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WO2002067693A1 - Rabbit food composition - Google Patents

Rabbit food composition

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Publication number
WO2002067693A1
WO2002067693A1 PCT/FR2002/000687 FR0200687W WO02067693A1 WO 2002067693 A1 WO2002067693 A1 WO 2002067693A1 FR 0200687 W FR0200687 W FR 0200687W WO 02067693 A1 WO02067693 A1 WO 02067693A1
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WO
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Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
rabbits
methyl
enal
rabbit
composition
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FR2002/000687
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Laurence Lamothe
Benoist Schaal
Gerard Coureaud
Dominique Langlois
Original Assignee
Institut National De La Recherche Agronomique
Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (C.N.R.S.)
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/60Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for weanlings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/105Aliphatic or alicyclic compounds
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K40/00Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K40/10Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs by agglomeration; by granulation, e.g. making powders
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K40/00Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K40/30Shaping or working-up of animal feeding-stuffs by encapsulating; by coating
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; THEIR TREATMENT, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/50Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for rodents

Abstract

The invention relates to a composition for feeding rabbits comprising a base made from a liquid or solid foodstuff and between 10?-9 and 10-4¿ g of a compound having general formula (I) per gram of the total composition.

Description

COMPOSITION FOR FEEDING RABBITS.

The invention relates to a new pheromone, specifically breast pheromone of the female rabbits suckling and its applications in the rabbits diet.

The success of mammalian reproduction depends ultimate way of co-evolution of the broadcast signal by the female and their reception by his offspring. This functional reciprocity is a vital prerequisite for the survival and normal development of newborns. It is particularly well illustrated by the intense exchanges underpinning the supply of milk by the mother and the quest for milk by the young. Although female mammals are engaged to varying degrees depending on the species in the care of young people, they all developed passive signaling mechanisms that serve both incentive and guide for the inexperienced newborn manages to reach the teat or udder.

These sensory cues, maternal odors were often mentioned, but the chemical identity and the pheromone nature of these signals have not been characterized precisely to this day.

The work carried out by the authors of the present invention have elucidated the chemical nature of the signal from the rabbit and determine that the signal caused an activation of rabbits, an attraction to the breast, followed by oral input nipple by rabbits.

This compound emitted by the lactating rabbit having signal value for the newborn rabbit is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

The present invention represents the first behavioral and chemical characterization of a pheromone breast origin in the mammal. In domestic rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, neonatal mortality is high and due to causes attributable to the mother and the young. The success of the first feeds is critical for the survival of the newborn, this particularly due to the sparse nature of the mother-young relationship, including the fact that newborns rabbits receive their daily ration of milk in one feed 3 to 4 minutes.

Although rabbits newborns can cope for 24 hours at a lack of milk intake, their short-term survival depends on their ability to rapidly reach the breast at the next feeding.

The identification of a substance having a mammary pheromone activity is therefore particularly advantageous applications since it allows to intervene on food intake by the rabbit or young rabbit, either by being incorporated in the diet of the rabbit breastfeeding so as to be excreted in the milk a larger amount that the basal amount, or by being incorporated directly into the young rabbit diet.

In addition, studies by the inventors have shown that certain compounds derived from 2-methyl-but-2-enal could possess the ability to activate the young rabbits.

The invention thus provides a composition for rabbit feed characterized in that it comprises a base formed of a liquid or solid food compatible with rabbit feed and 10 "9-10" 4 g / gram of total composition of a compound of formula (I):

in which :

- one of R and R 2 represents a hydrogen atom and the other represents alkyl Cι-C 4; - the dotted line represents the possibility of a double bond, where appropriate in position 2 or 3;

- Y represents H or the group OR 3, R 3 representing H, alkyl or -C acyl CC 4;

- x represents 0 or 1; - m represents 2 when a double bond is present in position 3 and 3 in the other cases;

- n represents 1 when no double bond is present and 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 or 3;

- p represents 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 and 1 when no double bond is present in position 2;

- q represents 0 when x is 1 or 2 when x is 0; as well as tautomers and addition salts with bases acceptable in food when Y represents OR 3 and R 3 is H. The free valencies in formula (I) correspond to a hydrogen atom.

Similarly, when x is 0, the carbon atom to the right in the formula (I) comprises two hydrogen atoms.

Preferably, the dotted line represents a double bond in position 2.

However the compounds of formula (I) wherein the dotted line represents a double bond in position 3 or comprising no double bond, that is to say derivatives of butanal, butanol or butanoic acid, also exhibit mammary pheromone-like activity to a lesser degree. Advantageously, one of Ri and R 2 represents alkyl Cι-C 4, of preferably methyl or ethyl, and the other is hydrogen.

The compounds wherein R represents methyl or ethyl and R 2 represents a hydrogen atom, however, are preferred.

Another group of preferred compounds is that wherein x is 1 and Y a hydrogen atom, that is to say generally the aldehydes.

Preferred compounds within the scope of the invention are shown in Table I below.

Board

By "non-natural" means a composition that differs from the natural rabbit milk. By "rabbit" in the sense of this invention means the species of the genus Oryctolagus, especially the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cυniculus, or any other member of the family Leporidae. According to a first embodiment, the food composition is in solid form. The composition advantageously comprises a mixture of raw materials of essentially plant origin. This mixture is advantageously obtained by processing cereal grains (corn, wheat, barley or their by-products), treatment of roots or tubers (beet, cassava), grasses and other perennial forage (alfalfa), or by treating seeds or oleaginous fruits or protein (whole grains, cakes and other by-products: soya, sunflower, rapeseed, grapeseed, peas, faba bean). Generally, the food base is rich in carbohydrates, in particular starch or derivatives thereof, digestible and indigestible vegetable fibers, vegetable proteins and lipids.

Advantageously, the composition is granulated. The compound of general formula (I) can be in this case incorporated in the granule or adsorbed on the surface thereof.

When a compound of general formula (I) is incorporated in the granulate, it is generally added in an organic vehicle, such as sunflower oil or modified corn starch or inorganic, for example a zeolite or calcium carbonate to a raw food material, generally a flour obtained from a raw material mixture of various vegetable origin (wheat and wheat products, barley, maize, beet, alfalfa, sunflower meal and soy) , containing vitamins and trace elements, and then after mixing, subjected to granulation in conventional granulation conditions, preferably using a pellet press. Alternatively, the compound of general formula (I) may be adsorbed to the surface of the granules by any known means, especially by spraying.

The granules can be for use in lactating does and young rabbits feeding after weaning.

In the first case they preferably contain the compound of general formula (I) in a concentration of 10 "9 and 10" 4 g per gram of total composition so as to release the compound of general formula (I) excreted in secretions skin of rabbits in an amount greater than the basal amount, and promote the attraction of newborns to kindergarten udder rabbits.

In the second case, the pellet form composition preferably contains the compound of general formula (I) in a concentration of 10 "9 and 10" 4 g per gram of total composition and is intended to be directly ingested by young rabbit the presence of the compound of general formula (I) is promoting the attraction of the young rabbit to food and thus the amount of food ingested and the growth or health of the young rabbit.

By "young rabbit" means an elderly rabbit of about 10 days at 13 weeks.

In this case, the incorporation of the compound of general formula (I) in the feed of young rabbits either increases the amount of food ingested by the signals emitted by the compound of general formula (I) in the direction of smell of young rabbit and thus promote growth, or improve their health.

In a second embodiment of the invention, the composition to rabbit food is in liquid form.

The composition may in particular be in the form of a drinking water for breeding does and comprise from 10 "9 g / ml to 10" 4 g / ml of the compound of general formula (I) in solution in water. The composition may also consist of a water to be absorbed by a young rabbit and contain from 10 "9 g / ml to 10" 4 g / ml of the compound of general formula (I) in solution in water.

The liquid composition preferably contains an emulsifier or a co-solvent compatible with the rabbit diet.

Alternatively, the liquid composition may be in the form of an artificial or reconstituted milk for the young rabbit before weaning feed whose composition differs from that of rabbit milk.

In this case, the compound of general formula (I) is present in an amount of 10 -9 g / ml and 10 "4 g / ml of milk.

The term "infant formula" means either sterilized rabbit milk whose composition differs from the milk in that it does not include bacteria (pathogenic or otherwise) or a reconstituted milk from cow's milk derivatives diluted to obtain a liquid composition macronutrients approximates composition rabbit milk. The resulting artificial milk is richer in lactose than milk rabbit.

Overall, the food, whether in liquid or solid form, for the rabbits, especially the young rabbits and breeding females, usually contain vitamins, minerals added (that is to say, in addition to those naturally contained in the raw materials), food flavorings and sometimes medication, including antibiotics, coccidiostats or other.

The invention further relates to the use of a compound of formula (I), preferably 2-methyl-but-2-enal, as a food additive for rabbits feed, including feed for rabbits breeding and feeding of newborn rabbits aged 1 to 10 days or young rabbits aged 10 days at 13 weeks.

The invention also relates to a method of increasing feed intake by the young rabbit, comprising incorporating into a food composition for breeding young rabbits or female 10 "9 g to 10" 4 g of compound of general formula (I) per g of total food composition. Preferably, said compound of general formula (I) is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

The invention further relates to a method for reducing the mortality of young rabbits or young rabbits comprising administering to rabbits or young rabbits a composition comprising from 10 "9-10" 4 g of a compound of general formula (I) per g of composition. Advantageously, said compound of general formula (I) is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

The following examples are intended to illustrate the invention.

To understand these examples, reference to the appended figures in which:

- Figure 1 shows the sequence of responses to a newborn rabbit seeking and gripping a glass funnel emitting 2-methyl-but-2-enal; - Figure 2 shows the profile by gas chromatography of the volatile fraction of milk and cumulative olfactometric responses of rabbits associated with gas chromatography.

The abscissa are retention times and on the ordinate respectively displaying the number of responses olfactometric (bottom of figure) and the intensity of the flame ionization detector of the signal (upper portion of figure).

- Figure 3 shows a diagram illustrating the frequency search response / input of the impregnated glass rod with each of the 22 compounds identified reactogenic in milk in newborn rabbits; - Figure 4 shows the selective bioactivity profiles of 2-methyl-but-2-enal tested against (A) diluents, (B): volatiles unidentified in rabbit milk, (C): compounds volatile not present in rabbit milk but previously identified in exocrine secretions of rabbit and (D) found volatiles or in milk or in the glandular secretions of rabbits;

- Figure 5 shows the frequency responses of the graph search / entry impregnated glass rod with the 2-methyl-but-2-enal for different strains of rabbits (A) and breeds (B);

- Figure 6 shows histograms showing the pellet consumption by rabbits before and after weaning (Figure 6A), the evolution of the weight of the rabbits before and after weaning (Figure 6B) and mortality of young rabbits after weaning ( Figure 6C) for rabbits that were fed a standard diet, having received or not 2-methyl-but-2-enal by spraying.

EXAMPLE 1: Identification of a pheromone in the volatile fraction of rabbit milk.

Of rabbit milk (30 g) was poured into a flask immersed in a water bath at 40 ° C. A stream of nitrogen was passed for two hours in the sample through a microporous glass at a rate of 100 ml per minute and directed towards a Tenax trap (RT, 20-35 mesh preconditioned in a flow of gas inert for 10 x 20 minutes at 240 ° C). The trap was then flushed with a stream of dry nitrogen (100 ml / minute) for two minutes to remove residual moisture.

It was directly connected to a TCP-injector Chrompack CP-40-10 (Middleburg, The Netherlands) on a gas chromatograph HP 4890 (Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, California) and purged in the opposite direction to that used during adsorption. The volatiles are desorbed by heating the Tenax and then condensed in a capillary tube cooled with liquid nitrogen (- 130 ° C) placed before a chromatographic column C 20 H (30 m, 0.5 μ, 0.32 mm J Scienfic and W, Folsom California).

The refrigeration was stopped, the portion of the capillary tube was heated at 250 ° C for a short period, and the chromatography column flushed with hydrogen as carrier gas (speed 50 cm / sec) at a gradient of temperature. Half of the gas comprising the volatile fraction obtained at the outlet of the chromatography column was bypassed to a port equipped with an insulated copper tube (length: 20 cm, diameter: 3 mm) attached to the chromatography column, having a glass funnel inserted at its distal end. Similar devices coupling a gas chromatograph and an olfactometer are commonly used for the characterization of food flavorings by the human nose (Guichard et al (1995) Z. Lebensm. Linters. Forsch, 201, 344), determining pheromone in insects (Hummel et al (1995) Eds Techniques in pheromone research (Springer, New York)) and in one case to identify odoriferous products influencing social interaction in adult rabbit (Goodrich et al (1981) Journal of Chemical Ecology, 7, 817). Here, the biological activity of odorant contained in fractions the effluent from the gas chromatography was followed by the response of rabbits (Figure 1).

25 analyzes coupling the gas chromatography (GC) and a measurement olfactometric (OM) (GC / OM) were conducted on the volatile fraction of the milk obtained from 25 rabbits. The rabbits were kept so that their muzzle is at a distance of 5 mm from the orifice described above; the total duration of the test was 35 minutes. The rabbits aged 2 to 4 days were not fed for 20 to 24 hours. The following behavioral criteria were considered representative of the positive responses: a) research moves towards the glass funnel of GC effluent; and b) oral entry attempts thereof.

The cumulative frequency of two responses has identified 22 active regions on chromatographic profiles (Figure 2). The active compounds corresponding to the peaks located in these regions were identified by mass spectrometry from the volatile fraction rabbits milk. The identified compounds were systematically screened for behavioral activity in older rabbits of 2 to 4 days (use pure compounds).

The test consisted in presenting to immobilized maintained hand rabbits, of glass rods on which were arranged 30 ml of each compound at a dilution of 10 "6 g / ml in a solvent of water / ethanol (1000: 1) . One compound: 2-methyl-but-2-enal possible to obtain a significantly higher rate of two types of response than all other volatile compounds identified in the milk for their alleged activity (fig 3.).

Additional tests were conducted to confirm that 2-methyl-but-2-enal was a key compound of the volatile fraction rabbit milk:

- using the glass rod described above, the study of behavioral activity of all detectable impurities at the same time as 2-methyl-but-2-enal indicated no activity or n has indicated a negligible activity;

- when 2-methyl-but-2-enal was eluted by GPC using a polar capillary column, the time of searching for answers / input by the rabbits coincided with the retention time of 2-methyl-but -2-enal; - the differential separation of a nonpolar column was used for the study of the compounds optionally co-eluted with the peak of 2-methyl-but-2-enal and showed that the time of the search response / input coincided with the retention time of 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

The results of these tests GC / OM and confirm clearly that the 2-methyl-but-2-enal is the volatile compound present in rabbit milk that is causing stereotypical search and seizure of the udder responses in the rabbit.

EXAMPLE 2 Correlation of the concentration of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in milk with the search answers / seizure in rabbits.

Another way to establish the functional impact of 2-methyl- but-2-enal in milk is to correlate its concentration with the rabbits frequency response. A previous experiment showed that the rabbit milk lost its effectiveness to trigger a search and seizure response in the rabbit after a rest period of 60 minutes at room temperature.

Therefore, if the 2-methyl-but-2-enal is the key compound of the volatile fraction of whole milk, the loss of activity of the latter would predict a reduction in the concentration of 2-methyl-but-2 -énal. This hypothesis was tested by titration of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in milks between 30 and 90 minutes after milking the quantitative reduction of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in that milk is clearly associated with a significant fall in search of answers / seizure among newborns rabbits. In addition, the behavioral activity of milk inactivated by extracting the volatile fraction for two hours is restored by addition of a dilute solution of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in pure form. These results show that the 2-methyl-but-2-enal is the key compound involved in behavioral effectiveness of freshly harvested rabbit milk. EXAMPLE 3 Determination of the effective dose of 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

The range of effective concentrations of 2-methyl-but-2-enal were analyzed by exposing rabbits aged 2 to 5 days at the end of a tempered glass rod in an aqueous solution of 2- methyl-but -2-enal. At concentrations greater than 10 "3 g / ml the effectiveness of 2-methyl-but-2-enal decreases drastically. The minimum effective concentration of 2-methyl-but-2-enal is between 10" and 8 10 "9 g / ml.

EXAMPLE 4 Determination of the pheromone properties of 2-methyl-but-2-enal.

A series of tests was conducted in order to verify step by step the 2-methyl-but-2-enal had good biological properties conferring qualification pheromone.

According restrictive and operational definition (Beauchamp et al), can be considered pheromone any compound (or mixture of compounds) chemically easy emitted by an individual which induces endocrine or behavioral response specific receptor in an individual of the same species; these responses must have a clear functional significance, have an invariable form in varying contexts, and be influenced minimally by postnatal learning. An additional condition is that these responses must be caused by the target compound (or mixture of compounds), and not by alternative mechanisms involving non chemosensory systems, nonspecific excitation or effects related to novelty.

In the context of the present invention, the following five basic criteria were used to establish that the 2-methyl-but-2-enal can be called pheromone:

1) the simplicity of the chemical stimulus;

2) an unambiguous response and invariable; 3) a high selectivity of the coupling response / stimulus;

4) a species specificity at the reception;

5) a stimulus coupling / unconditional response.

A sixth criterion for the species specificity of the emission of the odor of odorant signal was added.

The 2-methyl-but-2-enal in pure form caused a stereotyped behavioral response clearly defined in newborn animals, which was not distinguishable from the immediate response elicited by rabbit milk. Thus, a milk extract causes the same behavioral effect that the total milk whose volatile fraction consists of more than 150 compounds. Moreover, this response was not influenced by fashion and general presentation context, since activation and search response / seizure were obtained in the test of the glass rod, and the test GC / OM (Figure 1).

Selective bioactivity of 2-methyl-but-2-enal was tested by addition to a large number of additional flavorants: a) diluents; b) other unidentified volatile products in the milk of rabbits; c) other non-volatiles present in rabbit milk but previously identified in exocrine secretions of rabbit; d) volatile compounds that have been found in either the milk or in the secretions rabbits glands.

While all of these stimuli were detected (confirmed by flairages) and their effectiveness to cause the sequence search / entry was either zero or significantly lower than that of 2-methyl-but-2-enal (figure 4). So the answer to 2-methyl-but-2-enal can not be attributed to nonspecific excitement or novelty effects that would be triggered by any odorant. In addition, since the young rabbits are not reactive to auditory stimuli or to visual stimuli until the days 7 and 9 to 10, respectively, the involvement of these senses can be completely eliminated as a result of the response search / seizure. Moreover, despite functional audio-visual skills in older rabbits 10 and 17 days, the 2-methyl-but-2-enal continued to attract a page response / seizure in 86 and 65% of the tested rabbits, respectively . Thus, the response to 2-Methyl-but-2-enal is highly selective in the rabbit before weaning. The selectivity of 2-methyl-but-2-enal was further evaluated against odorous substances which young rabbits have been exposed previously in utero and in lacto, particularly from the food of pregnant females. Tests conducted on the same line (New Zealand x Californian) from 5 different breeding units receiving different diets indicated that the bioactivity of the 2-methyl-but-2-enal does not depend on the genetic olfactory Type breeding females or their diet. When females of the same strain were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to two dietary regimens isocaloric granulated compounds of various constituents, their progeny responded to 2-methyl-but-2-enal with the same frequency in that the reinforcing notion that early efficacy of 2-methyl-but-2-enal is independent of the bouquet of volatile compounds transferred to amniotic fluid or milk. The high behavioral effectiveness of pure 2-methyl-but-2-enal in any of these chemo-ecological settings shows the generality of its switching properties in rabbits studied and permanently eliminates the possibility that the responses to 2- methyl-but-2-enal could be caused by an early learning in individuals' environment. The generality of the behavioral activity of 2-methyl-but-

2-enal was evaluated in other breeds of New Zealand x California. Animals (1 to 7 days) of Angora races, Castor, Chinchilla, Laghmere, butterfly and Belgian Hare showed frequency search answers / higher entry than 80% in the presence of 2-methyl-but-2-enal to a concentration of 10 "6 g / l. This compound has proved to be an effective compound shutter in newborns O. cuniculus regardless of genotype.

The specificity at the species level the compound has also been examined by exposure to the 2-methyl-but-2-enal newborns belonging to more or less distant species of the genus Oryctolagus. Newborns tested belonged to Lagomorphs, namely Lepus europaeus, and to more distant taxa (Rattus rattus, Mus musculus, and Felis cattus). None of the newborns tested to date has shown responsiveness to the target compound, indicating a species specificity of the coupling between stimulus 2-methyl-but-2-propenal and search for answer / seizure (Figure 5). The previous demonstration of the generality at the species level and specificity of the perception of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in Oryctolagus advocates demonstrate the generality of the secretion and release of 2- methyl-but-2-enal in females O. cuniculus, regardless of their origin and their unique food environment. The results indicate that the 2-methyl-but-2-enal is an invariable volatile compound among the most variable profiles of volatile compounds collocate in the milk of O. cuniculus. The 2-methyl-but-2-enal can thus be produced by specific biosynthetic mechanisms. The inventors have also included whether the 2-methyl-but-2-enal was a volatile signal only in rabbit milk or if it could be found in the milk of other mammals. To this end, newborn rabbits were exposed to milk not lagomorphs, such as rat, sheep, cow, horse and women. In any case, these hetero milks have triggered the typical response of search / seizure in rabbits (Figure 6). Finally, to show how the development of the neonatal response to 2-methyl-but-2-enal was independent of learning processes, behavioral activity of 2-methyl-but-2-enal was evaluated in newborn rabbits that had never previously been exposed to 2-methyl-but-2-enal in the postnatal environment. To this end, two experiments were conducted: i) newborn rabbits born vaginally were isolated immediately after an induced expulsion (oxytocin) so they have had no contact with abdomen, fur or exocrine glands of nursing mothers, or with milk from them. From the very first presentation of the 2-methyl-but-2-enal (10 minutes after birth), these infants had a naive seizure response / research whose form and kinetics were indistinguishable from those of rabbits high under the mother; ii) rabbits delivered by Caesarean one day before the end of the term of gestation showed a complete expression of the response criteria at the age of 15 minutes. Thus, the perception of 2-methyl-but-2-enal and trigger power specialized motor responses are fully functional the day before the birth and require no prior postnatal exposure.

EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of a composition for rabbits feed containing 2-methyl-but-2-enal and behavioral tests.

a) preparation of the base composition

A mixture of 200 kg was produced from raw materials commonly used in the rabbit feed wheat (14%), barley (10%), beet pulp (21%), alfalfa (35%), meal sunflower (17%), mixture of vitamins and minerals (0.5%), dicalcium phosphate (0.5%), calcium carbonate (1, 5%), salt (0.5%). b) preparation of matrices consisting of 2-methyl-but-2-enal

The authors of the invention have studied the adsorption capacity of two organic matrices (sunflower oil, purified corn starch) and two mineral matrices (zeolite and calcium carbonate), diluted to 0.5% in the basic mixture ( or 125 g of matrix to 25 kg of feed). The incorporation of 2-methyl-but-2-enal directly in the food after dilution in water was also investigated. For each of the tested matrices, 2-methyl-but-2-enal was incorporated to a final concentration of 10 "5 g / g prior to granulation, or 0.25 g per 25 kg of food. The aqueous solution also was studied at a final concentration of 10 "4 g / g (2.5 g per 25 kg of food).

The preparation of matrices was carried out as follows: - sunflower oil: the desired amount of 2-methyl-but-2-enal pure (0.25 g) was mixed with the oil (125 g) with magnetic stirrer.

- Corn starch, zeolite and CaCO 3. The pure 2-methyl-but-2-propenal (0.25 g) was diluted in 1 ml of ethanol, then in 24 ml of water. This liquid solution was mixed with 125 g of powdery matrix, until a homogeneous material.

- Water. The pure 2-methyl-but-2-enal (0.25 g or 2.5 g) was diluted in 1 ml of ethanol, then in 24 ml of water. The whole was supplemented with water to 125 g of final solution.

c) preparation of food compositions

The basic mixture (in the form of flour) was then divided into fractions of 25 kg. 125 g of water previously matrix or "odorized" with 2-methyl-but-2-enal were manually mixed with 1 kg of flour, and then mechanically mixed (mixing) with 24 kg of flour remaining for 4 to 6 minutes. The mixing was "cleaned" between each preparation. The various fractions were then granulated in from the least concentrated fraction (blank feed) to the more concentrated (lO ^ g / g).

A granulated feed sample (about 2 kg) was recovered immediately after the press output in an insulated tank and the temperature of the pellets was measured for each of the mixtures.

d) dosage of 2-methyl-but-2-enal in food after storage An assay was performed on pellets made for less than three days and after six weeks. In any case, the 2-methyl-but-2-enal was found in the three-day pellets and granules in six weeks but with a relative loss of 2-methyl-but-2-enal when storing the food for six weeks.

e) behavioral tests

The inventors have studied the reactivity of newborn rabbits aged 1 to 3 days from the presentation of a commercial feed, a white food, granule odorized prepared as described above or glass rod impregnated with a solution of 2-methyl-but-2-enal to 10 -6 g / g of solution. The activation oral tests were performed on each rabbit before feeding.

The results of these behavioral tests are described in Tables 2 and 3. Table 2: Results of behavioral tests with pellets made from less than 3 days

These results indicate that the studied food, whether freshly made or stored in bags at room temperature under shed for six weeks, exert a trigger effect of the response search / seizure in young rabbits.

Example 6: Influence of 2-methyl-but-2-enal on the solid food consumption, weight gain in rabbits and mortality.

Two groups of rabbits are distinguished from D15 according to the type of solid food that is distributed to them, i) the group "odorized" receives a standard + 2-methyl-but-2-enal food final concentration 10 "5 g / g pulverized (n = 17 rabbits 170 litters), and iii) the" control "group received the standard diet + water spray (n = 160 rabbits, 16 litters).

On D15, maternity cages are divided into two compartments in order to separate the solid food consumption of the mother rabbits.

A D29, the rabbits are weaned and divided into individual or fattening cages (n = 114 and 102 for groups "odorized" and "control", respectively) or in collective cages (five rabbits / cage; n = 42 and 47 individuals for "odorized" groups and "control", respectively). The experimental treatment was maintained until day 42. All rabbits then received the same standard unsprayed food. The odorization of the solid food does not influence on consumption, weight gain and the mortality of young rabbits before weaning. However, the fattening period (J29-70)

- the solid food consumption tends to be higher (+ 3.9%) in the rabbits of the group "odorized" (in individual cages); - weight gain tends to be higher (+ 3.7%) in the rabbits of the group "odorized" (in individual and collective cages);

- the mortality of rabbits in Group "odorized" (in collective cages) tends to be low (9.5%) than rabbits "witnesses" (23.4%).

Claims

1. unnatural composition for rabbits feed comprising a base formed of a liquid or solid food and 10 "9 to 10" 4 g per gram of composition of a compound of formula (I):
in which :
- one of R and R 2 represents a hydrogen atom and the other represents an alkyl group at C-ι-C;
- the dotted line represents the possibility of a double bond, where appropriate in position 2 or 3;
- Y represents H or the group OR 3, R 3 representing H, an alkyl C-ι-C or an acyl group -C;
- x represents 0 or 1;
- m represents 2 when a double bond is present in position 3 and 3 in the other cases;
- n represents 1 when no double bond is present and 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 or 3;
- p represents 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 and 1 when no double bond is present in position 2; - q represents 0 when x is 1 or 2 when x is 0; as well as tautomers and addition salts with bases acceptable in food when Y represents OR 3 and R 3 is H.
2. Composition according to claim 1, wherein the feed is in solid form and comprises a mixture of raw materials of essentially plant origin.
3. Composition according to claim 2, comprising a mixture of raw materials of essentially vegetable origin, crushed form of flour.
4. The composition of claim 2, wherein the raw materials derived from cereal grains or their derivatives.
5. The composition of claim 2, wherein the raw materials come from roots or tubers or derivatives thereof.
6. Composition according to one of claims 2 to 4, wherein the raw materials derived from oilseeds, protein and derivatives thereof.
7. A composition according to any preceding claim, wherein the food is in the form of granules.
8. The composition of claim 6 wherein the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1 is incorporated in the granules.
9. The composition of claim 6 wherein the compound of general formula (I) according to Claim 1 is adsorbed to the surface of the granules.
10. A composition according to any preceding claim, for the feeding and breeding rabbits comprising from 10 "9 to 10" 4 g of the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1 per gram of the composition.
11. A composition according to any preceding claim, for the elderly rabbits feeding at least 10 days and comprising from 10 "9-10" 4 g of the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1 by gram of composition.
12. The composition of claim 1, wherein the food is in liquid form and comprises from 10 "9 g / ml to 10" 4 g / ml of compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1.
13. The composition of claim 1, wherein the food is drinking water breeding rabbits and comprises from 10 "9 g / ml to 10" 4 g / ml of the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1.
14. The composition of claim 12, wherein the food is drinking water of old rabbits aged at least 10 days and comprises from 10 "9-10" 4 g / ml of the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1.
15. The composition of claim 12, wherein the food is a adapted to rabbit milk formulation containing the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1 at a concentration of 10 "9-10" 4 g / ml.
16. A composition according to any preceding claim, wherein the compound of general formula (I) according to claim 1 is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.
17. Use of the compound of formula (I):
(I)
in which :
- one of R and R 2 represents a hydrogen atom and the other represents an alkyl group CC 4;
- the dotted line represents the possibility of a double bond, where appropriate in position 2 or 3;
- Y represents H or the group OR 3, R 3 representing H, alkyl, Cι-C or an acyl group -C 4;
- x represents 0 or 1;
- m represents 2 when a double bond is present in position 3 and 3 in the other cases;
- n represents 1 when no double bond is present and 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 or 3;
- p represents 0 when a double bond is present in position 2 and 1 when no double bond is present in position 2; - q represents 0 when x is 1 or 2 when x is 0; as well as tautomers and addition salts with bases acceptable in food when Y represents OR 3 and R 3 is H, as an additive to feed rabbits.
18. Use according to claim 17, wherein the compound of general formula (I) is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.
19. A method of increasing feed intake by the young rabbit, comprising incorporating into a food composition for breeding young rabbits or female 10 "9 g to 10" 4 g of a compound of general formula (I ) according to claim 1 per g of food composition.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the compound of general formula (I) is 2-methyl-but-2-enal.
21. A method for reducing mortality of young rabbits or young rabbits, comprising administering to rabbits or young rabbits a composition comprising from 10 "9-10" 4 g of a compound of general formula (I) according the claim (I) per g of composition.
PCT/FR2002/000687 2001-02-28 2002-02-25 Rabbit food composition WO2002067693A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0102752A FR2821243B1 (en) 2001-02-28 2001-02-28 Composition for feeding rabbits
FR01/02752 2001-02-28

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EP20020704892 EP1363503A1 (en) 2001-02-28 2002-02-25 Rabbit food composition

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US20130072570A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-03-21 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Interomone Compositions and Their Use to Modify Behavior in Different Vertebrate Species
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EP2225956A1 (en) 2009-02-20 2010-09-08 Nestec S.A. Gel food compositions
US20130072570A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-03-21 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Interomone Compositions and Their Use to Modify Behavior in Different Vertebrate Species
US20130210927A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-08-15 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Method of Administering an Interomone to an Animal to Modify the Animals Behavior over an Extended Period of Time
US8741965B2 (en) * 2011-09-20 2014-06-03 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Method of administering a pheromone composition to an animal to modify the animals behavior over an extended period of time
EP2757902A1 (en) * 2011-09-20 2014-07-30 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Interomone compositions and their use to modify behavior in different vertebrate species
EP2757902A4 (en) * 2011-09-20 2015-03-18 Sergeants Pet Care Prod Inc Interomone compositions and their use to modify behavior in different vertebrate species
US9750691B2 (en) * 2011-09-20 2017-09-05 Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. Pheromone compositions and their use to modify behavior in different vertebrate species

Also Published As

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FR2821243A1 (en) 2002-08-30 application
FR2821243B1 (en) 2004-12-24 grant
EP1363503A1 (en) 2003-11-26 application

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