WO2003030308A1 - Electrical connector - Google Patents

Electrical connector Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003030308A1
WO2003030308A1 PCT/GB2002/004385 GB0204385W WO03030308A1 WO 2003030308 A1 WO2003030308 A1 WO 2003030308A1 GB 0204385 W GB0204385 W GB 0204385W WO 03030308 A1 WO03030308 A1 WO 03030308A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
track
terminals
pair
tracks
connector
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB2002/004385
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
David Ralph Pinney
Original Assignee
Itt Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB0123448A priority Critical patent/GB2380334A/en
Priority to GB0123448.3 priority
Application filed by Itt Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc. filed Critical Itt Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc.
Publication of WO2003030308A1 publication Critical patent/WO2003030308A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/646Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00 specially adapted for high-frequency, e.g. structures providing an impedance match or phase match
    • H01R13/6461Means for preventing cross-talk
    • H01R13/6467Means for preventing cross-talk by cross-over of signal conductors
    • H01R13/6469Means for preventing cross-talk by cross-over of signal conductors on substrates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R12/00Structural associations of a plurality of mutually-insulated electrical connecting elements, specially adapted for printed circuits, e.g. printed circuit boards [PCBs], flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures, e.g. terminal strips, terminal blocks; Coupling devices specially adapted for printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures; Terminals specially adapted for contact with, or insertion into, printed circuits, flat or ribbon cables, or like generally planar structures
    • H01R12/50Fixed connections
    • H01R12/51Fixed connections for rigid printed circuits or like structures
    • H01R12/52Fixed connections for rigid printed circuits or like structures connecting to other rigid printed circuits or like structures
    • H01R12/523Fixed connections for rigid printed circuits or like structures connecting to other rigid printed circuits or like structures by an interconnection through aligned holes in the boards or multilayer board
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/646Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00 specially adapted for high-frequency, e.g. structures providing an impedance match or phase match
    • H01R13/6461Means for preventing cross-talk
    • H01R13/6467Means for preventing cross-talk by cross-over of signal conductors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K1/00Printed circuits
    • H05K1/02Details
    • H05K1/0213Electrical arrangements not otherwise provided for
    • H05K1/0216Reduction of cross-talk, noise or electromagnetic interference
    • H05K1/0228Compensation of cross-talk by a mutually correlated lay-out of printed circuit traces, e.g. for compensation of cross-talk in mounted connectors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/646Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00 specially adapted for high-frequency, e.g. structures providing an impedance match or phase match
    • H01R13/6461Means for preventing cross-talk
    • H01R13/6464Means for preventing cross-talk by adding capacitive elements
    • H01R13/6466Means for preventing cross-talk by adding capacitive elements on substrates, e.g. PCBs [Printed Circuit Boards]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/648Protective earth or shield arrangements on coupling devices, e.g. anti-static shielding  
    • H01R13/658High frequency shielding arrangements, e.g. against EMI [Electro-Magnetic Interference] or EMP [Electro-Magnetic Pulse]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R24/00Two-part coupling devices, or either of their cooperating parts, characterised by their overall structure
    • H01R24/60Contacts spaced along planar side wall transverse to longitudinal axis of engagement
    • H01R24/62Sliding engagements with one side only, e.g. modular jack coupling devices
    • H01R24/64Sliding engagements with one side only, e.g. modular jack coupling devices for high frequency, e.g. RJ 45
    • H01R9/032
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K1/00Printed circuits
    • H05K1/16Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor
    • H05K1/162Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor incorporating printed capacitors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K1/00Printed circuits
    • H05K1/16Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor
    • H05K1/165Printed circuits incorporating printed electric components, e.g. printed resistor, capacitor, inductor incorporating printed inductors
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09209Shape and layout details of conductors
    • H05K2201/09654Shape and layout details of conductors covering at least two types of conductors provided for in H05K2201/09218 - H05K2201/095
    • H05K2201/09672Superposed layout, i.e. in different planes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09209Shape and layout details of conductors
    • H05K2201/09654Shape and layout details of conductors covering at least two types of conductors provided for in H05K2201/09218 - H05K2201/095
    • H05K2201/097Alternating conductors, e.g. alternating different shaped pads, twisted pairs; Alternating components
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/09Shape and layout
    • H05K2201/09209Shape and layout details of conductors
    • H05K2201/09654Shape and layout details of conductors covering at least two types of conductors provided for in H05K2201/09218 - H05K2201/095
    • H05K2201/09727Varying width along a single conductor; Conductors or pads having different widths
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05KPRINTED CIRCUITS; CASINGS OR CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF ELECTRIC APPARATUS; MANUFACTURE OF ASSEMBLAGES OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
    • H05K2201/00Indexing scheme relating to printed circuits covered by H05K1/00
    • H05K2201/10Details of components or other objects attached to or integrated in a printed circuit board
    • H05K2201/10007Types of components
    • H05K2201/10189Non-printed connector

Abstract

The electrical connector has a multilevel printed circuit board (42) connecting between two sets of terminals. For example, one set of terminals is a set of insulation displacement contacts (14) and the other is a set of tails (16) for connecting to a plug inserted into a socket (26). Tracks on the printed circuit board (42) connect between respective terminals (14, 16). Signals are assigned to particular pairs signal paths through pairs of terminals and tracks. The multilevel printed circuit board (42) includes coupling regions coupling between tracks to compensate for crosstalk between the pains.

Description

ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR

Field of Invention

The invention relates to an electrical connector, and in particular to an electrical connector in which crosstalk between pairs of signal carrying contacts is reduced.

Background to the Invention

Connectors interconnecting multiple pairs of conductors frequently suffer from crosstalk between the conductors. When the pairs of conductors are required to carry individual signals there is the risk of cross coupling of signals due to electrostatic (capacitive) or magnetic (inductive) coupling. Such cross coupling is called crosstalk and becomes worse as frequencies of signals are increased. The crosstalk results from the capacitive and inductive coupling between nearest lines of the pair which dominates the opposite phase and cancelling effect from the furthest lines of the other pair of a balanced two wire system. This results in effectively a differential capacitance and mutual inductance between each line of each pair and the lines of the other pair.

For example, in telephone jacks according to the Federal Communications Commission standard (FCC) a plurality of substantially parallel lead frame wires are generally provided in the jack to make electrical connection to contacts in the socket. Crosstalk occurs between the parallel wires.

Crosstalk can also occur in the wires leading to plugs and sockets. For example, multiple twisted pair signal wires may need to be untwisted in the vicinity of plugs and sockets and the parallel untwisted wires may give rise to significant crosstalk.

The problem is sometimes worsened by wiring conventions. For example in the EIA/TIA 568B wiring practice for an eight contact in line connector, contacts 1 & 2 form the orange pair, contacts 3 & 6 form the green pair, contacts 4 & 5 form the blue pair and contacts 7 & 8 form the brown pair. It will be appreciated that in such a configuration crosstalk is a major problem between blue and green pairs as each line of each pair lies adjacent a line of the other pair and there is electrostatic and electromagnetic coupling between them. To a lesser extent there is coupling between green and both orange and brown because one line of each pair lies adjacent a line of the other pair.

A number of prior approaches have been tried. In particular, WO00/26999 to ITT describes an electrical connector arranged to reduce crosstalk between terminals. The electrical connector uses a plurality of leadframes to reduce the total crosstalk by adding capacitance and inductance to cancel crosstalk caused in other parts of the signal path.

A problem for this and similar prior art approaches is that it is desirable to cancel both near-end crosstalk and far-end crosstalk. Cross-talk in general is the signal induced in one signal path by a signal in an adjoining signal path. Near-end crosstalk is the signal induced travelling in the opposite direction to the inducing signal, and far-end crosstalk is the signal induced travelling in the same direction as the inducing signal. In order to cancel both near-end and far-end crosstalk, it is necessary to include both sufficient capacitive coupling and sufficient inductive coupling in the cancellation signal. However, connectors including those of the type described in WO00/26999, are generally required to be of limited size and the manufacturing methods of the connectors impose limits on the maximum and minimum stamped contact sizes. It turns out that whilst it is generally possible to obtain sufficient capacitative coupling between adjacent signal paths it is very difficult to obtain sufficient inductive coupling. This in turn generally results in incomplete cancellation of the near end cross-talk.

EP0901201 describes an electrical connector for reducing crosstalk in a system using the EIA/TIA 568B wiring standard. Crosstalk between a first pair of interconnection paths, on pins 3 and 6 and a second pair, on pins 4 and 5, is addressed by a compensating stage. The compensation stage includes capacitances between the interconnection paths of the first and second pairs; the wiring pattern also introduces inductances between the wires of the pairs. However, although this system deals with the worst crosstalk component, that between the first and second pair of interconnection paths, the rest of the crosstalk is not addressed. The requirement for reducing crosstalk is increasing all the time as signal speeds increase. Thus, there is an ever-increasing need for a connector that reduces cross-talk further compared to existing designs. In particular, the small space available -within many connector designs makes it difficult or impossible to accurately cancel all the many different crosstalk components using conventional techniques.

Summary of Invention

According to the invention there is provided an electrical connector comprising: a first terminal group having a plurality of first terminals for connecting to a plurality of first electrical conductors; a second terminal group having a plurality of respective second terminals for connecting to a plurality of second electrical conductors; and a multilevel printed circuit board having a plurality of tracks over a plurality of levels, respective tracks connecting the terminals of the first terminal group to the respective terminals of the second terminal group, wherein predetermined pairs of signal paths passing through respective first terminals, second terminals and tracks are assigned to' carry corresponding differential signals; and the tracks of the multilevel printed circuit board are arranged to couple track of each pair of signal paths to track of other pairs of signal paths to compensate for crosstalk between each pair of signal paths and the said other pairs of signal paths.

Rather than just cancelling the crosstalk between two pairs of signal paths, the arrangement according to the invention compensates for multiple crosstalk couplings between pairs.

Coupling between tracks of different pairs of signal paths may be provided by running a track from one pair to follow the path of a track of another pair but at a different level. The use of a multilevel printed circuit board and tracks at different levels of the multilevel wiring board, overlying or underlying other tracks allows coupling to be tailored to cancel crosstalk not just between two specific signal paths but more generally between multiple signal paths.

It is of course possible to couple multiple tracks from multiple pairs together in this way. A track may preferably include a plurality of coupling regions coupling to tracks of other pairs. The coupling regions may be separated by track of extended length compared to track taking a direct path between coupling regions. The extended length may be achieved by looping the track back or a zig-zag track path.

The tracks may have a normal width over a substantial portion of their length. Track portions having greater width than the normal width may be provided at regions following other tracks to provide a capacitance between the track portion of greater width and the other tracks. The other tracks may in particular be provided at different levels of the multilevel printed circuit board but otherwise following the same path.

Zig-zag regions of tracks of two pairs may be provided at different levels but otherwise following the same path. The zig-zag regions can be of increased width. The zig-zag form increases capacitative coupling. Further, it increases track length which provides increased inductive coupling between the tracks. Further, the increased length resulting from the zig-zag form provides a longer path length. This can make the phase cancellation more effective.

Track of one pair may include a loop region or regions overlying or underlying track of another pair or pairs for increasing inductive coupling.

In embodiments, the loop regions may include reverse directed regions in which current passing from the first terminal group to the second terminal group travels in a direction generally from the second terminal group back towards the first terminal group. The reverse directed region may follow a forward directed region of another track. For example, take an example where it is desired to introduce inductive coupling between a signal pair on tracks four and five and a signal pair on tracks one and two. It is easiest to arrange the coupling on track four, rather than track five, since track four is adjacent to tracks one and two. It also eliminates the need to cross tracks. Suppose that the inductive coupling that needs to be introduced would normally require track four to follow the path of track one, but that this introduces too much coupling, for example to track three. By reversing track four, it is possible instead of providing a forward directed track coupled to track one to provide a reverse directed track following track two, and in embodiments this can reduce undesirable couplings elsewhere.

In another aspect, the. invention provides an electrical connector comprising: a first terminal group having a plurality of first terminals for connecting to a plurality of first electrical conductors; a second terminal group having a plurality of respective second terminals for connecting to a plurality of second electrical conductors; and a multilevel printed circuit board having a plurality of tracks over a plurality of levels, respective tracks connecting the terminals of the first terminal group to the respective terminals of the second terminal group, wherein predetermined pairs of signal paths passing through respective first terminals, second terminals and tracks are assigned to carry corresponding differential signals; and the track includes a plurality of inductive and/or capacitative coupling regions coupling between track of different pairs for compensating for crosstalk between the track of different pairs, and track connecting coupling regions is provided, the connecting track including zig-zag track.

By spacing apart multiple coupling regions by zig-zag track the phase delay between the coupling regions is increased by increasing the path length as compared to the use of straight tracks. This in turn allows both near and far end crosstalk to be cancelled even when the printed circuit board is of small size, for example to fit inside the connector.

The invention is of particular application to connectors for connecting twisted pair wires. Accordingly, the second terminals may be wire connection terminals; in embodiments, the wire connection terminals may be insulation displacement connector (IDC) terminals.

The connector may further comprise a housing defining a socket for engagement with a plug of predetermined design. The first teπninals may be connectors in the socket. The first terminals may be leads or wires. The connector may in alternative embodiments be a plug. The compensation for cross-talk between signal paths is not restricted to cross-talk between those paths strictly confined to the connector. Preferably, tracks of the multilevel printed circuit board are arranged to provide compensation for cross-talk not merely in the first and second terminals, but also in the first and/or electrical conductors for connection to the first and second terminals.

In embodiments, there may be first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth terminals in each of the first and second terminal groups. One signal path can be carried on the first and second teπninals, one signal path on the third and sixth terminals, one signal path on the fourth and fifth terminals, and one signal path on the seventh and eighth terminals.

Specific embodiments of the invention will now be described, purely by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is an exploded view of an electrical connector according to the invention;

Figure 2 is a partially assembled view of the electrical connection according to the invention;

Figure 3 is a detailed view of part of the electrical connector according to Figure 1 showing a multi layer printed circuit board;

Figures 4 to 9 are views showing the conductive track of each level of the multilevel printed circuit board shown in Figure 3;

Figure 10 is a perspective view of an alternative multilevel track arrangement; and

Figures 11 to 20 are diagrams illustrating cancellation of crosstalk.

■ Referring to Figure 1, a connector according to the invention includes block 6 which is fonned of moulded plastics. Block 6 includes a recess 22 communicating with the rear face 25 of the block for accepting interconnection block 12 which includes the electrical connection components. A cover 8 hinged on hinge 10 to block 6 is movable between an open position as shown and a closed position where it forms the upper wall of recess 22. The cover carries teeth 34. Block 6 also defines a socket 26 extending into the block from the front face (not shown) of the block. Interconnection block 12 supports a plurality of insulation displacement connectors 14 for connecting to insulated leads, and further includes slots 32 for accepting the ends of leads passing through the insulation displacement connectors 14. Tails 16 are formed of wire and are arranged to extend through slots 24 hi block 6 into socket 26 in order that the tails may electrically connect with a plug inserted into socket 26. Intercomiection block 12 acts to electrically connect wires connected to the insulation displacement contacts 14 to the tails 16 through circuit board 42; as will be described in more detail later.

Intercomiection block 12 also includes slots 20 corresponding to the insulation displacement contacts 14. The slots 20 are shaped to grip and hold insulating sleeve of wires passing through the slots towards insulation displacement contacts 14. The slots act as strain relief elements to hold wires to prevent forces on wires inserted in the insulation displacement contacts 14 from pulling on the contacts themselves.

The connector also includes a die-cast metal screen 2 having a through hole 4 for accepting block 6. Metal screen 4 accordingly acts to surround and screen the connector. A metal cable end screen 28 having clips 29 for clipping to block 6 and cable clip 30 are further provided.

Referring to Figure 2, the cable end screen 28, ' strain relief block 18 and interconnection block 12 are mounted on block 6 as illustrated in Figure 2 ready to form connections with insulated wires.

In use, a plurality of insulated wires are introduced between strain relief slots 20 and extend, still insulated, through insulation displacement connectors 14 into slots 32 defined in interconnection block 12. Block 6 is then inserted into the through hole 4 of screen 2, which requires hinged lid 8 of block 6 to shut. This causes teeth 34 to push down the wires passing through slots 20, insulation displacement contacts 14 and slots 32. This forces the wires into the insulation displacement connectors 14 to make contact between the wires and the insulation displacement connectors.

Cable clip 30 is then clipped onto the metal screen 28 and around the wires. The metal of screen 2 and cable screen 28 act to shield the connector.

After the wires are connected to the cable block, a suitable plug may be inserted into socket 26 to make contact with tails 16. Thus the plug is connected through interconnection block 12 and insulation displacement connectors 14 to the wires.

Referring to Figure 3, the interconnection block 12 includes a multilevel printed circuit board 42 which connects the insulation displacement contacts 14 to the tails 16. The insulation displacement contacts 14 and tails 16 are both connected to terminals 40 on a multilevel insulated substrate 42. The multilevel printed circuit board 42 is arranged to minimise and compensate for crosstalk occurring elsewhere in the socket (in particular between tails 16 which are arranged close to one another and parallel), the wires and/or the contacts.

The multilevel printed circuit board 42 comprises a plurality of layers 44 and conductive tracks 46 defined on those layers. A plurality of conductive plated through holes 48 are provided. One set of conductive through holes 48 forms first terminals 50 which are connected to respective tails 16. Another set of plated through holes forms a second set of terminals 52 which are connected to the insulation displacement contacts 14. A third set of plated through holes 54 provide internal interconnections between the layers of the multilevel printed circuit board. It should be noted that the plated through holes 48, 50, 52, 54 connect to all of the layers of the multilevel printed circuit board, whereas the individual conductive tracks are provided on single layers.

The printed circuit board uses microwave technology dielectric materials, in particular glass-reinforced hydrocarbon/ceramic laminate as well as layers of standard ceramic. Alternative multilevel printed circuit board materials may also be used if required.

Figures 4 to 9 show the track patterns on layers 1 to 6 respectively. It will be noted that the track patterns on layers 4, 5 and 6 correspond to the track patterns on layers 3, 2 and 1 respectively, except for a mirror inversion around a central axis. In accordance with the convention EIA/TIA 568B, the signals transmitted are differential signals and accordingly require a pair of signal paths for their transmission. Each signal path pair thus includes two first terminals, the corresponding two second terminals and the two tracks joining first and second teπninals. A first pair 56 of signal paths is provided on and between outer tenninals 71, 72, 81, 82. A second pair 57 is between the outer teπninals at the other end of the eight contacts, outer teπninals 77, 78, 87, 88. An inner signal pair 59 is transmitted on the central teπninals 74, 75, 84, 85 and an intermediate signal pair 58is provided on the third and sixth tenninal 73, 76, 83, 86. In this way, the arrangement illustrated carries four separate 'signal pairs each of which pairs is capable of crosstalk with each of the other pairs.

It will be noted that the eight first terminals 50 are each connected to a respective second terminal 52 through the various tracks 46 at different levels of the multilevel printed circuit board. For example, referring to Figure 5, the third tenninal 73 of first terminal 50 is connected to the third terminal 83 of terminals 52 on level 2. The multilevel printed circuit board accordingly connects each of the tenninals 50 to respective terminals 52.

Some underlying principles used in the cross-talk cancellation will now be discussed with reference to Figures 11 to 20. Figure 11 shows two very short parallel twin wire transmission lines 200, 202 spaced physically close to each other. Crosstalk is generated between the lines. Consider the near end crosstalk (NEXT), i.e. the signal generated travelling backwards towards near end 204 in transmission line 200 caused by a signal travelling forwards from near end 204 in line 200. The crosstalk generated is directly proportional to the length of the close proximity run, and is 90phase shifted with the input signal measured at the near end 204. The cross-talk generated is illustrated in Figure 12.

For simplicity assume that the length of the short section of line 200,202 is sufficiently short that there are no phase considerations within that short section. Suppose that another short length of transmission line 200A, 202A is added to the end of each of the lines 200,202, as illustrated in Figure 13. Crosstalk will be generated in the additional section 200A, 202A with the same amplitude as that generated in the first section. However, the crosstalk signal will have a propagation delay before returning to near end 204, and so, as illustrated, in Figure 14, the crosstalk generated in the second section of lines 200A, 202A will have a phase delay coπesponding to the phase delay in section 200 in both the forward and reverse direction. Thus, the crosstalk 206A from the second section may be represented on an amplitude phase diagram (Figure 14) as having a slight phase lag with respect to crosstalk 206 from the first section 200,202 (Note the phase lag is exaggerated for clarity).

If many short sections of line are added the phase representation of each length would be as illustrated in Figure 15 where each section, further away from the near end, is subjected to a greater delay. Note that if all the vectors for all the sections are added (as would be the case in practice) the total would have an amplitude of substantially n (No. of sections) times the amplitude for each section. The phase of the total cross-talk would be the average of the phases for each section and is substantially half the phase of the last section. In fact, the line would be continuous and the sections are only used as an aid to description.

In practice the total cross-talk vector 208 is displaced by approximately 10 from the 90 axis at around 80, for example.

Thus in order to cancel the crosstalk it would be desirable to add a further length of transmission line to effect cancellation by providing coupling of opposite polarity. The further length of line should be of the same length as the first to ensure that the crosstalk generated is equal in amplitude to that generated in the first length. It would be desirable for the crosstalk 210 generated in the opposite polarity line to be opposite to the crosstalk 208 from the original line to effect cancellation, as illustrated in Figure 16.

Unfortunately, the idealised illustration in Figure 16 does not occur because the second section of line (the cancellation part) is subjected to propagation phase delay as well and the actual phase relationship of total crosstalk 212 is shown in Figure 17. Some cancellation occurs, but incompletely. In practice, the resulting crosstalk may be at a level of around -40dB with respect to the input signal, which is too large under "category 6" requirements.

In order to provide enhanced phase cancellation in a plug and socket arrangement for connecting a plug to a plurality of twisted pair wires an arrangement described with reference to Figure 18 may be used. Region A represents the plug and the socket contacts making connection to the plug. This region produces crosstalk. Region B is part of the cancellation area of the socket and produces about twice the cancellation require to cancel region A. Region C is also in the socket, and produces crosstalk of the same phase as at A. If the degree of crosstalk in each region (along with the coπect phase relationship) is matched then absolute cancellation of near end cross-talk may occur.

The vectors in Figure 19 show the principle. The idea is that the crosstalk 214 from region A summed with the crosstalk 216 from region B and the crosstalk 218 from region C sums to substantially zero.

It should be noted that in Figure 19 A and C are symmetrical but this is not essential, hi real plug and socket connectors using IDC contacts capacitative coupling is generated in the region of the IDC and the wires protruding through them, giving rise to the crosstalk 218 from region C. In order to be able to cancel cross-talk effectively, it is necessary to provide a significant phase delay between the crosstalk 218 associated with the IDC connectors and the crosstalk 214 from the plug and socket, as illustrated in Figure 20. This requires a significant path length in the cancellation region B, which is very difficult to arrange in the small space provided in plug and socket connectors.

In the invention, the crosstalk 216 from the cancellation region B is provided in the multilevel printed circuit board 40. A number of features of the track 46 pattern are used to obtain the required cancellation, and these features will now be discussed- in more detail. In general terms, the features include capacitive coupling regions, inductive coupling regions and regions of extended length to extend the phase delay between the other regions or between the region in question and other regions. One approach is capacitative coupling. Capacitive plates 60 (layer 2) and 62 (layer 3) and plates 64, 65 66 form capacitance regions for capacitive coupling between the tracks of different pairs. For example, plates 60 and 62 couple the intermediate assigned pair 58 with the inner assigned pair 59. Further coupling between these pairs 58,59 is provided by plates 64, 66, while plate 65 couples the first outer pair 56 to intermediate pair 58.

Zig-zag paths 92 between plates 60 and 64 (layer 2) provide sufficient phase separation between the coupling on plates 60 and 64 to effect crosstalk cancellation.

By arranging signal paths to follow one another on different layers, both capacitive and inductive coupling may be provided. For example, the zig-zag region 92 follows the same path as zig-zag region 94 except that it is at layer 2 and not layer 3. This provides both inductive and capacitive coupling between the first outer signal pair 56 and the intermediate signal pair 58. The zig-zag path again provides sufficient phase difference between near and far end.

A further element is shown in track 96 connecting fourth terminals 74, 84. Track 96. passes by a path 98 from terminal 74 on layer 4 to plated through hole 100, loops back in region 102 and round again to further plated through hole 104 and then along track 106 on layer 4 to terminal 84. Loop back track 102 follows on layer 2 the path of track 108 on layer 4 to couple the inner signal pair 59 inductively to the first outer pair 56.

By providing the loop back region 102 it is possible to provide suitable coupling without excessive complications in designing the tracks. In this case, it is desired to introduce inductive coupling between the inner signal pair 59 and the first outer pair 56. Conventionally, the required coupling for compensation would normally require track between the fourth terminals 74,84 to follow the path of the track connecting first teπninals 71,81 to compensate for coupling elsewhere between the closest paths of the inner 59 and first outer 56 pair, i.e. between the track linking the fourth teπninals and the track linking the second terminals. Unfortunately, such an approach would introduce too much coupling, for example to track three, and further require complex track paths. By providing loop back region 102 in which current travelling from first 50 to second terminals 52 passes in the opposite direction from second terminals 52 towards first terminals 50, it is possible to provide the require compensation coupling. Also, there is no need to cross tracks.

A further technique is also illustrated, namely the provision of tracks 114 that are open circuit and accordingly present a capacitative reactance at the input to tracks 114.

Thus, by providing zig-zag paths of extended length, capacitative coupling regions and inductive coupling regions in which tracks of different pairs follow one another, it is possible to obtain multiple cancellations of cross-talk. In particular, cross talk between each of the pairs 56, 57, 58 and 59 and each other pair 56,57,58, 59 is compensated for, with the exception of crosstalk between outer pairs 56, 57 which are widely spaced and suffer from little crosstalk.

Figure 10 illustrates in perspective view a second embodiment of the tracks 46 of a multilevel printed circuit board which uses the technique whereby tracks of one pair 56,57,58,59 follow tracks of another pair. Further, Figure 10 illustrates an additional technique in which loops 110,112 of tracks of different pairs are aπanged one above the other to provided inductive coupling between these tracks to compensate for crosstalk.

The invention is not restricted to the illustrated aπangement and can be used to cancel cross-talk in a wide variety of aπangements. The techniques described can be used to cancel crosstalk between any or all pairs of differential signal paths as required.

It should be noted that the use of tenns such as "a" or "one" in the present specification is not in general intended to exclude the plural.

Claims

1. An electrical connector comprising: a first terminal group having a plurality of first teπninals for connecting to a plurality of first electrical conductors; a second tenninal group having a plurality of respective second teπninals for connecting to a plurality of second electrical conductors; and a multilevel printed circuit board having a plurality of tracks over a plurality of levels, respective tracks connecting the teπninals of the first terminal group to the respective terminals of the second terminal group, wherein predetermined pairs of signal paths passing through respective first terminals, second terminals and tracks are assigned to carry corresponding differential signals; and the tracks of the multilevel printed^ circuit board are arranged to capacitatively and inductively couple track of each pair of signal paths to track of other pairs of signal paths to compensate for crosstalk between each pair of signal paths and the said other pairs of signal paths.
2. An electrical connector according to claim 1 wherein track of one pair of signal paths follows the path of track of another pair of signal paths at a different level of the multilevel structure to couple the track of the one pair to the track of the other pair.
3. A connector according to claim 1 or 2 wherein tracks of the multilevel printed circuit board are arranged to provide compensation for cross-talk in the first and/or second conductors as well as cross-talk generated in the connector.
4 A connector according to any preceding claim wherein the track of one pair includes a plurality of inductive and/or capacitative coupling regions coupling to tracks of other pairs and these coupling regions are connected by track taking an indirect path between the coupling regions of greater length than a direct path between the coupling regions.
5. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein the indirect track path includes a zig-zag path portion.
6. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein track of one pair has a zig-zag portion following a zig-zag portion of a track of another pair at a different level.
7. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein the tracks have a first width over a substantial portion of their length and the tracks include a track portion having greater width than the first width at regions following other tracks to provide a capacitance between the track portion of greater width and the other tracks.
8. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein track from different pairs comprise loop regions overlying or underlying one another.
9. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein the track includes a loop region including a reverse directed region in which cuπent passing from the first terminal group to the second terminal group travels substantially in a reverse direction from the second terminal group back towards the first terminal group
10. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein the second terminals are insulation displacement connector terminals.
11. A connector according to any preceding claim further comprising a socket for accepting a plug, the socket having a plurality of electrical contacts for making electrical contact with the plug wherein the first terminals include the electrical contacts.
12. A connector according to any preceding claim wherein each of the first and second groups of terminals include first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventii, and eighth terminals, and one signal pair is carried on the first and second terminals, one signal pair on the third and sixth teπninals, one signal pair on the fourth and fifth terminals, and one signal pair on the seventh and eighth teπninals of both the first and second groups of terminals.
13. An electrical connector comprising: a first terminal group having a plurality of first terminals for connecting to a plurality of first electrical conductors; a second terminal group having a plurality of respective second teπninals for connecting to a plurality of second electrical conductors; and a multilevel printed circuit board having a plurality of tracks over a plurality of levels, respective tracks connecting the teπninals of the first terminal group to the respective teπninals of the second tenninal group, wherein predetermined pairs of signal paths passing through respective first terminals, second terminals and tracks are assigned to carry coπesponding differential signals; and the track includes a plurality of inductive and/or capacitative coupling regions coupling between track of different pairs for compensating for crosstalk between the track of different pairs, and track connecting coupling regions is provided, the connecting track including zig-zag track.
14. An electrical connector according to claim 13 including at least one coupling region at which track of different pairs follows the same zig-zag path at different levels.
15. An electrical connector according to claim 13 or 14 including at least one coupling region at which track of different pairs follows a common loop path at different levels.
16. An electrical connector according to claim 13, 14 or 15 including at least one coupling region at which track of one pair is looped back and follows the path of track of another pair such that that current passing from the first terminals to the second tenninals travels in opposed directions hi the said looped back track of one pair and the track of another pair.
PCT/GB2002/004385 2001-09-28 2002-09-27 Electrical connector WO2003030308A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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GB0123448A GB2380334A (en) 2001-09-28 2001-09-28 Communication connector having crosstalk compensating means
GB0123448.3 2001-09-28

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WO2003030308A1 true WO2003030308A1 (en) 2003-04-10

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