WO2000037392A1 - Method for producing a high-precision ceramic or metal component and component thus produced - Google Patents

Method for producing a high-precision ceramic or metal component and component thus produced Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000037392A1
WO2000037392A1 PCT/EP1999/009992 EP9909992W WO0037392A1 WO 2000037392 A1 WO2000037392 A1 WO 2000037392A1 EP 9909992 W EP9909992 W EP 9909992W WO 0037392 A1 WO0037392 A1 WO 0037392A1
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WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
component
insert
ceramic
method
characterized
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP1999/009992
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Wolfgang Ehrfeld
Lutz Weber
Original Assignee
INSTITUT FüR MIKROTECHNIK MAINZ GMBH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F7/00Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression
    • B22F7/06Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression of composite workpieces or articles from parts, e.g. to form tipped tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F5/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the special shape of the product
    • B22F5/08Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the special shape of the product of toothed articles, e.g. gear wheels; of cam discs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B28WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
    • B28BSHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER
    • B28B19/00Machines or methods for applying the material to surfaces to form a permanent layer thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B35/00Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition; Ceramics compositions; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
    • C04B35/622Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products

Abstract

Methods for producing ceramic or metal components by means of an organic binder system or metal powders are already known per se. Said methods offer only limited reproducibility owing to large volume loss. The aim of the invention is to provide a method for producing high-precision ceramic and/or metal components, offering a substantial increase in reproducibility. This is achieved in a first step involving the production of an insert with smaller dimensions than those of the component and in a second step, whereby the component is produced by using said insert according to a powder metallurgical and/or powder ceramic method or a method that uses pre-ceramic polymers. Said components can be more particularly used for microtechnical applications on account of the high precision thereof.

Description

A process for producing a high-precision ceramic and / or metallic component and corresponding component

The invention relates to a method for producing a high precision ceramic and / or metallic component and a corresponding component.

Method using an organic binder system comprising a ceramic or metallic powders are used for the production of complex-shaped ceramic or metallic components. Typically, such powders have a content of ceramic or metallic material of 50 - 75 Vol .-%. Therefore, in the subsequent steps after the pouring step of debinding and thermal Behandeins a volume shrinkage of 50 occurs - on 25%. The apparent loss can be kept in shape. Due to the magnitude of the volume shrinkage, however, only a reproducibility of greater than or equal to 0.3 vol .-% can be achieved. Based on a component having a size of 1 cm this means a repeatability of only up to 30 microns. Thus, the application of such components in micro technology, for example as retaining structures of glass fibers, has been limited.

Is therefore to provide a method for producing a high precision ceramic and / or metallic component is available, which has a much better reproducibility object of this invention. It is another object of this invention to provide a corresponding component.

The object is achieved with a method, at least one insert part is produced by the first step, which has at least one dimension smaller than the corresponding dimension of the component. The material of the insert is selected in order to ensure sufficient for the second process step, thermal dimensional stability. In the second step, the component is prepared using the insert. To this is comprising the steps of molding, crosslinking and thermally treating a powder metallurgical or / and powder ceramic method comprising the steps of molding, debinding and thermal treatment, or a method using preceramic polymers used.

In the shaping of the part of the cavity between the mold used and the insert is filled. By the use of an insert so that a significantly lower volume of metallic and / or ceramic powder and preceramic polymer for producing the component is required. The insert of a material having sufficient thermal dimensional stability during the thermal treatment subject to any substantial shrinkage in volume. Therefore, a reduction of the absolute volume shrinkage and thus increasing the reproducibility can be achieved by the use of the insert. The required precision in the manufacture of the component is determined by the mold used. A comparatively low precision of the insert is thus compensated during the pouring step. Thus, cost-effective methods can be used for the manufacture of the insert.

Preferably, the dimensions of the insert are chosen such that the occurring during the thermal treatment and, if necessary debinding shrinkage at least in one direction is less than 3%, particularly preferably less than 0.3%, based on the overall size of the component in this direction is. Here, the volume shrinkage of the material used in the manufacture of the component to be considered.

If a material is used having a volume shrinkage of greater than or equal to 30%, so does the insert in the direction in which the component is to have a shrinkage of less than 3%, have a compared to the component is smaller by less than 10% in size. Particularly preferably, the insert has a smaller compared to the corresponding dimension of the component by less than 1% dimension. Most particularly the method is suitable for the production of a component with microstructures having the smallest characteristic dimensions of <500 micron, in particular <100 microns. For this purpose, mold inserts come produced during molding in the second step in particular by means of precision mechanical and / or micro-technical methods to use. Already the insert part can be produced with such microstructures, optionally in smaller dimensions than the microstructure of the component. However, the insert can also be unstructured.

Preferably, the insert part to a ceramic and / or metallic material. This ensures the thermal for treatment and possibly debinding required thermal dimensional stability. the material is advantageously selected in view of comparable with the material of the component thermal expansion behavior, in order to prevent internal stresses during the subsequent cooling after the thermal treatment. The insert can also be selected with regard to the application of the component. Thus, for example, have special magnetic properties of the insert.

Particularly suitable manufacturing method for the insert are abformtechnische procedures as those for manufacturing the actual component. Since the insert is not to manufacture the precision as the component, in particular low-cost mass production process such as metal casting, powder injection molding of ceramic or metallic feedstocks or hot embossing of green films are suitable.

Preferably, an insert is precisely used to prepare the high-precision component. It is however also conceivable, in particular with a complex-shaped component, two or more insert parts, which in the form of one another or are spaced from each other to use. Suitable molding processes in the production of the component are, for example, injection molding, embossing or vacuum casting. The powder may comprise for example, hard metals, light metal alloys, high performance ceramics or mixtures thereof or alloys. For producing microstructured components, particularly finely divided powder <1 micron are suitable, in particular having particle sizes. Since only the filling cavity remaining between the insert and the mold during the forming step, is an optimization of the injection molding parameters such as injection pressure, melt and mold temperature, advisable.

For debinding of the powder are known per se, adapted to the particular binder system method, such as thermal or catalytic stripping, solvent extraction or combinations of these methods are suitable. During the subsequent thermal treatment, the residual at the debinding cavities are at least largely removed. This is followed by a further step for hardening, compensation and / or for corrosion protection can connect.

In the structural design of bodies to be manufactured by means of powder technology molding process, a uniform wall thickness in order to avoid internal stresses and cracks is sought. The inventive use of appropriate inserts and parts with different wall thicknesses can be produced now, so the design freedom is greatly increased.

A suitable according to the invention for manufacturing a high-precision component method using preceramic polymers is described in detail in EP 0624558 B1 and in the literature cited therein. Hereinafter, a polymeric precursor material is introduced into a mold and then rendered infusible by cross-linking. Finally, these moldings is pyrolyzed. With this method, components can be very small surface roughness, in particular <1 micron, measured by the atomic force method is obtained. Through the use of fillers such as fine ceramic or metallic powders, also the volume shrinkage can be reduced further.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a material produced according to the methods previously described high-precision ceramic and / or metallic component having at least one insert inside.

In particular, components with complex shapes, it may be advantageous that the component two or more inserts which lie against each other or spaced from each other in the component.

Preferably, the component has an insert part which is at least in one dimension by less than 10%, preferably by less than 1%, smaller than the component in the respective dimension. The insert may be in a different dimension or several other dimensions of more than 10% smaller than the component to be. However, it is also possible that the insert in another dimension or more other dimensions approximately equal to the component. In this direction, and these directions, the insert extends to the surface of the component.

The component preferably comprises microstructures with the smallest characteristic dimensions <500 .mu.m, particularly preferably <100 .mu.m. The insert is advantageously made of a ceramic and / or metallic material.

Examples of such high-precision ceramic and / or metallic components are micro gears for micro gear microstructured rollers for the printing technique, positioning the optical connector, microfluidic systems, such as micro-pumps and micro-reactors.

An embodiment of the invention will be explained in more detail below based on schematic drawings. In the drawings: Figure 1a is a micro gear in cross section from above.

FIG. 1b, the micro gear according to Fig. 1a in cross-section from the side.

In FIG. 1a and FIG. 1b a micro gear are shown as an example for an inventive device in cross-section from above and from the side. Inside the component 1, an insertion part 2 is made of a ceramic material. The insertion part 2 has such the component 1 on the teeth, but the dimension Li = 1, 9 mm in the plane shown by about 5% smaller than the corresponding dimension L 2 = 2.0 mm of the part 1. The insert 2 is in was subjected to binder removal, and then sintered the plane of a ceramic material 3 shown in Fig. 1a surrounded, the injection-molded by means of a ceramic powder method to the insert part 2. In a ceramic content of 70% in the powder enters this volume shrinkage of 30%, with a repeatability of 0.3% on. This Reproduzierkeit leads in this example to tolerances of (L 2 - Li) x 0.3% = 0.3 microns. Would complete the micro gear 1, that is, without the use of an insert may be made of a powder-ceramic material, as hereinafter would occur a tolerance of L 2 x 0.3% = 6 .mu.m, which would no longer be acceptable for many micro-technical applications already.

From Fig. 1b it can be seen that a portion of the lower surface of the micro gear 1 is formed by the insert 2, while the top side has an extension of the bore 4, an annular shoulder 5 on the micro gear 1. By the use of the insert part 2, a higher freedom of design is obtained, which is limited in conventional processes in order to avoid internal stresses.

Claims

claims
1. A method for producing a high precision ceramic and / or metallic component, comprising the steps of:
a) preparing at least one insert having at least one dimension smaller than the corresponding dimension of the component, wherein the material is selected in order to ensure sufficient for the second process step, thermal dimensional stability,
b) manufacturing the component using the insert
- by means of a powder-metallurgical or / and powder ceramic method, comprising the steps of molding, debinding and thermal treatment, or
- which comprises means of a process using preceramic polymers the steps of molding, cross-linking and thermal treatment.
A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the dimensions of the insert are chosen taking into account the specific for the used in the preparation of the component material volume shrinkage such that the occurring during the thermal treatment and, if necessary Entbindem shrinkage smaller at least in one direction than 3% , is preferably less than 0.3%, based on the overall size of the component in this direction.
3. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the insert part is produced with at least one as compared to the corresponding dimension of the component by less than 10%, preferably less than 1%, smaller dimension.
4. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that are generated during the production of the insert and / or during molding in the second step microstructures having the smallest characteristic dimensions of <500 microns, preferably <100 micron.
5. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the insert comprises a ceramic and / or metallic material.
6. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the insert is produced by a method abformtechnischen.
7. High precision ceramic and / or metallic component having at least one insert inside, produced by a process according to any one of claims 1 to. 6
8. The component according to claim 7, characterized in that the insertion part has at least one as compared to the corresponding dimension of the component by less than 10%, preferably by less than 1%, smaller dimension.
9. The component according to any one of claims 7 to 8 characterized by
Microstructures having the smallest characteristic dimensions of <500 microns, preferably <100 micron.
10. The component according to any one of claims 7 to 9, characterized by an insert made of a ceramic and / or metallic material.
PCT/EP1999/009992 1998-12-18 1999-12-16 Method for producing a high-precision ceramic or metal component and component thus produced WO2000037392A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1998158531 DE19858531C1 (en) 1998-12-18 1998-12-18 High precision ceramic and/or metallic components, especially microstructured components of complicated shape, are produced by powder or ceramic precursor polymer molding about thermally shape-stable inserts
DE19858531.4 1998-12-18

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000037392A1 true true WO2000037392A1 (en) 2000-06-29

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007003192A1 (en) * 2007-01-15 2008-07-17 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Ceramic and / or powder metallurgical composite molded bodies and methods for their preparation

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2002032636A3 (en) * 2000-10-16 2002-07-04 Romain L Billiet Method for making micromolds
DE102009016189B4 (en) 2009-04-03 2013-08-29 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie Production method for composite components with at least two components

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19526576A1 (en) * 1994-07-27 1996-02-01 Thyssen Industrie Prodn. of near-net-shape metallic components

Family Cites Families (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4223886A1 (en) * 1992-07-21 1994-01-27 Basf Ag A process for producing microstructure elements
DE4307869C2 (en) * 1993-03-12 1996-04-04 Microparts Gmbh Microstructure bodies and methods for their preparation
DE4310068C1 (en) * 1993-03-27 1994-06-16 Kernforschungsz Karlsruhe Pressing micro-structured plate-shaped bodies - using micro-structured pressing tool and ceramic foil as starting material
DE4316184A1 (en) * 1993-05-14 1994-11-17 Hoechst Ag A process for producing ceramic microstructures of polymeric precursors
DE19605521C1 (en) * 1996-02-15 1997-07-03 Karlsruhe Forschzent Moulding process for production of micro-structured ceramic components

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE19526576A1 (en) * 1994-07-27 1996-02-01 Thyssen Industrie Prodn. of near-net-shape metallic components

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102007003192A1 (en) * 2007-01-15 2008-07-17 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Ceramic and / or powder metallurgical composite molded bodies and methods for their preparation
JP2010515829A (en) * 2007-01-15 2010-05-13 ハルトムート ヴァルヒャーHartmut Walcher Ceramic composite compacts and / or powder metallurgy composite compacts and their preparation
DE102007003192B4 (en) * 2007-01-15 2012-04-26 Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Ceramic and / or powder metallurgical composite molding and process for its preparation

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