WO2002013436A1 - Method and system for steganographically embedding information bits in source signals - Google Patents

Method and system for steganographically embedding information bits in source signals Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2002013436A1
WO2002013436A1 PCT/US2001/024468 US0124468W WO0213436A1 WO 2002013436 A1 WO2002013436 A1 WO 2002013436A1 US 0124468 W US0124468 W US 0124468W WO 0213436 A1 WO0213436 A1 WO 0213436A1
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signal
stego
value
embedding
method according
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PCT/US2001/024468
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French (fr)
Inventor
Mahalingam Ramkumar
Ali N. Akansu
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Avway.Com Inc.
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Priority to US09/634,506 priority
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Publication of WO2002013436A1 publication Critical patent/WO2002013436A1/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T1/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T1/0021Image watermarking
    • G06T1/005Robust watermarking, e.g. average attack or collusion attack resistant
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • H04N1/32149Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations
    • H04N1/32154Transform domain methods
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/32Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device
    • H04N1/32101Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title
    • H04N1/32144Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp
    • H04N1/32149Methods relating to embedding, encoding, decoding, detection or retrieval operations
    • H04N1/3232Robust embedding or watermarking
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N19/00Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
    • H04N19/46Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process
    • H04N19/467Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process characterised by the embedded information being invisible, e.g. watermarking
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/20Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
    • H04N21/23Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
    • H04N21/238Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams
    • H04N21/2389Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting
    • H04N21/23892Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting involving embedding information at multiplex stream level, e.g. embedding a watermark at packet level
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N21/00Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
    • H04N21/80Generation or processing of content or additional data by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content per se
    • H04N21/83Generation or processing of protective or descriptive data associated with content; Content structuring
    • H04N21/835Generation of protective data, e.g. certificates
    • H04N21/8358Generation of protective data, e.g. certificates involving watermark
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2201/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T2201/005Image watermarking
    • G06T2201/0065Extraction of an embedded watermark; Reliable detection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2201/00General purpose image data processing
    • G06T2201/005Image watermarking
    • G06T2201/0083Image watermarking whereby only watermarked image required at decoder, e.g. source-based, blind, oblivious

Abstract

A method and system for embedding (E) information bits in a source signal (A) like images, audio or video. The embedding being performed optimally for a given worst-case scenario of unintentional or intentional attack of the host signal (to remove the embedded bits), and a given distortion of the host signal due to information embedding.

Description

METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR STEGANOGRAPHICALLY EMBEDDING INFORMATION BITS IN SOURCE SIGNALS

This invention relates to a method and system for embedding information bits in a host signal. The embedding may be performed to determine origin of any perfect or imperfect copies of the composite (host plus message) signal, or to use the host signal as a cover for secret or covert communications, over a channel which is primarily meant for transmitting the host signal only.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Data hiding or steganography is the art of hiding a message signal in a host signal, without any perceptual distortion of the host signal. The composite (host plus message) signal is also referred to as stego-signal. Though steganography is often confused with the relatively well-known cryptography, the two are but loosely related. Cryptography is about hiding the contents of a message. Steganography, on the other hand, is about concealing the very fact that a message is hidden. Steganography may be considered as communication through subliminal channels, or secret communication.

Rapid increases in bandwidth available for dissemination and storage of digital content and availability of software tools for editing multimedia content, such as, video, images or audio calls for systems and methods to establish origin of such content. In addition, large volumes of multimedia content being exchanged over insecure channels, such as, the Internet, provide within themselves secure and subliminal steganographic channels for secure or secret communications.

The proliferation of digital multimedia as opposed to conventional analog forms, is primarily a result of (1) the ease with which digital data can be exchanged over the Internet, and (2) the emergence of efficient multimedia data compression techniques.

The first reason listed above is also a major cause for concern. Unlimited perfect copies of the original content can be made, and distributed easily. It was this concern of protecting intellectual property rights of multimedia data in digital form, that primarily triggered researchers to find ways to watermark multimedia data. Watermarking the content is done by embedding some data in the host signal (original content). The embedded data may be an imperceptible signature, which the owner of the multimedia content should be able to extract when a dispute regarding ownership occurs.

Data hiding in multimedia could help in providing proof of origin and distribution of content. Multimedia content providers would be able to communicate with the compliant multimedia players (or Tenderers) through the subliminal, steganographic channel. This communication may control or restrict access of multimedia content, and carry out e-commerce for pay-per-use implementations.

A typical application of data hiding for multimedia content delivery may involve the content providers supplying the raw multimedia data (say a full length movie) along with some hidden agents or control data . The job of the distributors would be to package the content in some suitable format (such as, MPEG) understandable by the player, for distribution of the multimedia through DVDs/CDs or live digital broadcasts, or by hosting web sites for downloads or streaming. The compliant multimedia players, will typically be connected to the Internet.

In conventional multimedia distribution, the content provider looses all control over how the multimedia is used/abused the moment it is acquired by another party. The key idea behind data hiding is to re-establish control whenever the content is used. The content provider, by hiding an agent in his raw data, hopes to control access to his/her multimedia content. This can be done with the cooperation of the players, and an established protocol for communication between the content providers and the compliant multimedia players.

Data hiding can be broadly classified into two categories depending on whether the original content is needed for extraction of the hidden bits: (1) non- oblivious methods need the original content for extracting the hidden bits; and (2) on the other hand, oblivious detection methods extract the hidden bits without any knowledge of the original.

In most data hiding methods, sequence of bits to be embedded, viz. B, is converted to a form suitable for embedding in a cover content. Initially, the bit sequence is converted to a signature sequence. Thereafter, the signature sequence is embedded in the cover content by an embedding function to obtain the stego- content.

From a signal processing perspective; data hiding methods can be classified into two categories, depending on the type of embedding and detecting operators. The first category includes methods where the embedding function adds the signature sequence linearly to stego-content, and the detector detects from the stego-content via correlative processing (these methods are referred to as Type I methods in data hiding literature). In the second category the embedding function and the detector are non-linear, typically employing quantizers (these methods are referred to as Type II methods in data hiding literature). One of the important characteristics of the non-linear methods is their ability to suppress the noise due to the original content (or self-noise), even though the original content is not available at the receiver.

The present invention provides a unique data hiding technique that substantially reduces the effect that noise, distortion or corruption of the host signal have on the detected signal so as to greatly enhance the integrity of steganography techniques employing oblivious detection of the hidden data. The crux of the invention is a class of methods referred to as Type III methods of which Types I and II are just special cases. An optimal choice of parameters for the proposed Type III methods depending on the engineering constraints, can substantially improve the performance of data hiding.

The present invention also provides many additional advantages, which shall become apparent as described below. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A method for embedding a message signal in a host signal, the method comprising the steps of: (a) embedding the message signal into the host signal, thereby producing a stego signal; and (b) detecting an estimate of the message signal from the stego signal; provided that the detecting step (b) is not an exact inverse of the embedding step (a), and the host signal cannot be exactly extracted from the stego signal.

The embedding step (a) produces a value b, in the stego signal from a value al in the host signal, and wherein the embedding step (a) comprises limiting

to a limit value — , a magnitude of difference between bt and , .

.z

Furthermore, the embedding step (a) employs a continuous periodic function to produce the stego signal, and wherein the detecting step (b) employs a continuous periodic function to produce the estimated message signal. The continuous periodic function is a triangular function f(x) having a period Δ , wherein:

- — ≤ f(x) ≤ — for all x; 4 J 4

/(0) = - ; and

(-) = - 2 4

Optionally, the embedding step (a) produces a value bt in the stego signal from a value al in the host signal and a value s, in the message signal, such that the embedding step (a):

(i) is subject to a maximum distortion constraint P,

(ii) employs a continuous periodic function having a period Δ , and (iii) is represented by the function bt = E(a, ,st) , and employs an algorithm as follows: a A A a if rem(— -) > ~ , then p, = 3 rem(—) ,

A 2 4 Δ

else p, - rem(—) ;

Δ 4 e^ s^p, ; β β if (I e, l> y) , then e, = sign(et)^ ;

ςr, = rem(—) ;

Δ

if , > — , then e, = -e, ;

if α( > 0 , then b, = α, + e, , else bt = al - el .

The method of the present invention is particularly useful when the stego signal is corrupted or distorted prior to detecting step (b). In this embodiment where the stego signal is corrupted a value bl in the stego signal is modified after the embedding step (a) to yield a value c; in the corrupted or distorted stego signal, such that the detecting step (b):

(i) produces a value s in the estimated message signal from a value cl in a distorted stego signal, (ii) employs a continuous periodic function having a period Δ , and

(iii) is represented by the function s = D(ct ) , and employs an algorithm as follows:

q, = rem(—) ;

if g, > -, then _?βl = 3- - q„

else _? = #, -— . Preferably the host signal is a sequence α, , for = 1 to N ; the message signal is a sequence s, , for = 1 to N ; the stego signal is a sequence bl , for i = \ to N ; the corrupted or distorted stego signal is a sequence ct , for = 1 to N ; and the estimated message signal is a sequence sei , for z = 1 to N .

The embedding step (a) preferably (i) imposes a limit — on a magnitude

difference between a value b, in the stego signal that is produced from a value , in the host signal; and (ii) employs a continuous periodic function having a period

Δ to produce the stego signal, wherein such the limit — and the period Δ are

chosen to minimize a mean square distance between the message signal and the estimated message signal, subject to a maximum distortion constraint P of the embedding step (a).

The present invention also provides a method for mapping K information bits to a message signal st , i = 1 to N . This method comprising the step of: grouping the K information bits together to represent one of 2L symbols, wherein each of the 2L symbol is mapped to a basis vector or its negative of a 2i_1 x 2Z_I orthogonal transform matrix. The orthogonal transform matrix is obtained from a cyclic all-pass filter and its circular shifts. The cyclic all-pass filter is preferably obtained from a key.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of the data embedding, channel and detection operation according to the present invention;

Fig. 2 is a graph depicting a periodic triangular function employed by the detector D of Fig. 1; Fig. 3(a) is a graph demonstrating that the distortion introduced during the embedding the S in A (to obtain B ) of Fig. 1 in accordance with Type II will be

uniformly distributed between and H — ;

Fig. 3(b) is a graph depicting the distribution of the distortion introduced in accordance with the method of the present invention; and

Fig. 3(c) is a graph depicting the distribution of the limiting noise ti

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The present invention is a method for efficient secure communication over subliminal channels provided by multimedia host signals like audio, (images and video transmitted over any channel. For example, the host signal may be transmitted over the Internet or distributed in storage mediums by other means or even transmitted over analog channels, such as, that used for analog television or radio broadcasts. Typically the host signal is expected to undergo some distortion before it reaches one or many end points where it may be stored or rendered.

In the method described herein, the host signal may be any form of naturally occurring signals, such as, audio, image or video or artificially synthesized versions of them. The host signal may further be represented in some transform domain. The choice of the transform may depend on the nature of the application. For example, if the host signal is an image and is not expected to be re-scaled, resized or rotated, any unitary transform may be used. On the other hand, if the image is likely to undergo rotation, scaling and/or translation, a Rotation- Scale-Translation invariant transform may be used. If the image is cropped, data embedding may be performed in many blocks of the image, so that the hidden bits can be extracted even if one such block survives. In general, the host signal can be coefficients of a one-to-one transform or a many-to-one transform. In the method described herein, the host signal can therefore be considered as a vector or a sequence of N real or complex numbers, represented by A = [a1 a2 ■■■ aN].

A sequence of K bits, represented by

/ = β i2 ■■■ iκ], ij = 1/0 for l≤J≤K is mapped by a mapping toa signature sequence S , M :I -> S , where S = [sx s2• sN]

An embedder E embeds the sequence in A to obtain the stego sequence B, B = E(A,S), where

B = [bx b2 ■■■ bN], the embedding being performed element-wise, bλ =E(a,sλ) b2 = E(a2,s2) b3 = E(a3,s3)

bN = E(aN,sN) subject to the constraint that d(A,B) ≤ P where d(A,B) is some distance measure of signals A and B , and P is the maximum permitted distortion of the host signal. In the preferred embodiment the distance measure is the mean square error:

Figure imgf000009_0001

The stego sequence B may undergo some distortion before it reaches the detector as C , given by C = B + Z , where

Z = Zj Z2 '• ZMh is the noise in the channel used for transmitting the host signal, and C = [cx c2 ■■■ cN]. The detector D obtains an estimate Se of the signature sequence S embedded:

Se = D(C) .

The block diagram of data embedding, the channel and detection operation is shown in FIGURE 1.

Based on this generalization of the embedding and detecting functions E and D , prior art in this field can be categorized into two types.

Characteristics of Type I

• B = E(A,S) → B = A + S

• D(B) = A + S ≠ S

The above two equations imply that E and D are not inverses. In addition, if S is known one can obtain the original host sequence A from B as A = B - S .

Characteristics of Type II

• B = E(A,S) • D(B) = S

Unlike Type I methods, the above two equations show that for Type II methods E and D are exact inverses. Additionally, unlike Type I methods, it is not possible to obtain A exactly, given B and S .

In the core of this invention is a class of embedding and detection operators E and D , we shall refer to as Type III.

Characteristics of Type III • B = E(A,S)

• D(B) ≠ S The above two equations illustrate that E and D are not exact inverses (like Type I and unlike Type II). Further, given S and B it is not possible to obtain A (like Type II and unlike Type I).

In a preferred embodiment described herein, the detector D , where

Se = D(C) , Se = [sβl se2 ■ ■ ■ seN ] is implemented by the following algorithm:

q, = rem(—) ;

Δ

if g, > - then $ a = 3^ - <l, >

else s„ eι, - Q - — ^ .

In the above algorithm, rem (x) stands for the remainder of a division operation (x). For example, rem(5/4)=l, rem(2/2)=0, rem(-6/4)=rem(6/4)=2.

The choice of the parameter Δ is dictated by the distortion constraint P and the energy of the channel noise Z . The detector may also be thought of as employing a periodic triangular function shown in FIGURE 2, y = f(x) = f(χ + Δ) for integer m . Also,

< f(x) ≤ — for all x,

4 4 and specifically, (0) = -

(-) = - 2 4

The embedding operation bl = E(at ,st) is implemented by the following algorithm:

if rem(— '-) > — , then p, = 3 — - rem(— '-) ,

A 2 4 A

Figure imgf000012_0001
e,=s,-p,l β β if (I e, l> y) » then e, = ^(e, )y ;

if rem(-L) > — , then e, = -e, ; Δ 2 if α, > 0 , then b, = α, + e; , else b; = , - e, .

In the above algoritlim, β is a parameter, the choice of which is dictated by the distortion constraint P and the energy of the channel noise Z . Also sign (x) equals +1 if the quantity 'x' is positive and sign (x) equals -1 if the quantity 'x' is negative. For example, sign(-20) = sign(-l) = -1, and sign(l 1) = sign(l) = +1.

As an example of the embedding and detection operations, let A=[-65, -250, 19, 43, -172, 179, 178, -6], and

S=[10, 10,-10, 10,-10, 10,-10, 10],

Δ = 40 , and β = 10 (Note that < s < - for all i).

4 ' 4

Now B = E(A,S) is given by

B=[-60,-255, 14,48,-167, 180, 173,-11]. Let Z=[-4, -8, 2, -10, -5, 3, -6, -4]. Therefore,

C=B+Z=[-64, -263, 16, 38, -172, 183, 167, -15], and

Se = D(C) is now

Se=[6,7,6,-8,2,7,-3,5].

Now let us consider bt = E(al , st ) , for i=l . aλ = -65, sx =10.

If remX-) > — , then p, =3 rem(— '-) ,

X 2 ' 4 X

rem(= ) = 25 > -, Pl = 30 - 25 = 5

Figure imgf000013_0001
ei=sl-pl ej =10-5 = 5

if (1 e, l> ~) > hen e = sign(et ) ^ ej

2

if rem(— ) > — e, = -e, rem(=X) = 25 > — , e, = -5 Δ 2 2 if , > 0 ό; = α, + e, else b, = α, - e, bχ =-65 -(-5) = -60

Now Cj = bλ + Zj = -60 - 4 = -64. For detection,

q, = rem(—). qΛ = rem( ) = 24

Δ 40

if q, > — then sei = 3 gr, ^ =24 > 20,^ =30-24 = 6

else^e, = ,--

For Type II systems ( Δ = β ) the distortion introduced, viz. B- A for

embedding the S in A (to obtain B ) will be uniformly distributed between

and +— (FIGURE 3 a), and the average energy of the distortion introduced in A

A2 will be — . For Type III systems, the distribution of the distortion introduced is

depicted in FIG.3b. The average energy of the distortion for a Type III system is given by β23A-2β) 12Δ While for Type II systems s, = D(bt) , for the proposed Type III system D(b,)-Sl=t, where tl is noise due to "limiting" (limiting occurs when β < A ). The distribution of the limiting noise tj is shown in FIG. 3 c, and the average energy of the limiting noise is given by

(Δ - ?)3 12Δ

Optimal choice of the parameters Δ and β for a given signal-to-noise ratio

(snr) 2(3Δ - 2/?)

Signal Energy P snr = 12Δ

Noise Energy Energy of Channel Noise Z is shown in Table 1. In Table 1,

SNR = 101og10 (snr) dB, and

Figure imgf000014_0001

From the values of Δ and signal energy P , β can be obtained by solving β2QA - 2β) ^ r 12Δ

Table 1 - Optimal Choice of k for different SNRs

Figure imgf000014_0002
Figure imgf000015_0004

The optimal parameters are chosen to minimize

(sl-se +(s2-se +-- + (sN-se Ϋ

J =

which is the normalized mean square distance between the embedded signature sequence and the detected signature sequence. The minimization performed under the assumption that the channel noise Z has a Gaussian distribution. If Z is zero mean and has a variance of σ2 , then

Figure imgf000015_0001
where

Figure imgf000015_0002
and

Figure imgf000015_0003

The mapping M:I→S, in the preferred embodiment takes the following form. The bit sequence I of K bits is grouped into K/L L-bit symbols. Each L-bit symbol will be mapped to one of in

2L ! basis vectors of an orthogonal transform. Thus we can embed — N —

NL symbols or —γ-r bits in the sequence A. For example,

2 ifΝ=8192,for

L = 2, 3,4, 5, 6,7, 8, 9, and 10, K = 8192, 6144, 4096, 2560, 1536, 896, 512, 288, and 160 bits respectively.

In the preferred embodiment, L bits corresponding to each symbol are assumed to represent a decimal number between 1 and 2L~X . This number is used as the index of the basis vector to be chosen.

The basis vectors of a Q x Q orthogonal transform where Q = 2L~l are obtained from a random seed as follows. The random seed (or key) is used to generate uniformly distributed random sequence

λ, θ2, • • •g ι ] , - π ≤ θ, ≤ π .

2

The — - 1 random numbers define the phase of the discrete Fourier

2 transform (DFT) of a sequence H. The magnitudes of the discrete Fourier coefficients are assumed to be unity. Such a sequence H is cyclic all-pass of length Q. H is orthogonal to all its cyclic shifts. Such a sequence derived from a random seed and all its cyclic shifts form a complete basis, and can therefore be considered as the basis vectors of a Q x Q unitary transform matrix.

As an example, let Q=8. Let the — - 1=3 random numbers be

2

[-2.7489, -0.7854, 1.1781]. These random numbers describe are the angles of the Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients of H. The angles of the 8 coefficients of H are

[0, -2.7489, -0.7854, 1.1781, 0, -1.1781, 0.7584, 2.7489] and their magnitudes are equal to 1. The cyclic all-pass filter H is obtained by inverse Discrete Fourier Transform as

[0.2915, -0.1499, 0.3999, -0.0415, 0.5621, 0.5034, -0.2534, -

0.3121]

Each segment of length Q of the signature sequence S of length N carries information pertaining to one symbol between 0 and 2Q-1. Symbol sequence - [ylt y2, ■■• ,yN] ; 0< v, ≤2Q-1 for all i

Q

Signature sequence - [Sλ , S2, •■■ ,SN] = S

~Q

The algorithm for obtaining the signature sequence is as follows for all i sign=l; if y.≥Q shift =y,-Q; sign = -l; else shift = >, ; circularshift (sign x H, shift);

For example, if

H = [0.2915, -0.1499, 0.3999, -0.0415, 0.5621, 0.5034, -0.2534, -0.3121] and y, =2 (circular shift by 2) then,

S, = [-0.2534, -0.3121, 0.2915, -0.1499, 0.3999, -0.0415, 0.5621,

0.5034].

As an other example, if yt = 10 (circular shift by 10-8=2 followed by negation), then

S, = [0.2534,0.3121,-0.2915,0.1499,-0.3999,0.0415,-0.5621,

-0.5034].

The Algorithm for the inverse mapping M~l :Se -» Ie is as follows: Each segment of length Q of the detected sequence Se = [Sel , Se2 , • • , S N ] e — Q corresponds to a symbol. The embedded symbol is estimated as follows: HH=DFT(H) for all i

SS=DFT(Se;);

YY=IDFT(SS.*HH); y =index(max(abs(YY))); if(YY[3e,])<0,then

In the above algorithm, DFT stands for Discrete Fourier Transform and IDFT stands for Inverse DFT. y is the estimate of y, , which is the symbol embedded in the i'th segment of S. Finally, the binary representation of e yel yields the corresponding sequence of bits I , and

'e IJel> 'el' '" i-' e —J ' Q

Ie is the estimate of the hidden bit sequence I.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method for embedding a message signal in a host signal, said method comprising the steps of: (a) embedding said message signal into said host signal, thereby producing a stego signal; and
(b) detecting an estimate of said message signal from said stego signal; provided that said detecting step (b) is not an exact inverse of said embedding step (a), and said host signal cannot be exactly extracted from said stego signal.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said stego signal is corrupted or distorted prior to detecting step (b).
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said embedding step (a) produces a value bl in said stego signal from a value at in said host signal, and wherein
said embedding step (a) comprises limiting to a limit value — , a magnitude of
difference between bl and , .
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said embedding step (a) employs a continuous periodic function to produce said stego signal, and wherein said detecting step (b) employs said continuous periodic function to produce said estimated message signal.
5. The method according to claim 4, wherein said continuous periodic function is a triangular function.
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein said triangular function f(x) has a period Δ , and wherein:
-- ≤ f(x) ≤ - for all x; 4 4 /(0) = ~; and
2 4
7. The method according to claim 1, wherein said embedding step (a) produces a value bj in the said stego signal from a value a, in said host signal and a value s, in said message signal, such that said embedding step (a):
(i) is subject to a maximum distortion constraint P,
(ii) employs a continuous periodic function having period Δ , and
(iii) is represented by the function bl = E(al ,sf ) , and employs an algorithm as follows:
if rem(— '-) > — , then p, = 3 — - rem(—) , Δ 2 4 Δ
Figure imgf000020_0001
e, = s, - p, ;
if (| e, \> £-) , then e, = sign(e,)^ ;
q, = rernXX ;
Δ
if qt > — , then el = -e, ;
if at > 0 , then bl = a et ; else b, = α, - e, .
8. The method according to claim 2, wherein a value δ, in said stego signal is modified after said embedding step (a) to yield a value c, in said corrupted or distorted stego signal, and wherein said detecting step (b):
(i) produces a value sel in said estimated message signal from a value c( in said distorted stego signal,
(ii) employs a continuous periodic function having a period Δ , and (iii) is represented by the function set = D(ct) , and employs an algorithm as follows:
q, = rem(- ;
Δ
if q, > -, t en s = 3-- ql ,
else s„ = q, - - .
9. The method according to claim 2, wherein said host signal is a sequence a, , for = 1 to N ; said message signal is a sequence s, , for i = 1 to N ; said stego signal is a sequence bt , for i = 1 to N ; said corrupted or distorted stego signal is a sequence c, , for i = 1 to N ; and said estimated message signal is a sequence s , for i = 1 to N
10. The method according to claim 1, wherein said embedding step (a):
(i) imposes a limit — on a magnitude difference between a value b, in
said stego signal that is produced from a value at in said host signal; (ii) employs a continuous periodic function having a period Δ to
produce said stego signal, wherein such said limit — and said period Δ are
chosen to minimize a mean square distance between said message signal and said estimated message signal, subject to a maximum distortion constraint P of said embedding step (a).
11. A method for mapping K information bits to a message signal s, , i = 1 to N , said method comprising the steps of: grouping said K information bits together to represent one of 2L symbols, wherein each said 2L symbol is mapped to a basis vector or its negative of a 2i_I x 2i_1 orthogonal transform matrix.
12. The method according to claim 11, wherein said orthogonal transform matrix is obtained from a cyclic all-pass filter and its ciruclar shifts.
13. The method according to claim 12, wherein said cyclic all-pass filter is obtained from a key.
PCT/US2001/024468 2000-08-09 2001-08-02 Method and system for steganographically embedding information bits in source signals WO2002013436A1 (en)

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