WO2000044473A1 - Purification method of contaminated gases by dioxin and detrimental gas and the device therefor - Google Patents

Purification method of contaminated gases by dioxin and detrimental gas and the device therefor Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000044473A1
WO2000044473A1 PCT/KR2000/000054 KR0000054W WO0044473A1 WO 2000044473 A1 WO2000044473 A1 WO 2000044473A1 KR 0000054 W KR0000054 W KR 0000054W WO 0044473 A1 WO0044473 A1 WO 0044473A1
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Prior art keywords
gas
tower
gas jet
purification
liquid
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/KR2000/000054
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Ha-Yoon Jang
Original Assignee
Jang Ha Yoon
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to KR1999/2785 priority Critical
Priority to KR1019990002785A priority patent/KR100274815B1/en
Application filed by Jang Ha Yoon filed Critical Jang Ha Yoon
Publication of WO2000044473A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000044473A1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=19572658&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=WO2000044473(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/14Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by absorption
    • B01D53/18Absorbing units; Liquid distributors therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/68Halogens or halogen compounds
    • B01D53/70Organic halogen compounds
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D47/00Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by liquid as separating agent
    • B01D47/02Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by liquid as separating agent by passing the gas or air or vapour over or through a liquid bath
    • B01D47/021Separating dispersed particles from gases, air or vapours by liquid as separating agent by passing the gas or air or vapour over or through a liquid bath by bubbling the gas through a liquid bath

Abstract

A method and device for purifying noxious gases are disclosed. In an operation of the device, noxious gases are discharged into purification liquid within a tower in the same direction as vortexes of the liquid, thus forming gas bubbles swirled along with the vortexes to be broken. The device thus increases the time the noxious gases are brought into contact with the purification liquid, thus being improved in gas purifying efficiency. The gas bubbles are thus more quickly broken, and so noxious substances, such as dioxin and dust, of the gases are more effectively absorbed and dissolved in the liquid.

Description

PURIFICATION METHOD OF CONTAMINATED GASES BY DIOXIN AND
DETRIMENTAL GAS AND THE DEVICE THREREFOR
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Field of the Invention
The present invention relates, in general, to a method and device for purification of noxious gases laden with noxious substances, such as dioxin, and, more particularly, to a gas purification method and device preferably used for purifying exhaust gases, laden with a variety of toxicoids, of incineration systems, and for purifying air so as to provide dust-free clean air for clean rooms of manufacturing factories, such as semiconductor manufacturing plants.
Description of the Prior Art
As well known to those skilled in the art, noxious substances, such as dioxin and sulfur dioxide gas, are generated from a variety of industrial fields and cause serious air pollution. That is, exhaust gases of incineration systems are laden with a large quantity of dioxin, while a petroleum refining process or a heavy oil firing process generates a large quantity of sulfur dioxide gas. That is, during such a petroleum refining process or an oil firing process, sulfur in petroleum or oil is oxidized to form sulfur dioxide gas and is exhausted into the atmosphere along with exhaust gases. Particularly, since oil is an important energy source of recent days and is used in great quantity, noxious substances generated from oil firing processes seriously contaminate air day by day.
In order to control air pollution caused by such noxious substances, the allowable quantity of noxious substances laden in exhaust gases is rigidly regulated. It is thus necessary to provide a gas purification device agreeing with such rigid regulation of the allowable quantity of noxious substances laden in exhaust gases. It is also necessary to prepare clean air for clean rooms, where semiconductor manufacturing, highly integrated electronic device manufacturing, optical engineering, genetic engineering, space-air engineering or medical applications requiring a very high degree of precision are processed. Such clean air is to allow the clean rooms to have an optimal environment almost completely free from dust, bacteria or other foreign substances.
In an effort to accomplish the above-mentioned requirements, several types of air purification devices have been proposed. Such conventional air purification apparatuses are generally classified into two types, that is, wet-type apparatuses and dry-type apparatuses. A representative example of such wet-type air purification apparatuses is a packed tower-type apparatus, wherein a gas jet pipe is installed at the lower portion of a large-scaled tower, with a plurality of iron nets being horizontally installed within the tower at several positions of different heights above the gas jet pipe. Particles are uniformly layered on the iron nets to form a particle layer, having a desired thickness, on each of the iron nets. In addition, a plurality of purification liquid spraying pipes are installed above the particle layers and uniformly spray purification liquid onto the surfaces of the particle layers, thus making the particle layers become wet.
In an operation of the above packed tower-type gas purification apparatus, noxious gases are injected into the tower from the gas jet pipes and flow upwardly in the tower while passing through the particle layers. When the noxious gases pass through the wet particle layers upwardly, they are brought into contact with the pur i ficat ion 1 iquid on the particle layers. The noxious substances of gases are thus dissolved in the purification 1 iquid, whi le purified air flows upwardly in the tower prior to being discharged from the tower into the atmosphere.
However, the above packed tower-type gas purification apparatus is problematic as follows. Since noxious gases limitedly come into contact with the purification liquid only when they pass through the particle layers, the purification liquid contact area for noxious gases within the tower is limited. This finally reduces the gas purification efficiency of the apparatus and enlarges the scale of the apparatus.
Another example of the wet-type air purification apparatuses is an agitator-type apparatus, wherein a gas jet pipe is installed at the lower portion of a purification liquid tower, with a motored propeller being installed within the tower at a position above the gas jet pipe. In an operation of the above agitator-type gas purification apparatus, gas bubbles discharged from the gas jet pipe are brought into contact with purification liquid while being broken by the propeller. The noxious substances of the gases are thus dissolved in the purification 1 iquid, whi le purified air flows upwardly in the tower prior to being discharged from the tower into the atmosphere.
However, the above agitator-type gas purification apparatus is problematic as follows. Buoyancy of the gas bubbles is higher than the swirling force of the purification liquid formed by the propeller, and so the gas bubbles are quickly moved upwardly within the tower. This finally limits a period of time the gas bubbles come into contact with the purification liquid. It is thus almost impossible for noxious gases to come into contact with the purification liquid for a desired lengthy period of time. Therefore, the gas purification efficiency of the apparatus is reduced. It is also necessary to install a large-scaled propeller having the same diameter as that of the tower. Such a large-scaled propeller undesirably requires a large capacity motor, which generates operational vibration and noise irritating to persons around the apparatus and wastes electric power. In addition, the gas bubbles, positioned at the central portion and the edge portion of the propel ler , move upwardly within the tower without being affected by torque. This further reduces the gas purification efficiency of the apparatus.
An example of the dry-type air purification apparatuses isaCottrell dust collector. However, suchCottrell dust collectors are problematic in that they are reduced in operational efficiency and are increased in instal 1at ion cost in comparison with wet-type gas purification apparatuses.
As described above, the conventional gas purification apparatuses are problematic in that they are increased in installation cost. The above apparatuses also fai 1 to accompl ish a desired gas purification effect , thus causing air pollution and being less likely to be practically used. It is thus necessary to provide a gas purification apparatus capable of more effectively treating such noxious gases.
The inventor of this invention proposed a method and apparatus for purification of noxious gases in Korean Patent Publication No.91-447. The above Korean apparatus is shown in Figs.1 and 2 of the accompanying drawings. As shown in the drawings, the above Korean gas purification apparatus comprises a cylindrical purification liquid tower, into which gas purification liquid is sprayed to form vortexes, with noxious gases being injected in the same direction as that of the vortexes. In the operation of the above Korean apparatus, the noxious gas bubbles gradually become lengthened and thinned so as to finally burst, with noxious substances of the gases being dissolved in the gas purification liquid. It is thus necessary to design the above Korean apparatus to allow noxious gases to be smoothly introduced into the gas purification liquid, swirling in the tower at a high speed, without being resisted. This apparatus is also designed to al low the swirling force of the gas purification liquid to be higher than buoyancy of the gas bubbles, thereby making the noxious gas bubbles gradual ly become lengthened and thinned so as to finally burst. Therefore, noxious substances can be reacted with and be dissolved in the gas purification liquid.
The above Korean gas purification apparatus is advantageous in that noxious gases primar i ly become gas bubbles and move upwardly along a lengthy passage within the tower whi le being swirled. The noxious gases within this apparatus thus effectively come into contact with the gas purification liquid for a desired lengthy period of time in comparison with conventional wet-type gas purification apparatuses. Therefore, the noxious substances of the gases are effectively dissolved in the gas purification liquid, and so the gas purification effect of this apparatus is improved in comparison with conventional wet-type gas purification apparatuses. This Korean apparatus is also reduced in size, thus accompl ishing the recent trend of compactness , and is reduced in its manufacturing cost.
In recent days, the allowable quantity of noxious substances, such as dioxin, and dust laden in exhaust gases is further rigidly regulated so as to control air pollution caused by such noxious substances. In addition, industrial development is accompanied by an increase in the quantity of noxious substances, such as dioxin, that are very difficult to purify. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a gas purification apparatus, designed to treat a large quantity of noxious gases while accomplishing a high operational efficiency. Such purification apparatus is also necessarily designed to accompl ish desired compactness capable of al lowing the apparatus to be easily installed within a limited area while being reduced in its installation cost without incurring the enmity of the people.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Accordingly, the present invention has been made keeping in mind the above problems occurring in the prior art, and an object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus for purifying noxious gases, with the apparatus designed to treat a large quantity of noxious gases while accomplishing both a high operational efficiency and the recent trend of compactness.
In order to accompl ish the above object , the present invent ion provides a method and apparatus for purifying noxious gases. In the method and apparatus, noxious gases are discharged from a plurality of gas jet pipes into vortexes of purification liquid filled in a tower. In such a case, the noxious gases, discharged from each gas jet pipe, are brought into collision against another gas jet pipe positioned in front of each gas jet pipe, thus being spattered in a direction almost perpendicular to a gas discharging direction of each gas jet pipe while forming small-sized gas bubbles. The gas bubbles are swirled along with the vortexes of the purification liquid, thus allowing noxious substances of the gases to be actively absorbed and dissolved in the purification liquid. In the method and apparatus, the gas bubbles are also brought into collision against each other, thus forming additional vortexes capable of allowing the noxious substances of the gases to be more actively absorbed and dissolved in the purification liquid.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The above and other objects, features and other advantages of the present invent ion wi 11 be more clear ly understood from the fol lowing detai led description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of a conventional gas purification device! Fig.2 is a perspect ive view, showing a gas purifying operat ion of the device of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of a gas purification device in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is a view, showing the gas purifying operation of the device of Fig. 3; and
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the device of Fig. 3
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
Fig. 3 is a view of a gas purification device in accordance with the preferred embodiment of this invention. As shown in the drawing, the gas purification device of this invention comprises a purification liquid tower 1, into which purification liquid is supplied. An overflow tank 2 is instal led at the center of the lower portion within the tower 1 and is used for maintaining a desired level of the purification liquid within the tower 1. A drain port 3 is formed at the bottom wall of the tower 1 at a position around the overflow tank 2 and is used for draining a predetermined amount of purification liquid from the tower 1. A plurality of purification liquid spraying pipes 4 regularly stand upright within the tower 1 and are used for spraying the purification 1 iquid into the tower 1. A pump 5 is connected to all the liquid spraying pipes 4 so as to feed the purification liquid under pressure to the liquid spraying pipes 4. An annular gas feed duct 6 is formed around the external surface of the sidewal 1 of the tower 1. A plural ity of gas jet pipes 7 radial ly and inwardly extend from the gas feed duct 6 into the tower 1. The above construction remains the same as that of a conventional gas purification device. The device of this invention is characterized in that the gas jet pipes 7 are arranged on the same horizontal planes within the tower 1, thus forming a multi-story gas jet pipe arrangement. A plurality of upper and lower gas jet nozzles 8 and 9 are regularly formed along two longitudinal straight lines on the sidewall of each gas jet pipe 7. In an operation of the device, the upper and lower gas jet nozzles 8 and 9 of each gas jet pipe 7 discharge noxious gases onto another gas jet pipe, positioned in front of each gas jet pipe 7, thus allowing the gases to be spattered in a direction almost perpendicular to a gas discharging direction. In such a case, the noxious gases are spattered in the form of the ribs of a fan. In addition, a plurality of liquid spraying nozzles 10 are formed on the sidewall of each purification 1 iquid pipe 4 at positions between the multi-story gas jet pipes 7.
Fig. 4 is a view, showing the gas purifying operation of the above device.
As shown in the drawing, gas purification liquid is sprayed from the liquid spraying pipes 4 into the tower 1, thus forming vortexes in the tower 1. Due to the vortexes of pur i f icat ion 1 iquid, noxious gases discharged from the gas jet pipes 7 become bubbles and swirl in the pur if icat ion liquid so as to be absorbed and dissolved in the liquid in the same manner as that of a conventional gas purification device. However, the device of this invention is characterized in that noxious gases, discharged from each gas jet pipe 7, are brought into collision against another pipe 7 positioned in front of each pipe 7, thus being spattered in a direct ion almost perpendicular to the gas discharging direction of each pipe 7. In such a case, the gases are spattered in the form of the ribs of a fan and form a great number of gas bubbles A in the purification liquid. The gas bubbles A swirl in the vortexes formed by the purification liquid and are quickly broken, thus bursting from the liquid. The noxious substances, such as dioxin, of the gases are thus absorbed and dissolved in the purification liquid.
In the operation of the device, the gas bubbles A are also brought into col lision against each other, and so the gas bubbles A are more effectively broken.
The device of this invention thus al lows noxious gases, discharged from the gas jet pipes 7, to be more effectively and quickly absorbed and dissolved in the purification liquid. This f inal ly al lows a desired number of gas jet pipes 7 to be instal led within the purification liquid tower 1 without forcing the size of the tower 1 to be enlarged. Accordingly, for the device of this invention, the gas purifying efficiency is remarkably improved and the gas purification capacity is also enhanced.
The purification liquid laden with noxious substances is gradually increased in level within the tower 1 due to a continuous discharging of liquid from the liquid spraying pipes 4 and is introduced into the overflow tank 2.
The liquid, introduced into the overflow tank 2, is, thereafter, drained from the tank 2 under the control of a first drain valve provided at the bottom of the tank 2, and so it is possible to maintain a predetermined level of liquid within the tower 1.
On the other hand, when the level of the liquid within the tower 1 is exceedingly high, the drain port 3 is appropriately opened by a second drain valve, thus draining a desired amount of liquid from the tower 1 and maintaining an appropriate level of liquid within the tower 1. Such an operation of the drain valves may be automatically controlled by a conventional level sensor.
In the operation of the device of this invention, soluble noxious substances are easily dissolved in the purification liquid when they are discharged from each gas jet pipe 7 and are brought into collision with another pipe 7 so as to form gas bubbles A while being spattered in the form of the ribs of a fan, and circulate along the vortexes of the liquid within the tower 1. On the other hand, insoluble noxious substances or dust are absorbed in the liquid when they are processed through the same steps as described above. The soluble or insoluble noxious substances are removed from the gases by the purification liquid and are drained from the tower 1 along with the liquid. The gases free from such noxious substances or dust flow upwardly within the tower 1 prior to being exhausted into the atmosphere. The device and method of this invention purify exhaust gases so as to remove noxious substances, such as dioxin, sulfur dioxide gas and dust, from the gases and exhaust purified gases into the atmosphere. This device and method of this invention are thus preferably used in incineration systems or clean air supply systems for clean rooms.
In the present invention, it is preferable to closely arrange the gas jet pipes 7 since such a close arrangement of the pipes 7 enlarges the spattering angle of the gases and more effectively forms small-sized gas bubbles A within the tower 1 when the gases discharged from each pipe 7 are brought into collision against another pipe 7.
In accordance with an experiment, it is preferable to set the gas jet pipes 7 within the tower 1 whi le forming an interval of 20 mm - 25 mm between the pipes 7. Such an interval between the pipes 7 maximizes the gas spattering angle and most effectively forms the gas bubbles A within the tower
1.
In the preferred embodiment of this invent ion, water may be preferably used as the purification liquid. In order to a1 low dioxin to be effectively absorbed in the purification liquid, it is more preferable to use liquefied active carbon as the purification liquid. In the case of purifying noxious gases laden with organic substances, paraffin may be added to the purification liquid. In a brief description, the gas purification method and device of this invention are preferably used for treating gases contaminated with a variety of noxious substances by changing the components and composition of the purification liquid.
As described above, the present invention provides a method and device for purifying noxious gases. In an operation of the device, noxious gases are discharged into purification 1 iquid within a tower in the same direction as vortexes of the liquid, thus forming gas bubbles that are swirled along with the vortexes and are broken. The device increases the time the noxious gases are brought into contact with the purification liquid, thus being improved in gas purifying efficiency.
In the device of this invention, noxious gases are discharged from each gas jet pipe toward another gas jet pipe positioned in front of each gas jet pipe, thus forming small-sized gas bubbles spattered in a direction almost perpendicular to the gas discharging direction of each gas jet pipe. In such a case, the gas bubbles are spattered in the form of the ribs of a fan. Such gas bubbles also come into collision against each other, thereby further activating the vortexes of the 1 iquid within the tower and being swirled along with the activated vortexes. The gas bubbles are thus more quickly broken. This final ly al lows noxious substances, such as dioxin and dust , of the gases to be more effectively absorbed and dissolved in the liquid. The method and device of this invention thus effectively remove such dioxin and dust from the gases, with the dioxin and dust being very difficult to be purified by a convent ional gas purification device. Another advantage of the method and device of this invention resides in that it is possible to treat a large quantity of noxious gases while accomplishing both a high operational efficiency and the recent trend of compactness of the device.
Although the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for i 1 lustrat ive purposes, those ski 1 led in the art wi 11 appreciate that various modifications, additions and substitutions are possible, without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as disclosed in the accompanying claims.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:
1. A method of purifying noxious gases, comprising the step of: discharging the noxious gases from a plurality of gas jet pipes into vortexes of purification liquid filled in a tower in a way such that the noxious gases, discharged from each gas jet pipe, are brought into col 1 ision against another gas jet pipe positioned in front of each gas jet pipe, thus being spattered in a direction almost perpendicular to a gas discharging direction of each gas jet pipe while forming small-sized gas bubbles, said gas bubbles being swirled along with the vortexes of the purification liquid, thus allowing noxious substances of the gases to be actively absorbed and dissolved in said purification liquid.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said gas bubbles are brought into coll ision against each other, thus forming additional vortexes capable of allowing the noxious substances of the gases to be more actively absorbed and dissolved in said purification liquid.
3. An device for purifying noxious gases, comprising a purification 1 iquid tower, an overflow tank central ly installed at a lower portion within said tower and used for maintaining a desired level of purification liquid within the tower, a drain port formed at a bottom wall of the tower and used for draining a predetermined amount of purification liquid from the tower, a plural ity of purif icat ion 1 iquid spraying pipes regularly standing upright within said tower and used for spraying the purification liquid into the tower, a liquid pump connected to all the liquid spraying pipes so as to feed the purification liquid to the liquid spraying pipes, an annular gas feed duct externally formed around a sidewall of the tower, and a plurality of gas jet pipes radially and inwardly extending from the gas feed duct into the tower and used for discharging noxious gases into vortexes of the purification liquid within the tower, wherein said gas jet pipes are arranged on at least one horizontal plane within the tower, with a plurality of upper and lower gas jet nozzles being regularly formed along two longitudinal straight lines on a sidewall of each of said gas jet pipes in a way such that the upper and lower nozzles of each of the gas jet pipes discharge the noxious gases onto another gas jet pipe, positioned in front of each gas jet pipe, so as to allow the noxious gases to be spattered in a direction almost perpendicular to a gas discharging direction of each of the gas jet pipes.
4. The device according to claim 3, wherein said gas jet pipes are arranged on two or more horizontal planes within the tower, thus forming a mult i-story gas jet pipe arrangement and al lowing gas bubbles discharged from the gas jet pipes to be brought into collision against each other so as to form additional vortexes.
5. The device according to claim 3, wherein each of said purification liquid spraying pipes has a plurality of liquid spraying nozzles at positions between the horizontally arranged gas jet pipes.
PCT/KR2000/000054 1999-01-28 2000-01-25 Purification method of contaminated gases by dioxin and detrimental gas and the device therefor WO2000044473A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
KR1999/2785 1999-01-28
KR1019990002785A KR100274815B1 (en) 1999-01-28 1999-01-28 Purification method of contaminated gases by dioxin and detrimental gas and the device thereof

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2000595765A JP3372246B2 (en) 1999-01-28 2000-01-25 Method and apparatus for purifying harmful gases containing harmful substances such as dioxin
AU23295/00A AU2329500A (en) 1999-01-28 2000-01-25 Purification method of contaminated gases by dioxin and detrimental gas and the device therefor

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KR (1) KR100274815B1 (en)
AU (1) AU2329500A (en)
WO (1) WO2000044473A1 (en)

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CN101822942A (en) * 2010-05-26 2010-09-08 刘阳生 Wet purification method for dioxin and heavy metals in solid waste incineration gas
WO2020156349A1 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-08-06 王全龄 Dioxin elimination system

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KR20020069428A (en) * 2001-02-26 2002-09-04 아니코산업 주식회사 Pollutant Gas Spray Apparatus for Purifying Pollutant Gases
KR20040048575A (en) * 2002-12-04 2004-06-10 강성일 Air cleaner using aqua filter and screw flow
KR100589788B1 (en) * 2004-11-08 2006-06-19 주식회사 대우일렉트로닉스 Water washing type air cleaner
KR101255656B1 (en) 2011-03-11 2013-04-17 아니코생활환경 주식회사 Puryfing Liquid Spray Apparatus In Polluted Gas Absorbing Apparatus
KR101417301B1 (en) * 2012-07-13 2014-07-08 주용규 Multi flow deodoring device
KR101357741B1 (en) 2012-10-09 2014-02-03 아니코생활환경 주식회사 Polluted gas absorbing apparatus using multi-step spiral mixer
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KR101876163B1 (en) * 2018-05-14 2018-08-02 신송미 Purifying apparatus for air
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WO2020156349A1 (en) * 2019-02-01 2020-08-06 王全龄 Dioxin elimination system

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KR20000012164A (en) 2000-03-06
AU2329500A (en) 2000-08-18
JP3372246B2 (en) 2003-01-27
JP2002535126A (en) 2002-10-22
KR100274815B1 (en) 2000-12-15

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