, even if an image spot formed, for example, by lenslet L2

falls within the prescribed region ΔLi on the detector, it would be known that that

particular image spot was in fact formed by lenslet L2. Thus, wavefront data from

anomolously located image spots is saved rather than lost.

The obscuration generator 21 is preferably an LCD array positioned in the light

path in front of or behind the microlens array in such a manner that individual lenslets of

the array can be obscured independently from the other lenslets. Thus, each lenslet can

be switched on or off individually to allow light transmission through the lenslet. It may

be advantageous that a lens, mirror, or other optical element be positioned intermediate

the microlens array and the obscuration generator. This is suitable as long as light

ultimately falling on the detector from the microlens array is selectively

transmitted/obscured with respect to selected regions of the array.

In application, the obscuration generator 21 could be modulated in such a manner

that would enhance the signal to noise ratio at the detector. In another aspect, if the pupil

size of the patient is known, lenslets corresponding to regions outside of the pupil could be obscured to reduce background illumination of the detector from these lenslets.

Accordingly, the obscuration pattern on the microlens array can be selectively adjusted

for a particular application. For example, if it is desired to measure only the manifest

refraction of the patient, that is, only spherical defocus and astigmatism (with or without

angle), then as few as nine individual lenslets could be allowed to transmit light from the wavefront while the remaining lenslets of the array could be obscured to reduce noise and

data from higher order aberrations of the eye.

Fig. 3 is used to illustrate a topographically driven lenslet obscuration pattern

according to an embodiment of the invention. Fig. 3(a) schematically shows a

topographic map 42 of the patient's eye that could be obtained from any of a variety of

commercially available corneal topography devices such as the Orbscan comeal analysis

system (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, New York). The topographic map 42

typically shows a surface map of the cornea where elevations or depressions of the

corneal surface from a reference elevation are shown in multiple colors, but here are

shown as central region 43 and peripheral regions 45, 41. In the topographic map 42, the

central region 43 is represented by a series of rippled lines extending diagonally from top

left to bottom right of the view, intended to represent an extreme variation of the corneal

topography through that region. The peripheral topography regions 45, 41 are not as

severe as represented by the lower density of topographic mapping lines in those regions.

If the deviation of the corneal surface in region 43 is severe, a wavefront measurement of

this person's eye using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor may result in the crossing

over of image spots formed by lenslets of the microlens array corresponding to those

distorted regions of the corneal surface. In that event, it may be advantageous to prevent altogether the imaging of the wavefront corresponding to the region 43 of the cornea.

This is shown in Fig. 3(b) wherein a light transmission controller 46 having regions Lm n

in spatial correspondence with lenslets of a microlens array (not shown) are selectively

obscured as shown at 47. The obscuration pattern of the light transmission modulator 46

could be automatically triggered by the diagnostic topography device or could be

programmed manually, as desired. It will be appreciated that the invention need not be

limited to topographical input data, in that any suitable diagnostic or parametric

measurement that might affect the wavefront imaging produced by a microlens array or

equivalent device used in a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor could be used to drive the

light transmission modulator into any suitable pattern or sequencing.

Fig. 4 shows a line drawings of a generic Hartmann-Shack aberrometer 50 that is

adapted according to the invention. Light is injected into the patient's eye 52 from a laser

diode 51. The light is then scattered from the retina of the eye and transmitted through

beam splitter 53 and other optical components until it strikes an LCD light transmission modulator 55 located in front of microlens array 54. Microlens array 54 images the light

onto a detector 56 which is recorded by camera 57 for transmission to

controller/processor 58. As is well understood, the controller/processor 58 processes the displacement data from the detector 56 and will typically provide Zernike coefficients at

59 that can be used to drive a deformable mirror, and/or a photoablative laser system,

and/or a contact lens or intraocular lens fabrication device, all of which are represented

by reference numeral 60.

In an embodiment of the invention directed to a photoablative laser system 500

for performing laser refractive surgery, as shown in Fig. 5, a diagnostic device 510 is operably connected to a control component 520 which in turn is used to control a

photoablative laser 530 for photoablating the cornea 540 of the patient's eye. One of the

one or more diagnostic components 510 includes a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor

comprising a microlens array and a controllable light transmission controller that can

selectively obscure one or more lenslets of the lenslet array spatially and/or temporally,

as desired. The output 515 of the diagnostic component 510 is input to the control

component 520 which processes the diagnostic information to control the output of the

laser 530.

In the foregoing description, certain terms have been used for brevity, clarity, and

understanding but no unnecessary limitations are to be implied therefrom beyond the

requirements of the prior art, because such words are used for description purposes

herein and are intended to be broadly construed. Moreover, the embodiment of the

apparatus illustrated and described herein are by way of example, and the scope of the

invention is not limited to the exact details of construction.

Having now described the invention, the construction, the operation and use of

preferred embodiments thereof, and the advantageous new and useful results obtained

thereby, the new and useful constructions, and reasonable mechanical equivalents thereof

obvious to those skilled in the art, are set forth in the appended claims.

Claims

I claim:
1. In a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing device having an aerial image forming
component for imagining an aberrated wavefront onto a detector,
an improvement characterized by:
a controllable light transmission/obscuration generator positioned adjacent the
aerial image forming component, adapted to obscure the transmission of aberrated wavefront light from an eye and propagating to selected regions of the aerial image
forming component or propagating from selected regions of the aerial image forming
component.
2. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1 , wherein the aerial image forming
component is a microlens array.
3. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the aerial image forming
component is a MEMS device.
4. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1 , wherein the aerial image forming component is a mirror assembly.
5. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the aerial image forming
component is a Fresnel lens array.
6. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1 , wherein the aerial image forming
component is a LCD.
7. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is a LCD in spatial correspondence with the aerial image forming component.
8. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is a light transmission modulator.
9. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is a moveable aperture.
10. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is operatively connected to a diagnostic device having an output that is used to control the controllable light transmission/obscuration generator.
11. The wavefront sensing device of claim 11, wherein the diagnostic device output
includes at least one of corneal topography data and corneal thickness data.
12. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the obscured light transmission
is a pattern in the form of at least one of a circular pattern, a linear pattern, and a random
pattern.
13. The wavefront sensing device of claim 2, wherein the light
transmission/obscuration generator is located immediately adjacent the microlens array.
14. The wavefront sensing device of claim 13. wherein the light
transmission/obscuration generator is adapted to obscure the transmission of light
associated with at least one lenslet of the microlens array.
15. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1 , wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator generates a spatially controlled obscuration.
16. The wavefront sensing device of claim 1, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator generates a temporally controlled obscuration.
17. A component of a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing device, comprising:
a microlens array for imaging a plurality of portions of an aberrated wavefront
exiting an optical system onto a detector; and
a controllable light transmission/obscuration generator located adjacent the
microlens array, wherein the light transmission/obscuration generator is adapted to obscure the transmission of aberrated wavefront light from the optical system
propagating through selected lenslets of the microlens array.
18. The component of claim 17, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is a LCD.
19. The component of claim 18, wherein the LCD generates a light obscuration of a
least a single lenslet of the microlens array, and further wherein the light obscuration is
controlled in a temporal manner or in a spatial manner or both.
20. The component of claim 18, wherein the LCD generates an obscuration pattern
that is controlled by a topographic data output.
21. The component of claim 17, wherein the controllable light
transmission/obscuration generator is a light transmission modulator.
22. An improved Hartmann-Shack aberrometer for measuring a wavefront aberration
of an optical system, in which light diffusely scattered from the optical system, in the
form of an aberrated wavefront, propagates through an image forming component of the
aberrometer which images portions of the wavefront on a detector as an array of light
spots, the improvement characterized by: a controllable light transmission generator optically coupled to the image forming
component for selectively transmitting portions of the wavefront through or from
selected regions of the image forming component.
23. The aberrometer of claim 22, wherein the image forming component of the
aberrometer is a microlens array and the controllable light transmission generator is a
LCD.
24. The aberrometer of claim 22, wherein the controllable light transmission generator is a light transmission modulator.
25. The aberrometer of claim 22, wherein the controllable light transmission
generator is controllable by a data source, said data source including topographic
information about a surface of the optical system being measured.
26. The aberrometer of claim 25, wherein the surface is a corneal surface of an eye.
27. A system for making a vision correcting surface, comprising:
a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer for providing diagnostic wavefront aberration
data about an optical system to be corrected;
a control device that receives the diagnostic information, and which outputs
control information based upon the diagnostic information; and
a device for shaping the vision correcting surface controlled by the control device,
characterized in that:
the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer includes an image forming component and a
controllable light transmission generator optically coupled to the image forming
component for selectively transmitting portions of the wavefront through or from
selected regions of the image forming component onto a detector.
28. The system of claim 27 wherein the vision correcting surface is one of a corneal
surface, a contact lens surface, and an IOL surface.
29. The system of claim 28 wherein the device for shaping the vision correcting
surface is one of a laser, a lathe, and a molding system.
30. The system of claim 27, wherein the image forming component of the
aberrometer is a microlens array and the controllable light transmission generator is a
LCD.
31. The system of claim 30, wherein the controllable light transmission generator is a light transmission modulator.
31. The system of claim 27, wherein the controllable light transmission generator is
controllable by a data source, said data source including topographic information about a
surface of the optical system being measured.
32. A method for improving a wavefront aberration measurement of an optical
system made by a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, comprising generating a controllable light transmission obscuration pattern optically corresponding to at least one lenslet of a
microlens array of the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer to selectively control light
transmission going through or coming from the at least one lenslet on its way to a
detector.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein generating the controllable light transmission
obscuration pattern comprises generating the pattern in one of a temporal sequence, a
spatial sequence, or both.
34. The method of claim 32, wherein generating the controllable light transmission
obscuration pattern comprises modulating the pattern to reduce background noise.
35. The method of claim 32, wherein generating the controllable light transmission obscuration pattern comprises generating a pattern wherein only lenslets that are not illuminated by the wavefront are obscured.
36. The method of claim 32, wherein generating the controllable light transmission obscuration pattern comprises generating a pattern in correspondence with another diagnostic input.
37. The method of claim 32, wherein the other diagnostic input comprises topographic information about the optical system.
PCT/EP2002/014257 2001-12-14 2002-12-13 Improved hartmann-shack wavefront sensor apparatus and method WO2003051189A2 (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007070006A1 (en) * 2005-12-13 2007-06-21 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Optical wavefront sensor
WO2009018157A2 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Amo Development, Llc Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
US8550625B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2013-10-08 Amo Development, Llc Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
WO2014049333A1 (en) * 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Sony Computer Entertainment Europe Limited Imaging device and method
US20140139825A1 (en) * 2012-11-19 2014-05-22 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and device of measuring wavefront aberration, method of manufacturing optical system, and recording medium

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19800844A1 (en) * 1998-01-13 1999-07-15 Johannes Prof Dr Schwider Method for wave front measurement using Shack-Hartmann sensor
EP1136806A2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2001-09-26 Carl Zeiss Device and procedure for a space resolved determination of the refractive power of an optical element
WO2001082791A1 (en) * 2000-04-28 2001-11-08 University Of Rochester Improving vision and retinal imaging

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19800844A1 (en) * 1998-01-13 1999-07-15 Johannes Prof Dr Schwider Method for wave front measurement using Shack-Hartmann sensor
EP1136806A2 (en) * 2000-03-24 2001-09-26 Carl Zeiss Device and procedure for a space resolved determination of the refractive power of an optical element
WO2001082791A1 (en) * 2000-04-28 2001-11-08 University Of Rochester Improving vision and retinal imaging

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007070006A1 (en) * 2005-12-13 2007-06-21 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Optical wavefront sensor
US8158917B2 (en) 2005-12-13 2012-04-17 Agency For Science Technology And Research Optical wavefront sensor and optical wavefront sensing method
WO2009018157A2 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-02-05 Amo Development, Llc Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
WO2009018157A3 (en) * 2007-08-01 2009-08-13 Amo Dev Llc Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
US8377047B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2013-02-19 Amo Development, Llc. Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
US8550625B2 (en) 2007-08-01 2013-10-08 Amo Development, Llc Systems and methods for fine-tuning refractive surgery
WO2014049333A1 (en) * 2012-09-28 2014-04-03 Sony Computer Entertainment Europe Limited Imaging device and method
US20140139825A1 (en) * 2012-11-19 2014-05-22 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and device of measuring wavefront aberration, method of manufacturing optical system, and recording medium
US9347853B2 (en) * 2012-11-19 2016-05-24 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Method and device of measuring wavefront aberration, method of manufacturing optical system, and recording medium

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WO2003051189A3 (en) 2004-03-04
AU2002358137A8 (en) 2003-06-30

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