WO2000070168A1 - Sound-proofing device for floor coverings - Google Patents

Sound-proofing device for floor coverings Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000070168A1
WO2000070168A1 PCT/EP2000/000389 EP0000389W WO0070168A1 WO 2000070168 A1 WO2000070168 A1 WO 2000070168A1 EP 0000389 W EP0000389 W EP 0000389W WO 0070168 A1 WO0070168 A1 WO 0070168A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
characterized
device according
element
binder
deadening device
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP2000/000389
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Ulrich Windmöller
Georg Kruse
Volker Kettler
Stefan Rose
Original Assignee
Witex Ag
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE29908733.6 priority Critical
Priority to DE29908733U priority patent/DE29908733U1/en
Priority to DE29919038.2 priority
Priority to DE29919038U priority patent/DE29919038U1/en
Application filed by Witex Ag filed Critical Witex Ag
Publication of WO2000070168A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000070168A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/18Separately-laid insulating layers; Other additional insulating measures; Floating floors
    • E04F15/181Insulating layers integrally formed with the flooring or the flooring elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/02Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/18Separately-laid insulating layers; Other additional insulating measures; Floating floors
    • E04F15/20Separately-laid insulating layers; Other additional insulating measures; Floating floors for sound insulation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2290/00Specially adapted covering, lining or flooring elements not otherwise provided for
    • E04F2290/04Specially adapted covering, lining or flooring elements not otherwise provided for for insulation or surface protection, e.g. against noise, impact or fire
    • E04F2290/041Specially adapted covering, lining or flooring elements not otherwise provided for for insulation or surface protection, e.g. against noise, impact or fire against noise
    • E04F2290/043Specially adapted covering, lining or flooring elements not otherwise provided for for insulation or surface protection, e.g. against noise, impact or fire against noise with a bottom layer for sound insulation

Abstract

The invention relates to an underlay, in particular to a sound-proofing device for floor coverings, such as laminate, veneer and/or wooden flooring. Said device comprises an element consisting of a binding agent and fillers which can be, or is at least partially attached to the underside of the floor covering. The invention aims to provide a cost-effective solution which reduces the excitation of hard floor coverings of this type, to such an extent that the footfall created when walking on said covering is not considered to be disturbing. In addition, the invention aims to prevent the floor covering from being glued to the underlay. This is achieved by the element (8) having a layer thickness of 1 to 6 mm and a weight of between 0.8 and 2.80 kg/m2 per mm of layer thickness, depending on the chosen fillers (7) and their particle size distribution.

Description

"Schalldämmvorrichtunα for floor coverings"

The invention relates to a support, in particular a noise device for floor coverings, in particular for laminate, veneer and / or wood flooring with a carrier formed of a binder and fillers, can be connected to the back of the floor covering element

Flooring, particularly wood floors, have numerous advantages on, they create a cozy ambience, are easy to maintain and have a long service life. Wooden floors, especially laminate and / or veneer flooring, the / od Particle board of high density fiber. Like. are prepared and at least on the upper side of a coating and / or a veneer have, however, have the disadvantage that relatively loud noises are generated when walking. The reason is that these floor elements are very stiff and hard light and because of its dense structure. If such soils excited, especially when walking with hard heels, they create a large, propagating in floors, ceilings and walls of a building and transferred to the air noise.

Also, such coverings must be glued to the ground because of their ease. This creates problems in a later expansion. it is also disadvantageous bonding at the fixed encryption that the flooring can not move and occurs at the edges due to this inflexibility Kantenaufquellungen or diameter growth, as the material works due to humidity and / or temperature variations.

od experiments, the resulting, loud noise by absorbing or resilient materials, such as cork, felt, or the like. To decrease, any significant improvement have provided, as this only part of the structure-borne sound transmission between floor and floor is attenuated, but not the impact sound itself, which is specially produced when walking with hard heels.

To reduce the impact sound are been EP-0 864 712- A2 already proposed sound insulation mats, which are full-surface bonded on the bottom of a laminate floor and made of a flexible thermoplastic with viscoelastic behavior, a thickness between 1 and 3 mm and a consist density of at least 2 g / m 3. However, such ethylene / vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) plastics are expensive and their use results in the cost of the entire floor covering can be doubled easily, so that such a product is not economically feasible. In the DE-298 20 016-U1 a full surface fixed with a floorboard to its underside sound insulation layer with an area weight between 0.5 kg / m 2 and 10 kg / m 2 is also proposed that a specific weight between 0.4 kg / dm dm should comprise 3 and consist of a bonded composite having by polyurethane (PU) rubber granulate 3 and 1.5 kg /. One such product is accepted for interior applications for environmental reasons (emissions and degradability) only partially to consumers and costly to manufacture.

The object of the invention is to provide an inexpensive solution, through which the excitation such, hard surfaces is so far reduced, that the impact noise generated when walking is not perceived as disturbing. Another object is to create a new, easy and inexpensive installation possible without the need for a solid bond with the substrate.

This object is achieved according to the invention in that the the back of the floor covering at least partially be connected or associated element according to the preamble of claim 1 a layer thickness of 1 to 6 mm and a weight of 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 2 has a function of the chosen fillers and the particle sizes per mm of thickness. Such a sound absorbing element is generally inexpensive to manufacture, depending on the selected binders and fillers and attained by the process performed by the applicant attempts a sufficient sound insulation. At weights from 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 2 per mm of thickness, a sufficient sound absorption, to also when excited by walking with hard surfaces to reduce the resultant impact noise by at least 3 to 5 dB results on the one hand, on the other hand the floor covering remains manageable ie it is not so hard that it would not be easy to transport and install. On the other hand it can be fixed sufficiently stable position without additional bonding with the substrate.

This positive effect is achieved by the combination of a heavy one hand and low void, but on the other hand bendable element with the actual floor covering, in particular a laminate and / or veneer floor.

In an embodiment it is provided that the binder is polyurethane (PU) is. This material is easy and inexpensive in large quantities and easy to apply. In particular, it can be well filled with aggregates.

Such a polyurethane binder is cured in a continuous oven thermally rapidly and is then immediately be wound as toppings after passage of this furnace section and a cooling section. In a modified recipe shot of a warmeaktivierbarer catalyst is used, the chemical reaction start is permitted temperatures only from certain Ofendurchlauf-. In both cases, a very fast curing process is initiated by the oven cure, instead of an otherwise continuous for days curing at room temperature only. When the compound or formulation of a polyurethane binder (polyurethane) with mineral fillers are od no separate flow control agents. Like. longer necessary, since the PU-part is specially adapted to the leveling property in connection with the mineral filler particle size distribution. Depending on the chosen filler type and particle size distribution of this PU content is between 5 and 45%.

The recipe for the production of roll goods with PU binding agents and mineral fillers has inherently a very high resistance. Due to the high mineral content are additions of fungicidal or biocidal additives intended to prevent rotting of the product is not required. The product thus produced is completely free of emissions, as it is produced without addition of solvent and polyurethane reacted in the curing reaction represented by the polyaddition mechanism, without elimination of by-products. od Due to the particular application If the sandwich product in combination with laminate floors or in combination with a fabric cover, masking paper. like. Can also further stabilizers, such as antioxidants, can be omitted.

In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the binder is a compact or a foamed 2-component polyurethane (PU) or a 1-component polyurethane formulation or a 1-components integrated prepolymer formulation.

Alternatively, polyethylene (PE), latex or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), as well as acrylate are provided as binders.

Suitable fillers are mineral fillers are provided, particularly advantageous are lime, chalk, glass, quartz powder, quartz sand, slag, ceramic particles, heavy spar (barium sulfate). These substances can in particular be well sprinkled into a 2-com- ponents polyurethane (PU), depending on the choice of the mineral aggregate and the associated particle size distribution can be insulating elements with a density of 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 2 per mm achieve layer thickness. The same applies to the use of organic fillers, in particular-sondere cornmeal and / or coconut shell granules. In this case, the filler content can increase up to 98%. Just a 2-component polyurethane binder with appropriate mineral or organic additives is particularly advantageous because the manufacturing process is very simple and also relatively little of the polyurethane binder has to be used. Depending on the choice of the used PU system, the elastic properties of the damping characteristics of the element of very hard / brittle blank and the associated set up to soft / highly elastic.

The sound absorbing element may be formed on one or more floor elements coordinated partial element both as broadloom and as a. It is during laying possible first to determine a noise device as sheet material, and only then to move it, the actual flooring, in which case a firm connection between the floor covering and the web material must be provided, preferably in a suitable manner, so that a sound absorption upon excitation of the floor covering by hard shoe soles is achieved.

the element is advantageous, however, formed as a one or more floor elements coordinated part element so that before the laying of a fixed connection, either at the factory or on the user side, between sound insulation and covering, ie, the individual floor board or the single laminate flooring board, takes place. This has the further advantage that a relatively heavy laying dimensionally stable product is provided. At the same time resulting changes in length, for example of laminate floor elements can, and the resulting voltage as a result of alternating growth and / or shrink tendencies by the horizontal deformability and the effective transverse forces in the formed as a backing Deadening be included, so that it is no longer known to damage the laminate products, particularly Kantenaufquellungen and thickness growth in the edge region comes.

To avoid swelling of laminate or veneer flooring, it is provided that the sound absorbing element with a building side to be applied to the laying surface, vapor barrier layer can be combined. This is particularly useful for screeds with appropriate wetland share.

In a further advantageous embodiment, the binder is in the sound insulation, a polyurethane (PU) mixture with a formulation-related "Klebetack".

In such a configuration, the sound element acts after laying as a sliding brake on the underlying old wearing surface or screed, shifting the Schalldämmelementes is thus avoided. At the same time, however, changes in length can be compensated and occurring transverse and / or shear forces are absorbed.

In addition, the invention also provides that lower the item and / or upper side of a nonwoven fabric and / or fabric is laminated, it can also be lower and / or upper side of a vapor barrier or inhibit can be laminated. A nonwoven and / or woven fabric improves the visual appearance of the element and capable of improving its integrity, also hereby can be slight unevenness in the base laminate.

The fleece assumes the task of a positive, attractive surface appearance, thereby allowing a lower profile of requirements of the surface properties of the web material itself. This cost can be saved. The nonwoven fabric is visually appealing and can be printed, for example, product identification, brand, model instructions, installation instructions, product arguments u. like. The nonwoven fabric and / or the vapor barrier / inhibit can be adjusted to the respective requirements, for example as a bonding aid, when the whole product to be glued down to the sub-floor, or as a slip aid, when the total product postponed only floating and is not to be bonded. Typically od with laminating films for Aufkaschierung such materials Heißkaschierverfahren. Like. used. Likewise, it is also possible, the nonwoven fabric od. Like. With the aid of the formulation-related Klebetacks auszukaschieren.

Finally, the invention also provides yet that the sound absorbing element against the respective floor covering element springs back edge and / or has a bevel. Hereby it is avoided that disabilities occur during nesting and -Add individual floor elements, for example equipped with tongue and groove elements.

Finally, the invention also provides for a floor covering, which is the rear side provided with a noise device according to at least one of the embodiments described above.

The invention is described hereinafter with reference to the drawing. This shows

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a noise device according to the invention and in Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a floor element with a under glued invention Deadening device.

A generally designated 1 A ground covering element has a top side 2, an underside 3, and on respective opposite sides of a groove 4 and a spring. 5 With the bottom side 3 of the floor covering 1 is a pad of a binder 6 and fillers 7 formed, in particular noise device 8, connected, whose layer thickness is 1 to 6 mm and a weight of 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 2 per mm of thickness having a function of the selected filler 7 and the particle size distribution.

The binder 6 can be a polyurethane (PU) and a polyethylene (PE), latex, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic, or a foamed 2-component polyurethane (PU).

The fillers may be mineral fillers, in particular lime, chalk, glass, quartz powder, quartz sand, slag, ceramic particles, heavy spar (barium sulfate) as well as organic fillers, such as corn flour or coconut shell granules be. In order to improve the optical appearance of the noise device 8 and to compensate for uneven ground, a nonwoven and / or woven fabric 9 is laminated on the lower side of the sound absorbing element. 8 In order to prevent moisture rising from the base surface, such as a screed, from penetrating into the floor covering, is the top side and / or additionally as an intermediate layer in combination with a non-woven / od tissue. Like. Yet a vapor barrier / barrier 10 is laminated.

The noise device 8 can also be produced as roll goods, and are initially configured independent of the selected floor covering. 1 During the subsequent laying of the floor covering a full-surface connection as possible between the noise device 8 and the underside 3 of the floor covering 1 is then by means of suitable adhesive od. Like. Induce.

The noise device 8 may also be combined with an on site beforehand to be applied to the laying surface, vapor-barrier layer. The binder 6 is advantageously a compact or foamed 2-component polyurethane (PU), as can be interspersed in this particularly well fillers 7 and the manufacturing process of the polyurethane binder 6 is very simple and also relatively little of the polyurethane binder be used 6 got to. The elasticity and the associated damping properties can be used depending on the choice of the polyurethane system 6 of very hard / brittle to soft / adjust the highly elastic.

By the choice of mineral and / or organic aggregates 7 and the corresponding particle size distributions, the sound attenuation can be achieved 8 having a density of 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 3 per mm of thickness.

The polyurethane mixture of 6 used may also comprise a formulation-related "Klebetack" and thereby act on the floor or on the old wearing surface after the laying of such a slip brake, without a conventional bonding with the disadvantages described must take place.

Instead of a permanent bond between the floor covering 1 and Deadening device 8 from a fixing sufficient such that in renovation and disposal case, the total product may be separated and sorted again. For example, an adhesive fixing with polyethylene (PE) can - Heißkaschierfolien or thermoplastic rubber done.

To the interlocking joining of the individual flooring elements 1, in particular with the groove 4 and spring 5 to not impede is also contemplated that the sound insulation element 8 relative to the respective floor element 1 springs back in the edge areas and / or has a bevel. Of course, the invention is not limited to the illustrated embodiments. Other embodiments are possible without departing from the spirit. Essential that a support is provided which imparts sufficient severity of the actual floor covering so that it need not be bonded to the substrate and on the other hand and when walking with hard heels only. the like. is not as strongly suggested that the impact sound generated thereby is bothersome.

Claims

claims:
1. noise device for floor coverings, in particular for laminate, veneer and / or wood floors marked with a formed of a binder and fillers, at least partially connected with the rear side of the floor covering or associated element, characterized in that the element (8) has a layer thickness of has from 1 to 6 mm and a weight of 0.8 to 2.80 kg / m 2 per mm of thickness as a function of the selected fillers (7) and whose grain size distribution.
2. Deadening device according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder (6) Polyurethane (PU) is.
3. Deadening device according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder (6) polyethylene (PE).
4. Deadening device according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder (6) latex.
5. Deadening device according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder (6) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is.
6. Deadening device according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder (6) acrylate.
7. Deadening device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the binder (6) is a compact or foamed 2-component polyurethane (PU).
8. Deadening device according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the binder (6) (PU) a 1-component polyurethane - or prepolymer formulation.
9. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the fillers (7) are mineral fillers.
10. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the fillers (7) lime, chalk, glass, quartz powder, quartz sand, slag, ceramic particles, heavy spar (barium sulfate), respectively.
11. Deadening device according to claim 1 and / or 2 to 8, characterized in that the fillers (7) are organic fillers, in particular maize flour and / or coconut shell granules.
12. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the element (8) is formed as sheet material (Fig. 1) or as one or more ground covering elements coordinated partial element (Fig. 2).
13. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the element (8) at the factory connected detachably or undetachably with the rear side (3) of the floor covering (1) or is connectable bausei- tig.
14. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the element (8) with a building side to be applied to the laying surface, vapor barrier layer can be combined.
15. Deadening device according to claim 1, 2, 7, 8 and / or one of the following, characterized in that the binder (6) is a polyurethane (PU) mixture with a formulation-related "Klebetack".
16. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the element (8) below and / or a top side
Nonwoven and / or woven fabric (9) is laminated.
17. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the fol- following, characterized in that the element (8) below and / or a top side
Vapor control layer or -trap (10) is laminated.
18. Deadening device according to claim 1 or one of the following, characterized in that the element (8) against the respective floor covering element (1) springs back to peripheral areas and / or has a bevel.
19. Floor covering, in particular laminate, veneer and / or wood floor, characterized in that the floor covering (1) is back at least partially provided with a noise device (8) according to any one of claims 1 to eighteenth
20. A process for producing a noise device for floor coverings according to at least one of claims 1, 2, 7 and / or one of the following, characterized in that the polyurethane (PU) binder as it passes through a
Furnace section is hardened thermally oven quickly.
21. The method according to claim 20, characterized in that when a modified recipe setting a warmeaktivierbarer catalyst is used, through which the chemical reaction is only allowed starting from a predetermined furnace temperature cycle.
PCT/EP2000/000389 1999-05-18 2000-01-19 Sound-proofing device for floor coverings WO2000070168A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE29908733.6 1999-05-18
DE29908733U DE29908733U1 (en) 1999-05-18 1999-05-18 Noise device for floor coverings
DE29919038.2 1999-10-29
DE29919038U DE29919038U1 (en) 1999-10-29 1999-10-29 Backing for floor coverings

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU27977/00A AU2797700A (en) 1999-05-18 2000-01-19 Sound-proofing device for floor coverings
EP20000906211 EP1180189A1 (en) 1999-05-18 2000-01-19 Sound-proofing device for floor coverings

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000070168A1 true WO2000070168A1 (en) 2000-11-23

Family

ID=26062504

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/EP2000/000389 WO2000070168A1 (en) 1999-05-18 2000-01-19 Sound-proofing device for floor coverings

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1180189A1 (en)
AU (1) AU2797700A (en)
WO (1) WO2000070168A1 (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1264946A1 (en) * 2001-06-05 2002-12-11 Berry Finance Nv Flooring panel
WO2004031485A1 (en) * 2002-10-01 2004-04-15 Marco Claudio Valerio Self-laying modular element for paving and flooring
EP1426522A2 (en) * 2002-12-06 2004-06-09 Icopal Limited Flooring components
WO2004050355A1 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-06-17 Pergo(Europe) Ab A process for the manufacturing of a thermosetting laminate
EP1801312A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-27 Bubble and Foam Industries Acoustic damping and thermal insulation material
EP2743082A2 (en) 2012-12-17 2014-06-18 SELIT Dämmtechnik GmbH Insulating layer for a floor covering with an anti-slip surface
EP3168388A1 (en) * 2015-11-13 2017-05-17 WPT GmbH Underlay mat for floor covering
EP2280130B1 (en) 2000-06-13 2017-08-09 Flooring Industries Ltd. Floor covering
WO2018197597A1 (en) * 2017-04-28 2018-11-01 Windmöller Gmbh Floor panel having a sound-damping layer and method for producing the floor panel
US10493736B2 (en) 2015-11-13 2019-12-03 Wpt Gmbh Underlay mat for floor coverings

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3828503A (en) * 1972-05-04 1974-08-13 Mero Werke Kg Resilient floor, especially for gymnasiums
DE4340478A1 (en) * 1993-11-27 1995-06-01 Dieter Arnds Method and apparatus for producing a web-like covering material and application as a bottom and Wandungsbelag
US5540025A (en) * 1993-05-29 1996-07-30 Daiken Trade & Industry Co., Ltd. Flooring material for building
GB2306183A (en) * 1996-02-10 1997-04-30 Monarflex Ltd Acoustic insulating floor
EP0864712A2 (en) 1997-03-11 1998-09-16 Per Akustik AG Sound insulating mat as well as floor covering with sound insulating mat
DE29820016U1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-01-28 Schulte Johannes floorboard

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3828503A (en) * 1972-05-04 1974-08-13 Mero Werke Kg Resilient floor, especially for gymnasiums
US5540025A (en) * 1993-05-29 1996-07-30 Daiken Trade & Industry Co., Ltd. Flooring material for building
DE4340478A1 (en) * 1993-11-27 1995-06-01 Dieter Arnds Method and apparatus for producing a web-like covering material and application as a bottom and Wandungsbelag
GB2306183A (en) * 1996-02-10 1997-04-30 Monarflex Ltd Acoustic insulating floor
EP0864712A2 (en) 1997-03-11 1998-09-16 Per Akustik AG Sound insulating mat as well as floor covering with sound insulating mat
DE29820016U1 (en) 1998-11-10 1999-01-28 Schulte Johannes floorboard

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2280130B1 (en) 2000-06-13 2017-08-09 Flooring Industries Ltd. Floor covering
EP1264946A1 (en) * 2001-06-05 2002-12-11 Berry Finance Nv Flooring panel
WO2004031485A1 (en) * 2002-10-01 2004-04-15 Marco Claudio Valerio Self-laying modular element for paving and flooring
WO2004050280A1 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-06-17 Pergo(Europe) Ab A process for the manufacturing of a thermosetting laminate
WO2004050355A1 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-06-17 Pergo(Europe) Ab A process for the manufacturing of a thermosetting laminate
EP1426522A2 (en) * 2002-12-06 2004-06-09 Icopal Limited Flooring components
EP1426522A3 (en) * 2002-12-06 2005-11-09 Icopal Limited Flooring components
EP1801312A1 (en) * 2005-12-20 2007-06-27 Bubble and Foam Industries Acoustic damping and thermal insulation material
EP2743082A2 (en) 2012-12-17 2014-06-18 SELIT Dämmtechnik GmbH Insulating layer for a floor covering with an anti-slip surface
EP3168388A1 (en) * 2015-11-13 2017-05-17 WPT GmbH Underlay mat for floor covering
US10493736B2 (en) 2015-11-13 2019-12-03 Wpt Gmbh Underlay mat for floor coverings
WO2018197597A1 (en) * 2017-04-28 2018-11-01 Windmöller Gmbh Floor panel having a sound-damping layer and method for producing the floor panel

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1180189A1 (en) 2002-02-20
AU2797700A (en) 2000-12-05

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