WO2002037892A2 - Operating element - Google Patents

Operating element Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2002037892A2
WO2002037892A2 PCT/DK2001/000718 DK0100718W WO0237892A2 WO 2002037892 A2 WO2002037892 A2 WO 2002037892A2 DK 0100718 W DK0100718 W DK 0100718W WO 0237892 A2 WO0237892 A2 WO 0237892A2
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
electrode
electrodes
characterized
actuator according
body
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DK2001/000718
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2002037892A3 (en
Inventor
Peter Gravesen
Mohamed Yahia Benslimane
Original Assignee
Danfoss A/S
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE10054246.8 priority Critical
Priority to DE2000154246 priority patent/DE10054246C2/en
Application filed by Danfoss A/S filed Critical Danfoss A/S
Publication of WO2002037892A2 publication Critical patent/WO2002037892A2/en
Publication of WO2002037892A3 publication Critical patent/WO2002037892A3/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02NELECTRIC MACHINES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H02N1/00Electrostatic generators or motors using a solid moving electrostatic charge carrier
    • H02N1/002Electrostatic motors
    • H02N1/006Electrostatic motors of the gap-closing type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B3/00Devices comprising flexible or deformable elements, e.g. comprising elastic tongues or membranes
    • B81B3/0018Structures acting upon the moving or flexible element for transforming energy into mechanical movement or vice versa, i.e. actuators, sensors, generators
    • B81B3/0021Transducers for transforming electrical into mechanical energy or vice versa
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2201/00Specific applications of microelectromechanical systems
    • B81B2201/03Microengines and actuators
    • B81B2201/038Microengines and actuators not provided for in B81B2201/031 - B81B2201/037
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2203/00Basic microelectromechanical structures
    • B81B2203/05Type of movement
    • B81B2203/051Translation according to an axis parallel to the substrate

Abstract

An operating element is disclosed, comprising a body made from an elastomeric material, with an electrode arrangement (3) provided on each of the two opposing limiting surfaces, of which at least one comprises several first electrodes (7) penetrating the limiting surface in a perpendicular direction (6) thereto. The aim of the invention s to improve the dynamics of such an operating element. Said aim is achieved, whereby the electrode arrangement (3) comprises second electrodes (9), several of which are located in spaces (8, 8a, 8b) between neighbouring first electrodes (7) connecting the same, whereby the second electrodes (9, 9') in neighbouring spaces (8a, 8b) are arranged offset from each other.

Description

actuator

The invention relates to an actuator comprising a body of an elastomeric material which is provided on two opposite boundary surfaces each having an electrode assembly, of which at least a plurality of area in the transverse direction of their limiting continuous first electrodes.

Such actuator is known from US 5,977,685.

Such actuators are also referred to as "artificial muscles" because their behavior is subject to certain conditions to that of human muscles.

The operation is relatively simple. When a voltage difference is applied to the two electrode assemblies, an electric field through the body, wherein the electric field generates mechanical attraction forces between the electrode assemblies. This leads to an approach of the two electrode assemblies and associated to a compression of the body. The approach can be supported when the material of the body has properties dielectric egg. However, since the material has a substantially constant volume leads the compression, thus decreasing the thickness, an increase in the dimensions of the body in the other two directions, ie, parallel to the electrode assemblies.

If we now limit the stretchability of the body to one direction, then the change in thickness is completely converted into a change in length in the other direction. For the following explanation, the direction in which the change in length is to be referred to as "longitudinal direction". The direction in which a change in length should not take place is referred to as "transverse direction". In the known case, the electrode assembly comprises a conductive layer having a relatively low conductivity, are applied to the running in the transverse direction of a non-compliant strip Mate rial, wherein the strips have a distance in the longitudinal direction to each other. The conductive layer is to ensure the most uniform possible distribution of the electric field, while the strips preferably are made of a metal prevent the spread of the body in transverse direction. However, a certain limitation in the dynamics results in this case due to the poor conductivity of the electrically conductive layer.

The invention has the object to improve the mechanical elasticity of an actuation element.

This object is achieved in an actuator of the type mentioned, that the electrode arrangement comprises second electrodes of which weils several are JE arranged in gaps between adjacent first electrodes and connecting these are arranged with the second electrode offset in adjacent gaps to one another.

With this configuration, two advantages are combined. The first electrodes that pass transversely limit the stretchability of the body in this transverse direction or close it even from. "Runaway" is intended here to express that the first electrodes have a form that can not be stretched, for example, a straight line. So you see that a compression of the body can be almost completely converted to a change in length. Of course, minor changes in the transverse direction will result in practice. but these are compared with the changes in the longitudinal direction is negligible. The second electrodes now ensures that one obtains a relatively high electrical ductivity over the entire surface of the boundary surface. This improves the mechanical elasticity of the operating member, and one can operate the actuator at high frequencies. Due to the special arrangement of the second electrodes between the first electrodes, the second electrodes do not cause any significant increase in the stiffness in the longitudinal direction. The first and the second electrodes rather form stitches from between them, which can be pulled apart diamond-shaped with a length change. Here, even an additional effect is achieved: the

Changing the length leads to an additional tension in the transverse direction, which counteracts expansion of the body in transverse direction since the effective length of the first electrodes in the transverse direction is decreased. So you get a much improved implementation of the approach movement of the electrodes in a change in length. The mechanical elongation is improved without the dynamics of the actuating element is significantly impaired.

Preferably the second electrodes are each n-th gap on a line in the longitudinal direction. This facilitates the design of the electrode array. At the same time the electric field distribution can be controlled better.

Preferably the second electrodes are each second gap in the longitudinal direction on a line. This achieves a construction of the electrode arrangement in the manner of a lattice or network with mutually offset reasonable child nodes. Such a grid can be in

pull apart longitudinal direction relatively easily while it is designed to be relatively rigid in the transverse direction.

Preferably, the second electrodes of a gap in the middle of a distance between two adjacent electrodes of an adjacent gap are arranged. This gives a high degree of symmetry in the load on the respective second electrodes and a very uniform structure of the electric field. Preferably, the electrode assembly is directly connected to the body. This design has several advantages. Firstly, the production of such a control element is simplified because it is necessary to apply any intermediate layer between the electrode assembly and the body. Secondly, it is also possible for the electrode arrangement of fixed, ie permanent and- resilient to connect with the body. One can only suit the material combination between the electrode assembly and body attachment.

Preferably, the distance between two first electrodes is not greater than the thickness of the body be- see the boundary surfaces. In this embodiment, it generates an electric field between the two electrode arrangements, which is so uniform that a uniform compression of the body can be achieved.

Preferably, the extension of a first electrode in the longitudinal direction corresponds to the spacing between two first electrodes. In other words, the length of the second electrode in the longitudinal direction is as great as the length of the first electrode in the longitudinal direction. This further contributes to a more uniform electric field. Since a relatively large area for the line is of electrical current available, the response time of such actuation is the restriction member is only slightly affected compared to a full-area electrode. Preferably, a lateral offset between two adjacent second electrodes is greater than the distance between two first electrodes. This achieves a particularly good stretch mesh or grid.

Preferably, the electrode arrangement of a plurality of congruent unit cells is assembled. These unit cells have the same shape. However, they can be constructed in mirror image to each other. The body is usually formed by a relatively thin film. This film ensures that the distance between the opposing electrode assemblies non- is too large and that builds up between the electrode assemblies electric field can apply sufficient force to compress the body. The thinner the body, the finer the structure of the electrode assemblies has to be formed. A preferred manufacturing process for the electrode assemblies is the photolithography. In the photolithography manufacturing is easier if you can repeat a basic pattern, in this case the unit cell often.

Preferably, adjacent unit cells are formed mirrored each other. This achieves the network described above or grid-like structure in a simple manner.

Preferably, each unit cell to a strip extending in the transverse direction and the respectively has a projection on both ends, which is directed in the longitudinal direction, wherein the two projections are in opposite directions. Depending on the approach, the unit cell has the shape of an elongated S or Z. If a plurality of such unit cells are assembled in the transverse direction, which strips form the first electrode.

Preferably, the unit cell has a width / height ratio that is greater than or equal to 3%. In this embodiment, the unit cell has a sufficient transverse dimension for, when it is assembled with other unit cells to the electrode array, zuzulas- the desired change in length sen.

The invention is described below with reference to a preferred embodiment in conjunction with the drawings. The drawings are:

Fig. 1 shows an actuator in a schematic side view in two states,

Fig. 2 restriction member is a schematic plan view of the actuating and

Fig. 3 shows a unit cell.

Fig. 1 shows an actuator 1 in the two competent, namely in Fig. La at rest and in Fig. Lb in the actuated state. The actuator 1 comprises a body 2 made of an elastomeric film, for example a silicone elastomer. Usually, such a film has dielectric properties. but especially 2, the body has the property that its volume remains constant when compressed. Accordingly, the reduction of the thickness d of the body 2 causes expansion perpendicular to the printing direction, as can be seen from a comparison between Figs. La and lb.

The body 2 has an electrode assembly 3 and on its underside a further electrode arrangement 4 at its top. The two electrode assemblies 3, 4 are the same or at least similar forms excluded. When applying a voltage difference across the two electrode assemblies 3, 4, an electric field which passes through the body. 2 This electric field produces forces which cause an attraction of the two electrode assemblies 3 4. The attrac- tion forces of the two electrode assemblies 3, 4 push the body 2 together.

As mentioned above, the body 2 has a constant volume, that is a reduction of the thickness d (Fig. 1 a shown in Fig. Lb) has a corresponding expansion in width and in length result. If one now prevents the expansion in width, then the reduction ratio affects only in an increase in the length. For purposes of the following explanation, it is assumed that the longitudinal direction, which is illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2 by an arrow 5 in Fig. 1 from left to right and in FIG. 2 runs from bottom to top, while the cross-direction which is shown by an arrow 6 in Fig. 2 runs from left to right. The actuator 1 is thus established anisotropic. Changes in the longitudinal direction 5 are possible, while changes in the transverse direction 6 are practically prevented.

To effect this anisotropy constructively, the electrode assemblies 3, 4 have a certain configuration, which will be explained below in connection with Figs. 2 and 3.

In FIG. 2, the electrode arrangement is shown in plan view. 3 The electrode assembly 4 looks the same.

The electrode assembly 3 comprises first electrode 7, which linienfδrmig extend in the transverse direction 6 over the entire width of the body. 2 The first electrodes 7 are in this case arranged with gaps 8, 8a, 8b to each other Toggle. In these gaps 8 second electrode 9 are arranged in such a manner that an electrode 9 'a gap 8a in the center between two second electrode 9 of the adjacent gap is arranged 8b. The second electrode 9 'of each second gap 8 are in this case on a straight line in the longitudinal direction 5. The first and second electrodes are attached to the perpendicular Ausdehnungsrich- processing of the operating member. The electrode array 3 thus forms a net or lattice having meshes 10 which are delimited in each case of two first electrodes 7 and two second electrodes 9, wherein said mesh 10 when the body 2 expands in the longitudinal direction 5, are drawn together diamond-shaped.

The electrode assemblies 3, 4 are applied directly to the body 2, ie without an electrically conductive intermediate layer worse. They can thus be relatively fixedly connected to the body 2 so that the movement of the body 2, ie, a change in the extent in the longitudinal direction or transverse direction 5 6 is permitted only as far as this is permitted by the Elektrodenanordnun- gen 3 4.

Accordingly, a change in the extension of the body 2 in the transverse direction 6 through the first electrode 7 is prevented. These are basically not expandable bar, so that expansion of the body 2 in the transverse direction must be avoided. 6 The situation is different in the longitudinal direction. 5 When the body 2 expands in the longitudinal direction 5, the mesh 10 slit-shaped in the idle state are deformed diamond-like. Which makes for an additional train in the lateral direction 6, which counteracts an extension of the body 2 in the transverse direction. 6

To ensure uniform formation of the electric field between the two electrode assemblies 3, 4 ensure it is provided that the distance a between two first electrodes that is not greater than the thickness d of the body 2 between the boundary surfaces between the electrode assemblies 3 4. Further, that the first electrodes egg 7 is seen from Fig. 2, having ne longitudinal extension b corresponding to the distance a, that is the longitudinal extension of the gaps 8 corresponds.

The electrode assembly 3 consists of a regular pattern of so-called unit cells 11, one of which is enlarged in Fig. 3. In FIG. 2, four such unit cells 11 are shown in dashed lines, it being appreciated that each adjacent unit cells 11 mirrored are formed each other, ie they are either reflected about a line 12 which is parallel to the longitudinal direction 5, or on a line 13, which runs parallel to the transverse direction. 6

Each unit cell 11 has a strip 14 of the above-mentioned width b and a length L, and later forms the first electrode 7, and two projections 15, 16, so that the unit cell 11 having an overall extension H. is directed as the strip 14 in the transverse direction 6, the protrusions 15, 16 directed in the longitudinal direction 5, but opposite to each other are. The ratio L / H is at least 3 1/2 • It can also be even greater, for example, is 10. Typically, the extension H twice the length b of the first electrode, so that during assembly of the respective unit cells 11 shown in Fig. pattern of electrical shown 2 wins end assembly, wherein the gaps 8 between the first electrode 7 are the same as the longitudinal extension b of the first electrode. 7

The second electrode 9 'is offset from an adjacent electrode 9 a extending in the transverse direction distance L. This offset should be greater than the distance a between two first electrodes 7, ie, L> a.

As mentioned above, it is advantageous if the distance a between the first electrode 7 is equal to or smaller than the thickness d of the body. 2 When working with thin films having a thickness in the micrometer rich, photolithography techniques are well suited to make the electrode assemblies 3 4. For example, one can apply a thin layer of gold on the body 2, for example, vapor deposition. Next, a thin, for example 1 micron thick positive Fo is toresistschicht on the gold-coated body 2 applied. The photoresist is, optionally after a cure of a UN irradiation through a mask, which is designed so that it has exactly the desired profile pattern for the electrode assembly 3 4. The photoresist is then developed and the exposed parts are removed. Thereafter, the body is placed in a (KI + I 2) mixture, which etches out unwanted gold surfaces, namely, the meshes 10 or slots which are to be formed in the gold coating. In order for the pattern shown in FIG. 2 is obtained. (KI is potassium iodide and I 2 is iodine.) Due to the special shape of the electrode assemblies 3, 4, the electrostatic field is distributed uniformly over the body 2, whereby an optimal Wirkungs- degree is reached. Here, the second electrode 9 act as bridges between the first electrode 7. The mesh 10, however, do not conduct. For this reason, the electrode assembly 3, 4 has been compared with a continuous gold coating of the same thickness increased resistance. It can be estimated that roughly increased resistance with a resistance increase factor K R

K R = (L / H) 2 (l / α + H / L)

wherein the dimensions L and H of FIG. 3 and emerge = b / H (fill factor).

A similar power factor K may be ten for the same advertising by the following formula can be calculated:

K F = α 3 (H 2 / ((L-αH) L))

A comparison of the two factors K R and K F leads to the conclusion that it is possible to form an actuator with reduced power (enlarged stretchability) without the electrical resistance to increase.

In theory, one can assume that when L / H = 10, and the thickness is increased d of the body by a factor of 100, the net result of an unchanged electrical resistivity and by a factor of 100 reduced force or enlarged by a factor of 100 stretchability is.

However, this is only valid for a free-hanging body. 2 When the body is connected to a substrate, the net reduction is much smaller if the characteristic dimensions of the slots or openings 10 are larger than the thickness d of the layer to which the electrode assembly is attached. In other words, when working with thin layers in the range of 1 to 2 microns, one needs a submicron lithography Photo-, to expose the mesh 10th Less expensive processes such as masking or printing techniques limit the minimum mesh width in the longitudinal direction of 20 to 50 microns and thus the minimum elastomer thickness to 50 to 100 microns.

The table below shows typical values ​​for electrode layers and elastomers, and typical values ​​of the activation voltage of an actuating element.

Figure imgf000016_0001

In the following we consider a 20 .mu.m thick silicone elastomer film having a modulus of elasticity of 0.7 MPa and a dielectric constant of 3. The electrical to are made of gold and have a thickness of 0.05 microns and a modulus of elasticity of 80000 MPa. The capacity of such a control element is 0.1 nF / cm 2, and the step response is in the order of magnitude of microseconds for the non-loaded actuator. Assuming an extensibility of the electrode of 4000 to 1000 V are required to produce an extension in the order of 10%, whereas an elongation of less than 0.05% in case of undehbaren electrode is produced, that is an electrode having a extensibility factor of 1. In other words, the invention makes it possible to reduce the activation voltage.

Claims

claims
1. actuator having a body made of an elastomeric material which is provided on mutually opposite boundary surfaces each having an electrode assembly, of which at least a plurality of continuous in the transverse direction of their boundary surface first electrode, characterized in that the electrode arrangement (3, 4), second electrodes ( 9, 9 '), of which a plurality of (in gaps 8, 8a, 8b) (between adjacent first electrode 7) are arranged and connect them, said second electrodes (9, 9') (in adjacent gaps 8a, 8b ) are arranged offset to one another.
2. An actuator according to claim 1, characterized in that the second electrode (9, 9 ') of each n-th gaps (8, 8a, 8b) lie on a line in the longitudinal direction (5).
3. An actuator according to claim 2, characterized in that the second electrode (9, 9 ') of each second gap (8a, 8b) lie in the longitudinal direction (5) on a line.
4. An actuator according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the second electrical to (9, 9 ') of a gap (8a) in the middle of an exhaust article between two adjacent second electrical to (9) of an adjacent gap (8b) are arranged.
5. An actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the electrode arrangement (3, 4) directly to the body (2).
6. An actuator according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the distance (a) between two first electrodes (7) is not greater than the thickness (d) of the body (2) between the boundary surfaces.
7. An actuator according to any one of claims 1 to
6, characterized in that the extent (b) a first electrode (7) in the longitudinal direction to the distance (a) corresponds to (7) between two first electrodes.
8. An actuator according to any one of claims 1 to
7, characterized in that a lateral offset between two adjacent second electrodes is greater than the distance between two first electrodes.
9. An actuator according to any one of claims 1 to
8, characterized in that the electrode arrangement (3, 4) is composed of a plurality of congruent uni- cells (11).
10. An actuator according to claim 9, characterized in that adjacent unit cells (11) are mutually mirrored.
11. An actuator according to claim 9 or 10, characterized in that each unit cell (11) comprises a strip (14) in the transverse direction (6) and which each have a projection at both ends (15, 16) which in the longitudinal direction is directed (5), wherein the two projections (15, 16) are oppositely directed.
12. An actuator according to one of claims 9 to 11, characterized in that the unit cell width / height ratio (L / H) which is greater than or equal to 3 1 / -. is.
PCT/DK2001/000718 2000-11-02 2001-10-31 Operating element WO2002037892A2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE10054246.8 2000-11-02
DE2000154246 DE10054246C2 (en) 2000-11-02 2000-11-02 actuator

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU1210402A AU1210402A (en) 2000-11-02 2001-10-31 Operating element

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2002037892A2 true WO2002037892A2 (en) 2002-05-10
WO2002037892A3 WO2002037892A3 (en) 2002-09-26

Family

ID=7661854

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/DK2001/000718 WO2002037892A2 (en) 2000-11-02 2001-10-31 Operating element

Country Status (3)

Country Link
AU (1) AU1210402A (en)
DE (1) DE10054246C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2002037892A2 (en)

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7233097B2 (en) 2001-05-22 2007-06-19 Sri International Rolled electroactive polymers
US7320457B2 (en) 1997-02-07 2008-01-22 Sri International Electroactive polymer devices for controlling fluid flow
US7368862B2 (en) 1999-07-20 2008-05-06 Sri International Electroactive polymer generators
US7378783B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2008-05-27 Sri International Electroactive polymer torsional device
US7436099B2 (en) 2003-08-29 2008-10-14 Sri International Electroactive polymer pre-strain
US7492076B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2009-02-17 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer transducers biased for increased output
US7521847B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-04-21 Artificial Muscle, Inc. High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7521840B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-04-21 Artificial Muscle, Inc. High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7567681B2 (en) 2003-09-03 2009-07-28 Sri International Surface deformation electroactive polymer transducers
US7595580B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-09-29 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer actuated devices
US7626319B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-12-01 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Three-dimensional electroactive polymer actuated devices
US7750532B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2010-07-06 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer actuated motors
US7915789B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-03-29 Bayer Materialscience Ag Electroactive polymer actuated lighting
US8054566B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-11-08 Bayer Materialscience Ag Optical lens displacement systems
US9195058B2 (en) 2011-03-22 2015-11-24 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Electroactive polymer actuator lenticular system
US9231186B2 (en) 2009-04-11 2016-01-05 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Electro-switchable polymer film assembly and use thereof
US9425383B2 (en) 2007-06-29 2016-08-23 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Method of manufacturing electroactive polymer transducers for sensory feedback applications
US9553254B2 (en) 2011-03-01 2017-01-24 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Automated manufacturing processes for producing deformable polymer devices and films
US9590193B2 (en) 2012-10-24 2017-03-07 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Polymer diode
US9761790B2 (en) 2012-06-18 2017-09-12 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Stretch frame for stretching process
US9876160B2 (en) 2012-03-21 2018-01-23 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Roll-to-roll manufacturing processes for producing self-healing electroactive polymer devices

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4868447A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-09-19 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Piezoelectric polymer laminates for torsional and bending modal control
US5060527A (en) * 1990-02-14 1991-10-29 Burgess Lester E Tactile sensing transducer
US5977685A (en) * 1996-02-15 1999-11-02 Nitta Corporation Polyurethane elastomer actuator

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4868447A (en) * 1987-09-11 1989-09-19 Cornell Research Foundation, Inc. Piezoelectric polymer laminates for torsional and bending modal control
US5060527A (en) * 1990-02-14 1991-10-29 Burgess Lester E Tactile sensing transducer
US5977685A (en) * 1996-02-15 1999-11-02 Nitta Corporation Polyurethane elastomer actuator

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
KORNBLUH R ET AL: "Electrostrictive polymer artificial muscle actuators." PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1998 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS & AUTOMATION, Bd. 3, Mai 1998 (1998-05), Seiten 2147-2154, XP002902376 Leuven Belgium *
PELRINE R ET AL: "Electrostriction of polymer films for microactuators." PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1997 IEEE TENTH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON MICRO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. MEMS. '97., 26. - 30. Januar 1997, Seiten 238-243, XP010216911 *

Cited By (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7320457B2 (en) 1997-02-07 2008-01-22 Sri International Electroactive polymer devices for controlling fluid flow
US7368862B2 (en) 1999-07-20 2008-05-06 Sri International Electroactive polymer generators
US7378783B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2008-05-27 Sri International Electroactive polymer torsional device
US7705521B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2010-04-27 Sri International Electroactive polymer torsional device
US7456549B2 (en) 2001-03-02 2008-11-25 Sri International Electroactive polymer motors
US7233097B2 (en) 2001-05-22 2007-06-19 Sri International Rolled electroactive polymers
US8093783B2 (en) 2001-05-22 2012-01-10 Sri International Electroactive polymer device
US8042264B2 (en) 2001-05-22 2011-10-25 Sri International Method of fabricating an electroactive polymer transducer
US7761981B2 (en) 2001-05-22 2010-07-27 Sri International Methods for fabricating an electroactive polymer device
US7921541B2 (en) 2003-08-29 2011-04-12 Sri International Method for forming an electroactive polymer transducer
US7785656B2 (en) 2003-08-29 2010-08-31 Sri International Electroactive polymer pre-strain
US7436099B2 (en) 2003-08-29 2008-10-14 Sri International Electroactive polymer pre-strain
US8316526B2 (en) 2003-08-29 2012-11-27 Sri International Method for forming an electroactive polymer
US7567681B2 (en) 2003-09-03 2009-07-28 Sri International Surface deformation electroactive polymer transducers
US7787646B2 (en) 2003-09-03 2010-08-31 Sri International Surface deformation electroactive polymer transducers
US7750532B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2010-07-06 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer actuated motors
US7679267B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2010-03-16 Artificial Muscle, Inc. High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7626319B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-12-01 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Three-dimensional electroactive polymer actuated devices
US7595580B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-09-29 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer actuated devices
US7915789B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-03-29 Bayer Materialscience Ag Electroactive polymer actuated lighting
US7521840B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-04-21 Artificial Muscle, Inc. High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7923902B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-04-12 Bayer Materialscience Ag High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7990022B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-08-02 Bayer Materialscience Ag High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US7521847B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2009-04-21 Artificial Muscle, Inc. High-performance electroactive polymer transducers
US8054566B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2011-11-08 Bayer Materialscience Ag Optical lens displacement systems
US8183739B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2012-05-22 Bayer Materialscience Ag Electroactive polymer actuated devices
US8283839B2 (en) 2005-03-21 2012-10-09 Bayer Materialscience Ag Three-dimensional electroactive polymer actuated devices
US8072121B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2011-12-06 Bayer Materialscience Ag Electroactive polymer transducers biased for optimal output
US7492076B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2009-02-17 Artificial Muscle, Inc. Electroactive polymer transducers biased for increased output
US7915790B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2011-03-29 Bayer Materialscience Ag Electroactive polymer transducers biased for increased output
US9425383B2 (en) 2007-06-29 2016-08-23 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Method of manufacturing electroactive polymer transducers for sensory feedback applications
US9231186B2 (en) 2009-04-11 2016-01-05 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Electro-switchable polymer film assembly and use thereof
US9553254B2 (en) 2011-03-01 2017-01-24 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Automated manufacturing processes for producing deformable polymer devices and films
US9195058B2 (en) 2011-03-22 2015-11-24 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Electroactive polymer actuator lenticular system
US9876160B2 (en) 2012-03-21 2018-01-23 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Roll-to-roll manufacturing processes for producing self-healing electroactive polymer devices
US9761790B2 (en) 2012-06-18 2017-09-12 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Stretch frame for stretching process
US9590193B2 (en) 2012-10-24 2017-03-07 Parker-Hannifin Corporation Polymer diode

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU1210402A (en) 2002-05-15
WO2002037892A3 (en) 2002-09-26
DE10054246C2 (en) 2002-09-26
DE10054246A1 (en) 2002-05-16

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
DE60314875T2 (en) A microelectromechanical hf switch
EP1444864B1 (en) Micro-mechanical sensors and method for production thereof
US8089197B2 (en) Method for operating a piezoelectric element
JP4205202B2 (en) Magnetic microswitch, and a manufacturing method thereof
JP3832338B2 (en) Electrostrictive polymer actuator
US6812424B2 (en) Elastic sheet structure having an improved electrical continuity function, and printed circuit board structure
DE10004393C1 (en) micro-relay
DE3607048C2 (en)
DE60301582T2 (en) Memory array having carbon nanotubes and method of manufacturing the memory array
DE19736674C1 (en) Micromechanical electrostatic relay
US5563466A (en) Micro-actuator
US20070114885A1 (en) Multilayer composite and a method of making such
US20040075366A1 (en) Piezoelectric switch for tunable electronic components
EP1110249B1 (en) Piezoelectric actuator with improved electrode connections
DE60221961T2 (en) Micro Machined variable parallel plate capacitor with plate suspension
EP0713235B1 (en) Micromechanical electrostatic relay
DE69530232T2 (en) A semiconductor device comprising insulated gate and method of manufacturing the same
DE10163358B4 (en) A multilayer piezoelectric actuator
DE69823679T2 (en) Miniaturized semiconductor-capacitor microphone
US7518284B2 (en) Dielectric composite and a method of manufacturing a dielectric composite
DE60222075T2 (en) Electrostatic actuator, and electrostatic relays and other devices using the same
CA1239965A (en) Electrostriction transducer comprising electrostriction layers of axially varied thicknesses
KR100839818B1 (en) Actuating member and method for producing the same
Kornbluh et al. High-field electrostriction of elastomeric polymer dielectrics for actuation
DE102006055147B4 (en) Transducer structure and method of manufacturing a transducer structure

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A3

Designated state(s): AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE TR

AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A3

Designated state(s): AM AT AU BA BR BY CA CH CN CZ DE DK EE ES FI GB GE HR HU IL IN IS JP KR KZ LT LU LV MD MK MX NO NZ PL PT RO RU SE SG SI SK TR UA US UZ VN YU ZA

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: 8642

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase
NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: JP