WO2003013827A1 - Structured surfaces that show a lotus effect - Google Patents

Structured surfaces that show a lotus effect Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2003013827A1
WO2003013827A1 PCT/EP2002/006754 EP0206754W WO03013827A1 WO 2003013827 A1 WO2003013827 A1 WO 2003013827A1 EP 0206754 W EP0206754 W EP 0206754W WO 03013827 A1 WO03013827 A1 WO 03013827A1
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Prior art keywords
characterized
surface
structure
surfaces
according
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PCT/EP2002/006754
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Markus Oles
Bernhard Schleich
Edwin Nun
Original Assignee
Creavis Gesellschaft Für Technologie Und Innovation Mbh
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Priority to DE2001138036 priority Critical patent/DE10138036A1/en
Priority to DE10138036.4 priority
Application filed by Creavis Gesellschaft Für Technologie Und Innovation Mbh filed Critical Creavis Gesellschaft Für Technologie Und Innovation Mbh
Publication of WO2003013827A1 publication Critical patent/WO2003013827A1/en

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B08CLEANING
    • B08BCLEANING IN GENERAL; PREVENTION OF FOULING IN GENERAL
    • B08B17/00Methods preventing fouling
    • B08B17/02Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B08CLEANING
    • B08BCLEANING IN GENERAL; PREVENTION OF FOULING IN GENERAL
    • B08B17/00Methods preventing fouling
    • B08B17/02Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust
    • B08B17/06Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust by giving articles subject to fouling a special shape or arrangement
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B08CLEANING
    • B08BCLEANING IN GENERAL; PREVENTION OF FOULING IN GENERAL
    • B08B17/00Methods preventing fouling
    • B08B17/02Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust
    • B08B17/06Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust by giving articles subject to fouling a special shape or arrangement
    • B08B17/065Preventing deposition of fouling or of dust by giving articles subject to fouling a special shape or arrangement the surface having a microscopic surface pattern to achieve the same effect as a lotus flower
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C59/00Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C59/02Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing
    • B29C59/022Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing characterised by the disposition or the configuration, e.g. dimensions, of the embossments or the shaping tools therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C59/00Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C59/02Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing
    • B29C59/022Surface shaping of articles, e.g. embossing; Apparatus therefor by mechanical means, e.g. pressing characterised by the disposition or the configuration, e.g. dimensions, of the embossments or the shaping tools therefor
    • B29C2059/023Microembossing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29KINDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, B29C OR B29D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS OR TO MATERIALS FOR MOULDS, REINFORCEMENTS, FILLERS OR PREFORMED PARTS, e.g. INSERTS
    • B29K2995/00Properties of moulding materials, reinforcements, fillers, preformed parts or moulds
    • B29K2995/0037Other properties
    • B29K2995/0093Other properties hydrophobic

Abstract

The invention relates to self-cleaning surfaces that are generated by a stochastic structure or by combining two periodic structures. Surfaces having non-wetting properties have a number of economically important features. The surfaces that are difficult to wet with water combined with a suitable structure are referred to as so-called lotus effect surfaces. Dirt is simply removed from these surfaces by moving water, thereby eliminating the need for a very cost- and time-consuming cleaning of the surfaces.

Description

Textured surfaces with lotus effect

The present invention relates to structured surface with a low surface energy which have protrusions, wherein the protrusions are connected to each other by ridges. These surfaces can be modeled in stochastic or periodic fine structures.

It is known that surfaces have a combination of low surface energy Mikroslxuktur and interesting properties. A suitable combination of structure and hydrophobicity makes it possible that even small amounts of water moving to take on the surface of soil particles adhering to the surface and completely clean (WO 96/04123; US 33 54 022). is prior art according to EP 0 933 380 that is required for such surfaces an aspect ratio of> 1 and a surface energy of less than 20 mN / m. The aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of height to width of the structure.

Water-repellent surfaces are described in the literature. CH-PS-268 258 describes a process, are generated by applying powders such as Caolin, talc, clay or silica gel, structured surfaces. This patent however does not describe how the particle size distribution is. The font is also guilty as the radii of curvature or other structural features of the deposited particles.

WO 00/58410 concludes that it is technically possible to make surfaces of articles artificially self-cleaning. The necessary for this surface structure of elevations and depressions have a distance between the elevations of the surface structures in the range of 0.1 to 200 micrometers and a height of the elevation is in the range of 0.1 to 100 microns. The materials used for this must be made of hydrophobic polymers or permanently hydrophobized materials. Triggering of the detergents from the carrier matrix must be prevented. As with the previously described writings no indication of the geometric shape of the structures used is also made here. Verfaliren for preparing these structured surfaces are also known. In addition to the detailed impression of these structures by a master structure using injection molding or embossing process, processes are also known which use the roughening and subsequent fluorination of surfaces such. B. US 55 99 489. In DE 100 62 201, a process for embossing hydrophobic polymers is described, in which protrusions with a height of 50 nm to 1000 microns and a pitch of 50 nm to 500 microns are produced. In DE 101 10 589 structured surfaces and a method are described for their preparation, wherein the structured surface consists of elevations with a height of 50 nm to 200 microns and a pitch of 50 nm to 200 microns and the ridges have an outer shape which is described by a mathematical function having a symmetry of revolution with respect to a maximum.

is common to all these methods, however, that the self-cleaning behavior of these surfaces is described by a very high aspect ratio and that the structures are three-dimensionally periodic.

In the recently published work of G. Öner and TJ. McCarthy in Langmuir 2000, 16, 7777-7782, the authors show that there is no relationship between the aspect ratio and the training and receding angle is. The contact angle is thus independent of the height of the structures and, it, the authors continue, regardless of the surface chemistry. The authors also report that the contact angles are independent of the geometrical structures. However, the receding contact angle increases with increasing distance structure. However, this contradicts the experience of the applicant.

It has been found that an aspect ratio of> 1 is not essential for the self-cleaning effect. More important than the aspect ratio of the structures is the correct distance to each other and the hydrophobicity of the surface. Only by the combination of the size of the surface of the drop offered with a low surface energy wetting angle can be achieved of greater than 150 °.

High aspect ratios in three-dimensional space, ie, high, narrow, isolated stationary objects are difficult technically feasible and have a low mechanical stability.

Therefore, in DE 101 34 362 a structured surface was developed, which has linienf '-shaped elevations and having a height of the protrusions from each other by 50 nm to 200 microns. Although linear elevations mechanically more stable to edge- compared or conical elevations, however, this applies only to forces acting in the direction of the lines. In the event of forces perpendicular to the lines of the elevations are less stable.

It was therefore an object to find surface structures, that have a high contact angle with water of the so-called lotus Effect® or self-cleaning by moving water and simultaneously have a better mechanical stability than conventional self-cleaning surfaces.

Surprisingly, it was found that structured, hydrophobic surfaces, the structure of elevations are formed, wherein adjacent protrusions are connected by ridges, which have a lower average height than the bumps connected through them, have a significantly higher stability against forces from all directions, as conventional structures.

The subject of the present invention are structured, hydrophobic surfaces according to claim 1, the structure of projections is formed which are characterized in that adjacent projections are connected by ridges, which have a lower average height than the bumps are connected by them.

Likewise, the present invention is a process for the production of structured surfaces according to at least one of claims 1 to 9 by casting a negative mold to an unstructured surface, which is characterized in that the negative mold a surface of portions of spheres or rounded truncated pyramids and between the having ball parts talformige incisions.

In addition, the present invention is to have the use of the structured surface according to one of claims 1 to 8 for the preparation of containers, films, semifinished products or reaction vessels as well as moving objects an outer shell having all or part of the structured surfaces according to any one of claims 1 to 9.

The surfaces of the invention have the advantage that they have over conventional surface with self-cleaning effect a significantly greater mechanical stability. The surfaces of the invention are also easy to produce.

The structured, hydrophobic surfaces according to the invention, the structure of protrusions, are formed, characterized by the fact that adjacent projections are connected by ridges, which have a lower average height than the bumps are connected by them. The protuberances themselves preferably have an average height of 50 nm to 200 .mu.m, particularly preferably an average height of 100 nm to 500 nm, from 0.5 microns to 50 microns or from 50 microns to 200 microns, and most preferably an average height of 0.5 .mu.m to 10 .mu.m.

The average height of the bumps connecting ridges can be designed differently. So shallow and deep expressions of composed of elevations and ridges structures are possible. The average height of the bumps connecting ridges is preferably from 5 to 99%, preferably from 40 to 90%, particularly preferably from 40 to 50%, from 50 to 60%, from 60 to 80% and most preferably of 60 to 70 % of the average height of the ridge are connected by bumps.

The present invention structured surfaces can have elevations, which have a stochastic or periodic structure.

The stochastic structure is preferably a speckle with an average speckle size of 30 to 50 microns, preferably from 30 to 35 microns, 35 to 40 microns, 40 to 45 microns or 45 to 50 microns.

It may be advantageous if the structure has a stochastic structure, which is superimposed a periodic fine structure. This Feinstniktur preferably has a period of 0.5 to 10 .mu.m, more preferably a period of 0.5 to 3 micron, 3-6 micron or 6-10 micron and most preferably a period of 1 to 2.5 microns on.

Likewise, it may be advantageous if the structure has a periodic rough structure, which is superimposed a periodic fine structure. The structured surfaces according to the invention preferably has a rough structure, which has a pattern having a 2-, 3-, 4-, 6-, or 8 -zählige symmetry on. It may be advantageous if the rough structure, that is at a distance from peak to peak of 20 to 30 micron one period. Any existing fine structure preferably has a period of 0.5 to 10 microns, most preferably from 1 to 2.5 microns.

The dip depth so the depth of peak to ridge of the rough structure is preferably from 2 to 20 microns most preferably 7-11 microns. In particular, this depth may be varied. Both deep rough structures and flat coarse structures are suitable. Particularly suitable periodic coarse structure has proven flat superimposed with a periodic fine structure.

The structured surfaces can be made of various materials. Very particular preference, however, the surface has a polymer.

The structured surfaces of the invention are preferably prepared by the novel process for the production of structured surfaces by casting a negative mold of a unslrukturierte surface, the negative mold has a surface area of ​​portions of spheres or rounded truncated pyramids and having the negative form between the ball parts valley-shaped incisions. By the incisions, which connect the balls or pyramid tips, the burrs are formed on the structured surfaces.

The mold for can. Example, by stamping or rolling. The molding by stamping or rolling, is particularly suitable for the preparation of novel surfaces on planar objects such. B. films or sheets. It is also possible that

Molding at macroscopic forming the article by casting, injection molding or "In Mold Decoration" (IMD) takes place on the surface. The latter method is particularly suitable for equipping the non-planar or three-dimensional objects with an inventive surface.

but the molding can also be done in liquid or paste coatings or reactive coatings with simultaneous curing of the coating.

The preparation of the surfaces of the invention can be carried out in particular by embossing in polymeric shaped articles or by molding in and then curing of coating systems. Ideally, one uses to rolls having corresponding pattern over the circumference.

Polymeric molded article in the aforementioned sense are, for example injection-molded moldings or thermoformed moldings. The structuring can be done with the shape simultaneously. -Area polymeric moldings are provided an intelligent manner during rolling or calendering to the corresponding structures. Also among the claim of the present invention falls subsequent to the shaping and molding of the coating structure in the varnish with simultaneous or subsequent hardening, for example by UV light.

As a material for the preparation of novel surfaces may, in particular a material selected from soft metals or soft metal alloys, plastics, thermoplastics or thermosetting plastics, in particular polyamides, polymethacrylates, polysulfones, polyoxymethylenes, Polyparaphenylenoxide, poly paraphenylensulfide or polyimides, are used. Particularly advantageous is the Abprägen in hydrophobic polymers, hydrophobic copolymers, or hydrophobic polymer blends.

The articles do not have to consist entirely of the aforementioned materials, but it may be sufficient when the articles are coated with one of the said materials or is coated, wherein the coating thickness or the coating must be large at least that the impression of the is possible surveys invention.

The surface or the material of the surface preferably has hydrophobic properties, wherein the surface or material can be rendered hydrophobic before or after patterning, or may comprise the material itself without any treatment, hydrophobic properties. If the surface is hydrophobic, this is preferably done by treatment of the surface with at least one compound from the group of the alkylsilanes, perfluoroalkylsilanes, alkyldisilazanes or.

As already mentioned it can be advantageous if the material according to the invention for the preparation of surfaces having hydrophobic properties. Such materials include, in particular Bulkpolymere with polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinylidene fluoride or polymers of perfluoroalkoxy compounds, either as homopolymer or copolymer or as a blend component of a polymer blend.

Furthermore, mixtures of polymers with additives are also conceivable, which align themselves during the molding process so that prevail at the surface hydrophobic groups. As an additive are fluorinated waxes such. As the Hostaflons of Hoechst AG in question.

Surfaces according to the invention can therefore be made of materials that exhibit hydrophobic behavior before the structuring its surface.

In particular, since the chemical properties of the top monolayer of the material for the hydrophobicity are critical, may optionally include a surface modification with compounds containing hydrophobic groups, sufficient. Processes of this type include the covalent attachment of monomers or oligomers to the surface by a chemical reaction, such. B. treatments of surfaces with alkylfluorosilanes as Dynasilan F 8261 of Sivento Chemie Rheinfelden GmbH, with fluorinated ormocers, or by treatment with at least one compound from the group of the alkylsilanes, perfluoroalkylsilanes, alkyldisilazanes or. But materials such as fluorine Opel PFC 802A, Fluor_N 489 (Cytonix) Zynol TM (DuPont) and Tego Phobe 1035 (Degussa) are suitable. All of these chemical modifications may be carried out after molding, so that the elevations can be retrofitted with a material having a surface energy of preferably less than 20 mN / m.

Furthermore, methods in which initially radical sites are produced on the surface that react in the presence or absence of oxygen with free radical polymerizable monomers to call. Activation of the surfaces can be carried out by means of plasma, UV or gamma radiation as well as by specific photoinitiators. After the activation of the surface, that is, after the generation of free radicals, the monomers can be polymerized. Such method generates a mechanically highly resistant coating.

The coating of a material or a textured surface by plasma polymerization of fluoroalkenes or wholly or partially fluorinated vinyl compounds has proven particularly useful.

The hydrophobization of a structured surface by means of an RF hollow cathode plasma source by plasma with argon as the carrier gas and a fluoromonomer such. As C 4 F 8, Octafluro-2-butene, perfluorocyclobutane or tetrafluoroethylene, as the monomer at a pressure of about 0.2 mbar provides a technically simple and elegant way is for subsequent coating.

Also, the water-repellent polymer surfaces by means of arbitrarily shaped diluted in inert gas, elemental fluorine is an elegant standard procedures for suitably equipped company and is therefore suitable for hydrophobicizing surfaces according to the invention.

In addition, a pre-fabricated article with a thin layer of a hydrophobic polymer can be coated. This can be done in the form of a lacquer or by polymerization of the corresponding monomers on the surface of the object. As polymeric coating, solutions, pastes or dispersions of polymers such. As polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) or reactive paints are used. Suitable monomers for polymerization on the materials or their structured surfaces particular Alkylfluorsilane as Dynasilan F come 8261 (Sivento Chemie Rheinfelden GmbH, Rheinfelden) in question.

The negative mold with stochastic structures is preferably produced by exposure of a photoresist plate with a speckle pattern. The production of such speckle pattern is described in detail in the book by Pramod K. Rastogi, entitled "Digital Speckle Pattern Interferrometry and Related Techniques", published by Wiley, Chichester 2000. An outstanding feature of this stochastic structure that occur on the surface, no interference phenomena , The stochastic structures can be formed by exposure with speckle patterns in a photoresist. The respective speckle pattern can be generated by coherent radiation through a Primärdifusors. It is possible both the size and the symmetry of the speckles set. As the primary diffuser, for example, etched glass plates can be used.

The negative molds preferably have structures that periodic and / or stochastic character are. Such negative forms are obtainable positive molds are manufactured with stochastic and / or periodic structures, of which the negative molds are molded.

The male molds preferably have stochastic structures, which are superimposed with a periodic fine structure or periodic coarse structures which are superimposed on a periodic fine structure on.

Basis of the stochastic structure are speckle pattern with an average speckle size of 30 to 50 microns. After the generation of these stochastic coarse structure, this structure is superimposed with a periodic fine structure. The period of this fine structure is from 0.5 to 10 microns, preferably from 1 to 2.5 microns.

The periodic rough structure, which is superimposed on a periodic fine structure is formed from the superposition of two periodic structures. The coarse structure preferably has a period of between 20 to 30 microns. In this rough structure, a fine structure with a period of 0.5 to 10 microns, preferably from 1 to 2.5 microns is applied. The dip depth of the coarse structure is approximately 4 microns. In particular, this depth may be varied. Both deep rough structures and flat coarse structures are suitable. Particularly suitable periodic coarse structure has proven flat superimposed with a periodic fine structure.

According to the invention structured surfaces have particularly high contact angle. This largely prevents the wetting of the surface and leads to a rapid drop formation. The drops can with appropriate inclination of the surface on the projections roll, take this dirt particles and thus clean the surface simultaneously.

Objects with inventively textured surfaces are very easy to clean. Unless rolling drops of z. B. rainwater, dew or other, occurring in the application range of the object water for cleaning is not sufficient, the articles can be cleaned by simply rinsing with water.

Bacteria and other microorganisms need for adhesion to a surface or for the propagation of a surface water, which is not to the hydrophobic surfaces of the present invention. According to the invention structured surfaces prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms and thus are bacteriophobic and / or antimicrobial.

One field of application for the invention are surfaces residue-free to be emptied container or soon to be cleaned supports such as wafer holders in the semiconductor production. Wafers are transported within their manufacturing process with special supports (cassettes) in various baths. To prevent further wear of the various bath liquids are Rei igungsschritte, in particular the brackets required. The cleaning or drying steps are eliminated when the respective bath liquid of the wafer from the bath of the holder when removing drips off completely.

Surfaces according to the invention are outstandingly suitable for the production of products whose surfaces favoring the drainage of liquids. The structured surfaces of the invention are particularly suitable for the production of containers, films, semifinished products or reaction vessels. erfϊndungsgemäße surfaces for manufacture of products are preferably used, which is clean or by water running even emptied. Preferred uses are containers, transparent bodies, pipettes, reaction vessels, films, semi-finished or fittings. In particular, by using films which have the structured surface of the invention, objects of virtually any materials by applying and fixing the film can be provided on the object with the present invention structured films.

In particular, the present invention also includes movable objects which have an outer shell with a completely or partially structured, according to the invention surface. Such objects can for. be as selected from vehicles, wings of wind turbines, turbine wheels or impellers. The moving objects can in particular vehicles such. be as cars, buses, trucks, ships, boats, submarines, aircraft, balloons, airships or rockets or toys.

By using the inventive surface contamination of the vehicles or the stirring blades are largely avoided. In comparison with conventional surveys elevations according to the invention of the present invention have a much higher durability.

In the figures, Fig. 1 to Fig. 3 shown SEM images (Scanning Electron Microscope) are different structural variants of the invention illustrated in accordance with the present invention, without the invention being restricted to these embodiments.

Fig. 1 shows an SEM Aufhahme a surface according to the invention, self-cleaning, having a stochastic structure. The preparation of this surface will be described in Example. 1

Fig. 2 shows an SEM Aufhahme a surface according to the invention, self-cleaning, having a periodic structure in the deep rough expression, overlaid by a periodic fine structure. The preparation of this surface is described in Example 2. FIG.

Fig. 3 shows an SEM Aufhahme a surface according to the invention, self-cleaning, having a periodic structure in the rough flat version, overlaid by a periodic fine structure. The preparation of this surface is described in Example 3. FIG.

Example 1: Preparation of a surface with a stochastic structure selbstreinifienden A glass sheet was coated with a highly viscous Positive photoresist ma - p1275 coated with a coating thickness of about 15 microns. The speckle pattern was generated by irradiating a Primärdiffusers. It was coherent laser light, is used at a dose of 10 mJ / cm 2, at a wavelength of 364 nm. After exposure, a highly concentrated developer was used to develop the structure. The photoresist was sputtered with a layer of gold as Piatierbasis and connect in nickel galvanically shaped. With the thus prepared Nickelshim the structure in a hydrophobic, UV-curable coating system was utilized.

Example 2: Preparation of a self-cleaning surface with a periodic coarse structure, superimposed with a periodic fine structure in the low expression of

A glass sheet was coated with a highly viscous Positive photoresist ma - p1275 coated with a coating thickness of about 15 microns. The coarse structure as well as the fine structure was generated by irradiation of a cross grid (27 .mu.m and 2 .mu.m period) with different spacings. For the production of the coarse structure of coherent laser light was at a dose of 2 x 70mJ / cm 2, is used at a wavelength of 364 nm. For subsequent generation of the fine structure was coherent laser light, with a dose as used in Example. 1 In the coarse structure at a height of the projections from 9.5 to 10 microns, a dip depth of 9 microns was achieved. The vertical distance from the lowest to the highest points of the fine structure (measured peak to peak) was also about 10 microns. After exposure, a high konzentriertet developer was used to develop the structure. The photoresist was sputtered with a layer of gold as Piatierbasis and connect in nickel galvanically shaped. With the thus prepared Nickelshim the structure in a hydrophobic, UV-curable coating system was utilized.

Example 3: Preparation of a self-cleaning surface with a periodic coarse structure, superimposed with a periodic fine structure in the flat form, the manufacture of this structure is carried out analogously to Example 2. However, the irradiation doses for the gross structure to 2 x 6mJ / cm 2 were reduced. This results in a flatter structure was generated. The coarse structure had a height of projections of 3 to 3.5 microns. The coarse structure has a dip depth of 2 .mu.m in this variant.

At all structures tests were carried out for accurate characterization of the surface properties. The results are listed in the table below. Here, the periodic flat coarse structure which has been superimposed on a periodic fine structure, proved to be particularly suitable. Both the roll-off as well as the results in the dirt trying deported from outstanding self-cleaning properties.

Figure imgf000015_0001

Advancing and receding angle:

With a contact angle meter, the contact angle of a liquid having the surface was determined. The more hydrophobic the surface is, the greater is the contact angle. In the measurement, a distinction is made between advancing and receding contact angle. When advancing angle, a drop is pipetted onto the surface and determines the angle of the tangent at the contact point between the solid and propagating liquid droplets. During retraction angle, the tangent of the decreasing volume water droplet is measured. Good Lotus surfaces have advancing and receding contact angle greater than 150 °.

dirt test

One of the most important criteria in assessing the Lotus surfaces of dirt test. In a chamber of a defined amount of carbon black (Printex 60) having a

Nitrogen pulse kicked up. Then this dust strikes the under investigation

Surface down. With a fine water mist, this surface is then dusted for 60 sec..

This time is sufficient to return completely to remove the deposited soot in good Lotus surfaces. After drying, the absorption behavior of the sample is determined. With a reference value that was measured before the Nerschmutzung, can be determined how much soot is left on the surface. Finishes with very good self-cleaning behavior to L-values ​​of <2nd

Roll Angle: The Roll angle indicates, wherein inclination of a surface of a drop of water rolls off independently from that surface. The smaller the roll-off angle is, the better the self-cleaning effect.

Claims

claims:
1. Structured, hydrophobic surfaces, the structure is formed by elevations, characterized in that adjacent projections are connected by ridges that a lower average
having height than the bumps are connected by them.
2. Structured surface according to claim 1, characterized in that the elevations have a stochastic and / or periodic structure.
3. Structured surface according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the structure has a stochastic structure, which is superimposed a periodic fine structure.
4. Structured surface according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the structure has a periodic rough structure, which is superimposed a periodic fine structure.
5. Structured surface according to claim 4, characterized in that the coarse structure has a pattern having a 2-, 3-, 4-, 6-, or 8-fold symmetry.
6. Structured surface according to claim 4, characterized in, so that the coarse structure has a period, a distance from peak to peak of 20 to 30 micron.
7. Structured surface according to at least one of claims 3 to 6, characterized in that the fine structure has a period of 0.5 to 10 microns.
8. Structured surface according to claim 7, characterized in that the fine structure has a period of 1 to 2.5 microns.
9. Structured surface according to at least one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the surface comprises a polymer.
10. A process for the production of structured surfaces according to at least one of claims 1 to 9 by casting a negative mold to an unstructured surface, characterized in that the negative mold has a surface area of ​​portions of spheres or rounded truncated pyramids and between the ball parts valley-shaped incisions.
11. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the molding is carried out by stamping or rolling.
12. The method according to claim 10, characterized in that the molding at the macroscopic forming the article by casting,
Injection molding is carried out or In-Mold Decoration (IMD) to the surface.
13. The method according to any one of claims 9 to 12, characterized in that a polymeric material is used as a material for producing the surface.
14. The method according to claim 13, characterized in that the material has hydrophobic properties.
15. The method according to claim 13, characterized in that the surface is hydrophobicized before the patterning.
16. The method according to claim 13, characterized in that the surface is hydrophobicized after the patterning.
17. The method according to at least one of claims 15 or 16, characterized in that the surface is rendered hydrophobic by a treatment with at least one compound from the group of the alkylsilanes, perfluoroalkylsilanes, alkyldisilazanes or.
18. The method according to any one of claims 10 to 17, characterized in that the negative form by exposure of a photoresist plate is prepared with a speckle pattern.
19. Use of the structured surface according to one of claims 1 to 9 for the preparation of containers, films, semifinished products or reaction vessels.
20. Moving objects which have an outer shell with a completely or partially structured surfaces according to any one of claims 1 to 9.
21. Moving objects according to claim 19, characterized in that the objects are selected from vehicles, vanes of wind power stations
Turbine wheels or impellers.
PCT/EP2002/006754 2001-08-03 2002-06-19 Structured surfaces that show a lotus effect WO2003013827A1 (en)

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DE2001138036 DE10138036A1 (en) 2001-08-03 2001-08-03 Structured self-cleaning surface is hydrophobic, and has a pattern of raised surfaces with lower burrs linking neighboring projections
DE10138036.4 2001-08-03

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US6872441B2 (en) 2000-04-01 2005-03-29 Ferro Gmbh Glass ceramic and metal substrates with a self-cleaning surface, method for the production and use thereof
WO2006028603A2 (en) * 2004-07-27 2006-03-16 Ut-Battelle, Llc Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features
WO2006088721A1 (en) * 2005-02-16 2006-08-24 3M Innovative Properties Company Method of making topographically patterned coatings
US7544411B2 (en) 2001-02-10 2009-06-09 Ferro Gmbh Self-cleaning paint coating and a method and agent for producing the same
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