Method and apparatus for batched network security protection server performance
Info
 Publication number
 WO2001097442A2 WO2001097442A2 PCT/US2001/018825 US0118825W WO2001097442A2 WO 2001097442 A2 WO2001097442 A2 WO 2001097442A2 US 0118825 W US0118825 W US 0118825W WO 2001097442 A2 WO2001097442 A2 WO 2001097442A2
 Authority
 WO
 Grant status
 Application
 Patent type
 Prior art keywords
 server
 messages
 key
 encrypted
 batch
 Prior art date
Links
Classifications

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L63/00—Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
 H04L63/04—Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks
 H04L63/0428—Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks wherein the data content is protected, e.g. by encrypting or encapsulating the payload
 H04L63/0442—Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks wherein the data content is protected, e.g. by encrypting or encapsulating the payload wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply asymmetric encryption, i.e. different keys for encryption and decryption

 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
 G06F—ELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
 G06F7/00—Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
 G06F7/60—Methods or arrangements for performing computations using a digital nondenominational number representation, i.e. number representation without radix; Computing devices using combinations of denominational and nondenominational quantity representations, e.g. using difunction pulse trains, STEELE computers, phase computers
 G06F7/72—Methods or arrangements for performing computations using a digital nondenominational number representation, i.e. number representation without radix; Computing devices using combinations of denominational and nondenominational quantity representations, e.g. using difunction pulse trains, STEELE computers, phase computers using residue arithmetic
 G06F7/723—Modular exponentiation

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L63/00—Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
 H04L63/16—Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer
 H04L63/166—Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer at the transport layer

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L9/00—Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
 H04L9/08—Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords
 H04L9/0816—Key establishment, i.e. cryptographic processes or cryptographic protocols whereby a shared secret becomes available to two or more parties, for subsequent use
 H04L9/0838—Key agreement, i.e. key establishment technique in which a shared key is derived by parties as a function of information contributed by, or associated with, each of these
 H04L9/0841—Key agreement, i.e. key establishment technique in which a shared key is derived by parties as a function of information contributed by, or associated with, each of these involving DiffieHellman or related key agreement protocols

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L9/00—Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
 H04L9/30—Public key, i.e. encryption algorithm being computationally infeasible to invert or user's encryption keys not requiring secrecy
 H04L9/3006—Public key, i.e. encryption algorithm being computationally infeasible to invert or user's encryption keys not requiring secrecy underlying computational problems or publickey parameters
 H04L9/302—Public key, i.e. encryption algorithm being computationally infeasible to invert or user's encryption keys not requiring secrecy underlying computational problems or publickey parameters involving the integer factorization problem, e.g. RSA or quadratic sieve [QS] schemes

 G—PHYSICS
 G06—COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
 G06F—ELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
 G06F7/00—Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
 G06F7/60—Methods or arrangements for performing computations using a digital nondenominational number representation, i.e. number representation without radix; Computing devices using combinations of denominational and nondenominational quantity representations, e.g. using difunction pulse trains, STEELE computers, phase computers
 G06F7/72—Methods or arrangements for performing computations using a digital nondenominational number representation, i.e. number representation without radix; Computing devices using combinations of denominational and nondenominational quantity representations, e.g. using difunction pulse trains, STEELE computers, phase computers using residue arithmetic
 G06F7/721—Modular inversion, reciprocal or quotient calculation
Abstract
Description
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR BATCHED NETWORK SECURITY PROTECTION SERVER PERFORMANCE
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The claimed invention relates to the field of secure communications. More particularly it relates to improving the efficiency of establishing secure network communications.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Many network transactions require secure communications. The Secure Socket Layer ("SSL") is the most widely deployed protocol for securing communication onthe World Wide Web ("WWW"). SSL along with other protocols such as Transport Layer Security ("TLS") are used by Ecommerce and financial web sites to guarantee privacy and authenticity of information exchanged between a web server and a web browser. Currently, the number of web sites using SSL and TLS to secure web traffic is growing at a phenomenal rate and as the services provided on the World Wide Web continue to expand so will the need to establish secure connections. Unfortunately, SSL and TLS are not cheap. A number of studies show that web servers using these protocols perform far worse than web servers that do not encrypt web traffic. In particular, a web server using SSL can handle 30 to 50 times fewer transactions per second than a web server using cleartext communication only. The exact transaction performance degradation depends on the type of web server used by the site and the security protocol implemented. To overcome this degradation web sites typically buy significantly more hardware in order to provide a reasonable response time to their customers.
Web sites often use one of two techniques to overcome secure communication's impact on performance. The first method, as indicated above, is to deploy more machines at the web site and load balance connections across these machines. This is problematic since more machines are harder to administer. In addition, mean time between failures decreases significantly. The other solution is to install a hardware acceleration card inside the web server. The card handles most of the secure network workload thus enabling the web server to focus on its regular tasks. Accelerator cards are available from a number of vendors and while these cards reduce the penalty of using secure connections, they are relatively expensive and are nontrivial to configure. Thus there is a need to establish secure communications on a network at a lower cost.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A method and apparatus for batching secure communications in a computer network are provided. When a web browser first connects to a web server using secure protocols, the browser and server execute an initial handshake protocol. The outcome of this protocol is a session encryption key and a session integrity key. These keys are only known to the web server and web browser, and establish a secure session.
Once session keys are established, the browser and server begin exchanging data. The data is encrypted using the session encryption key and protected from tampering using the session integrity key. When the browser and server are done exchanging data the connection between them is closed. The establishment of a secure session using a protocol such as Secure
Socket Layer ("SSL") begins when the web browser connects to the web server and sends a clienthello message. Soon after receiving the message, the web server responds with a serverhello message. This message contains the server's public key certificate that informs the client of the server's RivestShamir Adleman algorithm ("RSA") public key. Having received the public key, the browser picks a random 48byte string, R, and encrypts it using the key. Letting C be the resulting ciphertext of the string R, the web browser then sends a clientkeyexchange message containing C. The 48byte string R is called the pre master secret. Upon receiving the message, from the browser, the web server uses its RSA private key to decrypt C and thus learns R. Both the browser and server then use R and some other common information to derive the session keys. With the session keys established, encrypted message can be sent between the browser and server with impunity.
The decryption of the encrypted string, R, is the expensive part of the initial handshake. An RSA public key is made of two integers (N, e). In an embodiment N = pq is the product of two large primes and is typically 1024 bits long. The value e is called the encryption exponent and is typically some small number such as e = 65537. Both N and e are embedded in the server's public key certificate. The RSA private key is simply an integer d satisfying e ■ d = 1 mod (p  1) (q  1). Given an RSA ciphertext C, the web server decrypts C by using its private key to compute & mod N that reveals the plaintext message,
R. Since both d and N are large numbers (each 1024 bits long) this computation takes some effort.
At a later time, the browser may reconnect to the same web server. When this happens the browser and server execute the SSL resume handshake protocol. This protocol causes both server and browser to reuse the session keys established during the initial handshake saving invaluable resources. All application data is then encrypted and protected using the previously established session keys.
Of the three phases, the initial handshake is often the reason why SSL degrades web server performance. During this initial handshake the server performs an RSA decryption or an RSA signature generation. Both operations are relatively expensive and the high cost of the initial handshake is the main reason for supporting the resume handshake protocol. The resume handshake protocol tries to alleviate the cost of the initial handshake by reusing previously negotiated keys across multiple connections. However, in the web environment, where new users constantly connect to the web server, the expensive initial handshake must be executed over and over again at a high frequency. Hence, the need for reducing the cost of the initial handshake protocol. One embodiment presents an implementation of batch RSA in an SSL web server while other embodiments present substantial improvements to the basic batch RSA decryption algorithms. These embodiments show how to reduce the number of inversions in the batch tree to a single inversion. Another embodiment further speeds up the process by proper use of the Chinese Remainder Theorem ("CRT") and simultaneous multiple exponentiation.
A different embodiment entails an architecture for building a batching SSL web server. The architecture in this embodiment is based on using a batching server process that functions as a fast decryption oracle for the main web server processes. The batching server process includes a scheduling algorithm to determine which subset of pending requests to batch.
Yet other embodiments improve the performance of establishing secure connections by reducing the handshake work on the server per connection. One technique supports web browsers that deal with a large encryption exponent in the server's certificate, while another approach supports any browser.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The present invention is illustrated by way of example in the following figures in which like references indicate similar elements. The following figures disclose various embodiments of the claimed invention for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the claimed invention. Figure 1 is a flow diagram of the initial handshake between a web server and a client of an embodiment.
Figure 2 is a block diagram of an embodiment of a network system for improving secure communications.
Figure 3 is a flow diagram for managing multiple certificates using a batching architecture of an embodiment. Figure 4 is a flow diagram of batching encrypted messages prior to decryption in an embodiment.
Figure 5 is a flow diagram for increasing efficiency of the initial handshake process by utilizing cheap keys in an embodiment.
Figure 6 is a flow diagram for increasing efficiency of the initial encryption handshake by utilizing square keys in an embodiment. DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The establishment of a secure connection between a server and a browser can be improved by batching the initial handshakes on the web server. In one embodiment the web server waits until it receives b handshake requests from b different clients. It treats these b handshakes as a batch, or set of handshakes, and performs the necessary computations for all b handshakes at once. Results show that, for b = 4, batching the Secure Socket Layer ("SSL") handshakes in this way results in a factor of 2.5 speedup over doing the b handshakes sequentially, without requiring any additional hardware. While the Secure Socket Layer protocol is a widely utilized technique for establishing a secure network connection, it should be understood that the techniques described herein can be applied to the establishment of any secure network based connection using any of a number protocols. One embodiment improves upon a technique developed by Fiat for batch
RSA decryption. Fiat suggested that decrypting multiple RSA ciphertexts as a batch would be faster than decrypting them one by one. Unfortunately, experiments show that Fiat's basic algorithm, naively implemented, does not give much improvement for key sizes commonly used in SSL and other network security protection handshakes.
A batching web server must manage multiple public key certificates. Consequently, a batching web server must employ a scheduling algorithm that assigns certificates to incoming connections, and picks batches from pending requests, so as to optimize server performance. To encrypt a message using an RSA public key (N, e), the message M is formatted to obtain an integer X in {1, . . . , N). This formatting is often done using the PKCS1 standard. The ciphertext is then computed as C = Jf^{*} mod N. This process occurs during the initial stages of the initial handshake between a client and server when attempting to create a secure connection. To decrypt a ciphertext C the web server uses its private key d to compute the e^{,th} root of C in Z#. The e * root of C is given by ^{(}X mod N as previously noted. Since both d and N are large numbers (each 1024 bits long) this is a lengthy computation on the web server. It is noted that d must be taken as a large number (i.e., on the order of N) since otherwise the RSA system is insecure.
The general process in establishing a Secure Socket Layer communication between a browser or client and a server or host is depicted in
Figure 1. The process begins with a request from the browser to establish a secure session 110. The client forms a hello message requesting a public key and transmits the message to the server 114. Upon receiving the clienthello message, the web server responds with a serverhello message containing a public key 118. The public key is one half of a public / private key pair. While the server transmits the public key back to the browser the server keeps the private key. Once the client receives the public key 122 a random number R is generated 126. This random number is the session key. The client encrypts R by using the private key that it received from the server 132. With the number R encrypted, the client sends the ciphertext to the webserver 138. Upon receiving the ciphertext 142 the web server user the private key portion of the public / private key pair to decrypt the ciphertext 146. With both the client and the server possessing the session key R, a new encrypted secure socket layer session 160 is established using R as the session key 158. This session is truly encrypted since only the client and the web server possess the session key for encryption and decryption.
When using small public exponents, ei and e_{2}, which are components of the public key, it is possible to decrypt two ciphertexts for approximately the price of one. Suppose vι is a ciphertext obtained by encrypting using the public key (N, 3). Similarly, imagine v_{2} is a ciphertext obtained by encrypting using the public key (N, 5). To decrypt i and v_{2}, computing ι^{1/3} and Vi^{1 5} mod N are made by setting A = (v_{\} ^{•} v_{2} ^{3})^{1 15} it can be shown that
Hence, at the cost of computing a single 15^{th} root both vj. and v_{2} can be decrypted. This batching technique is most useful when the public exponents ei and e_{2} are very small (e.g., 3 and 5). Otherwise, the extra arithmetic required can be expensive. Also, only ciphertexts encrypted using distinct public exponents can be batch decrypted. Indeed, it can be shown that it is not possible to batch when the same public key is used. That is, it is not possible to batch the computation of v\ ^{β} and v_{2} ^{1/3}.
This observation to the decryption of a batch of b RSA ciphertexts can be generalized. In one embodiment there are b distinct and pairwise relatively prime public keys ei, . . . ,e, all sharing a common modulus Npq. Furthermore, assume there are b encrypted messages, v\, . . . , V_{b,} one encrypted with each key, that are desirable to decrypt simultaneously, to obtain the plaintexts m_{t} = v_{t} ^{e}' .
The batch process is implemented around a complete binary tree with b leaves, possessing the additional property that every inner node has two children. In one embodiment the notation is biased towards expressing locally recursive algorithms: Values are percolated up and down the tree. With one exception, quantities subscripted by L or R refer to the corresponding value of the left or right child of the node, respectively. For example, m is the value ofm at a node; m is the value of at that node's right child and so forth. Certain values necessary to batching depend on the particular placement of keys in the tree and may be precomputed and reused for multiple batches. Precomputed values in the batch tree are denoted with capital letters, and values that are computed in a particular decryption are denoted with lowercase letters. The batching algorithm consists of three phases: an upwardpercolation phase, an exponentiation phase, and a downwardpercolation phase. In the upwardpercolation phase, the individual encrypted messages v, are combined to form, at the root of the batch tree, the value
v
 In preparation, assign to each leaf node a public exponent: E < e_{t}. Each inner node then has its E computed as the product of those of its children: E r E  E_{R}. The root node's E will be equal to e, the product of all the public exponents. Each encrypted message v, is placed (as v) in the leaf node labeled with its corresponding e_{t}. The v's are percolated up the tree using the following recursive step, applied at each inner node:At the completion of the upwardpercolation phase, the root node contains v = ]^J _{=1} v ^{e}' . In the exponentiation phase, the e ^{ft} root of this v is extracted. Here, the knowledge of factorization of N is required. The exponentiation yields v^{1/e} = [ ^{b} _{i=Λ}v)^{le}' , which is stored as m in the root node.
In the downwardpercolation phase, the intent is to break up the product m into its constituent subproducts
and TW_{R}, and, eventually, into the decrypted messages m_{t} at the leaves. At each inner node an is chosen satisfying the following simultaneous congruencies:X= 0 (mod E_{L}) X= 1 (mod E_{R}).
The value is constructed using the Chinese Remainder Theorem ("CRT"). Two further numbers, and X_{R}, are defined at each node as follows: _{L} = EL _{R} = (  1)/E_{R}.
Both divisions are done over the integers. (There is a slight infelicity in the naming here: _{L} and _{R} are not the same as theXs of the node's left and right children, as implied by the use of the L and R subscripts, but separate values.) The values of X, X and _{R} are such that, at each inner node, m equals v ■ v^^{R} • m_{R} . This immediately suggests the recursive step used in downwardpercolation: w_{R} < m^{x} / v_{L} v_{R} ^{R} ) w_{L} < /w_{R} .
At the end of the downwardpercolation process, each leafs m contains the decryption of the v placed there originally. Only one large (fullsize) exponentiation is needed, instead of b of them. In addition, the process requires a total of 4 small exponentiations, 2 inversions, and 4 multiplications at each of the b  1 inner nodes.
Basic batch RSA is fast with very large moduli, but may not provide a significant speed improvement for common sized moduli. This is because batching is essentially a tradeoff. Batching produces more auxiliary operations in exchange for fewer fullstrength exponentiations.
Batching in an SSLenabled web server focuses on key sizes generally employed on the web, e.g., n = 1024 bits. Furthermore, this embodiment also limits the batch size b to small numbers, on the order of b = 4, since collecting large batches can introduce unacceptable delay. For simplicity of analysis and implementation, the values of b are restricted to powers of 2.
Previous schemes perform two divisions at each internal node, for a total of 2b  2 required modular inversions. Modular inversions are asymptotically faster than large modular exponentiations. In practice, however, modular inversions are costly. Indeed, the first implementation (with b = 4 and a 1024 bit modulus) spends more time doing the inversions than doing the large exponentiation at the root. Two embodiments, when combined, require only a single modular inversion throughout the algorithm with the cost of an additional O(b) modular multiplication. This tradeoff gives a substantial runningtime improvement.
The first embodiment is referred to herein as delayed division. An important realization about the downwardpercolation phase is that the actual value of m for the internal nodes of the tree is consulted only for calculating m^ and TWR. An alternative representation of m that supports the calculation of _{L} and WJ_{R}, and that can be evaluated at the leaves to yield m would do just as well. This embodiment converts a modular division alb to a "promise," {a, b). This promise can operate as though it were a number, and, can "force" getting its value by actually computing b^{Λ}a. Operations on these promises work in a way similar to operations in projective coordinates as follows: a/b = {a,b) (a,b)^{c} = (V,b^{c}) c(a,b) = (ac,b) (a,b) (c,d) = (ac,bd) .
(a, b)lc = {a, be) (a, b) l(c, d) = (ad, be)
Multiplication and exponentiation takes twice as much work had these promises not been utilized, but division can be computed without resort to modular inversion. If, after the exponentiation at the root, the root m is expressed as a promise, m < (m, 1), this embodiment can easily convert the downward percolation step to employ promises: m_{R} < m^{x} /(y v ^{R} ) m_{L} < m/m_{R} . No internal inversions are required. The promises can be evaluated at the leaves to yield the decrypted messages.
Batching with promises uses b  1 additional small exponentiations and b  1 additional multiplications. This translates to one exponentiation and one multiplication at every inner node, saving 2(b  1)  b = b  2 inversions. To further reduce the number of inversions, another embodiment uses batched divisions. When using delayed inversions one division is needed for every leaf of the batch tree. In the embodiment using batched divisions, these b divisions can be done at the cost of a single inversion with a few more multiplications. As an example of this embodiment, invert three values x, y, and z. Continue by forming the partial product yz, xz, and xy and then form the total product xyz and invert it, yielding (xyz)^{'1}. With these values, calculate all the inverses: x = (yz) ■ (xyz)^{'1} y^{'1} = (xz) ^{■} (xyz)^{'1} z^{Λ} = (xy) • (xyz)^{'1} Thus the inverses of all three numbers are obtained at the cost of only a single modular inverse along with a number of multiplications. More generally, it can be shown that by letting xi, . . . , x„ e Z_{N}, all n inverses xj^{"1} , . . . , x^{~l} can be obtained at the cost of one inversion and 3n  3 multiplications.
It can be proven that a general batchedinversion algorithm proceeds in three phases. First,
xι, and A_{t}  Xj • A_{t}ι for / > 1. By induction, it can be shown thatNext, invert A_{n} = , and store the result in
R„ : B_{n} < (A„ )^{~X} = [x]^{1} ■ Now, set B_{t} <r x_{i+}ι • R,+ι for i < n. Again, it can be shown that
Finally, set Q  B and Q r A_{iΛ} • B_{t} for / > 1. Furthermore, Q = 5ι = x and, by combining, = A_{iΛ} • B_{t} = xf^{l} for i > 1. This embodiment has thus inverted each x_{t}. Each phase above requires n  1 multiplications, since one of the « values is available without recourse to multiplication in each phase. Therefore, the entire algorithm computes the inverses of all the inputs in n  3 multiplications and a single inversion.
In another embodiment batched division can be combined with delayed division, wherein promises at the leaves of the batch tree are evaluated using batched division. Consequently, only a single modular inversion is required for the entire batching procedure. Note that the batch division algorithm can be easily modified to conserve memory and store only n intermediate values at any given time. The Chinese Remainder Theorem is typically used in calculating RSA decryptions. Rather than computing m  v^{d} (mod N), the modulo p and q is evaluated: m_{p} < v_{p} ^{dp} (mod p) m_{q}  γ^{d} _{p}' (mod q).
Here d_{p} = d modp  1 and d_{q} = d mod q  1. Correspondingly the CRT can calculate m from m_{p} and m_{q}. This is approximately 4 times faster than evaluating m directly.
This idea extends naturally to batch decryption. In one embodiment each encrypted message v, modulo ? and q is reduced. Then, instead of using a single batch tree modulo N, two separate, parallel batch trees, modulo p and q, are used and then combined to the final answers from both using the CRT.
Batching in each tree takes between a quarter and an eighth as long as in the original, unified tree since the numbertheoretical primitives employed, as commonly implemented, take quadratic or cubic time in the bitlength of the modulus. Furthermore, the b CRT steps required to calculate each m_{t} mod N afterwards take negligible time compared to the accrued savings. Another embodiment referred to herein as Simultaneous Multiple Exponentiation provides a method for calculating a" • b^{v} mod m without first evaluating a" b^{v} . It requires approximately as many multiplications as does a single exponentiation with the larger of u or v as an exponent. For example, in the percolateupward step, V < F ^{R} • V ^{L} , the entire righthand side can be computed in a single multiexponentiation. The percolatedownward step involves the calculation of the quantity
^{V} _{L} ^{L} " ^{V} _{R} ^{R} _{5} which can be accelerated similarly. These smallexponentiationsand product calculations are a larger part of the extra bookkeeping work required for batching. Using Simultaneous Multiple Exponentiation reduces the time required to perform them by close to 50% by combining the exponentiation process.
Yet another embodiment involves Node Reordering. Normally there are two factors that determine performance for a particular batch of keys. First, smaller encryption exponents are better. The number of multiplications required for evaluating a small exponentiation is proportional to the number of bits in the exponent. Since upward and downward percolation both use 0(b) small exponentiations, increasing the value of e = II e, can have a drastic effect on the efficiency of batching. Second, some exponents work well together. In particular, the number of multiplications required for a Simultaneous Multiple Exponentiation is proportional to the number of bits in the larger of the two exponents. If batch trees are built that have balanced exponents for multiple exponentiation (E_{L} and E_{R}, then z, and /?, at each inner node), the multiexponentiation phases can be streamlined.
With b = 4, optimal reordering is fairly simple. Given public exponents e_{j} < e_{2} < e_{3} < e_{4} , the arrangement e_{λ} e_{4} e_{2} e_{3} minimizes the disparity between the exponents used in Simultaneous Multiple Exponentiation in both upward and downward percolation. Rearranging is harder for b > 4. Figure 2 is an embodiment of a system 200 for improving secure communications. The system includes multiple client computers 232, 234, 236, 238 and 240 which are coupled to a server system 210 through a network 230. The network 230 can be any network, such as a local area network, a wide area network, or the Internet. Coupled among the server system 210 and the network 230 is a decryption server. While illustrated as a separate entity in Figure 2, the decryption server can be located independent of the server system or in the environment or among any number of server sites 212, 214 and 216. The client computers each include one or more processors and one or more storage devices. Each of the client computers also includes a display device, and one or more input devices. All of the storage devices store various data and software programs. In one embodiment, the method for improving secure communications is carried out on the system 200 by software instructions executing on one or more of the client computers 232  240. The software instructions may be stored on the server system 210 any one of the server sites 212  216 or on any one of the client computers 232  240. For example, one embodiment presents a hosted application where an enterprise requires secure communications with the server. The software instructions to enable the communication are stored on the server and accessed through the network by a client computer operator of the enterprise. In other embodiments, the software instructions may be stored and executed on the client computer. A user of the client computer with the help of a user interface can enter data required for the execution of the software instructions. Data required for the execution of the software instructions can also be accessed via the network and can be stored anywhere on the network.
Building the batch RSA algorithm into realworld systems presents a number of architectural challenges. Batching, by its very nature, requires an aggregation of requests. Unfortunately, commonlydeployed protocols and programs are not designed with RSA aggregation in mind. The solution in one embodiment is to create a batching server process that provides its clients with a decryption oracle, abstracting away the details of the batching procedure. With this approach modifications to the existing servers are minimized.
Moreover, it is possible to simplify the architecture of the batch server itself by freeing it from the vagaries of the SSL protocol. An example of the resulting web server design is shown in Figure 3. Note that in batching the web server manages multiple certificates, i.e., multiple public keys, all sharing a common modulus N 310.
One embodiment for managing multiple certificates is the twotier model. For a protocol that calls for publickey decryption, the presence of a batchdecryption server 320 induces a twotier model. First is the batch server process that aggregates and performs RSA decryptions. Next are client processes that send decryption requests to the batch server. These client processes implement the higherlevel application protocol (e.g., SSL) and interact with enduser agents (e.g., browsers).
Hiding the workings of the decryption server from its clients means that adding support for batch RSA decryption to existing servers engenders the same changes as adding support for hardwareaccelerated decryption. The only additional challenge is in assigning the different public keys to the endusers such that there are roughly equal numbers of decryption requests with each e_{t}.
As the enduser response times are highly unpredictable, there is a limit to the flexibility that may be employed in the public key distribution.
If there are A; keys each with a corresponding certificate, it is possible to create a web with ck web server processes with a particular key assigned to each. This approach provides that individual server processes need not be aware of the existence of multiple keys. The correct value for c depends on factors such as, but not limited to, the load on the site, the rate at which the batch server can perform decryption, and the latency of the communication with the clients. Another embodiment accommodates workload unpredictability. The batch server performs a set of related tasks including receiving requests for decryption, each of which is encrypted with a particular public exponent e;. Having received the requests it aggregates these into batches and performs the batch decryption as described herein. Finally, the server responds to the requests for decryption with the corresponding plaintext messages. The first and last of these tasks are relatively simple I/O problems and the decryption stage is discussed herein. What remains is the scheduling step. One embodiment possesses scheduling criteria including maximum throughput, minimum turnaround time, and minimum turnaroundtime variance. The first two criteria are selfevident and the third is described herein. Lower turnaroundtime variance means the server's behavior is more consistent and predictable which helps prevent client timeouts. It also tends to prevent starvation of requests, which is a danger under more exotic scheduling policies.
Under these constraints a batch server's scheduling can implement a queue where older requests are handled first. At each step the server seeks the batch that allows it to service the oldest outstanding requests. It is impossible to compute a batch that includes more than one request encrypted with any particular public exponent e_{t}. This immediately leads to the central realization about batch scheduling that it makes no sense, in a batch, to service a request that is not the oldest for a particular e,. However, substituting the oldest request for a key into the batch improves the overall turnaroundtime variance and makes the batch server better approximate a perfect queue.
Therefore, in choosing a batch, this embodiment needs only consider the oldest pending request for each e,. To facilitate this, the batch server keeps k queues Q_{t}, or one for each key. When a request arrives, it is placed onto the queue that corresponds to the key with which it was encrypted. This process takes O(l) time. In choosing a batch, the server examines only the heads of each of the queues.
Suppose that there are k keys, with public exponents e\, . . ., e, and that the server decrypts requests in batches of b messages each. The correct requests to batch are the b oldest requests from amongst the k queue heads. If the request queues Q_{t} are kept in a heap with priority determined by the age of the request at the queue head, then batch selection can be accomplished by extracting the maximum, oldesthead, queue from the heap, dequeue the request at its head, and repeat the process to obtain b requests to batch. After the batch has been selected, the b queues from which requests were taken may be replaced in the heap. The entire process takes O(blg&) time.
Another embodiment utilizes multibatch scheduling. While the process described above picks only a single batch, it is possible, in some cases, to choose several batches at once. For example, with b = 2, k = 3, and requests for the keys 3357 in the queues, the onestep lookahead may choose to do a 57 batch first, after which only the unbatchable 33 remain. A smarter server could choose to do 35 and 37 instead. The algorithms for doing lookahead are more complicated than the singlebatch algorithms. Additionally, since they take into account factors other than request age, they can worsen turnaround time variance or lead to request starvation.
A more fundamental objection to multibatch lookahead is that performing a batch decryption takes a significant amount of time. Accordingly, if the batch server is under load, additional requests will arrive by the time the first chosen batch has been completed. These can make a better batch available than was without the new requests.
But servers are not always under maximal load. Server design must take different load conditions into account. One embodiment reduces latency in a mediumload environment by using k public keys on the web server and allowing batching of any subset of b of them, for some b < k. To accomplish this the batches must be preconstructed and the constants associated with(* ) batch trees must be keep in memory one for each set of e's.
However, it is no longer necessary to wait for exactly one request with each e before a batch is possible. For k keys batched b at a time, the expected number of requests required to give a batch is b I
E[# requests] = k • .
M ki+l
This equation assumes each incoming request uses one of the A; keys randomly and independently. With b = 4, moving from k = 4 to k = 6 drops the expected length of the request queue at which a batch is available by more than
31%, from 8.33 to 5.70.
The particular relationship of b and k can be tuned for a particular server. The batchselection algorithm described herein is timeperformance logarithmic in k, so the limiting factor on k is the size of the k^{th} prime, since particularly large values of e degrade the performance of batching. In lowload situations, requests trickle in slowly, and waiting for a batch to be available can introduce unacceptable latency. A batch server should have some way of falling back on unbatched RSA decryption, and, conversely, if a batch is available and batching is a better use of processor time than unbatched RSA, the servers should be able to exploit these advantages. So, by the considerations given above, the batch server should perform only a single unbatched decryption, then look for new batching opportunities.
Scheduling the unbatched decryptions introduces some complications. Previous techniques in the prior art provide algorithms that when requests arrive, a batch is accomplished if possible, otherwise a single unbatched decryption is done. This type of protocol leads to undesirable real world behavior. The batch server tends to exhaust its queue quickly. Furthermore it responds immediately to each new request and never accumulates enough requests to batch. One embodiment chooses a different approach that does not exhibit the performance degradation associated with the prior art. The server waits for new requests to arrive, with a timeout. When new requests arrive, it adds them to its queues. If a batch is available, it evaluates it. The server falls back on unbatched RSA decryptions only when the requestwait times out. This approach increases the server's turnaroundtime under light load, but scales gracefully in heavy use. The timeout value is tunable.
Since modular exponentiation is asymptotically more expensive than the other operations involved in batching, the gain from batching approaches a factorofb improvement only when the key size is improbably large. With 1024bit RSA keys the overhead is relatively high and a naive implementation is slower than unbatched RSA. The improvements described herein lower the overhead and improve performance with small batches and standard keysizes.
Batching provides a sizeable improvement over plain RSA with b ^{~} 8 and n = 2048. More important, even with standard 1024bit keys, batching significantly improves performance. With b = 4, RSA decryption is accelerated by a factor of 2.6; with b = 8, by a factor of almost 3.5. These improvements can be leveraged to improve SSL handshake performance. At small key sizes, for example n = 512, an increase in batch size beyond b = 4 provides only a modest improvement in RSA performance. Because of the increased latency that large batch sizes impose on SSL handshakes, especially when the web server is not under high load, large batch sizes are of limited utility for realworld deployment.
SSL handshake performance improvements using batching can be demonstrated by writing a simple web server that responds to SSL handshake requests and simple HTTP requests. The server uses the batching architecture described herein. The web server is a preforked server, relying on "thundering herd" behavior for scheduling. All preforked server processes contact an additional batching server process for all RSA decryptions as described herein.
Batching increases handshake throughput by a factor of 2.0 to 2.5, depending on the batch size. At better than 200 handshakes per second, the batching web server is competitive with hardwareaccelerated SSL web servers, without the need for the expensive hardware.
Figure 4 is a flow diagram for improving secure socket layer communication through batching of an embodiment. As in a typical initial handshake between server and client in establishing a secure connection, the client uses the server's public key to encrypt a random string R and then sends the encrypted R to the server 420. The message is then cached 425 and the batching process begins by determining is there is sufficient encrypted messages coming into the server to form a batch 430. If the answer to that query is no, it is determined if the scheduling algorithm has timed out 440. Again if the answer is no the message returns to be held with other cached messages until a batch has been formed or the scheduler has timed out. If the scheduler has timed out 440 then the web server receives the encrypted message from the client containing R 442. The server then employs the private key of the public / private RSA key pair to decrypt the message and determine R 446. With R determined the client and the server use R to secure further communication 485 and establish an encrypted session 490.
Should enough encrypted messages be available to create a batch 430 the method examines the possibility of scheduling multiple batches 450. With the scheduling complete the exponents of the private key are balanced, 455, and the e root of the combined messages is extracted 458 allowing a common root to be determined and utilized 460. The embodiment continues by reducing the number of inversions by conducting delayed division 462 and batched division 468. With the divisions completed, separate parallel batch trees are formed to determine the final inversions that are then combined 470. At this point simultaneous multiple exponents are applied to decrypt the messages 472 which are separated 476 and sent to the server in clear text 480. With the server and client both possessing the session key R 485 a encrypted session can be established 490.
Batching increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of decrypting the ciphertext message containing the session's common key. By combining the decryption of several messages in an optimized and time saving manner the server is capable of processing more messages thus increasing bandwidth and improving the over all effectiveness of the network. While the batching techniques described previously are a dramatic improvement in secure socket layer communication, other techniques can also be employed to improve the handshake protocol.
Another embodiment for the improvement to the handshake protocol focuses on how the web server generates its RSA key and how it obtains a certificate for its public key. By altering how the browser uses the server's public key to encrypt a plaintext R, and how the web server uses its private key to decrypt the resulting ciphertext C, this embodiment provides significant improvements to SSL communications. In one embodiment a server generates an RSA public/private key pair by generating two distinct nbit primes/? and q and computing N pq. While N can be of any arbitrary size, assume for simplicity that N is 1024 bits long and let w ~ gcd(p  l, q  l) where gcd is the greatest common divisor. The server then picks two random >it values η, r_{2} such that gcd(n,p  1) = 1, gcd(r , q  1) = 1, and r_{\} = r_{2} mod w. Typically k falls in the range of 160 512 bits in size.
Although other larger values are also acceptable, k is minimized to enhance performance. The server then computes d such that d r\ mod/?  1 and d = r_{2} mod q  1. Having computed d, e' is found by solving the equation e' = cT^{1} mod φ(N) resulting in the public key being (N, e') and the private key <η, r_{2}).
The server then sends the public key to a Certificate Authority (CA). The CA returns a public key certificate for this public key even though e' is very large, namely on the order of N. This is unlike standard RSA public key certificates that use a small value of e, e.g. e = 65537. Consequently, the CA must be willing to generate certificates for such keys.
To find dthe Chinese Remainder Theorem is typically used. Unfortunately,/?  1 and q  1 are not relatively prime (they are both even) and consequently the theorem does not apply. However, by letting w = gcd(p  \, q
1 1
 1), knowing that and are relatively prime, and recalling that rj_{.} = w w r = a mod w, the CRT can be used to find an element d' such that ri na ( v \\ d' = mod w w J r_{2} a f d' = mod q1 w w
Observing that the required d is simply d = w • d' + a and indeed, d = ri mod /?  1 and d = r_{2} mod q  1 , if w is large, the requirement that r_{\} = r_{2} mod w reduces the entropy of the private key. For this reason it is desirable to ensure that w is small and one embodiment lets w = 2, or namely that gcd(p  I, q  1) = 2. Recall that gcd(r_{h}p  1) = 1 and gcd(r_{2}, q  l) = l. It follows that gcd(d,p  1) = 1 and gcd(d, q  l) = l and consequently gcd(d, (p  l)(q  1)) = 1. Hence, d is invertible modulo φ(N) = (p  T)(q  1).
The web browser obtains the server's public key certificate from the serverhello message. In this embodiment, the certificate contains the server's public key (N, e). The web browser encrypts the premastersecret R using this public key in exactly the same way it encrypts using a normal RSA key. Hence, there is no need to modify any of the browser's software. The only issue is that since e' is much larger than e in a normal RSA key, the browser must be willing to accept such public keys.
When the web server receives the ciphertext C from the web browser the web server then uses the server's private key, (ri, r_{2}), to decrypt C. To accomplish this the server computes R{ = C mod/? and R'_{2} = C^{2} modg. Using CRT the server then computes an R e Z_{N} such that R = R{ mod /? and R = R_{2} mod q , noting that R = & mod N. Hence, the resulting R is a proper decryption of C. Decryption using a standard RSA public key is completed with ^{1} mod
N using the CRT. Typically Ri = ( ^{dmodP} D _{mo}d ? and R_{2} = ^{dmoά q ~ l)} mod q is first computed and then the CRT is applied to Ri, R_{2} to obtain R mod N. Note that the exponents dmodp — 1 and dmod q — 1 are typically as large as p and q, namely 512 bits each. Hence, to generate the signature the server must compute one exponentiation modulo /? and one exponentiation modulo q. When
Nis 1024 bits, the server does two full exponentiations modulo 512bit numbers.
In one embodiment, the server computes R{ , R_{2} and then applies CRT to Ri , R_{2}. As in normal RSA, the bulk of the work is in computing R{ , R_{2}. However, computing R{ requires raising C to the power of r\, which minimized.
Since the time that modular exponentiation takes is linear in time to the size of the exponent, computing R[ takes approximately one third the work and one third of the time of raising C to the power of a 512 bit exponent. Hence, computing R{ takes one third the work of computing R\. Therefore, during the entire decryption process the server does approximately one third the work as in a normal SSL handshake.
To illustrate the implementation of this embodiment suppose Eve is an eavesdropper that listens on the network while the handshake protocol is taking place. Eve sees the server's public key (N, e') and the encrypted premaster secret C. Suppose r_{\} < r_{2}. It can be shown that an adversary who has (N, e', C) can mount an attack on the system that runs in time O( ri l°g ^{r} _{\} )■
Let (N, e ') be an RSA public key with N = pq and let d e Zbe the corresponding RSA private key satisfying d = ri, mod ?  1 and d = r_{2} mod q  1 with π < r_{2}. If ri is m bits long and it is assumed that r/ ≠ r_{2} mod 2^{m 2}, then given (N, e ') an adversary can expose the private key d in time
One skilled in the art knows that e' = (n)^{'x} mod (p  1). But, suppose is m bits long. If n = A ^{■} 2^{m/2} + B where A, B axe in [0, 2^{m/2}] and a random g e Z_{N} is selected combined with the definition^{o}t 
** then if follows that G(g^{e' ' B}) = 0 mod p. This occurs since one of the products above is( '^ ._{g} ^{«}'* _{g}) _{= g} __{g =} o (_{modp})_{.}
Since ri ≠ r_{2} mod 2^{w2}, it can be shown that G(g^{e}' ^{B}) ≠ mod q. Hence, gcd (N, G(g^{e S})) gives a nontrivial factor of N. Hence, if G(x) mod Nis evaluated at x = g^{e' '•/} for/ = 0, . . . , 2^{m/2} at least one of the values will expose the factorization of N. Evaluating a polynomial of degree 2^{ml2} at 2^{ml2} values can be done in time 2^{ml2} • m/2 using Fast Fourier Transform methods. This algorithm requires
0\2^{m} ) space. Hence, in time at most 0 log r_{t} j we can factor N. Thus in order to obtain security of 2^{80}, both n and r_{2} must be at least 160 bits long. Figure 5 is a flow diagram for improving secure socket layer communications of an embodiment by altering the public / private key pair. In operation, the server generates an RSA public / private key pair initiating a normal initial handshake protocol 510. At this point the server generates two distinct prime numbers 515 and takes the product of the numbers to produce the Ν component of the public key 520. Similarly, the server picks two random values to create the private key 525. Using the prime numbers 515 and the random values of the private key 525, the server computes the value d 530 and correspondingly the value e^{1} 535. The result is a new public / private key pair 540 that the client uses to encrypt the premastersecret R 550. Once R has been encrypted with the new public key and transmitted to the server as cipher text C, the server uses it private key to decrypt the premastersecret 560. Once Ri and R_{2} have been determined 565 they are combined to find R 570. Having the value of the premastersecret intact, the server and client can establish a secure session 580. A further embodiment dealing with the handshake protocol reduces the work per connection on the web server by a factor of two. This embodiment works with all existing browsers. As before, the embodiment is illustrated by describing how the web server generates its RSA key and obtains a certificate for its public key. This embodiment continues in describing how the browser uses the server's public key to encrypt a plaintext R, and the server uses its private key to decrypt the resulting ciphertext C.
In this embodiment the server generates an RSA public/private key pair by generating two distinct nbit primes/? and q such that the size of each distinct prime number is on the order of one third of the size of N. Using this relationship the server computes N^{1} as N p^{2} q. The relationship between the prime numbers and N is dependent on the power by which one of the prime number is raised. For example if one of the prime numbers was raised to the fourth power the prime numbers would be on the order of one fifth the size of N. The exponent of at least one of the prime numbers must be greater than one. While clearly N can be of arbitrary size, assume for simplicity that N is 1024 bits long, and hence/? and q are 341 bits each. The server uses the same e used in standard RSA public keys, namely e = 65537 as long as gcd(e, (p  1) (q  1)) = 1. The server then computes d = e mod (p  l)(q  1) as well as ri = d mod/?  1 and r_{2} = d mod q  1. With the public key being (N^{1}, e) and the private key being (ri, r_{2}), the server sends the public key, <N, e), to a Certificate Authority (CA) and the CA returns a public key certificate. The public key in this case cannot be distinguished from a standard RSA public key.
The web browser obtains the server's public key certificate from the serverhello message. The certificate contains the server's public key (tV, e).
The web browser encrypts the premastersecret R using this public key in exactly the same way it encrypts using a normal RSA key.
When the web server receives the ciphertext C from the web browser the web server decrypts Cby computing R{ = C mod ? and R_{2} = C^{2} odq . Note that (R[ )^{e} = Cmodp and (R'_{2} )^{e} = C mod q. Lifting the server constructs an RI' such that (R")^{e} = C modp^{2}. More precisely, the server computes
Using CRT, the server computes an R e Z_{N} such that R = R[ mod p ^{2} and R = R_{2} mod q noting that R = ^{(}X mod N. Hence, the resulting R is a proper decryption of C. Recall that when N is 1024 bits, the server does two full exponentiations modulo 512bit numbers.
In this embodiment the server computes Rι,R_{2}, Rf and then applies CRT to R{, R_{2}' . The bulk of the work is in computing R[, R_{2}' , R but computing R{ requires a full exponentiation modulo a 341 bit prime rather than a 512bit prime. The same holds for R_{2}. Hence in this embodiment, computing R{ , R_{2} takes approximately half the time of computing R R_{2}.
Furthermore, computing R{' from R{ only requires a modular inversion modulo p^{2}. This takes little time when compared with the exponentiations for computing R{ , R_{2}. Hence, using this embodiment the handshake takes approximately half the work of a normal handshake on the server. Some accelerator cards do not provide support for modular inversion.
As a result, the inversion is preformed using an exponentiation. This is done by observing that for any x e ZJ, the inverse of x is given by:
_{X}^{I} _{= X}P^{2}P^{I} (_{modp}2).
Unfortunately, using an exponentiation to do the inversion hurts performance. As discussed herein a better embodiment for inversion in this case is batching.
One can invert two numbers x ,x_{2} e Z^{*} _{p} as a batch faster than inverting the two numbers separately. To do so use the fact that
Λr ^{1} = x_{2} ^{•} (x_{\ 2} )^{_1} and ^{χ} _{2} ^{!} = ^{x}ι ^{•} (^{x}ι^{χ} _{2})^{~1} (modp^{2}). Hence, at the cost of inverting xι ^{■} x_{2} it is possible to invert both xι and _{2}. This embodiment shows that an inversion of k elements x, , ... , x_{k} e Z^{*} is at the cost of one inversion and k log_{2} k multiplications. Thus, the amortized cost of a single inversion is Ilk of an exponentiation plus log_{2} k multiplications. To take advantage of batched inversion in the SSL handshake a number of instances of the handshake protocol are collected from among different users and the inversion is preformed on all handshakes as a batch. As a result, the
amortized total number of exponentiations per handshake is 2 + — . This
K approximately gives a factor of two improvement in the handshake work on the server as compared to the normal handshake protocol.
The security of the improved handshake protocol depends on the difficulty of factoring integers of the form N=p^{2 ■} q. When 1024 bit keys are used the fastest factoring algorithms (i.e. the number field sieve) cannot take advantage of the special structure of N. Similarly,/? and # are well beyond the capabilities of the Elliptic Curve Method (ECM).
Figure 6 is a flow diagram for modifying the public key of an embodiment to facilitate an improvement in secure socket layer communication. As in other embodiments, the process begins with the servers generation of a RSA public / private key pair 610. In this embodiment, the public key is modified. The web server generates two distinct prime numbers 612 and computes a new Ν' 618. Using the same exponent 620 the server computes the value d 622 which it uses to find the private key 628. The result is a pubic / private key combination 630 that the sever then sends to the client for the encryption of the premastersecret 640. Once the server receives the encrypted premastersecret, R, from the client 650 the server decrypts R 660 by computing RI 662 and R2 668 and combining the results 670. Once R has been determined the client can establish a secure session with the client using the new session key 680. From the above description and drawings, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the particular embodiments shown and described are for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the claimed invention.
Claims
Priority Applications (5)
Application Number  Priority Date  Filing Date  Title 

US21103100 true  20000612  20000612  
US21102300 true  20000612  20000612  
US60/211,023  20000612  
US60/211,031  20000612  
US09877302 US20020039420A1 (en)  20000612  20010608  Method and apparatus for batched network security protection server performance 
Publications (2)
Publication Number  Publication Date 

WO2001097442A2 true true WO2001097442A2 (en)  20011220 
WO2001097442A3 true WO2001097442A3 (en)  20030206 
Family
ID=27395582
Family Applications (2)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

PCT/US2001/018878 WO2001097443A3 (en)  20000612  20010612  Method and apparatus for enhancing network security protection server performance 
PCT/US2001/018825 WO2001097442A3 (en)  20000612  20010612  Method and apparatus for batched network security protection server performance 
Family Applications Before (1)
Application Number  Title  Priority Date  Filing Date 

PCT/US2001/018878 WO2001097443A3 (en)  20000612  20010612  Method and apparatus for enhancing network security protection server performance 
Country Status (2)
Country  Link 

US (1)  US20020039420A1 (en) 
WO (2)  WO2001097443A3 (en) 
Cited By (2)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US7725927B2 (en)  20051028  20100525  Yahoo! Inc.  Low codefootprint security solution 
US9367832B2 (en)  20060104  20160614  Yahoo! Inc.  Synchronizing image data among applications and devices 
Families Citing this family (38)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US7509486B1 (en) *  19990708  20090324  Broadcom Corporation  Encryption processor for performing accelerated computations to establish secure network sessions connections 
US20020087884A1 (en) *  20000612  20020704  Hovav Shacham  Method and apparatus for enhancing network security protection server performance 
US7137143B2 (en)  20000807  20061114  Ingrian Systems Inc.  Method and system for caching secure web content 
US20040015725A1 (en) *  20000807  20040122  Dan Boneh  Clientside inspection and processing of secure content 
US7757278B2 (en) *  20010104  20100713  Safenet, Inc.  Method and apparatus for transparent encryption 
US20060149962A1 (en) *  20030711  20060706  Ingrian Networks, Inc.  Network attached encryption 
US20070107067A1 (en) *  20020824  20070510  Ingrian Networks, Inc.  Secure feature activation 
DE602005017750D1 (en) *  20040304  20091231  Nxp Bv  A method for exponentieren or scalar multiplied by several elements 
US7519835B2 (en) *  20040520  20090414  Safenet, Inc.  Encrypted table indexes and searching encrypted tables 
JP4162237B2 (en) *  20040624  20081008  インターナショナル・ビジネス・マシーンズ・コーポレーションＩｎｔｅｒｎａｔｉｏｎａｌ Ｂｕｓｉｎｅｓｓ Ｍａｓｃｈｉｎｅｓ Ｃｏｒｐｏｒａｔｉｏｎ  Encrypted communication system for distributing selectively message to a plurality of decoding apparatus, the encryption apparatus, decryption apparatus, encryption method, decryption method, an encryption program, and a decoding program 
US20070180228A1 (en) *  20050218  20070802  Ulf Mattsson  Dynamic loading of hardware security modules 
US20070038703A1 (en) *  20050714  20070215  Yahoo! Inc.  Content router gateway 
US20070016636A1 (en) *  20050714  20070118  Yahoo! Inc.  Methods and systems for data transfer and notification mechanisms 
US20070014277A1 (en) *  20050714  20070118  Yahoo! Inc.  Content router repository 
US20070014307A1 (en) *  20050714  20070118  Yahoo! Inc.  Content router forwarding 
US7631045B2 (en) *  20050714  20091208  Yahoo! Inc.  Content router asynchronous exchange 
US7849199B2 (en) *  20050714  20101207  Yahoo ! Inc.  Content router 
US7623515B2 (en) *  20050714  20091124  Yahoo! Inc.  Content router notification 
US20070079140A1 (en) *  20050926  20070405  Brian Metzger  Data migration 
US20070079386A1 (en) *  20050926  20070405  Brian Metzger  Transparent encryption using secure encryption device 
US8024290B2 (en)  20051114  20110920  Yahoo! Inc.  Data synchronization and device handling 
US8065680B2 (en) *  20051115  20111122  Yahoo! Inc.  Data gateway for jobs management based on a persistent job table and a server table 
US7848516B2 (en) *  20060120  20101207  ChiouHaun Lee  Diffused symmetric encryption/decryption method with asymmetric keys 
US8386768B2 (en) *  20060208  20130226  Safenet, Inc.  High performance data encryption server and method for transparently encrypting/decrypting data 
US7958091B2 (en)  20060216  20110607  Ingrian Networks, Inc.  Method for fast bulk loading data into a database while bypassing exit routines 
US20080034008A1 (en) *  20060803  20080207  Yahoo! Inc.  User side database 
US8144875B2 (en) *  20060906  20120327  Paul McGough  Method and system for establishing realtime authenticated and secured communications channels in a public network 
US8379865B2 (en) *  20061027  20130219  Safenet, Inc.  Multikey support for multiple office system 
US8549122B2 (en) *  20061204  20131001  Oracle International Corporation  System and method for communication agent within a fully distributed network 
US20080270629A1 (en) *  20070427  20081030  Yahoo! Inc.  Data snychronization and device handling using sequence numbers 
US20100031321A1 (en)  20070611  20100204  Protegrity Corporation  Method and system for preventing impersonation of computer system user 
US20090132804A1 (en) *  20071121  20090521  Prabir Paul  Secured live software migration 
US7978854B2 (en) *  20080325  20110712  International Business Machines Corporation  Asymmetric key generation 
EP2222013A1 (en) *  20090219  20100825  Thomson Licensing  Method and device for countering fault attacks 
US8638926B2 (en) *  20090226  20140128  Red Hat, Inc.  Sharing a secret with modular inverses 
US9112907B2 (en)  20130531  20150818  International Business Machines Corporation  System and method for managing TLS connections among separate applications within a network of computing systems 
US9112908B2 (en)  20130531  20150818  International Business Machines Corporation  System and method for managing TLS connections among separate applications within a network of computing systems 
JP2016009114A (en) *  20140625  20160118  ルネサスエレクトロニクス株式会社  Data processing device and decoding method 
Family Cites Families (52)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US4386416A (en) *  19800602  19830531  Mostek Corporation  Data compression, encryption, and inline transmission system 
US4964164A (en) *  19890807  19901016  Algorithmic Research, Ltd.  RSA computation method for efficient batch processing 
US5222133A (en) *  19911017  19930622  Wayne W. Chou  Method of protecting computer software from unauthorized execution using multiple keys 
JP3082554B2 (en) *  19940111  20000828  株式会社日立製作所  Selfhealing ring switch 
US5557712A (en) *  19940216  19960917  Apple Computer, Inc.  Color map tables smoothing in a color computer graphics system avoiding objectionable color shifts 
US5734744A (en) *  19950607  19980331  Pixar  Method and apparatus for compression and decompression of color data 
US5764235A (en) *  19960325  19980609  Insight Development Corporation  Computer implemented method and system for transmitting graphical images from server to client at user selectable resolution 
US5828832A (en) *  19960730  19981027  Itt Industries, Inc.  Mixed enclave operation in a computer network with multilevel network security 
JP3695045B2 (en) *  19961001  20050914  ソニー株式会社  Encoding device 
US5848159A (en) *  19961209  19981208  Tandem Computers, Incorporated  Public key cryptographic apparatus and method 
US6098096A (en) *  19961209  20000801  Sun Microsystems, Inc.  Method and apparatus for dynamic cache preloading across a network 
US5923756A (en) *  19970212  19990713  Gte Laboratories Incorporated  Method for providing secure remote command execution over an insecure computer network 
US6061448A (en) *  19970401  20000509  Tumbleweed Communications Corp.  Method and system for dynamic server document encryption 
US6012198A (en) *  19970411  20000111  Wagner Spray Tech Corporation  Painting apparatus 
US6105012A (en) *  19970422  20000815  Sun Microsystems, Inc.  Security system and method for financial institution server and client web browser 
US6397330B1 (en) *  19970630  20020528  Taher Elgamal  Cryptographic policy filters and policy control method and apparatus 
US6256712B1 (en) *  19970801  20010703  International Business Machines Corporation  Scaleable method for maintaining and making consistent updates to caches 
US6490620B1 (en) *  19970926  20021203  Worldcom, Inc.  Integrated proxy interface for web based broadband telecommunications management 
US6621505B1 (en) *  19970930  20030916  Journee Software Corp.  Dynamic processbased enterprise computing system and method 
US6081598A (en) *  19971020  20000627  Microsoft Corporation  Cryptographic system and method with fast decryption 
US6202157B1 (en) *  19971208  20010313  Entrust Technologies Limited  Computer network security system and method having unilateral enforceable security policy provision 
US6154542A (en) *  19971217  20001128  Apple Computer, Inc.  Method and apparatus for simultaneously encrypting and compressing data 
US6233565B1 (en) *  19980213  20010515  Saranac Software, Inc.  Methods and apparatus for internet based financial transactions with evidence of payment 
US6073242A (en) *  19980319  20000606  Agorics, Inc.  Electronic authority server 
CA2267721C (en) *  19980326  20020730  Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation  Scheme for fast realization of encryption, decryption and authentication 
US6578061B1 (en) *  19990119  20030610  Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation  Method and apparatus for data permutation/division and recording medium with data permutation/division program recorded thereon 
US6081900A (en) *  19990316  20000627  Novell, Inc.  Secure intranet access 
US6594279B1 (en) *  19990422  20030715  Nortel Networks Limited  Method and apparatus for transporting IP datagrams over synchronous optical networks at guaranteed quality of service 
US6886095B1 (en) *  19990521  20050426  International Business Machines Corporation  Method and apparatus for efficiently initializing secure communications among wireless devices 
US6477646B1 (en) *  19990708  20021105  Broadcom Corporation  Security chip architecture and implementations for cryptography acceleration 
US6757823B1 (en) *  19990727  20040629  Nortel Networks Limited  System and method for enabling secure connections for H.323 VoIP calls 
US6654354B1 (en) *  19991222  20031125  Worldcom, Inc.  System and method for planning multiple MUX levels in a fiber optic network simulation plan 
US6616350B1 (en) *  19991223  20030909  Nortel Networks Limited  Method and apparatus for providing a more efficient use of the total bandwidth capacity in a synchronous optical network 
US6587866B1 (en) *  20000110  20030701  Sun Microsystems, Inc.  Method for distributing packets to server nodes using network client affinity and packet distribution table 
US6763459B1 (en) *  20000114  20040713  HewlettPackard Company, L.P.  Lightweight public key infrastructure employing disposable certificates 
US20020087884A1 (en) *  20000612  20020704  Hovav Shacham  Method and apparatus for enhancing network security protection server performance 
CA2415888C (en) *  20000804  20081021  Avaya Technology Corporation  Intelligent demand driven recognition of url objects in connection oriented transactions 
US20040015725A1 (en) *  20000807  20040122  Dan Boneh  Clientside inspection and processing of secure content 
US7137143B2 (en) *  20000807  20061114  Ingrian Systems Inc.  Method and system for caching secure web content 
CA2423175A1 (en) *  20000922  20020328  Patchlink.Com Corporation  Noninvasive automatic offsite patch fingerprinting and updating system and method 
US6963980B1 (en) *  20001116  20051108  Protegrity Corporation  Combined hardware and software based encryption of databases 
US20020066038A1 (en) *  20001129  20020530  Ulf Mattsson  Method and a system for preventing impersonation of a database user 
US7757278B2 (en) *  20010104  20100713  Safenet, Inc.  Method and apparatus for transparent encryption 
US20030065919A1 (en) *  20010418  20030403  Albert Roy David  Method and system for identifying a replay attack by an access device to a computer system 
US7853781B2 (en) *  20010706  20101214  Juniper Networks, Inc.  Load balancing secure sockets layer accelerator 
US20030097428A1 (en) *  20011026  20030522  Kambiz Afkhami  Internet server appliance platform with flexible integrated suite of server resources and content delivery capabilities supporting continuous data flow demands and bursty demands 
DE60130902D1 (en) *  20011123  20071122  Protegrity Res & Dev  A method for detecting intrusion in a database system, 
US7269729B2 (en) *  20011228  20070911  International Business Machines Corporation  Relational database management encryption system 
US7742992B2 (en) *  20020205  20100622  Pace AntiPiracy  Delivery of a secure software license for a software product and a toolset for creating the software product 
US6874089B2 (en) *  20020225  20050329  Network Resonance, Inc.  System, method and computer program product for guaranteeing electronic transactions 
US6694323B2 (en) *  20020425  20040217  Sybase, Inc.  System and methodology for providing compact BTree 
US6782000B2 (en) *  20021031  20040824  Ciena Corporation  Method, system and storage medium for providing a cross connect user interface 
NonPatent Citations (3)
Title 

FIAT A: "Batch RSA (digital signatures and public key cryptosystems)" ADVANCES IN CRYPTOLOGY  CRYPTO '89. PROCEEDINGS, SANTA BARBARA, CA, USA, 2024 AUG. 1989, pages 175185, XP000135669 1990, Berlin, West Germany, SpringerVerlag, West Germany ISBN: 3540973176 * 
SHACHAM H ET AL: "Improving SSL handshake performance via batching" TOPICS IN CRYPTOLOGY  CTRSA 2001. THE CRYPTOGRAPHERS' TRACK AT RSA CONFERENCE 2001. PROCEEDINGS (LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE VOL.2020), TOPICS IN CRYPTOLOGY  CTRSA 20001, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, 812 APRIL 2001, pages 2843, XP002206684 2001, Berlin, Germany, SpringerVerlag, Germany ISBN: 3540418989 * 
SHERIF M H ET AL: "SET and SSL: electronic payments on the Internet" COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS, 1998. ISCC '98. PROCEEDINGS. THIRD IEEE SYMPOSIUM ON ATHENS, GREECE 30 JUNE2 JULY 1998, LOS ALAMITOS, CA, USA,IEEE COMPUT. SOC, US, 30 June 1998 (19980630), pages 353358, XP010295142 ISBN: 0818685387 * 
Cited By (2)
Publication number  Priority date  Publication date  Assignee  Title 

US7725927B2 (en)  20051028  20100525  Yahoo! Inc.  Low codefootprint security solution 
US9367832B2 (en)  20060104  20160614  Yahoo! Inc.  Synchronizing image data among applications and devices 
Also Published As
Publication number  Publication date  Type 

US20020039420A1 (en)  20020404  application 
WO2001097442A3 (en)  20030206  application 
WO2001097443A2 (en)  20011220  application 
WO2001097443A3 (en)  20030508  application 
Similar Documents
Publication  Publication Date  Title 

Juang  Efficient password authenticated key agreement using smart cards  
Boneh et al.  A Method for Fast Revocation of Public Key Certificates and Security Capabilities.  
Coarfa et al.  Performance analysis of TLS Web servers  
US6789147B1 (en)  Interface for a security coprocessor  
US6859533B1 (en)  System and method for transferring the right to decode messages in a symmetric encoding scheme  
Ganesan  Yaksha: Augmenting Kerberos with public key cryptography  
Boneh et al.  Fast variants of RSA  
US7356688B1 (en)  System and method for document distribution  
US7027598B1 (en)  Residue number system based precomputation and dualpass arithmetic modular operation approach to implement encryption protocols efficiently in electronic integrated circuits  
US6125185A (en)  System and method for encryption key generation  
Apostolopoulos et al.  Transport Layer Security: How much does it really cost?  
US7424615B1 (en)  Mutually authenticated secure key exchange (MASKE)  
US6643701B1 (en)  Method and apparatus for providing secure communication with a relay in a network  
US20050216736A1 (en)  System and method for combining user and platform authentication in negotiated channel security protocols  
US20010010076A1 (en)  Security protocol  
US6993651B2 (en)  Security protocol  
US6937726B1 (en)  System and method for protecting data files by periodically refreshing a decryption key  
US20070180230A1 (en)  Bcencryption (BCE)  a publickey based method to encrypt a data stream  
US6757825B1 (en)  Secure mutual network authentication protocol  
US6711679B1 (en)  Public key infrastructure delegation  
Jang et al.  SSLShader: Cheap SSL Acceleration with Commodity Processors.  
US5199070A (en)  Method for generating a public key  
US20060212706A1 (en)  Scalable session management  
US7076656B2 (en)  Methods and apparatus for providing efficient passwordauthenticated key exchange  
Gupta et al.  Performance analysis of elliptic curve cryptography for SSL 
Legal Events
Date  Code  Title  Description 

AK  Designated states 
Kind code of ref document: A2 Designated state(s): AE AG AL AM AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BY BZ CA CH CN CO CR CU CZ DE DK DM DZ EC EE ES FI GB GD GE GH GM HR HU ID IL IN IS JP KE KG KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV MA MD MG MK MN MW MX MZ NO NZ PL PT RO RU SD SE SG SI SK SL TJ TM TR TT TZ UA UG US US US UZ VN YU ZA ZW 

AL  Designated countries for regional patents 
Kind code of ref document: A2 Designated state(s): GH GM KE LS MW MZ SD SL SZ TZ UG ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE TR BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GW ML MR NE SN TD TG 

121  Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application  
REG  Reference to national code 
Ref country code: DE Ref legal event code: 8642 

122  Ep: pct application nonentry in european phase  
NENP  Nonentry into the national phase in: 
Ref country code: JP 