WO2001024249A1 - Method for preventing diffusion of boron in silicon by ion implantation of carbon - Google Patents

Method for preventing diffusion of boron in silicon by ion implantation of carbon Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2001024249A1
WO2001024249A1 PCT/FR2000/002686 FR0002686W WO0124249A1 WO 2001024249 A1 WO2001024249 A1 WO 2001024249A1 FR 0002686 W FR0002686 W FR 0002686W WO 0124249 A1 WO0124249 A1 WO 0124249A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
layer
boron
characterized
ion implantation
doped
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FR2000/002686
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Jorge Luis Regolini
Pascal Ribot
Christine Morin
Original Assignee
France Telecom
Commissariat A L'energie Atomique
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR99/12115 priority Critical
Priority to FR9912115A priority patent/FR2799049A1/en
Application filed by France Telecom, Commissariat A L'energie Atomique filed Critical France Telecom
Publication of WO2001024249A1 publication Critical patent/WO2001024249A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L29/00Semiconductor devices adapted for rectifying, amplifying, oscillating or switching, or capacitors or resistors with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction depletion layer or carrier concentration layer; Details of semiconductor bodies or of electrodes thereof; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66Types of semiconductor device ; Multistep manufacturing processes therefor
    • H01L29/66007Multistep manufacturing processes
    • H01L29/66075Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials
    • H01L29/66227Multistep manufacturing processes of devices having semiconductor bodies comprising group 14 or group 13/15 materials the devices being controllable only by the electric current supplied or the electric potential applied, to an electrode which does not carry the current to be rectified, amplified or switched, e.g. three-terminal devices
    • H01L29/66234Bipolar junction transistors [BJT]
    • H01L29/66242Heterojunction transistors [HBT]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/26Bombardment with radiation
    • H01L21/263Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation
    • H01L21/265Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation
    • H01L21/26506Bombardment with radiation with high-energy radiation producing ion implantation in group IV semiconductors

Abstract

The invention concerns a method for preventing the diffusion of boron present as a dopant in a predetermined region of a semiconductor component into at least an region adjacent to the predetermined region while making the component. The method consists in introducing by ion implantation in the predetermined region a dose of carbon ranging between 0.1 and 1 atom %. For a heterojunction bipolar transistor, said process is carried out after the base is formed.

Description

A method for preventing the diffusion of boron in silicon by ion implanting atoms.

The invention relates to a method for preventing the diffusion of boron in silicon (Si) ion implanting atoms, more particularly during the production of a bipolar heterojunction transistor (HBT) of the silicon-germanium die (SiGe ). However, the method according to the invention can also be applied when carrying out other semiconductor components such as MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor) to solve the problem of short channel effects for example.

Achieving semiconductor device includes many complex steps leading to a stack of layers of different nature. The differentiation of these layers is made by doping. Doping is either introducing impurities (dopant ions) in a semiconductor material using the thermal diffusion techniques or ion implantation, or to grow a new layer above the semiconductor material to the using the technique of epitaxial growth. Doping is doping as positive or negative doping depending on the nature of the dopant ions used and the nature of the semiconductor material.

In principle, a bipolar heterojunction transistor of the sector Si / SiGe has three layers of semiconductor material. By way of example, the three layers may be a first layer of Si doped negatively, a second SiGe layer positively doped by using boron and formed on the first layer, and a third Si layer negatively doped and carried out on a portion of the second layer. The first layer is the collector, the second layer forms the base and the third layer constitutes the emitter of the HBT. The HBT is remarkable in the sense that the junction Si-SiGe (collector-base and base-emitter) is a heterojunction because the two semiconductor materials Si and SiGe are not of the same nature.

Factors that significantly improve technical characteristics of an HBT are including obtaining heterojunctions say steep fine, that is to say for example to abruptly switch from a positive doping uniform doping negative uniform, and a very small base thickness. A reduced base ensures a low transit times of the electrons between the emitter and the collector, so a maximum operating frequency of the high TBH.

As described above, the basis of an HBT of the sector Si / SiGe is usually doped with boron. However, the boron tends to easily diffuse into the adjacent layers thereby widening the base, which considerably deteriorates the technical characteristics of the HBT.

The boron diffusion mechanism is a complex mechanism in which the dopant ions (boron) increased by exchange with gaps positively charged. Generally, the diffusion of dopants in semiconductors is dependent on the concentration and temperature. The heat balance in the dies of manufacturing a semiconductor component comprising at least a region doped with boron must therefore be low. But various steps such as oxidation or ion implantation, generally carried out during the manufacture of a semiconductor component, can accelerate the diffusion of dopants.

There are known methods for preventing the diffusion of boron in the case of manufacturing a HBT. One method is to incorporate carbon into substitutional sites during the manufacture of the base of the HBT using the epitaxial technique called physical vapor deposition (PVD) or by means of the technique known as chemical deposition vapor deposition (CVD). This method is very complex to implement since it requires, for example in the case of a PVD technique by evaporation to have a source of material to be deposited at high temperature range and disposed in a vacuum reactor. Epitaxial growth requires effective control of the temperature so that the atoms of the material to be deposited once transformed into steam by evaporation have sufficient mobility to be able to migrate and ensure regular growth on a crystal. Thus the growth of the base with the same time the carbon incorporation requires adding an additional source of carbon in the reactor, resulting in maintenance of complications, flow measurement and contamination of the reactor.

In addition, annealing steps for activating dopants at about 1025 ° C for several seconds, usually made following the techniques described above are not performed completely not promote the spread. The characteristics of the semiconductor component produced are then optimum.

An object of the invention is to provide a method for preventing the diffusion of boron which overcomes the above drawbacks. In particular, the present invention aims to provide a method for preventing the diffusion of boron in the manufacture of a semiconductor component such as a HBT which does not prevent the full realization of all activation annealing steps .

Those skilled in the art will readily understand that the present invention can advantageously be applied to any manufacturing industry other than the HBT Si / SiGe to prevent the diffusion of boron.

The above objects are achieved according to the invention by a method for preventing boron present as a dopant in a predetermined region of a semiconductor component to diffuse into at least a region adjacent to the predetermined region during the manufacture of the component, which comprises introducing by ion implantation in the predetermined region of a carbon dosage of between 0, 1 and 1 atomic%. Unlike the state of the prior art wherein the carbon is incorporated in situ during the formation of the epitaxial region to be protected, according to the invention the ion implantation technique is used which has many advantages such as:

- low cost linked to the speed of the technique for producing a large number of components;

- an "ionic" purity since it is possible to work under vacuum and sort ions by electronic methods so as to obtain a highly pure mono-energetic beam of dopant atom;

- the possibility of a selective implantation masking; and - quite precise control of the dose of dopant ions implanted, and their depth of penetration.

Preferably, the implantation energy is such that the maximum of the distribution of atoms of implanted ions is in the predetermined region. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the semiconductor component is a bipolar heterojunction transistor (HBT).

Advantageously, the carbon is implanted after the formation of the collector and the base of the bipolar heterojunction transistor (HBT). And in this case, the predetermined region is the base of the HBT and the adjacent region is the collector of the HBT.

The incorporation of the carbon after the formation of the collector and the base preferably differs from the method according to the state of the prior art because it allows to use the ion implantation technique.

The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing a heterojunction bipolar transistor comprising the steps of: a) forming on a silicon substrate by epitaxy and doped in situ with a thin SiGe alloy layer heavily doped with boron; b) ionic phosphorus implantation with a first and a second implant energy, the second implantation energy being less than the first, so as to form in the substrate a first heavily doped region with separate phosphor thin SiGe alloy layer of a second lightly doped region with phosphorous.

According to the invention, after step b) is introduced by ion implantation a carbon dosage of between 0.1 and 1 atomic% in the thin SiGe alloy layer.

Other advantages and features of the invention will appear on examining the detailed description of an embodiment and the accompanying drawings which respectively represent:

- figure 1 ; a schematic sectional view of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT);

- Figures 2a, 2b and 2c are diagrammatic sectional views of major steps of manufacturing a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) incorporating the carbon implantation method according to the invention; - Figure 3, of the boron concentration curves as a function of depth in the base for heterojunction bipolar transistors subjected to anti-diffusion treatment of the prior art (D2, D3) and the invention (D4) after heat treatment, and to a heterojunction bipolar transistor whose base has been doped by low temperature epitaxy (Dl) and which did not undergo heat treatment.

Although the description will be made for a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) in particular having a SiGe alloy base, it can be applied to any other suitable semiconductor device. Figure 1 schematically shows a heterojunction bipolar transistor structured conventionally. It consists of a stack of layers of Si and SiGe. This transistor comprises more specifically a first layer 1 of Si heavily doped negatively (N +) on which is formed a second layer 2 of Si slightly negatively doped (N-). Next, a layer 3

SiGe positively highly doped (P +), using boron atoms for example, covers an upper portion of the layer 2 of Si (N). Finally two Si layers are formed on an upper portion of the layer 3 of SiGe, a first layer 4 of Si lightly doped negatively (N) adjacent to the layer 3 of SiGe and a second layer 5 of Si heavily doped negatively (N + ) adjacent to the layer 4 of Si.

The three central layers 2, 3 and 4 constitute the core of the HBT. The SiGe layer 3 is the base of the HBT. She should be fine. A metal contact 8 is arranged on the upper part of the layer 3 is left free. The metal contact 8 is in the form of a ring around the upper layers 4 and 5 of Si. The SiGe layer 3 doped with boron also contains carbon atoms which have been incorporated according to the invention to prevent the spread boron.

Generally the manufacture of an HBT is done by performing successive layers according to the upward vertical direction (layer 1 to layer 5).

The layer 4 of Si (N) constitutes the emitter of the HBT. It is topped by the 5 Si heavily doped layer (N +). Layer 5 enables a good bond between the layer 4 and a metal contact 7 arranged on the layer 5.

The layer 2 of Si (N) is the collector of the HBT. As for the transmitter, it is produced on a layer 1 of Si heavily doped (N +) providing a link to a metal contact 6.

2a to 2c illustrate carbon incorporation of steps during the manufacture of an HBT according to the invention.

There is shown in Figure 2a a layer 9 of Si on which was deposited a layer 10 of highly doped SiGe positive (P +) by boron atoms. The SiGe layer 10 is the base of the HBT. This base is made by epitaxial growth of SiGe and is doped with boron either in situ or after formation by ion implantation.

As seen in Figure 2b, is then carried out the doping of the layer 9 of Si to form the collector of the HBT.

To do this, one carries out a first ion implantation 1 1 phosphorus atoms (P) having an energy of 400 keV (kilo electron volt) to obtain a first layer 9a Si heavily doped negatively (N +) located at down into the layer 9 of Si. the layer 9a plays the same role as the layer 1 in Figure 1. Then, a second ion implantation is carried out 1 1 phosphorus atoms (P) having an energy of 100 keV to obtain a second layer 9b Si weakly negatively doped (N-). The energy of the ions of the second ion implantation (100 keV) being smaller than that (400 keV) ions from the first ion implantation, the ions of the second ion implantation penetrate less in the layer 9 of Si. The layer 9b therefore at the top of the layer 9a in the layer 9 of Si. the layer 9b has the same function as the layer 2 of Figure 1. the energy 100 keV and 400 keV are determined so that the phosphorus ions through the SiGe layer 10 (the base) and penetrate into the layer 9 of Si.

As seen in Figure 2c, is then incorporated carbon (C) in the SiGe layer 10 (the base) by an ion implantation 12. The energy carbon ions is 35 keV, which allows them to penetrate into the base and to have a distribution whose apex is substantially at the middle of the base. The carbon implanted dose is between 0.1 and 1 atomic% to the maximum of the distribution.

Ion implantation is a technique of accelerating ions, that enter a target material losing their energy by successive collisions with electrons and atoms of the target material. It is then necessary that the material undergoes annealing at very high temperature to reconstruct the crystal lattice partially destroyed by the arrival of external ions and simultaneously activate the dopants. Thus, once the carbon ions implanted into the base by the process of the invention, the element consisting of layers 9 and 10 can be annealed at high temperature without the boron diffuses only into the layer 9b If adjacent. The subsequent steps for the realization of the transmitter portion of the HBT can then be carried out completely performing the annealing steps without boron diffuses, while in the prior art status annealing steps were shortened, for example in 20 seconds instead of 30 seconds normally required. Figure 3 is a graph which includes four diffusion profile curves obtained by mass spectroscopy method of secondary ions (SIMS). SIMS method is to analyze by mass and depth of the ions torn from the surface of a sample by a beam of energetic ions. The four curves correspond to four samples that have undergone various operations. Initially, the four samples are identical to the element of Figure 2a, a layer of heavily doped SiGe positively with boron is formed by low temperature epitaxy and doped in situ on an undoped Si layer.

The first curve Dl is a SIMS profile of boron concentration corresponding to a first of the samples as obtained above (control).

The second curve D2 is a SIMS profile of boron concentration corresponding to a second previous sample which was annealed at 1025 ° C for 30 seconds. The enlargement of the curve D2 relative to the control curve Dl shows that the boron diffuses into the substrate (increasing depths) and to the outer surface. D3 curve is a SIMS profile corresponding to a third of the previous samples which first underwent ion implantation of phosphorus atoms for doping the collector (to form the layers 9a and 9b of Figure 2b) and a thermal treatment identical to that undergone by the second sample, that is to say an annealing at 1025 ° C for 30 seconds.

Enlargement greater D3 of the curve relative to the curve D2 shows that the diffusion of boron is even more important.

Finally, curve D 4 is a SIMS profile corresponding to the fourth preceding samples to which was subjected the same processing as the third sample, but with the addition between the collector of the doping step and the annealing step at 1025 ° C for 30 seconds, an ion implanting atoms according to the invention with an energy of 35 keV. The carbon implanted dose is 10 15 atoms / cm 2. It is seen that the curve D4 is substantially superimposed on the control curve Dl, demonstrating that in this case the boron has hardly circulated.

The present invention thus enables a heterojunction bipolar transistor with a narrow base to ensure real technical characteristics such that the maximum operating frequency, close to the theoretical characteristics. All technical characteristics can be improved significantly since the heat treatment necessary for activation of dopants can be done completely without causing any boron diffusion.

Claims

1. A method for preventing boron present as a dopant in a predetermined region (10) of a semiconductor component to diffuse into at least one further adjacent region (9b, 2, 4) in the predetermined region during the manufacture of the component, characterized in that it comprises the introduction by ion implantation (12) in the predetermined region of a carbon dosage of between 0.1 and 1 atomic%, an adjacent region being the C2 collector) of a transistor heterojunction bipolar.
2. Method according to the preceding claim, characterized in that said predetermined region is the base (3) of a heterojunction bipolar transistor.
3. A method according to claim 2, characterized in that said base is constituted by a thin layer of SiGe alloy.
4. Method according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the collector is made of silicon.
5. A method of manufacturing a heterojunction bipolar transistor comprising the steps of: a) forming on a silicon substrate (9) by epitaxy and doped in situ with a thin layer (10) of SiGe alloy strongly doped with boron; b) ion implantation (11) of phosphorus with a first and a second implant energy, the second implantation energy being less than the first, so as to form in the substrate a first region (9a) heavily doped with separate phosphorus thin SiGe alloy layer by a second region (9b) lightly doped with phosphorus; characterized in that after step b) is introduced by ion implantation (12) a carbon dosage of between 0.1 and 1 atomic% in the thin SiGe alloy layer.
6. A method according to claim 5, characterized in that the thin layer (3) SiGe alloy forms the basis of the transistor.
7. The method of claim 5 or 6, characterized in that the area (2) of lightly doped substrate with phosphorus is the transistor collector.
PCT/FR2000/002686 1999-09-29 2000-09-28 Method for preventing diffusion of boron in silicon by ion implantation of carbon WO2001024249A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR99/12115 1999-09-29
FR9912115A FR2799049A1 (en) 1999-09-29 1999-09-29 Process for preventing boron diffusion in silicon by ionic carbon implantation

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6534371B2 (en) * 2001-06-11 2003-03-18 International Business Machines Corporation C implants for improved SiGe bipolar yield
RU2629659C1 (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-08-30 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Кабардино-Балкарский государственный университет им. Х.М. Бербекова" (КБГУ) Method of manufacturing semiconductor appliance

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US5708281A (en) * 1989-03-29 1998-01-13 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Semiconductor device and photoelectric conversion apparatus using the same
WO1998026457A1 (en) * 1996-12-09 1998-06-18 Institut für Halbleiterphysik Frankfurt (Oder) GmbH Silicon-germanium hetero-bipolar transistor, and method for making its various epitactiv layers
US5959333A (en) * 1997-05-30 1999-09-28 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Reduction of dopant diffusion by the co-implantation of impurities into the transistor gate conductor

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5708281A (en) * 1989-03-29 1998-01-13 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Semiconductor device and photoelectric conversion apparatus using the same
WO1998026457A1 (en) * 1996-12-09 1998-06-18 Institut für Halbleiterphysik Frankfurt (Oder) GmbH Silicon-germanium hetero-bipolar transistor, and method for making its various epitactiv layers
US5959333A (en) * 1997-05-30 1999-09-28 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Reduction of dopant diffusion by the co-implantation of impurities into the transistor gate conductor

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
LANZEROTTI L D ET AL: "SI/SI1-X-YGEXCY/SI HETEROJUNCTION BIPOLAR TRANSISTORS", IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS,US,IEEE INC. NEW YORK, vol. 17, no. 7, 1 July 1996 (1996-07-01), pages 334 - 337, XP000595110, ISSN: 0741-3106 *
LANZEROTTI L D ET AL: "Suppression of boron outdiffusion in SiGe HBTs by carbon incorporation", INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING. TECHNICAL DIGEST (CAT. NO.96CH35961), INTERNATIONAL ELECTRON DEVICES MEETING. TECHNICAL DIGEST, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, 8-11 DEC. 1996, 1996, New York, NY, USA, IEEE, USA, pages 249 - 252, XP000753756, ISBN: 0-7803-3393-4 *

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6534371B2 (en) * 2001-06-11 2003-03-18 International Business Machines Corporation C implants for improved SiGe bipolar yield
CN100459071C (en) * 2001-06-11 2009-02-04 国际商业机器公司 C implants for improved SiGe bipolar yield
RU2629659C1 (en) * 2016-11-22 2017-08-30 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Кабардино-Балкарский государственный университет им. Х.М. Бербекова" (КБГУ) Method of manufacturing semiconductor appliance

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