WO2000065096A1 - Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation - Google Patents

Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation

Info

Publication number
WO2000065096A1
WO2000065096A1 PCT/US2000/011206 US0011206W WO0065096A1 WO 2000065096 A1 WO2000065096 A1 WO 2000065096A1 US 0011206 W US0011206 W US 0011206W WO 0065096 A1 WO0065096 A1 WO 0065096A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
sensor
ph
menstruation
sensors
blood
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US2000/011206
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Maria Grazia Capri
Giovanni Carlucci
Lisa Guerreschi
John L. Hammons
Giuliana Fabrizio
Original Assignee
The Procter & Gamble Company
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/72Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing involving blood pigments, e.g. haemoglobin, bilirubin or other porphyrins; involving occult blood
    • G01N33/721Haemoglobin
    • G01N33/725Haemoglobin using peroxidative activity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/42Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators with wetness indicator or alarm
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/45Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators characterised by the shape
    • A61F13/47Sanitary towels, incontinence pads or napkins
    • A61F13/472Sanitary towels, incontinence pads or napkins specially adapted for female use
    • A61F13/47263Sanitary towels, incontinence pads or napkins specially adapted for female use with activating means, e.g. elastic, heat or chemical activatable means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/56Supporting or fastening means
    • A61F13/66Garments, holders or supports not integral with absorbent pads
    • A61F13/82Garments, holders or supports not integral with absorbent pads with means for attaching to the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/84Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L15/00Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads
    • A61L15/16Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads for physiological fluids such as urine or blood, e.g. sanitary towels, tampons
    • A61L15/42Use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L15/00Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads
    • A61L15/16Bandages, dressings or absorbent pads for physiological fluids such as urine or blood, e.g. sanitary towels, tampons
    • A61L15/42Use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties
    • A61L15/56Wetness-indicators or colourants
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/52Use of compounds or compositions for colorimetric, spectrophotometric or fluorometric investigation, e.g. use of reagent paper and including single- and multilayer analytical elements
    • G01N33/528Atypical element structures, e.g. gloves, rods, tampons, toilet paper
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/53Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor
    • G01N33/5308Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor for analytes not provided for elsewhere, e.g. nucleic acids, uric acid, worms, mites
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/53Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor
    • G01N33/543Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor with an insoluble carrier for immobilising immunochemicals
    • G01N33/54366Apparatus specially adapted for solid-phase testing
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/84Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads
    • A61F2013/8473Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads for diagnostic purposes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, E.G. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/84Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads
    • A61F2013/8476Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads with various devices or method
    • A61F2013/8479Accessories, not otherwise provided for, for absorbent pads with various devices or method including electric or magnetic devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2333/00Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature
    • G01N2333/435Assays involving biological materials from specific organisms or of a specific nature from animals; from humans
    • G01N2333/575Hormones
    • G01N2333/59Follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]; Chorionic gonadotropins, e.g. HCG; Luteinising hormone [LH]; Thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by the preceding groups
    • G01N33/48Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers
    • G01N33/50Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing
    • G01N33/84Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing involving inorganic compounds or pH

Abstract

The present invention relates to use of a pH sensor, blood sensor, progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensor or combinations thereof in the manufacture of a sanitary napkin, panty liner for conventional use by a woman. The use of the sensor is for the purpose of providing a visual advance indication of at least 3 hours until the start of menstruation.

Description

P ANTY LINER WITH SENSOR FOR PREDICTING THE START OF MENSTRUATION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to use of a pH sensor, blood sensor, progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensor or combinations thereof in the manufacture of a sanitary napkin or panty liner for conventional use by a woman The use of the sensor is for the purpose of providing a visual advance indication of at least 3 hours until the start of menstruation

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Today, disposable sanitary articles such as sanitary napkins, panty liners, mterlabial devises and tampons, are widely used in feminine protection and in the care of incontinent adults as a means of containing, isolating and disposing of bodily wastes These articles have generally replaced reusable, washable cloth garments as the preferred means for these applications because of their convenience and reliability The disposable articles respond to a discharge event by absorbing or containing bodily wastes deposited on the article Some disposable articles comprise a chemically reactive means to detect and signal various substances in the wearer s waste However, none of these specifically detect or predict when menstruation is about to occur and signal to the wearer or caregiver that occurrence

The so far un-met consumer need of women which is targeted by the present invention is the desire to gain more information about the expected timing of their menstruation More generally it is well established that women would like to know more about and monitor their bodily condition as relates to the status of their menstruation cycle as well as a pre-warning to any kind of related disorder advancing.

Therefore, the present invention contains two aspects which may have to be considered in a different claim set according to local patent law. One aspect is the diagnostic aspect in a medical sense of the development of the present invention while the other is the purely non-medical benefit of providing early information about the approach of menstruation in order to allow respective action by the consumer such as starting to use sanitary napkins or tampons.

A lot of disclosure exists on general diagnostic aspects relating to female menstruation cycle and genital/urinary tract related information. However, none of the references cited in the following does provide specific teaching to the present invention.

US 5,217,444 to Schonfeld et. al., published June 8, 1993 discloses absorbent pads such as tampons comprising a pH indicator material to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of a liquid by a color change. The pH indictor is intended to be wetted by vaginal secretions which are absorbed by the pad. Depending on the pH this will provide an indication of the health condition of the women's vaginal tract.

US 5,468,236 to Everhart et. al., published November 21 , 1995 discloses a disposable absorbent product incorporating a chemically reactive substance which can provide visual indication of a chemical component in absorbed liquid such as vaginal discharges. The patent is un-specific as to its particular purpose but exemplifies a disposable diaper in which a glucose indicating gel can be applied to the topsheet or the absorbent core. In a second example the chemical compound to be detected is a nitrate as indicator of urinary tract infections by GRAM negative bacteria. In particular Everhart provides for a reaction which is endpoint stable due to a catalytic sequence such that further liquid absorption will not alter the indication.

US 4,231 ,370 to Morz et. al., published November 4, 1980 discloses disposable diapers with a pH sensitive wetness indicator in a solid adhesive matrix.

US 5,823,953 to Richards et. al., published October 20, 1998 relates to a self diagnostic system for yeast or non-yeast related vaginal infections in the form of a catamenial pad or panty liner with detachable, color indicating pH strip mounted on the topsheet. The pH indicator identifies if the pH of the absorbed liquid is above or below a thresh hold value of 4.5 and is indented to allow health care decisions without a physician in respect to treating a yeast or a non-yeast vaginal infection.

WO 97/43955 to Buck et. al., published November 27, 1997 discloses a kit for home use for collecting vaginal fluid and exfoliated vaginal cells in menstrual fluid for diagnostic purposes. The fluid or cells are collected in an absorbent interlabial pad or in a pad which is placed inside an apertured housing which is placed inter vaginally for collecting fluid. The fluid can afterwards be used for diagnostic purposes as desirable.

EP 704 195, to Echeveria, published April 3, 1996 discloses a menstrual detector which comprises a sanitary napkin or panty liner including a chemical compound which provides a cooling reaction upon liquid absorption as indicator of the start of menstruation in order to allow the wearer sufficient time to replace the indicating absorbent article by a full size and full capacity sanitary napkin or tampon.

Of course, many indicators as such are known and are usually independent of the source of the liquid of which analysis is desired. For example, EP 386 562 to Ismael et. al., published September 12, 1990 discloses a dry enzyme test composition with a color indicator result. Similarly, WO 90/06511 to Buck et. al., published June 14, 1990 discloses a stabilized indicator to determine the presence of an analyte in a liquid sample. Similarly, WO 89/1 1643 to Bouse et al, published November 30, 1989 discloses an indictor composition designed to increase the range of analyte concentration which can be analyzed.

EP 124 215 and EP 124 214 both to Oksman et al, published November 7, 1984 relate to wipe indicators for occult blood particular useful to analyze the presence of blood in feces. Similarly, EP 93595, to Wells, published November 9, 1983 relates to a dry diagnostic aid for use in an one-step determination of hemoglobin, especially in occult blood in feces.

EP 113 896 to Rothe, published July 25, 1984 relates to a chemical testing strip in which a test reagent is provided on a plastic film strip for quantitative evaluation. This patent exemplifies blood and glucose testing.

EP 101 980 and EP 101 979, both to Roy, published March 7, 1984 relate to the determination of dehydrogenase for the purpose of rapid clinical analysis and diagnosis. In the later case it is said that the carrier can be a tampon containing cellulose fibers.

In addition many publications in the medical field relating to pathological conditions of the female genital and urinary organs including methods of detecting and healing them have been published.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is about the accuracy with which the start of menstruation can be predicted with at least 3 hours advance notice. This serves the purpose to allow to take a desired action, e.g. prepare to use a 'full size' sanitary article such a Tampon or napkin, prepare to use a collection devise to allow collection of menstrual liquid for further in vitro analysis, allow women who have complications with their menstruation to take appropriate medication (i.e. utilize the prediction as part of a medication scheme). Of course the use of menstruation prediction is not strictly limited to the female human menstruation prediction but could equally be used on animals. Technically the present invention relates to the use of a pH sensor, blood sensor, progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensor or combinations thereof in the manufacture of a sanitary napkin, panty liner or interlabial article/insert for conventional use by a woman, said use of said sensor being for the purpose of providing a visual advance indication of at least 3 hours until the start of menstruation. Of course it is preferred to provide at least a full day advance warning of the start of menstruation.

In one embodiment according to the present invention it is most desirable to have as exact as possible a prediction on the start of menstruation for an individual for each menstruation cycle. Therefore it is preferred if the sensor is selected such that it provides a visual indication of the approximate time until start of menstruation which time is consistent within the range of +/- 4hours for a specific individual over at least 3 consecutive menstruation cycles.

According to another embodiment of the present invention this accuracy can be achieved by selecting the sensor composition appropriately. If the sensor includes a blood sensor then in a preferred embodiment the blood sensor is selected from Gum Guaiac with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin; or Gum Guaiac with epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid; or tetra-methyl benzidine with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin; tetra-methyl benzidine with epta- phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid. It is of course clear that a blood sensor needs to be sensitive enough to ensure that blood of a quantity which is not discernible by normal visual inspection by the human eye is detected. Alternatively if the sensor includes a pH sensor then in a preferred embodiment the pH sensor is selected to show a pH change in the range from pH 4 to pH 7, preferably the pH sensor is provided by a composition comprising carminic acid

In even further improved embodiments according to the present invention the use of a sensor is achieved by using a combination of at least 2 separate sensors selected from pH sensors, blood sensors, or progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensors. This can even be further improved by selecting the sensors such that they provide a single output signal.

According to the present invention the articles in which sensors for menstruation prediction is used are absorbent sanitary articles, such as sanitary napkins, panty liners or interlabial articles/inserts for women. Such articles are conventionally of a layered construction, each layer having a wearer and a garment facing surface. In general the article comprises a liquid permeable topsheet on the wearer facing surface, a liquid barrier backsheet on the garment facing surface, an absorbent core sandwiched between the topsheet and the backsheet. According to the present invention the panty liner should be thin with less than 3 mm thickness and most preferred is a panty liner which is suitable to be worn in a string undergarment and has a generally triangular shape (also referred to as thong shape or thong liner respectively).

It is within the scope of the present invention to supplement the sensor by additional menstruation cycle related detectors such as additional bio-chemical or electro-chemical or chemical detection means suitable to detect physiological changes in the absorbed vaginal discharges which are indicative of the time until the start of menstruation and preferably create a separate, strengthened or modified visual signal to the user of such articles. However also other sensors, capable of indicating the potential of current or approaching health related risks are preferred. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

DEFINITIONS

As used herein, the term "absorbent article" refers to devices which absorb and contain body exudates, and more specifically, refers to devices which are placed against or in proximity to the body of the wearer to absorb and contain the various exudates discharged from the body. The term "disposable" is used herein to describe absorbent articles which generally are not intended to be laundered or otherwise restored or reused as an absorbent article (i.e., they are intended to be discarded after a single use). As used herein, the term "joined" encompasses configurations whereby an element is directly secured to another element by affixing the element directly to the other element, and configurations whereby an element is indirectly secured to another element by affixing the element to intermediate member(s) which in turn are affixed to the other element. A "unitary" absorbent article refers to absorbent articles which are formed of separate parts united together to form a coordinated entity so that they do not require separate manipulative parts like a separate holder and liner. A preferred embodiment for the present invention is a unitary disposable sanitary napkin, panty liner or interlabial article/insert. Of course other unitary disposable absorbent articles if used during the period prior to menstruation, such as diapers, briefs, or other incontinence devises, tampons, and wipes can also benefit from the present invention but are not the subject of the appended claims.

An absorbent article, such as a sanitary napkin, panty liner or interlabial article/insert, is conventionally constructed of three main elements: The topsheet, facing the user of the article during use and being liquid pervious in order to allow liquids to pass into the article; the backsheet, providing a liquid containment such that absorbed liquid does not leak through the article, this backsheet conventionally provides the garment facing surface of the article; and the absorbent core sandwiched between the topsheet and the backsheet and providing the absorbent capacity of the article to acquire and retain liquid which has entered the article through the topsheet.

Many absorbent articles and constructions are known in the art and have been described in ample detail over time. All of such materials are useful in the context of the present invention, provided they do not interfere with the selected menstruation prediction sensors. In the following only those examples, which are particularly beneficial for the use in preferred absorbent articles according to the present invention are mentioned. Those skilled in the art will readily be able to identify alternative materials which can also be used and which maybe particularly desirable in the context of menstruation predicting absorbent articles according to the present invention.

Topsheet

In general the topsheet is compliant, flexible, soft feeling and non-irritating to the wearer's skin. The topsheet preferably also can have elastic characteristics allowing it to stretch in one or two directions. As used herein, the term "flexible" refers to materials that are compliant and will readily conform to the general shape and contours of the human body.

The topsheet can be made from a nonwoven or woven material or a film which has been rendered liquid pervious by aperturing. The topsheet can also be provided as a composite material or be comprised of more than a single layer, e.g. it can have a secondary topsheet or flow control layer. Such films and nonwovens or wovens can be made for example from polymers such as polyethylene or polypropylene compositions. Conventionally such polymers have been filled with coloring material such as titanium dioxide to provide a white opacity. Such a topsheet can also be provided without the coloring material to provide a transparent film or nonwoven which has a high degree of light transmission while the absence of a color filler, such as titanium dioxide, does not cause any substantial material changes. Such a topsheet would be particularly beneficial in the context of sensors providing visual indications which sensors are inside the article to allow visual inspection. Hence the absence (or reduction below 15%, i.e. about half of the conventional quantity) of an opaque color filler in the polymeric material from which the topsheet can be made provides the additional benefit of better inspection characteristics (besides less costs and a reduced environment burden). It would also be possible to provide a non opaque, tinting color filler which allows transparency or partial transparency while providing a color. This tinting may beneficially be used to hide the initial or final color of the color indicators according to the present invention, and is preferably pale yellow or blue.

The topsheet can be transparent or can be only partially transparent. It is however sufficient for most embodiments according to the present invention if the topsheet is translucent to allow visual inspection of a color change.

Backsheet

In general the backsheet is compliant, flexible and soft feeling. The backsheet prevents the exudes absorbed and contained in the absorbent core from wetting clothes that contact the absorbent article such as undergarments. Preferably the backsheet is impervious to liquids (e.g., menses, sweat and/or urine). It can be manufactured from a thin plastic film, although other flexible liquid impervious materials can also be used. As used herein, the term "flexible" refers to materials that are compliant and will readily conform to the general shape and contours of the human body. The backsheet preferably also can have elastic characteristics allowing it to stretch in one or two directions.

The backsheet can comprise a woven or nonwoven material, polymeric films such as thermoplastic films of polyethylene or polypropylene, or composite materials such as a film-coated nonwoven material or fiber coated film. Conventionally absorbent articles comprise a backsheet layer of a polyethylene film having a thickness of from about 0.012 mm to about 0.051 mm, which can be impervious or rendered micro-porous by use of an inert filler and subsequent mechanical stretching.

The backsheet is preferably breathable, i.e. allows the transmission of water vapor, or even more preferable the transmission of air, however without sacrificing its main purpose to provide leakage protection for absorbed liquids. The backsheet can also comprise more than one breathable layer so as to replace a single breathable backsheet layer by at least 2 or 3 layers of a different or the same material. In particular two breathable layers, in which e.g. the one providing the wearer facing surface is a formed, apertured film with a three dimensional structure and e.g. the other, garment facing layer is a non-woven composite of melt-blown and spun-bonded fibers, are preferred breathable backsheet constructions. As with the topsheet the backsheet can be provided from a transparent or translucent material which would allow easier inspection of visual signals inside the article. Similarly it can also be provided with a tinted color filler, preferably pale yellow or blue.

Absorbent core

Conventionally the absorbent core can be a single entity or comprise several layers. It can include the following components: (a) optionally a primary fluid distribution layer; (b) optionally a secondary fluid distribution layer; (c) a fluid storage layer; (d) optionally a fibrous layer underlying the storage layer; and (e) other optional components.

a. Primary Fluid Distribution Layer One optional component of the absorbent core according to the present invention is the primary fluid distribution layer. This primary distribution layer typically underlies the topsheet (if present) and is in fluid communication therewith. The primary distribution layer acquires body fluid for ultimate distribution to the storage layer. This transfer of fluid through the primary distribution layer occurs mainly in the thickness, but may also provide distribution along the longitudinal and transverse directions of the thong liner.

b. Optional Secondary Fluid Distribution Layer

Also optional according to the present invention is a secondary fluid distribution layer. This secondary distribution layer typically underlies the primary distribution layer and is in fluid communication therewith. The purpose of this secondary distribution layer is to readily acquire bodily fluid from the primary distribution layer and distribute it along the longitudinal and transverse directions of the thong liner before transfer to the underlying storage layer. This helps the fluid capacity of the underlying storage layer to be fully utilized.

c. Fluid Storage Layer

Positioned in fluid communication with, and typically underlying the primary or secondary distribution layers, is a fluid storage layer. It comprises preferably but not necessarily super-absorbent gelling materials usually referred to as "hydrogels," "superabsorbent" "hydrocolloid" materials. Absorbent gelling materials are those materials that, upon contact with aqueous fluids, especially body fluids, imbibes such fluids and thus form hydrogels. These absorbent gelling materials are typically capable of absorbing large quantities of aqueous body fluids, and are further capable of retaining such absorbed fluids under moderate pressures. In the prior art these absorbent gelling materials are typically in a granular form of discrete, non-fibrous particles. However, according to the present invention these super-absorbent gelling materials can also be provided in non-granular form, preferably in a fibrous form. If no absorbent gelling materials are provided then the storage layer can be provided by the material conventionally used as carrier material disclosed below.

In the fluid storage layer these absorbent gelling materials can be dispersed homogeneously or non-homogeneously in a suitable fibrous matrix also referred to as carrier. Suitable carriers include cellulose fibers, in the form of fluff or tissues, such as is conventionally utilized in absorbent cores. Modified cellulose fibers such as the stiffened cellulose fibers or viscose fibers can also be used. Synthetic fibers can also be used and include those made of cellulose acetate, polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene chloride, acrylics (such as Orion), polyvinyl acetate, non-soluble polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamides (such as nylon), polyesters, bi-component fibers, tri-component fibers, mixtures thereof and the like. Preferred synthetic and man-made fibers have a denier of from about 3 denier per filament to about 25 denier per filament, more preferably from about 5 denier per filament to about 16 denier per filament. The carrier fibers can be provided as carded, spun-bonded, melt-blown, wet-laid, air-laid substrates or combination of such lay down methods or combinations of such substrates.

Also preferably, the fiber surfaces are hydrophilic or are treated to be hydrophilic. A storage layer can also include filler materials, such as Perlite, diatomaceous earth, Vermiculite, etc., that lower rewet problems. Further the storage layer may comprise a binder including but not limited to Latex binders which can be sprayed as an aqueous solution onto the surface of the storage layer prior to curing.

If the absorbent gelling materials are dispersed non-homogeneously in a fibrous matrix, the storage layer can be locally homogeneous, i.e. have a distribution gradient in one or several directions within the dimensions of the storage layer. Non-homogeneous distribution thus includes e.g. laminates of the fibrous carriers enclosing the absorbent gelling materials or regions in which the absorbent gelling material has a different concentration relative to other regions.

If absorbent gelling material is present the storage layer preferably comprises from 5% to 95% absorbent gelling materials, preferably from 5% to 50%, most preferably from 8% to 35%, absorbent gelling materials. Further the storage layer can comprise from 5% to 95% carrier fibers, preferably from 95% to 50%, most preferably from 92% to 65% carrier fibers.

Suitable absorbent gelling materials for use herein will most often comprise a substantially water-insoluble, slightly crosslinked, partially neutralized, polymeric gelling material. This material forms a hydrogel upon contact with water. Such polymer materials can be prepared from polymerizable, unsaturated, acid-containing monomers. Suitable unsaturated acidic monomers for use in preparing the polymeric absorbent gelling material used in this invention include those listed in U.S. Patent 4,654,039 (Brandt et al), issued March 31 , 1987, and reissued as RE 32,649 on April 19, 1988. Preferred monomers include acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid. Acrylic acid itself is especially preferred for preparation of the super-absorbent material, it also has a 'natural' transparency which is not optimal but acceptable if the desired transparency is not too high.

Whatever the nature of the basic polymer components of the hydrogel- forming polymeric absorbent gelling materials, such materials will in general be slightly crosslinked. Crosslinking serves to render the hydrogel-forming polymer gelling materials substantially water-insoluble, and cross-linking thus in part determines the gel volume and extractable polymer characteristics of the hydrogels formed from these polymeric gelling materials. Suitable crosslinking agents are well known in the art and include, for example, those described in greater detail in U.S. Patent 4,076,663 (Masuda et al), issued February 28, 1978. Preferred crosslinking agents are the di- or polyesters of unsaturated mono- or polycarboxylic acids with polyols, the bisacrylamides and the di- or triallyl amines. Other preferred crosslinking agents are N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide, trimethylol propane triacrylate and triallyl amine. The crosslinking agent can generally constitute from about 0.001 mole percent to 5 mole percent of the resulting hydrogel-forming polymer material. More preferably, the crosslinking agent will constitute from about 0.01 mole percent to 3 mole percent of the hydrogel- forming polymeric gelling material.

The slightly crosslinked, hydrogel-forming polymeric gelling materials are generally employed in their partially neutralized form. For purposes of the present invention, such materials are considered partially neutralized when at least 25 mole per-cent, and preferably at least 50 mole percent of monomers used to form the polymer are acid group-containing monomers that have been neutralized with a salt-forming cation. Suitable salt-forming cations include alkali metal, ammonium, substituted ammonium and amines. This percentage of the total monomers utilized which are neutralized acid group-containing monomers is referred to herein as the "degree of neutralization."

While these absorbent gelling materials have typically been disclosed in the prior art in granular form, it is possible in the context of the present invention that the absorbent gelling material is in a non-granular form for example as macrostructures such as fibers, sheets or strips or in a form suitable for coating, e.g. before curing or as part of an adhesive substance. A macrostructure can be prepared by forming the particulate absorbent gelling material into an aggregate, treating the aggregated material with a suitable crosslinking agent, compacting the treated aggregate to densify it and form a coherent mass, and then curing the compacted aggregate to cause the crosslinking agent to react with the particulate absorbent gelling material to form a composite, porous absorbent macrostructure. Such porous, absorbent macrostructures are disclosed, for example, in U.S. Patent 5,102,597 (Roe et al), issued April 7, 1992. d. Optional Fibrous Layer

An optional component for inclusion in the absorbent cores according to the present invention is a fibrous layer adjacent to, and typically underlying the storage layer. This underlying fibrous layer would typically provide the same function as the secondary fluid distribution layer.

e. Other Optional Components

The absorbent cores according to the present invention can include other optional components normally present in absorbent webs. For example, a reinforcing scrim can be positioned within the respective layers, or between the respective layers, of the absorbent cores. Such reinforcing scrims should be of such configuration as to not form interfacial barriers to fluid transfer, especially if positioned between the respective layers of the absorbent core. Given the structural integrity that usually occurs as a result of thermal bonding, reinforcing scrims are usually not required for the absorbent structures according to the present invention.

Another component which can be included in the absorbent core according to the invention and preferably is provided close to or as part of the primary or secondary fluid distribution layer are odor control agents. Typically active carbon coated with or in addition to other odor control agents, in particular suitable zeolite, silica or clay materials, are optionally incorporated in the absorbent core.

Physical characteristics of absorbent cores

Absorbent cores are usually non extensible and non-elastic, however, they can be rendered extensible and depending on the selected materials can also be made to have elastic characteristics. The term "extensible" as used hereinafter refers to a structure which under external forces such as those occurring during use extends in the direction of the forces or in the direction of a component of the forces in cases where only mono directional extensibility is provided.

The term "elastic" as used hereinafter refers to extensible structures which return at least partially to their initial state after the forces causing the extension seize to be excerpted. Absorbent cores can be corrugated or pleated in one or several directions to provide a certain extensibility while selection of elastic fibers for the structure can provide elasticity.

If intended for use in panty liners the absorbent cores should preferably be thin. A thickness of less than 5 mm, preferably less than 3 mm and even more preferable between 0.8 and 1.8 mm is desirable such that the resulting panty liners can also have a low thickness. As with the topsheet or the backsheet transparency of or tinting of the materials forming the core can be particularly desirable to allow easy inspection of the detector status.

Non-limiting examples of sanitary napkin, panty liners which may be provided with a detection means include those manufactured by The Procter & Gamble Company of Cincinnati, Ohio as: ALLDAYS® Panty Liners with DriWeave® manufactured according to U.S. Patents 4,324,246; 4,463,045; and 6,004,893; (ALWAYS® Ultrathin Slender Maxi with Wings manufactured according to U.S. Patents 4,342,314, 4,463,045, 4,556,146, B1 4,589,876, 4,687,478, 4,950,264, 5,009,653, 5,267,992, and Re. 32,649; ALWAYS® Regular Maxi; ALWAYS® Ultra Maxi with Wings; ALWAYS® Maxi with Wings; ALWAYS® Ultra Long Maxi with Wings; ALWAYS® Long Super Maxi with Wings; and ALWAYS® Overnight Maxi with Wings). However most other commercially available sanitary napkin or panty liners could also serve as an example for the potential use in the context of the present invention.

Non-limiting examples of interlabial devices which may be provided with a detection means are described in U.S. Patents 5,762,644; 5,885,265; 5,891 ,126; 5,895,381 ; 5,916,205; 5,951 ,537; 5,964,689; 5,968,026; Des. 404,814; and Des. 413,669.

Detectors/Sensors

According to the present invention at least one sensor for the detection of menstruation selected from blood sensors, pH-sensors and progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensors is used in the manufacturing of sanitary napkins, panty liners or interlabial articles/inserts. As used herein, the term "sensor" is defined as a component comprising one or more reactive means being adapted to detect one or more target substances (also referred to as analytes) such as microorganisms or related (bio-)molecules (e.g., an enzyme sensor, organella sensor, tissue sensor, microorganism sensor, immunosensor, and chemical or electrochemical sensor), additionally having the capability to provide a signal of said detection to the wearer, caretaker, or an actuator. The term "reactive" is defined as having the capability to selectively interact with such target substances.

There are 2 categories of sensors which have different sensitivity: biosensors and chemical-/electro-chemicall sensors. Generally biosensors function by providing a means of specifically binding, and therefore detecting, a target biologically active analyte. In this way, the biosensor is highly selective, even when presented with a mixture of many chemical and biological entities, such as present in vaginal discharge. Electrochemical and chemical sensors, on the other hand, which rely on chemically reactive means, generally do not have either the high selectivity or the amplification properties of biosensors but are highly reliable, inexpensive, i.e. useful in the context of commodity products, and often very well established, i.e. proven to be save for use on human skin. Often the target analyte is a minor component of a complex mixture comprising a multiplicity of biological and other components. Thus, in many biosensor applications, detection of target analytes to the parts-per-billion, parts-per-trillion, or even lower levels is necessary.

Blood sensor

According to the present invention a blood sensor can be used. There are many blood sensors commercially available which can be used provided their sensitivity is sufficient to detect blood at quantities which are not visually discernible to the human eye. However according to the present invention a specifically selected chemical composition as blood sensor is preferred. When referring to blood herein a typical component of blood, such as hemoglobin or iron, can of course also be used as analyte.

The preferred chemical composition comprises a color indicating component selected from Gum Guaiac or tetra-methyl-benzidine or combinations thereof which reacts when oxidized and an oxidizing component selected from a peroxide or a per-acid or combinations thereof. In particular the following combinations have been found useful as blood sensors in the context of this invention:

- Gum Guaiac with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin

- Gum Guaiac with , epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid

- tetra-methyl benzidine with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin

- tetra-methyl benzidine with epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid

The Gum Guaiac is a resin found from wood of Guaiacum officinale or Guaiacum santum (mainly found in Mexico or West India). Gum Guaiac is historically used as flavoring agent for food(and hence has a long record of save usage by humans) and is known for its ability to indicate the presence of blood or hemoglobin, especially in feces. According to the present invention the Gum Guaiac wood resin is preferred, however one or all of the active components, whether naturally or artificially derived, can be used in stead of the wood resin. The best known active components are guaiacol (OHC6H4OCH3, CAS 90-05-1 ), guaiaconic acid and (furo)-guaiacine.

The cyclo-dextrin used this composition is useful to improve stability of the peroxide and help carry the peroxide into aqueous solution upon wetting. Alternatively to or in combination with cyclo-dextrin also metal-chelants, such as EDTA (ethylene di-amino tetra acetic acid or its salt) can also be used. In general the oxidizing component needs to be stable and insensitive to storage conditions usual for such articles (e.g. in a warm and high humidity environment of a bathroom). If the oxidizing component is a hydro peroxide then physio-chemical stabilization e.g. by use of cyclo-dextrin is desirable. For per-acids such stabilization has been found to be less necessary, in particular for the preferred epta-phthalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid. It is also desirable that the oxidizing component is not activated by the conventional components in sanitary articles and the humidity introduced during wearing (e.g. sweat) or absorption of vaginal discharges without blood component. The same applies of course also to the color indicator.

Not only stabilization of each component but also premature and accidental reaction of the 2 components should preferably be prevented. This can be achieved by separating them physically in that one is applied on one surface of one layer in the article according to the present invention and the other component is applied on the other side of that layer. Alternatively one component can be applied on one surface of one layer and the other component on the surface facing the same direction of another layer. Finally one component can be applied so that it is located inside a layer e.g. inside the central absorbent core layer while the other component is located on at least part of the surface of that layer. Application of both components on the same layer can be done in an alternate pattern such as stripes, dots or different shapes. The sensor can be provided in discrete parts of a surface of a layer or as full surface coverage of the layer (both components or one alone). The components can be provided either one or both as powder, liquid or as components in an adhesive admixture for better coating.

It is also possible to separate the 2 components by providing at least one, e. g. the oxidizing component, completely separate from the article (and hence from the other component) e. g. in the form of a spray or liquid or powder, which is applied to the article after use to provide the desired detection. Such detection systems could be especially desirable in the context of articles which are worn in close proximity and can be flushed into the toilet (e.g. interlabial articles/inserts). Such systems would address concerns of stability for the separate component but also of concerns with materials coming into close contact with the regenerative organs of a woman.

The color indicator and the oxidizing material both are reactive only in aqueous solution. Hence they will only start to react once they have dissolved in the vaginal discharges and are activated by the presence of blood. In order to accelerate and promote the dissolution it is preferred to include a tensioactive material, such as a surfactant, preferably a non-ionic surfactant, or polyethylene- glycol or a combination thereof. The tensioactive should preferably be located such that it is wetted first before the liquid reaches the 2 components.

pH Sensors

In addition or alternatively to the blood sensor a signal of the approach of menstruation in the form of a change of the pH of vaginal discharges can be detected and used to provide a desired signal. pH electrodes or pH color indicators are well known and have been used for the detection of vaginal infections or at least as indications of occurrences of vaginal flora changes implicating some health concern. According to the present invention, and under the assumption of a healthy vaginal flora, a change in the vaginal pH is also indicative of a time proximity to the start of menstruation.

Hence any commercially available pH indicator composition which is indicative of the menstruation related increase in pH to values between pH 4 and pH 7 can be used in the present invention. Such pH sensors undergo a color change due to a pH change in the range between pH 4 and pH 7 and are commercially available e.g. from The Merck Company, Darmstadt, Germany. A highly preferred pH sensor, having a well established safety profile in this context is carminic acid, which is used as a food dye, but undergoes a color change in the range between pH 4 and pH 7. Carminic acid is a tricyclic compound which has the compound formula C22-H20-O13.

Hormone Sensors

In addition or alternatively the presence of certain hormones, especially progesterone or estrogen can be used as tracers in vaginal discharges to provide prediction of the time until start of menstruation.

The cyclic nature of the hormones of the menstrual cycle (i.e., the full 28 day cycle) make them particularly useful in understanding, the position of an individual during her cycle. This has historically been used in the assessment of fertility, but the use according to the present invention goes beyond current uses of hormones to predict ovulation and pregnancy. For example, progesterone peaks and then drops just prior to menstruation. Estrogen also declines just prior to menstruation. Thus, alone or in combination with other predictors, such as blood detection or pH indication, assay for either of these two hormones will allow reliable prediction of the onset and the presence of menstruation. The timing of the peak of these hormones, along with their subsequent drop, allows a highly accurate marking of the time before menstruation. The only potential drawback of such hormone sensors is the associated cost and complexity due to lack of simple and cheep visualization systems. This makes their use especially for medical purposes highly attractive. Hence the use of hormone detection in order to predict menstruation is preferably provided in conjunction with blood detection and/or pH detection to improve the accuracy of such predictions. Such systems are particularly useful in the context of a medical scheme to serve an individual having health related issues relating to the start of menstruation. Such combined systems are discussed below in greater detail but can be provided as partially integral with the absorbent sanitary napkin, panty liner or interlabial article/insert according the present invention or even as a completely separate system.

Use of hormones may also be developed for other points of interest in the cycle. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) exhibits a peak about one week prior to ovulation, giving more advance timing for pregnancy planning than assays for the luteinizing hormone, which exhibits a sharp peak at the time of ovulation. Two to three days of fertility may be missed when relying only on assay of the luteinizing hormone. Thus, in a diagnostic for ovulation herein, it is highly preferred to measure for both the Follicle Stimulating Hormone and the luteinizing hormone along with estrogen.

A rise in Follicle Stimulating Hormone to a near constant amount signals the approach of menopause. This may be of use in planning healthy approaches to menopause, such as Hormone Replacement Therapy, nutritional changes, and checks for osteoporosis.

Additional Sensors

The sanitary article according to the present invention can be provided with several additional sensor and detector systems which allow e.g. indications or predictions of health related issues of the individual. Such additional sensor systems are primarily useful for articles which are used in a care taker situation. In general such additional systems or biosensors comprise a recognition element, or molecular recognition element, that provides detection for a particular analyte. The recognition element may be a biologically derived material such as an enzyme or sequence of enzymes; an antibody; a membrane receptor protein; DNA; an organelle, a natural or synthetic cell membrane; an intact or partial viable or nonviable bacterial, plant or animal cell; or a piece of plant or mammalian tissues, and generally functions to interact specifically with a target analyte. The recognition element is responsible for the selective recognition of the analyte and creates a physical-chemical signal that provides the basis for the output signal.

Biosensors may include biocatalytic biosensors, and bioaffinity biosensors. In biocatalytic biosensor embodiments, the bio-recognition element is "biocatalytic" and may comprise an enzyme, organelle, piece of plant or mammalian tissue, or whole cells, the selective binding sites "turn over" (i.e., can be used again during the detection process), resulting in a significant amplification of the input signal. Biocatalytic sensors such as these are generally useful for real-time, continuous sensing.

Bioaffinity sensors are generally applicable to bacteria, viruses, and toxins and include chemoreceptor-based biosensors and/or immunological sensors (i.e. immunosensors). Chemoreceptors are complex biomolecular macroassemblies responsible, in part, for a viable organism's ability to sense chemicals in its environment with high selectivity. Chemoreceptor-based biosensors comprise one or more natural or synthetic chemoreceptors associated with a means to provide a signal (visual, electrical, etc.) of the presence or concentration of a target biological analyte. Chemoreceptors may include whole or partial nerve bundles (e.g., from antennae or other sensing organs) and/or whole or partial natural or synthetic cell membranes. On the other hand, the bio-recognition elements of immunosensors are generally antibodies. Antibodies are highly specific and can be made toward bacteria, viruses, fragments of microorganisms (e.g., bacterial cell walls, parasite eggs or portions thereof, etc.), and large biomolecules. Suitable antibodies may be monoclonal or polyclonal. In any case, bioaffinity biosensors are generally irreversible because the receptor sites of the biosensor become saturated when exposed to the target biological analyte. In certain embodiments biocatalytic and bioaffinity biosensors may be combined. Biocatalytic and bioaffinity biosensor systems are described in more detail in Journal of Chromatoqraphy, 510 (1990) 347-354 and in the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. (1992), John Wiley & Sons, NY.

The biosensors of the present invention preferably also detect biologically active analytes related to impending (i.e., future presentation of symptoms is likely) or current human systemic disease states, including pathogenic bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi such as Candida albicans, antibodies to pathogens, and/or microbially produced toxins. Additionally, the biosensor may target biologically active analytes related to impending or current localized health issues, such as stress proteins (e.g., cytokines) and IL-1 (interleukin 1-alpha) that may precede the clinical presentation of skin irritation or inflammation. In preferred embodiments, the biosensor functions as a proactive sensor, detecting and signaling the wearer or caretaker of the impending condition prior to the presentation of clinical symptoms. This allows time to administer prophylactic or remedial treatments to the wearer which can significantly reduce, if not prevent, the severity and duration of the symptoms. Further, the biosensor by detecting the presence of a target biological analyte in the wearer's bodily waste, may detect residual contamination on a surface, such as skin, in contact with the biosensor, and provide an appropriate signal.

The signal generated by the recognition element or elements is communicated visually to the wearer or caretaker, e.g. via a color change visible to the human eye. The signal may be qualitative (e.g., indicating the presence of the target biological analyte) or quantitative (i.e., a measurement of the amount or concentration of the target biological analyte). In any case, the signal is preferably durable i.e., stable and readable over a length of time (typically at least of the same magnitude as the usage period of the article). Further, the sensor may be adapted to detect and/or signal only concentrations of the target biological analyte above or below a predefined threshold level (e.g., in cases wherein the target biological analyte is normally present in the bodily waste).

As described above, the target analyte that the biosensors of the present invention are adapted to detect is pathogenic microorganisms such as the pathogenic microorganisms implicated in human gastrointestinal diseases, especially those resulting in diarrhea. It has been found that severe chronic diarrhea may result in weight loss and permanent physical and mental retardation. A non-limiting list of pathogenic bacteria that the biosensor 60 may detect include any of the various pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (commonly known as E. Coli); Salmonella strains, including S. typhi, S. paratyphi, S. enteriditis, S. typhimurium, and S. heidelberg; Shigella strains such as Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella dysenteriae; Vibrio cholerae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Yersinia enterocolitica; Aeromonas hydrophila; Plesiomonas shigelloides; Campylobacter strains such as C. jejuni and C. coli; Bacteroides fragilis; and Clostridia strains, including C. septicum, C. perfringens, C. botulinum, and C. difficile. A non-limiting example of a commercially available biosensor adapted to detect E. coli is available from AndCare, Inc. of Durham, NC, as test kit #4001. ABTECH, Scientific, Inc., of Yardley, PA offers "bioanalytical biotransducers", available as BB Au-1050.5-FD- X, which may be rendered biospecific (for microorganisms or other target biological analytes as described herein) by covalently immobilizing polypeptides, enzymes, antibodies, or DNA fragments to their surfaces. Other suitable microbial biosensors are described in US Patents 5,869,272 (gram negative organisms); 5,795,717 (Shigella); 5,830,341 ; 5,795,453; 5,354,661 ; 5,783,399; 5,840,488; 5,827,651 ; 5,723,330; and 5,496,700. The target analytes that the biosensors of the present invention are adapted to detect may also be viruses. These may include diarrhea-inducing viruses such as rotavirus, or other viruses such as rhinovirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An exemplary biosensor adapted to detect HIV is described in US Patents 5,830,341 and 5,795,453, referenced above.

In alternative embodiments, the target analytes that the biosensors of the present invention are adapted to detect may also be parasites, especially those which inhabit the gastrointestinal tract during some point in their life-cycle. Such parasites may include protozoans, worms, and other gastrointestinal parasites. Other examples of parasites which may be detected include entamoeba histolytica (which cause amoebic dysentery), trypana cruzi (which causes Chagas disease), and plasmodium falciparum.

In yet other embodiments, the target analytes the biosensors of the present invention are adapted to detect fungi such as Candida albicans. In addition to pathogenic bacteria, certain beneficial colonic bacteria may be detected and/or measured as a health indicator, such as Bifidobacte a and Lactobacillus strains.

The target analytes that the biosensors of the present invention are adapted to detect may also be proteins or antigens related to skin distress. Preferably, these analytes are detectable on or at the skin surface, preferably prior to the presentation of clinically observable skin irritation. These may include stress proteins such as cytokines, histamine, and other immune response factors including interleukins (such as IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, and IL-8) and interferons (including interferons a and g). Again, these are preferably detectable by the biosensor 60 prior to the onset of clinically observable redness, irritation, or dermatitis. Additionally, the biosensors of the present invention may be adapted to detect enzymes, or other biological factors, implicated in skin irritation (e.g., diaper dermatitis), including tryspin, chymotrypsin, and lipase. The biosensors of the present invention may also comprise bio-recognition systems, including enzymes or binding proteins such as antibodies immobilized onto the surface of physico-chemical transducers. For example, a specific strain of bacteria may be detected via biosensors employing antibodies raised against that bacterial strain. Alternatively, a target bacteria may be detected by a bio- recognition element (including antibodies and synthetic or natural molecular receptors) specific to extracellular products of the target bacteria, such as toxins produced by that strain (e.g., E. coli). Exemplary enzyme electrodes that may be used to detect phenols (e.g. in urine or feces) include tyrosinase based electrodes or polyphenol oxidase enzyme electrodes described in U.S. Patent No. 5,676,820 entitled "Remote Electrochemical Sensor," issued to Joseph Wang et al. on October 14, 1997 and U.S. Patent No. 5,091 ,299 entitled "An Enzyme Electrode For Use In Organic Solvents," issued to Anthony P. F. Turner et al. on February 25, 1992, respectively

In any of the foregoing examples, the specific microorganism may be directly detected or may be detected by binding a toxin, enzyme, or other protein produced by the organism or an antibody, such as a monoclonal antibody, specific to the organism. Exemplary biosensors adapted to detect proteolytic enzymes described in US Patent 5,607,567 and toxins in US Patents 5,496,452; 5,521 ,101 ; and 5,567,301.

The biosensor of the present invention may comprise one or more "proactive sensors". This is especially useful in embodiments where the detection of the target biologically reactive analyte precedes the onset of clinically observable health symptoms. As used in this application, the term "proactive sensor" refers to a sensor that is capable of detecting changes or signals on the body of the wearer (i.e., skin) or in the waste, i.e., inputs, that directly relate or, at a minimum, correlate to the occurrence of an impending or potential health or skin related even. Proactive sensors may respond to one or more specific inputs as described above.

A proactive sensor may detect an impending event or detect a parameter that directly relates, or at a minimum correlates to the occurrence of an impending event, particularly a systemic or skin health event or condition (i.e., the presentation of clinically observable indications or symptoms). An impending event that may be detected or predicted by a proactive sensor of the present invention may include diarrheal disease, skin irritation or rash (including candidiasis), and/or other types of illness or medical conditions of the wearer such as a parasitic infestation. The detected biological analyte may be one or more steps removed from the actual presentation of clinical symptoms. For example, the biosensor may detect potential precursors to the above conditions (e.g., fecal contamination of the skin that may precede the elicitation of stress proteins which may, in turn, precede clinically observable skin irritation. A parameter that correlates to an event is any measurable input, signal such as one or more of the potential inputs listed above, that correlates with the occurrence of the event within the frame of reference of the system (i.e., a signal caused by the waste or the wearer). Proactive sensors in an article may measure one or more different inputs in order to predict an event. For example, the proactive sensor may monitor for Candida albicans in vaginal discharges and residual colonic bacteria on the skin (i.e., detecting residual contamination) both of which are signals that may precede skin irritation.

In biosensor embodiments wherein the bio-recognition element does not produce an easily visible signal (e.g., a color change), the biosensor may include a transducer in communication with the bio-recognition element in order to convert the physico chemical signal from the bio-recognition element into a usable signal to the wearer, caretaker, or component of the article (e.g., and actuator). Exemplary transducers may include electrochemical transducers (including potentiometric, amperometric, and conductimetric transducers), optical transducers (including fluorescence, bioluminescence, total internal reflective resonance, and surface plasmon resonance), thermal transducers, and acoustic transducers, as known in the art. A power source, such as a miniature 3 volt watch battery or printed thin film lithium battery, may be connected with the biosensor to provide any required power.

Combinations of sensors

In one particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention the article comprises in addition to one sensor another separately activated and independently functioning sensor to detect the approach of menstruation.

E.g. it is clear that the detection of blood in particular to allow prediction of menstruation cannot be considered to be one hundred percent accurate. First of all, the indicator itself needs to be provided with a high degree of accuracy for only detecting blood, i. E. it should be insensitive to other materials to which it is exposed. On the other hand, the sensitivity should be high to allow detection of low quantities of blood, i.e. prior to its visual recognition. These two competing interests need to be balanced.

Further the presence of blood is well known as an indication of the approach of menstruation. However also injuries or pathological situations may cause the presence of low levels of blood in vaginal discharges. It is therefore desirable to provide the sanitary article with an additional sensor selected from pH sensors or progesterone and/or estrogen hormone sensors providing a second independent signal of the approach of menstruation, it is then of course necessary to use the resulting signal in combination to identify the time delay until start of menstruation.

E.g. if additional sensors are provided as color change indicators they can be provided separately, for example in a different region of the article (of course, such that they will be exposed to vaginal discharges). Alternatively they can be provided together with the color indicator providing a multicolor indication as explained in an example below.

For example, in the context of Gum Guaiac, which provides a color change to blue and a pH sensor providing e.g. a color change to red, the mixed color sensor (blue and red) would need to turn purple in order to provide an indication with high accuracy of the time until the start of menstruation. A different color change (such as only blue or only red) would indicate that the menstruation is still some more time away or that there is the potential of a health issue (a pH change alone can be indicative - but does not have to - of infections, while blood indication alone can - but does not have to - indicate a wound). Of course the absence of a color change would indicate that there is still time until the next menstruation. Preferably such sensors are provided separately next to each other such that 2 color indications are indicative of menstruation approaching and a single color change is indicative as explained above.

Examples

A panty liner was provided with a blood indicator and provided consistent indication of the approach of menstruation more than 4 hours advance on different women. The panty liner was a conventional panty liner with a topsheet a secondary topsheet layer between the topsheet and the core, a core layer and a polyethylene film as backsheet.

The blood indicator comprised 2 components, a first component being a composition of 0.1 g of polyethylene-glycol as carrier and tensioactive component with 0.04 g of epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid. The second component was a composition of 0.2 g of polyethylene-glycol as carrier and tensioactive component with 0.02 g of Gum Guaiac. The first component was spread over a 20 mm wide and 130 mm long strip onto the garment facing surface of the secondary topsheet layer. The second component was spread over a 20 mm wide and 130 mm long strip onto the garment facing surface of the absorbent core.

Alternatively a commercially available blood detector strip was inserted into a panty liner as exemplified above between the topsheet and the backsheet also having acceptable results. Such strips are available e.g. as Chroma 6 ™ from the Menarini Company, Florence Italy, Arkray Aution Sticks ™, by KDK Corporation of Kyoto, Japan. In another alternative a pH indicator strip was used in the same fashion as the blood indicator strip, again with acceptable results. Such pH indicator strips are available as Spezial Indikator, code 109542, from the Merck Company mentioned above.

Claims

1.) Use of a pH sensor, blood sensor, progesterone hormone sensor, estrogen hormone sensor or combinations thereof in the manufacture of a sanitary napkin or panty liner or interlabial article/insert for conventional use by a woman, said use of said sensor being for the purpose of providing a visual advance indication of at least 3 hours until the start of menstruation.
2.) Use according to claim 1 wherein said sensor provides an at least 24 hours advance indication.
3.) Use according to claim 1 wherein said sensor provides a visual indication of the approximate time until start of menstruation which time is consistent within the range of +/- 4hours for a specific individual over at least 3 consecutive menstruation cycles.
4.) Use according to any of the preceding claims wherein said sensor comprises a blood sensor and wherein said blood sensor is selected from
- Gum Guaiac with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin
- Gum Guaiac with , epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid
- tetra-methyl benzidine with a peroxide and optionally cyclo-dextrin
- tetra-methyl benzidine with epta-phtalimido-peroxy-hexanoic acid or combinations thereof.
5.) Use according to any of the preceding claims wherein said sensor comprises a pH sensor and wherein said pH sensor is selected to undergo a color change due to a pH change in the range between pH 4 and pH 7, preferably the pH sensor is provided by a composition comprising carminic acid.
6.) Use according to any of the preceding claims wherein said sensor is provided by a combination of at least 2 separate sensors selected from pH sensors, blood sensors, progesterone hormone sensors, or estrogen hormone sensors.
7.) Use according to claim 6 wherein both sensors provide a separately detectable signal.
8.) Use according to any of the preceding claims wherein said sensor comprises a blood indicator and further a tensioactive material, preferably a polyethylene-glycol.
PCT/US2000/011206 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation WO2000065096A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US09/299,399 1999-04-26
US09299399 US6713660B1 (en) 1998-06-29 1999-04-26 Disposable article having a biosensor
US51748100 true 2000-03-02 2000-03-02
US51744100 true 2000-03-02 2000-03-02
US09/517,481 2000-03-02
US09/517,441 2000-03-02

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP20000926388 EP1173618A1 (en) 1999-04-26 2000-04-26 Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation
JP2000614430A JP2002542846A (en) 1999-04-26 2000-04-26 Panty liner having a prediction sensor of menstruation start
CA 2367588 CA2367588A1 (en) 1999-04-26 2000-04-26 Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000065096A1 true true WO2000065096A1 (en) 2000-11-02

Family

ID=27404650

Family Applications (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2000/011205 WO2000065084A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 A blood detection composition
PCT/US2000/011207 WO2000065347A9 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Multiple diagnostic device for a woman's health
PCT/US2000/011204 WO2000065083A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Feminine sanitary disposable article having a blood detection means as sensor
PCT/US2000/011208 WO2000065348A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Disposable articles and other articles comprising a detection device
PCT/US2000/011206 WO2000065096A1 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Panty liner with sensor for predicting the start of menstruation

Family Applications Before (4)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US2000/011205 WO2000065084A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 A blood detection composition
PCT/US2000/011207 WO2000065347A9 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Multiple diagnostic device for a woman's health
PCT/US2000/011204 WO2000065083A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Feminine sanitary disposable article having a blood detection means as sensor
PCT/US2000/011208 WO2000065348A3 (en) 1998-06-29 2000-04-26 Disposable articles and other articles comprising a detection device

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (5) EP1173758A2 (en)
JP (5) JP2002542843A (en)
CN (2) CN1348501A (en)
CA (5) CA2370936A1 (en)
WO (5) WO2000065084A3 (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7365238B2 (en) 2002-02-19 2008-04-29 The Procter And Gamble Company Absorbent article having a dehydration indicator
US7994079B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2011-08-09 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Meltblown scrubbing product
US9486368B2 (en) 2013-12-05 2016-11-08 Medline Industries, Inc. Disposable hygienic article with means for diagnostic testing

Families Citing this family (54)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB0020276D0 (en) 2000-08-18 2000-10-04 Secr Defence Dermatological composition
JP4534388B2 (en) * 2001-06-13 2010-09-01 富士レビオ株式会社 Menses or vaginal secretions collecting tool, kits and methods
US7002054B2 (en) 2001-06-29 2006-02-21 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article having a fever indicator
US6921647B2 (en) * 2001-07-19 2005-07-26 Common Sense Ltd. Secretion-monitoring article
JP4677597B2 (en) * 2001-08-31 2011-04-27 ユニ・チャーム株式会社 Disposable diapers
WO2003063693A3 (en) 2002-01-31 2005-07-28 Expressive Constructs Inc Method for detecting microorganisms
DE10225943A1 (en) 2002-06-11 2004-01-08 Basf Ag A process for the preparation of esters of polyalcohols
US20040015145A1 (en) 2002-07-16 2004-01-22 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article having a graphic visible through body contacting surface
DE10309349B4 (en) * 2003-03-03 2005-11-10 Holger Dr. Klapproth Device for analyzing an analyte
WO2004086043A1 (en) * 2003-03-26 2004-10-07 Johnson & Johnson Medical Limited Prediction and detection of wound infection
FR2855824A1 (en) * 2003-06-03 2004-12-10 Solvay Method for producing an organic compound comprising at least one oxygenated functional group
US7153561B2 (en) 2003-07-11 2006-12-26 Kimberly-Clark Wordwide, Inc. Absorbent article with graphic design thereon
US7514230B2 (en) 2004-10-22 2009-04-07 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Detection of trichomonas
US7977529B2 (en) 2004-11-03 2011-07-12 Fred Bergman Healthcare Pty Ltd. Incontinence management system and diaper
CN100397080C (en) 2005-03-02 2008-06-25 金车股份有限公司 Sanitary product possessing immune chromatography detection indication function
US20070128589A1 (en) * 2005-07-13 2007-06-07 Sanders Mitchell C Substrates, sensors, and methods for assessing conditions in females
WO2007076483A1 (en) * 2005-12-22 2007-07-05 Hollister Incorporated Point of care physiologic parameter detection system
US20080086103A1 (en) 2006-10-04 2008-04-10 The Procter & Gamble Company Kit including an absorbent article
US8044257B2 (en) 2006-10-30 2011-10-25 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Absorbent article containing lateral flow assay device
US7846383B2 (en) 2006-12-15 2010-12-07 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Lateral flow assay device and absorbent article containing same
US20080269707A1 (en) * 2007-04-30 2008-10-30 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Lateral Flow Device for Attachment to an Absorbent Article
US9103796B2 (en) * 2007-12-14 2015-08-11 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Multi-layered devices for analyte detection
JP5155003B2 (en) * 2008-04-16 2013-02-27 花王株式会社 The absorbent article
EP2172767A1 (en) 2008-10-06 2010-04-07 Sony Corporation A sensor for thiol analytes
US8101813B2 (en) 2008-10-30 2012-01-24 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Training progress indicator
DE202010017694U1 (en) 2009-01-15 2012-04-24 The Procter & Gamble Company Reusable outer cover for an absorbent article with zones of varying properties
US9387138B2 (en) 2009-01-15 2016-07-12 The Procter & Gamble Company Reusable outer covers for wearable absorbent articles
CN102281846A (en) 2009-01-15 2011-12-14 宝洁公司 Anchoring subsystem having wearable absorbent article reusable
ES2593081T3 (en) 2009-01-15 2016-12-05 The Procter & Gamble Company Two-piece absorbent articles to be worn
US8585667B2 (en) 2010-05-21 2013-11-19 The Procter & Gamble Company Insert with advantageous fastener configurations and end stiffness characteristics for two-piece wearable absorbent article
US20120022491A1 (en) 2010-07-22 2012-01-26 Donald Carroll Roe Flexible Reusable Outer Covers For Disposable Absorbent Inserts
US8974432B2 (en) 2010-07-22 2015-03-10 The Procter & Gamble Company Outer cover for an absorbent article
USD656852S1 (en) 2010-08-06 2012-04-03 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Wetness indicator
US9018434B2 (en) 2010-08-06 2015-04-28 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Absorbent articles with intricate graphics
WO2012056729A1 (en) * 2010-10-29 2012-05-03 アトナープ株式会社 Sampling apparatus
US9034593B2 (en) 2010-11-22 2015-05-19 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Vaginal indicator to detect biomarkers of good health
US9220640B2 (en) 2010-12-30 2015-12-29 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Absorbent article including two dimensional code made from an active graphic
US9078792B2 (en) 2011-06-30 2015-07-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Two-piece wearable absorbent article having advantageous front waist region and landing zone configuration
US20130202499A1 (en) * 2012-01-31 2013-08-08 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Composition and Sensor for Detecting Occult Blood
JP5982920B2 (en) * 2012-03-22 2016-08-31 王子ホールディングス株式会社 The absorbent article
US8932273B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2015-01-13 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable absorbent insert for two-piece wearable absorbent article
JP6026822B2 (en) * 2012-08-28 2016-11-16 花王株式会社 Absorbent structure and absorbent
CA2928798A1 (en) 2012-10-26 2014-05-01 Pixie Scientific, Llc Health diagnostic systems and methods
US8936586B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2015-01-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Ergonomic grasping aids for reusable pull-on outer covers
US9060905B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2015-06-23 The Procter & Gamble Company Wearable absorbent articles
US8926579B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2015-01-06 The Procter & Gamble Company Fastening zone configurations for outer covers of absorbent articles
US9078789B2 (en) 2013-03-08 2015-07-14 The Procter & Gamble Company Outer covers and disposable absorbent inserts for pants
US20160066894A1 (en) * 2014-03-21 2016-03-10 Razzberry Inc. Health state monitoring device
CA2957066A1 (en) * 2014-05-11 2015-11-19 Lia Diagnostics, Inc. Flexible, integrated urine-based diagnostic device
EP3182901A4 (en) * 2014-08-21 2018-04-11 Qurasense Inc. System and method for non-invasive analysis of bodily fluids
US20160108375A1 (en) * 2014-10-16 2016-04-21 Weyerhaeuser Nr Company Chemiluminescent wetness indicator for absorbent products
CN104720829A (en) * 2015-03-19 2015-06-24 御基集团有限公司 Method and device for obtaining feedback information of absorbent product
WO2017010800A1 (en) * 2015-07-13 2017-01-19 (주)룬랩 Smart menstrual cup and method for measuring menstrual blood using smart menstrual cup
KR101830701B1 (en) * 2016-08-24 2018-02-22 장유리 Women supplies for contraception and pregnancy

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4231370A (en) * 1979-06-18 1980-11-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable diaper type garment having wetness indicator
US4724204A (en) * 1982-08-23 1988-02-09 Medi-Pharma Vertriebsgesellschaft Mbh Diagnostic device for the detection of increased dehydrogenase or oxidase and the use thereof
US5217444A (en) * 1987-11-11 1993-06-08 Alex Schoenfeld Absorbent tampon
WO1994024557A1 (en) * 1993-04-16 1994-10-27 The United States Of America, As Represented By Th Article and method for detecting the presence of pathogens in excreta
US5468236A (en) * 1993-06-09 1995-11-21 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Disposable absorbent product incorporating chemically reactive substance
US5823953A (en) * 1996-06-20 1998-10-20 Roskin; Amy C. Secretion analysis apparatus and method
JPH10313894A (en) * 1998-03-09 1998-12-02 Daiki:Kk Daily necessary
WO1999002985A1 (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-01-21 Rosengreen Lea T Wearable amniotic fluid detection device

Family Cites Families (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1980002596A1 (en) * 1979-05-16 1980-11-27 G Oster Impending ovulation test
GB8505899D0 (en) * 1985-03-07 1985-04-11 Boots Celltech Diagnostics Assay reagents
GB2208712B (en) * 1985-03-07 1989-07-05 Boots Celltech Diagnostics Improvements relating to assay reagents
US5792618A (en) * 1996-09-27 1998-08-11 Moss, Inc. Liquid single-component substrates for detection or assay of horseradish peroxidase
DE69935329T2 (en) * 1998-06-29 2007-11-22 The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati Disposable articles comprising a sensor for exkrementkomponenten

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4231370A (en) * 1979-06-18 1980-11-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable diaper type garment having wetness indicator
US4724204A (en) * 1982-08-23 1988-02-09 Medi-Pharma Vertriebsgesellschaft Mbh Diagnostic device for the detection of increased dehydrogenase or oxidase and the use thereof
US5217444A (en) * 1987-11-11 1993-06-08 Alex Schoenfeld Absorbent tampon
WO1994024557A1 (en) * 1993-04-16 1994-10-27 The United States Of America, As Represented By Th Article and method for detecting the presence of pathogens in excreta
US5468236A (en) * 1993-06-09 1995-11-21 Kimberly-Clark Corporation Disposable absorbent product incorporating chemically reactive substance
US5823953A (en) * 1996-06-20 1998-10-20 Roskin; Amy C. Secretion analysis apparatus and method
WO1999002985A1 (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-01-21 Rosengreen Lea T Wearable amniotic fluid detection device
JPH10313894A (en) * 1998-03-09 1998-12-02 Daiki:Kk Daily necessary

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 131, no. 2, 12 July 1999, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 23557, XP002146683 *
DATABASE WPI Derwent World Patents Index; AN 1999-074156, XP002146685 *

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7365238B2 (en) 2002-02-19 2008-04-29 The Procter And Gamble Company Absorbent article having a dehydration indicator
US7994079B2 (en) 2002-12-17 2011-08-09 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Meltblown scrubbing product
US9486368B2 (en) 2013-12-05 2016-11-08 Medline Industries, Inc. Disposable hygienic article with means for diagnostic testing

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
JP2002542845U (en) application
WO2000065084A3 (en) 2001-04-12 application
WO2000065348A2 (en) 2000-11-02 application
CN1348501A (en) 2002-05-08 application
JP2002543397A (en) 2002-12-17 application
JP2002542845A (en) 2002-12-17 application
EP1173618A1 (en) 2002-01-23 application
JP2003517584A (en) 2003-05-27 application
JP2002542843A (en) 2002-12-17 application
JP2002542843U (en) application
CA2367588A1 (en) 2000-11-02 application
CA2370739A1 (en) 2000-11-02 application
WO2000065083A2 (en) 2000-11-02 application
EP1173605A2 (en) 2002-01-23 application
WO2000065084A2 (en) 2000-11-02 application
JP2002542846U (en) application
JP2003517584U (en) application
WO2000065347A3 (en) 2001-03-01 application
WO2000065347A2 (en) 2000-11-02 application
JP2002542846A (en) 2002-12-17 application
WO2000065083A3 (en) 2001-02-08 application
CA2370502A1 (en) 2000-11-02 application
WO2000065348A3 (en) 2001-04-05 application
EP1173759A2 (en) 2002-01-23 application
EP1173758A2 (en) 2002-01-23 application
CA2370936A1 (en) 2000-11-02 application
CA2370509A1 (en) 2000-11-02 application
JP2002543397U (en) application
CN1349562A (en) 2002-05-15 application
EP1173606A2 (en) 2002-01-23 application
WO2000065347A9 (en) 2002-02-21 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US6562297B1 (en) pH sensor for indicating the pH of a sample
US6013063A (en) Viscous fluid bodily waste management article
US20090275908A1 (en) Absorbent Articles Capable of Indicating the Presence of Urine
US5998695A (en) Absorbent article including ionic complexing agent for feces
US20010049513A1 (en) Diaper having centrally-located chromatographic layer with peripherally-located wetness indicator
US6093869A (en) Disposable article having a responsive system including a feedback control loop
US6160198A (en) Disposable article having a discontinuous responsive system
US6407308B1 (en) Disposable article having sensor to detect impending elimination of bodily waste
US6627394B2 (en) Diagnostic pad
US20050175992A1 (en) Method for the rapid diagnosis of targets in human body fluids
US6149590A (en) System for identifying premature rupture of membrane during pregnancy
US6186991B1 (en) Disposable article having a responsive system including a mechanical actuator
US6149636A (en) Disposable article having proactive sensors
US6384296B1 (en) Disposable article having a responsive system including an electrical actuator
US20030158530A1 (en) Absorbent article having a dehydration indicator
US7241627B2 (en) Wearable article with multi-level alert system
US5468236A (en) Disposable absorbent product incorporating chemically reactive substance
US20080147031A1 (en) Array of absorbent articles with indicators
US7314752B2 (en) Secretion-monitoring article
US6703537B1 (en) Absorbent article having improved fecal storage structure
US6623464B2 (en) Breathable absorbent articles
EP0198683A2 (en) Absorbent structures
US20090157024A1 (en) Hydration Test Devices
US6395955B1 (en) Diaper including feces modification agent
US20110152805A1 (en) Water-Triggered Coloring or Color Changing Indicator

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AE AL AM AT AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BY CA CH CN CR CU CZ CZ DE DE DK DK DM EE EE ES FI FI GB GD GE GH GM HR HU ID IL IN IS JP KE KG KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV MA MD MG MK MN MW MX NO NZ PL PT RO RU SD SE SG SI SK SK SL TJ TM TR TT TZ UA UG US UZ VN YU ZA ZW

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): GH GM KE LS MW SD SL SZ TZ UG ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GW ML MR NE SN TD TG

DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 09937173

Country of ref document: US

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: CA

Ref document number: 2367588

Kind code of ref document: A

Format of ref document f/p: F

Ref document number: 2367588

Country of ref document: CA

ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: JP

Ref document number: 2000 614430

Kind code of ref document: A

Format of ref document f/p: F

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: PA/a/2001/010952

Country of ref document: MX

Ref document number: 2000926388

Country of ref document: EP

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 2000926388

Country of ref document: EP

REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: 8642

WWW Wipo information: withdrawn in national office

Ref document number: 2000926388

Country of ref document: EP