WO2002039193A1 - Improved method of producing a computer generated hologram - Google Patents

Improved method of producing a computer generated hologram Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2002039193A1
WO2002039193A1 PCT/GB2001/004885 GB0104885W WO0239193A1 WO 2002039193 A1 WO2002039193 A1 WO 2002039193A1 GB 0104885 W GB0104885 W GB 0104885W WO 0239193 A1 WO0239193 A1 WO 0239193A1
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Prior art keywords
cgh
light
interference based
producing
object
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PCT/GB2001/004885
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French (fr)
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Colin David Cameron
Barry Mcdonald
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Holographic Imaging Llc
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/04Processes or apparatus for producing holograms
    • G03H1/08Synthesising holograms, i.e. holograms synthesized from objects or objects from holograms
    • G03H1/0808Methods of numerical synthesis, e.g. coherent ray tracing [CRT], diffraction specific
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H1/00Holographic processes or apparatus using light, infra-red or ultra-violet waves for obtaining holograms or for obtaining an image from them; Details peculiar thereto
    • G03H1/04Processes or apparatus for producing holograms
    • G03H1/08Synthesising holograms, i.e. holograms synthesized from objects or objects from holograms
    • G03H1/0808Methods of numerical synthesis, e.g. coherent ray tracing [CRT], diffraction specific
    • G03H2001/0833Look up table
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2210/00Object characteristics
    • G03H2210/303D object
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2210/00Object characteristics
    • G03H2210/303D object
    • G03H2210/36Occluded features resolved due to parallax selectivity
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2210/00Object characteristics
    • G03H2210/40Synthetic representation, i.e. digital or optical object decomposition
    • G03H2210/44Digital representation
    • G03H2210/441Numerical processing applied to the object data other than numerical propagation
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03HHOLOGRAPHIC PROCESSES OR APPARATUS
    • G03H2210/00Object characteristics
    • G03H2210/40Synthetic representation, i.e. digital or optical object decomposition
    • G03H2210/45Representation of the decomposed object
    • G03H2210/452Representation of the decomposed object into points

Abstract

An improved methof of producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH), where the angle dependent and angle independent components of light emanating from point sources of light on a virtual 3D object are calculated separately. This allows the angle independent components to be calculated only once per point source of light, but enables the angle dependent components to be calculated on a each point source of light to each CGH pixel basis. This method reduces the number of calculations required to produce a CGH, thus reducing computational load, but fully retains the image quality of the 3D image.

Description

Improved Method of Producing a Computer Generated Hologram.

This invention relates to an improved method of producing an interference based Computer Generated Hologram (CGH).

A person skilled in the art would be aware of the various approaches that can be used to give a visual perception of 3D. Examples include stereo, auto-stereo, swept volume, integral photography, stereograms and holography. Only holography allows the generation of a real, 3D image which is accessible to all users and has all psychological and physiological cues present.

Classical interferometric holography is well known to those skilled in the art.

Light scattered from an object interferes with a reference beam and forms an

, intensity pattern which can be recorded, for example, on photographic film. To reconstruct an image, the recorded interference pattern modulates a conjugate

Teϊerenlfe_b~emττ>fii^^^

This wavefront further propagates in space and gives the viewer, or viewers, the full impression that the object really exists in space;

Unlike classical holograms, in a computer generated hologram (CGH) the object used to form the hologram need only exist as a mathematical description. The physical interference of light is replaced by a calculation to determine the appropriate interference pattern on the CGH design plane (CDP) for the given object. Once calculated, the interference pattern may be written to a device capable of light wave modulation. If an updateable 3D image is required the calculated pattern can be written to a reconfigurable device, such as a spatial light modulator (SLM). As with conventional holograms, the 3D image is produced from the modulation of an incident beam of light.

Several techniques of calculating the interference pattern of a virtual object are known to those skilled in the' art. For example, Fourier based "ping-pong" methods (Ichioka et. al., Applied Optics 10, 403-11, 1971) and coherent ray tracing techniques (M. Lucente, Jrnl of electronic imaging 2(1), 28-34, Jan. 1993).

Although the ping-pong method is simple to implement, it is limited to generating images of self-luminous objects without full rendering and lighting effects. Coherent ray tracing (CRT) techniques, which essentially implement a 3D scalar diffraction integral, simulate closely the propagation of light in a conventional interferometric hologram recording and allow 3D images to be produced which possess realistic lighting effects and surface reflection properties.

For the purpose of CRT calculations, each object point is treated as a point source of light, and the core of the calculation is a linear summation of the E-field contribution from each point source on the virtual 3D object to a single given pixel of the CDP. The summation must then be repeated for each CDP pixel. For convenience, the scalar amplitude contribution of each object point can be partitioned nto three componentST the"ambient,_diffuse-and -specular- amplitudes^ Each of these components are calculated separately.

If the virtual 3D object is illuminated by a plurality of virtual light sources, light will be considered to emanate from each object point in a plurality of directions or, in other words, each object point acts as a plurality of point sources of light.

To calculate the total scalar amplitude of light contributed by an object point to a pixel of the CDP, requires the calculation of the amplitude contribution of each point source that is associated with that object point. It can thus be seen that a plurality of amplitude calculations per object point to CDP pixel calculation is necessary to produce a CGH that provides a 3D image with realistic reflection and lighting effects.

It is an object of the present invention to reduce the number of calculations, and hence computational load, associated with the production of an interference based CGH that, when reconstructed, produces a 3D image with realistic lighting and surface reflection properties. According to this invention, a method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) comprises;

i) defining a number of object points, each of which comprises one or more point sources of light; and

ii) defining a plurality of CGH pixels in a CGH design plane; and

iii) determining the total amplitude of light at each CGH pixel contributed by all non-occluded" object points; and

iv) determining the optical path-length between each CGH pixel and each non- occluded object point; and

v) calculating the total e ecffic Tie d^at each "CGH" pixel from the -amplitude; occlusion and optical path-length information; and

vi) determining a CGH interference pattern from the total electric field calculated for each CGH pixel,

wherein, the step of determining the total amplitude of light at each CGH pixel contributed by all non-occluded object points comprises separating the contribution by each point source of light into an angle dependent contribution and an angle independent contribution, calculating the angle independent contribution once for each point source of light and calculating the angle dependent contribution of each point source of light to each CGH pixel.

Herein, the term "angle dependent" is taken to mean that the amount of light contributed by an object point is dependent on the CGH design plane pixel from which that object point is viewed. Conversely, the term "angle independent" is taken to mean that the amount of light contributed by an object point is substantially independent of the CGH design plane pixel from which that object point is viewed.

Preferably, each object point may comprises one point source of light or, depending on the number of light sources in the virtual 3D object scene, each object point may comprise two or more point sources of light.

Advantageously, the angle dependent contribution of each point source of light may be taken to comprise a specular component and the angle independent contribution of each point source of light is taken to comprise both diffuse and ambient components.

In a preferred embodiment of this invention, shadowing information determined during the calculation of the angle independent contribution of a point source of light is used as shadowing information for the corresponding calculation of the angle dependent contribution "of that point "source of ightr

The calculation of an interference based CGH may further comprise the step of calculating the effect on light of a lens placed between the three dimensional object and the CGH design plane. This permits Fourier, rather than Fresnel, replay of the 3D image.

According to a second aspect of this invention, a computer program for calculating an interference based CGH incorporates the method for producing an interference based CGH described above.

According to a third aspect of this invention, an apparatus for the production of a 3D image comprises;

a computing means to calculate an interference based CGH for a virtual

3D object; a coherent light source;

a spatial light modulation means capable of modulating a light wave with the interference based CGH;

the arrangement being such that illumination of the spatial light modulation means by the light source produces a 3D image of the virtual 3D object, wherein the computing means includes a computer program for calculating an interference based CGH which incorporates the method described above.

In a preferred embodiment, the spatial light modulation means comprises a re- configurable spatial light modulator.

This invention will now be described, by way of non-limiting example, with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein;

figure 1 is a schematic illustration of interference based CGH generation calculations in a Fourier geometry; and

figure 2 shows the object point vectors.

Referring to figure 1, light from a plurality object points on a virtual three dimensional object (2) passes through a lens (4) and falls on the CGH design plane (6). The virtual 3D object (2), which may be imported from computer aided design packages, is populated with a distribution and density of object points appropriate to attain the required image resolution. The electric field at each CGH design plane pixel can then be calculated by summing the contribution to that pixel from each of the N object points of the 3D object (2).

The electric field at a given CGH .pixel is given by:

Figure imgf000007_0001

where ap is the amplitude of light i from the p* object point, rp is the optical path length from the CDP pixel to the ^ object point and Φp is the phase between the object point and each pixel.

The amplitude term ap is given by:

L ap = Oe + GL + ^ on,. x attenuation x /,. x {diffuse.. + ambient i + speculaη ) (2) j=l

where Oe is a constant emission term, GL is a global ambient light term, L is the number ollights in.the_s.cene,. on±is a Boolean determining if the light i is incident upon point p, attenuationj is the attenuation of the light i, It is the light intensity, and diffuse ambientu and specular i are the diffuse, ambient and specular components of the object points amplitude.

Referring to figure 2, the diffuse, ambient, and specular terms of equation 2 are dependent upon the four vectors V, L, R and N The view vector, V, is the vector from the CGH pixel to object point. The light vector, L, is the vector from the light to the object point (10). The vector R is the direction of the peak specular reflection and the vector Np is the object point's normal vector.

The diffuse, ambient and specular terms can now be described in terms of the four vectors as:

ambient t ~ Ija x Od (3) diffuse;

Figure imgf000008_0001
(4)

speculaη = /j X(?s x(- V ' R (5)

where the term 7,-α is the ambient light intensity, O_? is the objects diffuse amplitude factor, and Os is the specular factor.

Following this invention, the ambient and diffuse terms can be seen to be independent of the view vector V, hence they are also independent of the hologram pixel for which the intensity is being calculated. Thus Equation 2 can be written as,

ap = apad + aps (6) where,

a ad ~ Oe GL + ^ ont X attenuation; X It X (diffuse- + ambient t ) (7) i=l

and,

a ps X speculaη (8)

Figure imgf000008_0002

It can be seen that apad is evidently independent of the hologram pixel for which the intensity is being calculated and can thus be pre-computed for each object point prior to the amplitude calculation of Equation 8.

Equation 1 can thus be re-written as,

N = _∑j( pad + aps) r;1 exp[iΦp] (9) p=l During the pre-computation of apad, the determination of om involves a ray-trace between the object point and each light /, i.e. the calculation of shadowing information. This shadowing information can also be stored and then used in the calculation of aps. All that is then required to calculate is the determination of rp, a few multiplications and additions, and the calculation of the specular term in Equation 5.

The ray-tracing calculation involved in the calculation of Ep is by far the most computationally expensive process in the calculation. By saving the result for apad and by saving information on the illumination of the object points great savings are made in computational time. The reduced calculation of EF, Equation 9, only includes ray-tracing from the CGH design plane pixels to the object point when determining if the object point is visible at that pixel point or not.

A holographic interference" p ern (i:e."the CGH) is then calculated by simulating the interference of the electric field produced by the 3D object (2) and a reference beam (8). The CGH contains all the information which is necessary to reconstruct the 3D image.

A typical CGH calculation would use approximately 108 object points/m2 to ensure that when the hologram is viewed in replay the observer believes the 3D surface to be solid and continuous. A similar number of CGH design plane pixels would also be used.

The saving in computational load to calculate such CGHs has direct benefits in increasing the speed, and thus reducing the computation cost, with which CGHs may be calculated.

Claims

Claims
1. A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) comprising the steps of,
i) defining a number of object points, each of which comprises one or more point sources of light; and
ii) defining a plurality of CGH pixels in a CGH design plane; and
iii) determining the total amplitude of light at each CGH pixel contributed by all non- occluded object points; and
iv) determining the optical path-length between each CGH pixel and each non- occluded object point; and
v) calculating the total electric field at each CGH pixel from the amplitude, occlusion and optical path-length information; and
vi) determining a CGH interference pattern from the total electric field calculated for each CGH pixel,
wherein, the step of determining the total amplitude of light at each CGH pixel contributed by all non-occluded object points comprises separating the contribution of each point source of light into an angle dependent contribution and an angle independent contribution, calculating the angle independent contribution once for each point source of light and calculating the angle dependent contribution of each point source of light to each CGH pixel.
2. A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) as claimed in claim 1, wherein each object point comprises one point source of light.
3. A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) as claimed in claim 1, wherein each object point comprises two or more point sources of light.
4 A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the angle dependent contribution of each point source of light comprises a specular component.
5 A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein the angle independent contribution of each point source of light comprises diffuse and ambient components.
6 A method for producing an interference based computer generated hologram (CGH) as claimed in any preceding claim, wherein shadowing information
~ " "determined" during the calculation- of the angle independent contribution of a point source of light is used as shadowing information for the corresponding calculation of the angle dependent contribution of that point source of light.
7. A method for producing an interference based CGH as claimed in any preceding claim and further comprising the step of calculating the effect on light of a lens placed between the three dimensional object and the CGH design plane.
8. A method for producing an interference based CGH as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
9. A computer program for calculating an interference based CGH incorporating the method for producing an interference based CGH as claimed in any of claims 1-8.
10. An apparatus for the production of a 3D image that comprises; a computing means to calculate an interference based CGH for a virtual 3D object;
a coherent light source;
a spatial light modulation means capable of modulating a light wave with the interference based CGH;
the arrangement being such that illumination of the spatial light modulation means by the light source produces a 3D image of the virtual 3D object,
wherein the computing means includes a computer program for calculating an interference based CGH as claimed in claim 9.
11. An apparatus for the production of 3D images as claimed in claim 10 wherein "the" " spatial "light modulation means- comprises- -a- re-configur-able spatial light- modulator.
12. An apparatus for the production of a 3D image as substantially hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
PCT/GB2001/004885 2000-11-07 2001-11-05 Improved method of producing a computer generated hologram WO2002039193A1 (en)

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GB0027133A GB0027133D0 (en) 2000-11-07 2000-11-07 Improved method of producing a computer generated hologram
GB0027133.8 2000-11-07
US24704700 true 2000-11-13 2000-11-13
US60/247,047 2000-11-13

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US10415960 US20040075878A1 (en) 2000-11-07 2001-11-05 Method of producing a computer generated hologram
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Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1447724A1 (en) * 2003-02-12 2004-08-18 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Computer-generated hologram

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2011128572A (en) * 2009-12-21 2011-06-30 Olympus Corp Hologram image projection method and hologram image projector
JP2011133580A (en) * 2009-12-22 2011-07-07 Olympus Corp Method and device for projecting hologram image

Citations (4)

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US3518367A (en) * 1966-06-07 1970-06-30 Devenco Inc Methods and apparatus for producing artificial holograms
WO1990004218A1 (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-04-19 Haines Kenneth A Computer aided holography and holographic computer graphics
US5194971A (en) * 1986-10-14 1993-03-16 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Computer aided holography and holographic computer graphics
EP0921449A1 (en) * 1997-11-20 1999-06-09 European Community Computer-assisted holographic method and device

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3518367A (en) * 1966-06-07 1970-06-30 Devenco Inc Methods and apparatus for producing artificial holograms
US5194971A (en) * 1986-10-14 1993-03-16 American Bank Note Holographics, Inc. Computer aided holography and holographic computer graphics
WO1990004218A1 (en) * 1988-10-14 1990-04-19 Haines Kenneth A Computer aided holography and holographic computer graphics
EP0921449A1 (en) * 1997-11-20 1999-06-09 European Community Computer-assisted holographic method and device

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1447724A1 (en) * 2003-02-12 2004-08-18 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Computer-generated hologram
US7068403B2 (en) 2003-02-12 2006-06-27 Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. Computer-generated hologram

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JP2004514922A (en) 2004-05-20 application

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