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WO2002035904A2 - Method and device for determining the position, orientation and/or deformation of an object - Google Patents

Method and device for determining the position, orientation and/or deformation of an object

Info

Publication number
WO2002035904A2
WO2002035904A2 PCT/EP2001/012645 EP0112645W WO0235904A2 WO 2002035904 A2 WO2002035904 A2 WO 2002035904A2 EP 0112645 W EP0112645 W EP 0112645W WO 0235904 A2 WO0235904 A2 WO 0235904A2
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
signal
position
object
detector
signals
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2001/012645
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
WO2002035904A3 (en )
Inventor
Friedrich Niederndorfer
Original Assignee
Abatec-Electronic Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B24/00Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups; Controlling or monitoring of exercises, sportive games, training or athletic performances
    • A63B24/0021Tracking a path or terminating locations
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B69/00Training appliances or apparatus for special sports
    • A63B69/36Training appliances or apparatus for special sports for golf
    • A63B69/3658Means associated with the ball for indicating or measuring, e.g. speed, direction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C11/00Photogrammetry or videogrammetry, e.g. stereogrammetry; Photographic surveying
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/16Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using electromagnetic waves other than radio waves
    • G01S5/163Determination of attitude
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B24/00Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups; Controlling or monitoring of exercises, sportive games, training or athletic performances
    • A63B24/0021Tracking a path or terminating locations
    • A63B2024/0028Tracking the path of an object, e.g. a ball inside a soccer pitch
    • A63B2024/0034Tracking the path of an object, e.g. a ball inside a soccer pitch during flight
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B2225/00Other characteristics of sports equipment
    • A63B2225/50Wireless data transmission, e.g. by radio transmitters or telemetry
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A63SPORTS; GAMES; AMUSEMENTS
    • A63BAPPARATUS FOR PHYSICAL TRAINING, GYMNASTICS, SWIMMING, CLIMBING, OR FENCING; BALL GAMES; TRAINING EQUIPMENT
    • A63B43/00Balls with special arrangements
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/02Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using radio waves
    • G01S5/0247Determination of attitude
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S5/00Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations
    • G01S5/18Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more direction or position line determinations; Position-fixing by co-ordinating two or more distance determinations using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves
    • G01S5/186Determination of attitude

Abstract

The invention relates to a device and method for determining the position, orientation and/or deformation of an object whereby electromagnetic signals are emitted from one or more signal transmitters (A-G, M) arranged on an object. According to the invention, the signal transmitters (A-G, M) are controlled in such a way that the individual signals are different from each other. Said signals are projected onto at least one two-dimensional resolution position detector (PSD) and there they are converted into two-dimensional positioning co-ordinates. The position, orientation and/or deformation of an object is determined from the positioning co-ordinates.

Description

Method and apparatus for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of an object

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of an object. D

It is often desirable to be able to analyze the trajectory and accurate movement of an object. For example, in sports analysis of movements, increasingly in demand in particular using modernster technology. Sun, 5 are nowadays already to a large extent takes video analysis, for example, where the analyte impact of a tennis or golfer is recorded on tape and is then analyzed by a sports Lore by playing the tape in slow motion. However, due to the two-dimensional map of 0 takes place in three dimensions motion sequence, it is difficult to produce accurate analyzes.

Thus, some methods and devices are already known from the prior art, with which the position and orientation of an object 5 can be determined.

The publication EP 0704715 Al, for example, shows a ported tables system for the determination, the initial trajectory of a golf ball, the basketball, soccer ball, etc. For this purpose, a plurality of reflective or high-contrast area markings are applied to the D object. This surface marks are recorded by one or two cameras by a camera shutter is opened in synchronism with the emission of a flash. Thus, so the camera records a pattern of light of all visible area-5 chenmarkierungen in the form of snapshots. The position and orientation of the golf ball is then determined from the obtained two-dimensional camera data of the surface markings and calibration data. The calibration data before the system by recording 20 Fl - chenmarkierungen of an object whose position and orientation is known ', and determines the focal length, orientation and position of the camera. From the camera only the light originating from, for example, 6 marks light pattern aufgezeich- net, which thus shows indistinguishable from each other 6 is light spots. The transmitter must finally assign each recorded light spot the corresponding mark on the golf ball (eg, analysis of previously recorded light pattern and motion prediction). This is possible as long as the light spots from shoot to shoot move only slightly on the camera recording area (if the time between shots is too large, such an assignment is no longer unique possible) and the degrees of motion of the object, in particular with regard to a distortion of - the same, are not too large.

The invention is based on the object, the known method and the associated apparatus further from the prior art such that the position, orientation aids been accredited and / or deformation determination, in particular independent of the recording speed and the Bewegungsfreiheits- grade, is clearly ,

The invention achieves this object in each case with the objects of claims 1 and 14. Preferred embodiments are described in the subclaims.

Accordingly, a method for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of a particular moving object is provided in which one or more arranged on the object signal transmitters, electromagnetic signals are transmitted, wherein the signal generators are controlled such that the individual signals from each other are distinct, these signals are projected onto at least a two-dimensionally resolving position detector and converted into two-dimensional position coordinates and the position, orientation and / or deformation of the (moving) object is determined from the position coordinates. the position, orientation aids been accredited is advantageously and / or deformation firstly facilitates determination with the additional identification of each signal, since there is no mathematical identification methods are required and secondly unique (see above). Here, the Si gnalgeber light signals can transmit at different frequencies, wherein the position detector or an additionally arranged at the position detector the detector can identify the respective frequencies in a simple marking possible variant. In addition, several position detectors, a position detector are used which beispielswei- se filter can, for each frequency have prior to receiving surface and thus operate a frequency-selective. This simple identification is now possible, as in the invention - be used actively luminous signal transmitter instead of passive reflectors - in contrast to the above described prior art. Depending on the number of translation, rotation and deformation degrees of freedom of the object and the number of position detectors a certain minimum number of signal transmitters provided on the object is required. This, _, signal generators can be grouped together and attached to different locations on the object. In particular, such groups are attached to parts of the object, which can move to other locations of the object. Comprising the object, for example, a pivot joint, such a group may each be rigidly attached to signal transmitters on a pivot arm of the pivot joint, each group De- pending umfaß a certain number of signal transmitters from the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the respective pivot arm.

the transmission of the signals from the signal transmitters is preferably controlled such that the signals at the position detector arrive temporally nacheinander- in corresponding time windows. Thus a frequency resolution position detector must be used not necessarily, since a corresponding control circuit in the signal transmitters and a corresponding evaluation circuit at the location detector (which are synchronized with each other) is established at any time, which signal giver sent. Advantageously, a so-called PSD-detector (position sensitive detector) can be used which outputs per time window, the coordinates of a single image projected onto him light spot (for example, when a light signal is used as an electromagnetic signal). It can transmit their signals at the same time in this embodiment, for example, two switches, provided that the signal transmitters are located at two overall opposite sides of an object and the position detector thereby receives at any given time only one of the two signals depending on the orientation of the object.

together with each signal an additional information for identifying the emitted signal is preferably transmitted. This may be the already mentioned above frequency of the signal. Alternatively, the additional information is preferably contained as the coding in each signal. Particularly preferably, the additional information can then be modulated onto the respective signal. The modulation may be frequency, phase or amplitude modulation. This additional information can be used in addition to or as an alternative to the measure about to send the signals at fixed time windows. The former increases identification reliability.

If the position detector from its processing speed to be able, the encoded and modulated additional information can be preferably directly decoded or demodulated by the position detector. This eliminates catch unit an additional recom-. Is the frequency with which the individual signals are transmitted successively in time, however, further increased (for example, to achieve a finer position resolution even at high object velocities), so it may be necessary to receive the additional information preferably by a separate receiver unit. The position detector then deals solely with the issue of the two-dimensional position coordinates of the incoming signals.

the additional information from a separate additional information transmitter is transmitted preferentially attached for example to the object. For this purpose, a control circuit may be provided on the object, which controls the sending of each signal transmitter. The control signal used for this purpose is then also transmitted via the additional information channel to a corresponding evaluation circuit coupled to the additional information receiving unit, in particular wirelessly, for example via radio, ultrasonic or optical.

the position of the moving object in the form of three orthogonal coordinates in space and the orientation in the form of three orthogonal rotational angle is preferably determined in the room, for which purpose at least seven signaling devices are used. Thus, it is already equipped with a position detector and seven Si- gnalgebern possible, which are arranged rigidly to a rigid object that the position detector can receive their signals in each position and orientation of the object, the position and orientation in all three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom to determine. If the object is in itself not stiff, but for example the joints deformable, so the deformation of the object can be determined by suitably arranged signal transmitter.

however, more than seven signaling devices are preferably used according to the object (ie, for example, even with larger rigid objects), which are arranged on the object that always seven signals from seven different signal transmitters are mapped to the two-dimensional position detector in any possible position and orientation of the object.

the electromagnetic signals infrared light signals advantageous firstly show a good directional effect and secondly, not so strongly disturbed by ambient light are preferred.

The invention and further advantages and features of the invention will now be further explained by means of preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawing:

Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of the arrangement -from four attached to an object signal transmitters and a position detector with an optical system, i

Fig. 2 shows a schematic view of a first example in which two position detectors PSD1 and PSD2 and a single attached to the object signal transmitter L are used, figure 3 'in a schematic view a second example in which a position detector PSD and two attached to the object signal transmitter Ll and L2 are used, Figure 4 shows a schematic view of the second example in which a position detector PSD and two at the

are object mounted signal generator Ll and used L2, however, the object in comparison to figure 3 has other degrees of freedom, figures 6a, b, c schematically show three views in the xyz, the xz and yz-plane the position and orientation of an object whose position is determined with a position detector and seven attached to the object signal generators.

Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of an arrangement of four to one (not shown) object, such as a golf club head mounted signaling devices A to C and M, which are in a fixed position to each other. If the signal transmitter to be flexible to each other, so should always be known to each other for subsequent evaluation for each evaluation time, the exact location of the signal transmitter. In the figure 1, the signal transmitter A to C and M at a signal generating unit forming tripod mounted, with the three signal transmitters A to C at the leg ends and the signal generator M in the center. This signal encoder A to C and M can also at any positions of a rigid object, that is, without the tripod, or an arbitrarily shaped frame, that is, be different from the tripod attached to the object. Further, a plurality of such three legs may be attached at various positions of an object with four signal generators A to C and M, so that either different movements of an object, such as the head, shoulder, hip, arm, hand, golf club and / or leg movement of a golfer, or the movement of a part of a larger object can be tracked __- from several sides. In the latter case, for example, for an object at the front and back of each such a tripod is mounted, even when an object rotation of 180 °, that are reversed in the front and back with respect to a point of observation, the object motion to be pursued. Conversely, the object movement can of course be of course also of two opposite position detectors tracked regardless of the position and orientation of the object (behind and in front of the object) at only a tripod on the front or rear of the object. Thus, it depends on all of configuration of the object where the individual tripods or switches or the individual position detectors need to be arranged to make nen determine all object movements for kön-.

The signal generator A to C and M may be as simple isotropic radiating into a hemisphere-emitting diodes, in particular infrared LEDs. For the rest, but all types of signal transmitters, which can emit an electromagnetic, acoustic or optical signal, provided that a corresponding position detector on the basis of the incoming signal may indicate the direction from which the signal was transmitted are suitable.

In Figure 1, the sensitive recording surface of such a two-dimensionally resolving the position detector 1 is shown. In this receiving area of ​​the light emitted from the individual infrared light emitting diodes as a signal generator A to C and M infrared light beam via a projection lens 2 is projected. The position detector PSD is preferably a PSD detector (position sensitive detector), the immediately the x- and y-coordinate of the pixels B A to B c and B M of the respective signals of the signal transmitters A to C and M outputs, as position coordinates. The advantage of this position detector is that already detector internally of the focus an incident light spot is determined and only the x and y coordinates of the centroid are output. Such a cost-effective and highly accurate in resolution position detector but only the center of gravity coordinates of a single light spot or a more complicated pattern of light may output, but this is fully sufficient in this case from the treated following reasons.

Thus, the optical signals of the individual signal transmitter A to C and M are in fact emitted in temporal succession. The transmission can take place in a periodically repeating sequence permanently prescribed time window. After a period in which all the signal transmitters have successively sent its signal can be carried a short break to mark the beginning of a new period. For this purpose, in the signal generators A to C and M a corresponding control circuit may be provided, the evaluation circuit with a corresponding downstream of the location detector off from time to time (for example, only at the beginning of the position determination) are synchronized.

For the communication with the individual signal generators A to C and M (for example, for the control thereof) or for the synchronization of the individual signal transmitter A to C and M can FER ner an optical transmitting unit to the position detector are used, the individual signal transmitter A to C and M and / or controls signaling units and determines which signal generator A can send to C and M and / or signaling units at what time. For this purpose, one or more optical receiving units provided and a logic circuit at each signal transmitter A to C and M, or at each switch unit, which decides whether, how and when is allowed to be sent. Communication and synchronization of the signal transmitter A to C and M can be carried by radio, ultra sound, etc.. If for example a signal generator unit is activated with a plurality of signal transmitters A to C and M to emit their signals, the logic circuit of the associated signal generating unit may generate the individual transmission windows for their respective signal transmitter A to C and M. The information on the sequence of the transmitting window is either at the downstream of the location detector evaluation circuit known or it is once again sent from the logic circuit returns to a respective receiving unit in the position detector and then the evaluation circuit is provided. If it is required to pass through the individual optical signals are different in addition or alternatively to the transmission in fixed time windows of each other, the signals can be marked accordingly. For this purpose, the optical signals are, for example, different modulated or coded. If the modulation and the coding is sufficiently slow, the position detector could even demodulate the optical signals and decode in order to identify them. However, if faster modulation types and codes are used (an infrared receiver, for example) in addition to the position detector, in particular in the immediate vicinity thereof, an optical receiving unit are used, which only demodulates the incoming signal or decoded, but does not make a location determination. The demodulated and decoded signal of the optical receiving unit, together with the substantially same output position signal (x and y coordinates) represents the information which has signal transmitters A to C or M being sent.

In principle, the evaluation of the sent from the signal transmitters A to C and M optical signals, one or more position detectors may be used. In two position detectors in the known distance from one another a three-dimensional determination of the object coordinates can be made possible. to special cases which simplify the subsequent position calculations show by various restrictions on the movement of the object. These special cases are described below with reference to each of a specific example. Finally, an example for the general case is shown in which the position (spatial coordinates) as well as the rotations of the axes of an otherwise rigid object can be calculated both. For a deformable object just as many signal generator A can be attached to C and M in addition at different points of the object, which can move towards each other, that the movement of these points from the signals of this point, the assigned transducer and the already determined position and orientation of the whole object and the other movable parts of the object can be derived.

2 shows a first specific example in which two position detectors PSDL and PSD2 and a single attached to the object signal transmitter L are used. With this configuration, although the spatial coordinates of the object, but no twisting of the object can be calculated. It is assumed that the distance of the position detectors PSDL and PSD2 is known. the two x- and y-coordinates of the imaged on the two position detectors PSDL and PSD2 pixels of the signal transmitter L are read for determining the position of the object and supplied to an evaluation circuit. From these coordinates of the two position detectors PSD 1 and PSD2 and the focal length of the two (not shown) projecting lenses can be given knowledge of the orientation and position in front of the position detectors PSDL and PSD2 derive the directions of the incident light rays. The intersection of the two directions results in the 3D coordinates of the object.

In this variation, the time sequential emission of light signals from the signal generator L may trigger such as the Auswertetakt the evaluation circuit. the resolution of the position determination is thus more accurately by increasing the transmission frequency. Comprising the object, for example, a built-in speed or accelerometer, the transmission frequency can be adjusted depending on the measured speed or acceleration. Here, too, thus distinguishing the individual from a signal generator L emitted light signals takes place according to the invention.

An application example of this simple structure would be to measure the head motion of a golfer when head movements are not to be further determined.

3 shows a second specific example in which a position detector PSD and two attached to the object signal transmitter Ll and L2 are used. Further, it is assumed that the object can move parallel to the position detector PSD in a plane only and the distance of this plane to the position detector PSD is known. Moreover, only a rotation of the object should be allowed in this plane, ie that the two switches Ll and L2 also remain in the plane. In DIE ser constellation, the coordinates of the object in the parallel plane and the rotational angle can be calculated. From the successively recorded in time x and y coordinates of the two pixels illustrated on the position detector PSD, the two directions of the incident light beams can, in each case by the signal generator and the signal transmitter Ll L2, deduced. may be prepared from the two directions and the distance between the parallel plane to the position detector PSD then in a first step, the coordinates of the signal transmitter Ll and L2, and thus the coordinates of the corresponding object (at known fixed arrangement of the signal transmitter Ll and L2 on the object) a, and in the second step of this level are determined in a rotational angle of the object.

An application example of this is the constellation Beinbe- movement of a golfer along a parallel plane.

In the constellation of FIG 4, a further degree of freedom at the following assumption is yet determined: the object is to be able to rotate on the one hand in a plane parallel and move and on the other hand, the parallel plane should be able to move in the depth. The distance between the two signal transmitters Ll and L2 is again known. With this constellation, so the distance between the parallel plane to the position detector PSD and the rotation angle and the position of the object within the parallel plane are calculated. L2 is the distance g of the parallel plane to the position detector PSD as follows can be determined from the knowledge that the signalers Ll and L2in a plane parallel to the position detector PSD are located and from a determination of the distance of the image points of the two signal transmitters Ll and to each other:

L 2 ~ X g = e (1) B 2 - B 2 where L 2 -Lι the known distance between the two signal transmitters Ll and L2 from each other, B 2 -B L of predictable distance of the two image points of the two signal transmitters Ll and L2 and e is the focal length of the Project is ktionslinse. Figure 4 illustrates the above facts.

Then may - as explained above - the two directions of the incident light beams gnalgebern from the x and y coordinates of the two image points imaged on the position detector PSD of the Si Ll and determined L2 and finally out of the determined directions and the distance between the position the object in the parallel plane and the rotation angle are calculated.

An application example of this is the constellation of destination of the forward and backward movement of the head of a golfer along a line perpendicular to the position detector and a lateral movement and rotation of the head in the parallel plane.

Figures 5a and 5b show in two views in the yz and the xz plane, the position and orientation of an object whose position is to be determined with a position detector PSD and three attached to the object signal transmitters A, B and C, and the corresponding three pixels on the position detector. In this example, the position of the object to be determined in space, while the turns of the object is limited only to rotate in the yz plane. The three signal generators A-C are in this case arranged at right angles to each other, ie they are located at the corners of a right-angled triangle with the signal generator B at the corner of the right angle. The distances AB and CB of the signal transmitter A to C are of length a / 2 and are - as said - orthogonal to each other. From this knowledge, the distances A g, gs and g c of the signal generator from the projection lens and the rotation angle φ in the yz-plane as can be determined follows:

wherein G AEX and G Ay the x and y coordinates of the signal generator A, B A x un d B Ay the x and y coordinates of the image points of the signal transmitter A in the position detector PSD, g is the distance of the signal generator A of is the projection lens, and e is the focal length of the projection lens (or the distance between the projection lens to the receiving surface of the position detector PSD). In Figures 5a and 5b are still the y-coordinate G By and Gc y of the signal transmitters B and C as well as the x- and y-coordinates B Bx, B x and B By, B Cy of the image points of the signal transmitters B and C located.

result for the signal generator B and C of the imaging laws analog equations. Since the three signal transmitters are always A to C for all values ​​of the rotation angle in the yz plane, is considered (as well as from Figure 5b is slightly visible):

Ax = Bx G G G = Cx (3)

Lets φ the angle of rotation - as from the Figure 5a slightly ER clearly is - from the difference intervals g -g A B respectively. g B -gc derived:

is obtained from the ratio of the difference distances and the imaging equations φ the angle of rotation instead:

= B? BB (5)

This also can be written as the distance of the signal transmitter B leaves from the projection lens (and thus the object position):

A concrete example would be the determination of the forward and backward movement of the back of a golfer along a Li never with an additional twist in this direction.

Figures 6a, b and c show in three views in the xyz, the xz and yz-plane the position and orientation of an object whose position is to be determined with a position detector PSD and seven attached to the object signal transmitters A to G , In this general example, the position of the object in space and all three angle of rotation is to be determined in the room. In the Figure 6a, the geometrical arrangement of the signal generator 7 A to G is shown. The signal transmitter A to G are so Toggle ordered such that the distances BA, BC, BE BG and the length a / 2, and the lines BD and BF the length of v3 / 4 have. The coordinate system is also chosen so that the locations of all signal transmitters are initially directly on the coordinate axes x, y and z. Thus, the signal transmitter A and C are thus on the x-axis, the sensors D and F on the y-axis and the signal generator E, and G on the z-axis and the B signal generator at the center of the coordinate axes. This geometric arrangement of the seven signal transmitter A to G can be moved in the Cartesian coordinate system and twisted. In this case, the signal generator B is moved in the focus of the assembly about the coordinates Bx G, G and G By Bz with respect to the initial coordinate system. The angle φl describe a rotation about the y-axis, the angle φ2 a

Rotation about the x-axis and the angle φ3 a rotation about the z-axis.

The seven auto switch A to G have the following coordinates in space: A: =

The pixels A to G as pictures of the seven signal transmitter A to G on the position detector PSD have the following coordinates:

The coordinates of the signal generators A and C to G in the space may vary depending on the coordinates of the signal generator B, and the three

Rotation angle φl be represented φ2 and φ3 as follows:

G = G Ax Bx - sin (φ 2) • sin (^) • sin () + - cos (^) • cos () a

Ay G = G 'BB.y + ^ cos () - sin () (9)

G = G Az Bz - sin (^ 2) • sin (ξ) • cos () - - cos () • sin ()

G c x) • cos ()

G, r a r Cy s () -sin (,) aa

G a G = BZ + 2 ■ sin (,) • sin (^ 3) • cos () + - cos (^) • sin ()

(10) G D = Dxx 'LBX) - cos () 3

Gθ - = ^ G B B y y + o - cos (^ 2) cos (^) (11)

[3 "IT

G 'DNZ = GJ B B z r - a Λ - sin (,) • cos (^ 3) cos () + Aj sin (,) • sin ()

G EX = G - - cos (^ 2) sin ()

G ^ = G fö, - sin () (12)

G a = G B - 2 cos () • cos ()

* = G ßJC + a ^ - m (φ 2) cos (φ 3) • sin () + a - sin (^) • cos ()

[3 Ϊ3

G Z = G BZ + a ^ sin (^ 2) s (<k) cos () - a - (sin (^) sin)

a

G G G x Bx + cos (φ 2) -sin (φ) a

G a y = G By + -sin (φ 2) (14) a

G G2 = G + cos (φ 2) - cos (^)

Further arise - such as of Figures 6b and 6c is easily visibly ER - the following equations on the imaging law:

Ax Ax B G B G Ay Ay and (15)

G Az e G Az

Analogous equations are obtained for the signal generator B, C, D, E, F and G. From these obtained via the imaging law equations (15) and the above-established equations (9) to (14) can φ2 and φ3, and the distance G Bz are described depending on the coordinates of the image points and the already calculated in each rotation angle, the rotation angle φl.

Rotation angle φ3:

Rotation angle φ2:

or

Rotation angle φl

Distance g B:

or

or

Φl from the calculated turning angles, φ2 and φ3 as well as the distance g B, the coordinates of the points A, B, C, D, E, F and G on the equations (9) to (14) are calculated in the room. It can be set for this purpose a reference point, which following coordinates ha.

The coordinates of the point A relative to the reference point R arise as follows.

The coordinates of the points B, C, D, E, F and G are calculated analogously. From the determined positions such as a sweeping golf club and the known position of a to be taken golf ball can then be for example, only the swing path of the club, the exact meeting point of the golf ball (hook, slice, draw, etc.) and the Treffgeschwindig- resistance and finally the calculate the trajectory of the golf ball. This may for example be displayed in large format on a screen in front of the golfer with the golf court, so that overall a complete, absolutely realistic golf simulation is possible.

The applicant reserves the right to pursue the subject of specific evaluation methods listed above for the position and orientation determination separate from the distinction between the individual signals from the signal generators. This provides a process relates to a device for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of an object, wherein from a plurality of input coupled to the object signal generators or electromagnetic signals are transmitted, these signals are projected onto one or more two-dimensional resolution position detectors and there in two-dimensional Location coordinates are converted, and easy Figure laws from the position coordinates of the position, orientation of and / or deformation of the moving object is determined.

Claims

Claims :
1. A method for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of an object, wherein a) one or more arranged on the object signal generators (AG, M), electromagnetic signals are transmitted, wherein the signal generator (AG, M) are controlled in such a way that the individual signals are each distinguishable of-; b) are projected these signals to at least a two-dimensionally resolving position detector (PSD) and converted into two-dimensional position coordinates; and c) is determined from the position coordinates of the position, orientation and / or deformation of the object.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the transmission of the signals from the signal generators (AG, M) is controlled so that the signals at the position detector (PSD) arriving temporally successively in corresponding time windows.
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein together with each signal an additional information for identifying the transmitted signal is transmitted.
4. The method of claim 3, wherein the additional information is included as the coding in each signal.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the additional information is modulated on the respective signal.
6. The method of claim 4 or 5, wherein the encoded or modulated additional information from the position detector (PSD) is directly decoded or demodulated.
7. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 5, wherein the additional information is received by a separate receiver unit. i
8. The method in which the additional information is transmitted by a separate additional information transmitter of the preceding claims.
9. The method according to any one of claims 2 to 8, wherein the control signal for the transmission control of the signal generator (AG, M) wirelessly to the signal generator (AG, M) is transmitted. 0
10 The method of claim 9, wherein the control signal is optically transmitted by radio or by ultrasound.
11. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the position of the moving object in the form of three orthogonal coordinates in space and the orientation is determined in the form of three orthogonal rotational angle in space at 5 wherein at least six signal generator (AG) can be used. 0
12. The method of claim 11, in which are used according to the object more than six signal generator (AG, M) which are arranged on the object, that in any possible position, orientation or deformation of the object 5 always six signals of six different signal generators ( AG, M) (on the two-dimensional position detector PSD) are mapped.
13. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, in which D is the electromagnetic signals infrared light signals.
14. An apparatus for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of an object, comprising: 5 a) wherein the signal generator (AG, M) are controlled in such a way one or more arranged on the object signal generators (AG, M) for transmitting electromagnetic signals, that the signals are distinguishable from each other; b) at least one two-dimensionally resolving position detector (PSD), which is designed such that the projected onto him signals are converted into two-dimensional position coordinates; and c) an evaluation circuit for determining the position, orientation and / or deformation of the moving object from the position coordinates.
15. The apparatus of claim 14, comprising a control circuit for controlling the signal generator (AG, M) such that the signals of the signal generator (AG, M) at the position detector (PSD) arriving temporally successively in corresponding time windows.
16. The device is configured according to claim 13 or 14, wherein each signal generator (AG, M) such that it transmits an additional signal together with the information for identifying the signal emitted by it.
17. The apparatus of claim 16, wherein each signal generator (AG, M) is designed such that the transmitted signal, the additional information as in the encoding of the signal generator (AG, M) is contained.
18. The apparatus (M AG) is configured according to claim 17, wherein 'of each signal transmitter, that the additional information signal to that of the signal generator (AG, M) transmitted is modulated.
19. The apparatus of claim 17 or 18, wherein the position detector (PSD) is designed such that it encoded or decoded modulated additional information and demodulated.
20. Device according to one of claims 15 to 18, in which is provided for receiving the additional information further comprises a separate receiver unit.
21. A device in which a with the signal transmitters (AG, M) coupled additional information transmitter is provided for sending the additional information according to any one of claims 14 to 20th
22. The device according to any one of claims 15 to 21, wherein a control signal transmission unit for wirelessly transmitting the control signal to the signal generator (AG, M) is provided, which controls the transmission of the signal transmitter.
23. The apparatus of claim 22, wherein the control signal is optically transmitted by radio or by ultrasound.
24. Device according to one of claims 14 to 23, wherein at least six signal generator (AG) can be used and the evaluation circuit is designed such that the position of the moving object in the form of three orthogonal coordinates in space and the orientation in the form of the three orthogonal rotation angle in space is determined.
25. The device of claim 24, are used in which object-dependent over six signal generator (AG, M), WEL before are arranged on the object that "at any possible position, orientation and / or deformation of the object always six signals from six different signal generators (AG, M) on the two-dimensional position detector (PSD) are mapped.
26. The device according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the electromagnetic signals infrared light signals.
27. The device according to one of claims 14 to 26, wherein the position detector (PSD) a PSD detector.
PCT/EP2001/012645 2000-11-02 2001-10-31 Method and device for determining the position, orientation and/or deformation of an object WO2002035904A3 (en)

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DE10054282.4 2000-11-02

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