WO2000023994A1 - Smart optical storage media - Google Patents

Smart optical storage media Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000023994A1
WO2000023994A1 PCT/US1999/023630 US9923630W WO0023994A1 WO 2000023994 A1 WO2000023994 A1 WO 2000023994A1 US 9923630 W US9923630 W US 9923630W WO 0023994 A1 WO0023994 A1 WO 0023994A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
antenna
storage medium
medium according
optical storage
optical disc
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1999/023630
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Michael John Brady
Dah-Weih Duan
Glen Walden Johnson
Paul Andrew Moskowitz
Linda Tetzlaff
Original Assignee
Intermec Ip Corp.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10466798P priority Critical
Priority to US60/104,667 priority
Priority to US19962098A priority
Priority to US09/199,620 priority
Application filed by Intermec Ip Corp. filed Critical Intermec Ip Corp.
Publication of WO2000023994A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000023994A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/2208Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles associated with components used in interrogation type services, i.e. in systems for information exchange between an interrogator/reader and a tag/transponder, e.g. in Radio Frequency Identification [RFID] systems
    • H01Q1/2225Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles associated with components used in interrogation type services, i.e. in systems for information exchange between an interrogator/reader and a tag/transponder, e.g. in Radio Frequency Identification [RFID] systems used in active tags, i.e. provided with its own power source or in passive tags, i.e. deriving power from RF signal
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K19/00Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings
    • G06K19/04Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings characterised by the shape
    • G06K19/041Constructional details
    • G06K19/042Constructional details the record carrier having a form factor of a credit card and including a small sized disc, e.g. a CD or DVD
    • G06K19/045Constructional details the record carrier having a form factor of a credit card and including a small sized disc, e.g. a CD or DVD the record carrier being of the non-contact type, e.g. RFID, and being specially adapted for attachment to a disc, e.g. a CD or DVD
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B23/00Record carriers not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Accessories, e.g. containers, specially adapted for co-operation with the recording or reproducing apparatus Intermediate mediums; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for their manufacture
    • G11B23/0014Record carriers not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Accessories, e.g. containers, specially adapted for co-operation with the recording or reproducing apparatus Intermediate mediums; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for their manufacture record carriers not specifically of filamentary or web form
    • G11B23/0021Record carriers not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Accessories, e.g. containers, specially adapted for co-operation with the recording or reproducing apparatus Intermediate mediums; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for their manufacture record carriers not specifically of filamentary or web form discs
    • G11B23/0028Details
    • G11B23/0035Details means incorporated in the disc, e.g. hub, to enable its guiding, loading or driving
    • G11B23/0042Details means incorporated in the disc, e.g. hub, to enable its guiding, loading or driving with provision for auxiliary features
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B23/00Record carriers not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Accessories, e.g. containers, specially adapted for co-operation with the recording or reproducing apparatus Intermediate mediums; Apparatus or processes specially adapted for their manufacture
    • G11B23/28Indicating or preventing prior or unauthorised use, e.g. cassettes with sealing or locking means, write-protect devices for discs
    • G11B23/286Antitheft arrangements, e.g. Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS] tags
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/002Programmed access in sequence to a plurality of record carriers or indexed parts, e.g. tracks, thereof, e.g. for editing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/10Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/102Programmed access in sequence to addressed parts of tracks of operating record carriers
    • G11B27/105Programmed access in sequence to addressed parts of tracks of operating record carriers of operating discs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/10Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/11Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel by using information not detectable on the record carrier
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • H01Q1/38Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith formed by a conductive layer on an insulating support
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q7/00Loop antennas with a substantially uniform current distribution around the loop and having a directional radiation pattern in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the loop
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/16Resonant antennas with feed intermediate between the extremities of the antenna, e.g. centre-fed dipole
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/30Resonant antennas with feed to end of elongated active element, e.g. unipole
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/00681Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which prevent a specific kind of data access
    • G11B20/00695Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving measures which prevent a specific kind of data access said measures preventing that data are read from the recording medium
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/00731Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving a digital rights management system for enforcing a usage restriction
    • G11B20/00746Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy involving a digital rights management system for enforcing a usage restriction wherein the usage restriction can be expressed as a specific number
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B20/00Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing; Circuits therefor
    • G11B20/00086Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy
    • G11B20/00876Circuits for prevention of unauthorised reproduction or copying, e.g. piracy wherein physical copy protection means are attached to the medium, e.g. holograms, sensors, or additional semiconductor circuitry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/21Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is of read-only, rewritable, or recordable type
    • G11B2220/213Read-only discs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/21Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is of read-only, rewritable, or recordable type
    • G11B2220/215Recordable discs
    • G11B2220/216Rewritable discs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/21Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is of read-only, rewritable, or recordable type
    • G11B2220/215Recordable discs
    • G11B2220/218Write-once discs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/25Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is based on a specific recording technology
    • G11B2220/2537Optical discs
    • G11B2220/2545CDs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/25Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is based on a specific recording technology
    • G11B2220/2537Optical discs
    • G11B2220/2562DVDs [digital versatile discs]; Digital video discs; MMCDs; HDCDs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/25Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is based on a specific recording technology
    • G11B2220/2537Optical discs
    • G11B2220/2562DVDs [digital versatile discs]; Digital video discs; MMCDs; HDCDs
    • G11B2220/2575DVD-RAMs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/20Disc-shaped record carriers
    • G11B2220/25Disc-shaped record carriers characterised in that the disc is based on a specific recording technology
    • G11B2220/2537Optical discs
    • G11B2220/2587Laser Discs; Optical disc using analog recording
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/40Combinations of multiple record carriers
    • G11B2220/41Flat as opposed to hierarchical combination, e.g. library of tapes or discs, CD changer, or groups of record carriers that together store one title
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B2220/00Record carriers by type
    • G11B2220/60Solid state media
    • G11B2220/65Solid state media wherein solid state memory is used for storing indexing information or metadata
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B7/00Recording or reproducing by optical means, e.g. recording using a thermal beam of optical radiation by modifying optical properties or the physical structure, reproducing using an optical beam at lower power by sensing optical properties; Record carriers therefor
    • G11B7/24Record carriers characterised by shape, structure or physical properties, or by the selection of the material

Abstract

An optical storage medium is disclosed. The optical storage medium comprises an optical disc (100) which includes integral information storage (112) and communication apparatus (130) for storing and communicating information to an external system. The information storage and communication apparatus comprises a circuit (132) including memory for storing information and a communication device (134) for communicating the information with the external system.

Description

SMART OPTICAL STORAGE MEDIA

Cross-Reference to Related Applications The present application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/104,667, filed October 16, 1998. Said U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/104,667 is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Incorporation by Reference The following US Patents and Patent Applications are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety:

U.S. Patents

Patent N° Issue Date Filinα Date Attorney Docket N°

5,521 ,601 05/28/96 04/21/95 YO995-0088

5,528,222 06/18/96 09/09/94 YO994-180

5,538,803 07/23/96 11/23/94 YO994-0073

5,550,547 08/27/96 09/12/94 YO994-185

5,552,778 09/03/96 11/23/94 YO994-0232

5,554,974 09/10/96 11/23/94 YO994-0071

5,563,583 10/08/96 11/23/94 YO994-070

5,565,847 10/15/96 11/23/94 YO994-0072

5,606,323 02/25/97 08/31/95 YO995-157

5,635,693 06/03/97 02/02/95 YO994-0215

5,673,037 09/30/97 09/09/94 YO994-184

5,680,106 10/21/97 10/27/95 YO995-0219

5,682,143 10/28/97 09/09/94 YO994-170

5,729,201 03/17/98 06/29/95 YO995-109

5,729,697 03/17/98 04/24/95 YO995-076

5,736,929 04/07/98 06/07/96 YO996-085 Patent N° Issue Date Filinα Date Attorney Docket N°

5,739,754 04/14/98 07/29/96 YO996-115

5,767,789 06/16/98 08/31/95 YO994-213

5,777,561 07/07/98 09/30/96 YO996-178 5,786,626 07/28/98 03/25/96 YO996-031

5,812,065 09/22/98 12/08/95 YO995-124X

5,821 ,859 10/13/98 06/07/96 YO996-084

U.S. Nonprovisional Patent Applications

Application N° Filinα Date Attorney Docket N° 08/681 ,741 07/29/96 YO996-037

08/626,820 04/03/96 YO995-158

08/646,539 05/08/96 YO996-068

08/681 ,741 07/29/96 YO996-037

08/694,606 08/09/96 YO995-218 08/790,639 01/29/97 YO997-024

08/790,640 01/29/97 YO997-023

08/733,684 10/17/96 YO996-195

08/862,149 05/23/97 YO997-116

08/862,912 05/23/97 YO997-115 08/862,913 05/23/97 YO997-114

08/909,719 08/12/97 YO995-109B (allowed)

08/935,989 10/23/97 YO997-310

EH 372 217 464 US 07/10/98 YO896-0212R1 09/122,300 07/24/98 YO897-259R U.S. Provisional Patent Applications

Application N° Filing Date Attorney Docket N°

60/068,373 12/22/97 YO894-0206P1

60/073,102 01/30/98 YO897-0028P1

60/074,605 02/13/98 YO897-0259P1

60/077,879 03/13/98 YO997-0038P1

60/078,100 03/16/98 YO897-0657P1

60/078,226 03/16/98 YO897-0658P1

60/078,287 03/17/98 YO897-0661 P1

60/091 ,350 07/01/98 YO897-0259P2

60/078,304 03/17/98 YO897-0662P1

60/090,637 06/25/98 YO896-0212P2

60/091 ,352 07/01/98 YO897-0673P1

60/091 ,350 07/01/98 YO897-0259P2

60/093,088 07/16/98 38384P1

60/099,298 09/04/98 YO894-0206P3

El 837 644 898 US 09/17/98 38402P1

The following further documents are also incorporated herein by reference in their entirety:

IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin: Vol. 38 N° 08, August 1995, page 17, "Multifunction Credit Card Package," by Brady, Moskowitz, and Murphy (published pseudonymously).

Literature Reference D. Friedman, H. Heinrich, D. Duan, "A low-power CMOS integrated circuit for field-powered radio frequency identification (RFID) tags," 1997 Digest of Technical Papers of the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC), San Francisco, CA, February 1997. PCT Published International Applications

Application N° Filing Date Attorney Docket

Figure imgf000006_0001

PCT/GB96/00061 01/15/96 UK 9-94-066 PCT PCT/EP95/03703 10/20/95 YO994-242 PCT UK Published Application

Application N° Filing Date Attorney Docket

9710025.9 05/19/97 YO9-96-084

Field of the Invention The present invention relates generally to optical storage media (i.e., optical discs including compact disc (CD), compact disc read only memory (CD- ROM), digital versatile (video) disc (DVD), laserdisc, etc.), and more specifically to smart optical storage media having information storage and communication apparatus and methods for their use.

Background of the Invention Optical storage media such as optical discs provide high density, digital storage of information and data in computer, video, and audio applications. Often, optical discs contain information (i.e., movies, music, computer programs, games, etc.) which may be proprietary or which may be subject to copyright protection. For this reason, such optical discs are subject to theft or unauthorized copying (e.g., counterfeiting). Further, optical discs are capable of holding an extremely large amount of information. Thus, optical discs often contain information which may be viewed (or heard) by a wide audience as well as information which is meant for more limited groups. For example, optical discs may contain information (i.e., movies, songs, games, etc.) capable of being viewed by audiences of all ages as well as information which should only be viewed by adults. Similarly, an optical disc may contain information of a sensitive or proprietary nature which is to be viewed only by certain persons within an organization.

Consequently, it would be advantageous to provide a smart optical disc which includes a means of authentication that is secure against theft or counterfeit. The smart optical disc could include index information which could be used to enable or disable the use of sections of the disc and could be capable of storing data such as a record of usage of the disc's contents. Summary of the Invention Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a novel optical storage media comprising an optical disc which includes integral information storage and communication apparatus for storing and communicating information to an external system. The information storage and communication apparatus comprises a circuit including memory for storing information and a communication device for communicating the information with the external system.

In an exemplary embodiment, the circuit comprises a radio frequency identification (RFID) transponder laminated between the outer protective layers of the optical disc. The RFID transponder includes a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) having memory for storing information coupled to an antenna. The RFID transponder may be utilized by external systems to provide functions such as authentication of the disc, indexing of information recorded to the disc, enablement/disablement of the disc, recording of the number of times the disc has been played, and the like.

It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention claimed. The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate an embodiment of the invention and together with the general description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.

Brief Description of the Drawings The numerous objects and advantages of the present invention may be better understood by those skilled in the art by reference to the accompanying figures in which:

FIG. 1 is a top plan view of an optical disc having an prefabricated RFID transponder;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the optical disc shown in FIG. 1 ; FIG. 3 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a prefabricated RFID transponder wherein the data storage layer is utilized as a conducting ground plane;

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the optical disc shown in FIG. 3; FIG. 5 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within its annular non-storage area wherein the antenna is a dipole antenna;

FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a conforming loaded dipole antenna;

FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the optical discs shown in FIGS. 5 and 6;

FIG. 8 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within its annular non-storage area wherein the antenna is a meander dipole antenna;

FIG. 9 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a conforming meander antenna;

FIG. 10 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a loop antenna;

FIG. 11 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc illustrating an alternative loop antenna geometry;

FIG. 12 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc illustrating an alternative loop antenna geometry; FIG. 13 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within its annular non-storage area wherein the antenna is a spiral antenna;

FIG. 14 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a circular slot antenna;

FIG. 15 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a curvilinear slot antenna;

FIG. 16 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is a split monopole antenna;

FIG. 17 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the antenna is a split monopole antenna; FIG. 18 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the antenna is a linearly polarized patch antenna;

FIG. 19 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the antenna is a circularly polarized patch antenna;

FIG. 20 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the antenna is a conforming patch antenna;

FIG. 21 is a top plan view of the annular non-storage area of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the area wherein the antenna is an annular patch antenna;

FIG. 22 is a cross-sectional view of the optical discs shown in FIGS. 18, 19, 20 and 21 ; FIG. 23 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the data storage layer is utilized as part of the antenna;

FIG. 24 is a cross-sectional view of the optical disc shown in FIG. 23;

FIG. 25 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip and antenna integrated within the disc wherein the data storage layer is utilized as part of the antenna;

FIG. 26 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) and conforming patch antenna integrated within the disc wherein the data storage layer is utilized as the ground plane for the antenna;

FIG. 27 is a cross-sectional view of the optical disc shown in FIG. 26;

FIG. 28 is a top plan view of an optical disc having a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) and patch antenna integrated within the disc wherein the data storage layer is utilized as the ground plane for the antenna;

FIG. 29 is a top plan view of an optical disc having circuit including memory interconnected with a surface contact connector disposed on the surface of the optical disc;

FIG. 30 is a block diagram illustrating a system for playing and/or recording optical discs in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 31 is a perspective view illustrating a system for interrogating optical discs of the present invention in a point of sale environment;

FIG. 32 is a perspective view further illustrating the hand-held interrogator and an optical disc as shown in FIG. 21 ; FIG. 33 is a perspective view illustrating a system for interrogating optical discs of the present invention wherein the optical discs are crated for shipping; and

FIG. 34 is a top plan view of an alternative system for interrogating optical discs wherein the discs are crated for shipping.

Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention provides an optical disc having an integral information storage and communication apparatus for storing and communicating information to an external system. The information storage and communication apparatus comprises a circuit including memory for storing information and a communication device for communicating the information between the circuit and the external system. The circuit is laminated between the outer protective layers of the optical disc so that it is protected from damage and can not be removed from the disc without physically altering or damaging the disc itself.

Referring now to FIGS. 1 through 29, optical discs in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the present invention are shown. The optical discs 100 may comply with any of numerous established formats, formats which are presently proposed or in development, or formats which may be proposed and developed in the future. Such formats include, but are not limited, to audio Compact Disc (CD), Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM), Readable/Writeable Compact Disc (i.e., CD-R, CD-RW formats), Digital Versatile (Video) Disc (i.e., DVD, DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM formats), PhotoCD, Laserdisc, etc. Such optical discs 100 typically include one or more data storage layers

112 (one is shown) sandwiched between distal outer protective layers 114 & 116. Each data storage layer 112 comprises an annulus 118 formed of metal (typically aluminum) or a metallized material having at least one polished surface 120 capable of reflecting laser light emitted from an optical disc playing apparatus [hereinafter optical disc drive]. Information may be physically inscribed onto the surface 120 in the form of a spiral shaped track of pits and lands. In this manner, the information may be digitally recorded to the optical disc 100. The data storage layer 112 is laminated between the first and second outer layers 114 & 116. The outer layers 114 & 116 may be made of a transparent plastic to allow laser light from the optical disc drive to penetrate to the reflective surface (or surfaces) of the data storage layer 112. A circular aperture 122 may extend through the disc 100 at its center. The aperture 122 allows a drive mechanism (not shown) within the optical disc drive to engage and spin the disc 100. Typically, the perimeter 124 of the aperture 122 and the inner edge 126 of the annulus 122 define a annular non-storage area 128 which does not contain optically encoded data (the data storage layer 122 does not extend into the area 128).

As shown in FIGS. 1 through 28, the information storage and communication circuit may comprise a radio frequency identification (RFID) transponder 130 laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 of the optical disc 100. The RFID transponder 130 may communicate with an external system (i.e., an optical disc player, an optical disc recorder, an RFID system, etc.) to provide functions such as authentication of the optical disc 100, indexing of information recorded to the optical disc 100, enablement/disablement of playback the optical disc 100 by a disc drive, tracking of the number of times the disc 100 has been played, and the like.

The RFID transponder 130 comprises a low power radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) 132 including a signal processing section and an RF processing section (typically referred to as a front end) interconnected to an antenna 134. The front end includes interface circuitry which provides the facility to direct and accommodate the interrogation field energy for powering purposes in passive transponders and triggering of the transponder response. The front end can be any known front end design used with an antenna. Examples of front ends are well known. See, for example, the Hewlett Packard "Communications Components GaAs & Silicon Products Designer's Catalog" (i.e., page 2-15) which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. A typical front end is also described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 08/790,639 to Duan, et al. filed January 29, 1997 which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. The signal processing section may comprise control and processing circuitry and memory. Typical memory may include, for example, read-only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), and non-volatile programmable memory for data storage. Read only memory (ROM) may be used to accommodate security data and the transponder operating system instructions which, in conjunction with the processing circuitry provides functions such as response delay timing, data flow control and power supply switching. Random access memory (RAM) may be used to facilitate temporary data storage during transponder interrogation and response. Non-volatile programmable memory may be used to store transponder data so the data is retained when the transponder 130 is in a quiescent or power-saving "sleep" state or not powered at all. Data buffers may be provided to temporarily hold incoming data following demodulation and outgoing data for modulation and interface with the antenna 134.

The RFID transponder 130 may be field powered (e.g., passive). Field powered transponders collect power from the RF field generated by the interrogator or base station and convert the collected power to a DC voltage which is stored in a capacitor to provide power for operating the transponder's other circuitry. Alternatively, the RFID transponder 130 may utilize a power source (i.e., a battery) interconnected to the RFID IC 132. The RFID IC 132 may be coupled to an antenna 134 which provides a means by which the transponder 130 senses the interrogating field (and/or, where appropriate, a programming field). The antenna 134 also serves as the means of transmitting the transponder response to interrogation. The RFID IC 132 and antenna 134 are preferably laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 of the optical disc 100. This prevents removal of the RFID transponder 130 without physical alteration (i.e., delamination, cutting, breaking, cracking, etc.) of the disc 100. Typically, such physical alteration will be observable upon inspection or will render the disc 100 unusable (e.g., unplayable by an optical disc drive). Referring now to FIGS. 1 , 2, 3, and 4, the RF transponder 130 may be a preassembled RFID transponder which is embedded or laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 as the disc 100 is assembled. The RFID IC 132 may be mounted to a substrate 136 and bonded to an antenna 134 formed on the substrate 136. Typical substrate materials include polyester, polyimide, ceramics, FR-4 circuit board material, etc. The RFID IC 132 may be coated with an encapsulant, such as a "glob-top" epoxy, or the like which protects the circuit 132 (and bonds between the antenna 134 and circuit 132) from damage. An aperture or cavity (not shown) may be formed in the substrate 136 allowing the insertion of the RFID IC 132 therein. In this manner, the thickness of the substrate 136 is not unnecessarily added to the thickness of the RFID IC 132 so that the overall cross-sectional profile of the RF transponder 100 is reduced and will not cause a bump on the surface of the optical disc 100.

The antenna 134 may be integrally formed on the substrate 136. Preferably, the antenna 134 consists of a thin pattern (typically 18 to 35 micron thick) formed of a conductive metal such as copper. This pattern may be formed by plating or adhering or screening a thin layer of copper (or other conductive metal) onto to the substrate 136. The layer is then be etched to form the specific geometric configuration of the antenna 134 (a dipole antenna is shown in FIGS. 1 and 3; however, any antenna configuration, i.e., dipole, folded dipole, loop, coil, spiral, meander, patch, etc., may be formed). Similarly, one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 may be integrally formed on the substrate 136 to modify the impedance of the antenna 134. The impedance adjustment elements 138 may be lumped circuit elements, distributed microwave circuit elements, or parasitic elements that are electromagnetically coupled to the antenna (i.e., not electrically connected). Often, antennas 134 which are employed by such RFID transponders 130 include a conductive ground plane (not shown). As shown in FIG. 1 and 2, the RFID transponder 130 may be located within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. For this embodiment, the conductive ground plane may comprise a layer of a conductive metal (e.g., copper) formed (i.e., by plating, adhering or screening, etc.) on the side of the substrate 136 opposite the pattern. Alternatively, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, in single sided discs 100 such as audio CD's, CD-ROM's, etc., the RFID transponder 130 may be positioned between an outer layer 114 and the non-storage ("label") surface 136 of the data storage layer (or layers) 112 (e.g., annulus 118). The substrate of the RFID transponder 130 may space the antenna's radiator element (e.g., a dipole, patch element, etc.) from the data storage layer 112 so that the annulus 118 may form the conducting ground plane of the antenna 134.

Referring now to FIGS. 5 through 28, the RFID transponder 132 may be formed within the optical disc 100 as it is assembled (e.g., without a separate substrate 136 as shown in FIGS. 1 through 4). The antenna 134 of the RFID transponder 130 may be integrally formed on a first of the outer layers (e.g., outer layer 116). Preferably, the antenna 134 consists of a thin (typically 18 to 35 micron thick) pattern formed of a conductive metal such as copper. This pattern may be formed by plating, adhering, or screening a thin layer of copper (or other conductive metal) onto to the protective layer 116. This thin copper layer may then be etched to form the specific geometric configuration of the antenna 134 (i.e., dipole, conforming dipole, meander dipole, conforming meander dipole, loop, spiral, circular slot, curvilinear slot, monopole, patch, etc.). Similarly, one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 may be integrally formed on the substrate 136 to modify the impedance of the antenna 134. The impedance adjustment elements 138 may be lumped circuit elements, distributed microwave circuit elements, or parasitic elements that are electromagnetically coupled to the antenna (i.e., not electrically connected). An RFID IC 132 may be bonded to the antenna 134 formed on the first protective layer 114 via conventional means such as wire bonding or the like. The RFID transponder 130 (e.g., RFID IC 132, antenna 134, impedance adjustment elements 138, etc.) may then be laminated between the first outer layer 114 and the outer protective layer 116 or an insulating layer 140 (see FIG. 22 wherein the RFID transponder 130 utilizes a separate conducting ground plane 142, or FIG. 27 wherein the RFID transponder 130 utilizes the data storage layer 112 as a conducing ground plane).

Preferably, as shown in FIGS. 7, 22, and 24, the components forming the RFID transponder 130 (i.e., RFID IC 132, antenna 134, impedance adjustment elements 138, insulating layer 140, conducting ground plane 142, etc.) are made sufficiently thin so they may be embedded between the outer layers 114 & 116 without substantially increasing the thickness of the optical disc 100. Further, the outer layers 114 & 116 may be formed so that the thickness of the RFID transponder 130 laminated or embedded there between is accommodated (i.e., within a shallow recess molded into one or both protective layers 114 & 116.

Depending on the RF properties desired, RFID transponders 130 of the present invention may employ any of an almost unlimited number of different antennas 134 having various configurations and geometries. Several of the many possible antennas 134 which may be employed by the present invention are shown in FIGS. 5 through 28 and will now be described in detail by way of example. It should be apparent that reconfiguration of any of the antennas 134 shown herein, or substitution of other types of antennas by one skilled in the art would not depart from the scope and spirit of the invention.

Referring now to FIGS. 5 through 22, the RFID transponder 130 may be formed within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. This configuration may be especially desirable wherein data is stored on both sides of the optical disc 100 (e.g., the optical disc 100 has a dual sided data storage layer 112 or two oppositely facing data storage layers 112). For such optical discs 100, placement of the RFID transponder 130 over one of the data storage layers 112 could result in less than optimum use of the data storage capacity of the disc 100.

Optical discs 100 having RFID transponders 130 employing dipole antennas are illustrated in FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8. As shown in FIG. 5, the antenna 134 may be a linear simple dipole antenna 144 comprising first and second linear (non-curved) dipole elements 146 & 148. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 6, the antenna 134 may be a conforming dipole antenna 150 having dipole elements 152 & 154 which are curved to conform to the inner perimeter 126 of the data storage layer 112 (e.g., annulus 118). By curving the dipole elements 152 & 154, the conforming dipole antenna 150 may be made to have a longer length than the linear dipole antenna 144 shown in FIG. 5, while still fitting within the annular non-storage area 128.

Similarly, as shown in FIG. 8, the antenna 134 may be a meander dipole antenna 156 comprising first and second linear (non-curved) meander dipole elements 158 & 160. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 9, the antenna 134 may be a conforming meander dipole antenna 162 having meander dipole elements 164 & 166 which are curved to conform with the inner edge 126 of the data storage layer 112 (e.g., annulus 118). The curved meander dipole elements 164 & 166 allow the conforming meander dipole antenna 162 to have a longer length than the linear meander dipole antenna 156 shown in FIG. 8, while still fitting within the annular non-storage area 128.

As shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 9, one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 may be integrally formed on the on the protective layer 116 to modify the impedance of the antenna 132. The impedance adjustment elements 138 may be lumped circuit elements, distributed microwave circuit elements, or parasitic elements that are electromagnetically coupled to the antenna (i.e., not electrically connected). By way of example, the RFID transponder 130 may include a tuning stub 168 having a length and width adjusted to tune the impedance of the antenna 134. The tuning stub 168 acts as a two conductor transmission line and may be terminated either in a short- circuit or open-circuit. A short circuited stub acts as a lumped inductor while an open-circuit stub acts as a lumped capacitor. The magnitude of the reactance of the tuning stub 168 is affected by the stub's length, width, and spacing. Similarly, one or more impedance loading bars 170 may be positioned adjacent to the dipole antenna 134 so they are electromagnetically coupled to the antenna 132 to modify its impedance. The loading bars 170 may be straight as shown in FIG. 5, or curved to conform to the shape of the antenna 134 and fit within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100 as shown in FIGS. 6 and 9. Use of tuning stubs and impedance loading bars to adjust the impedance of an antenna is described in detail in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 08/790,639 to Duan, et al. filed January 29, 1997 which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Exemplary loop antennas are shown in FIGS. 10, 11 , and 12. Preferably, each loop antenna 172, 174 & 176 comprises a loop shaped pattern (i.e., circular, square, rectangular, semi-circle, etc.) of a conductive metal such as copper which is integrally formed on the inner surface on the protective layer 116. Alternatively, the loop antenna 172, 174 & 176 may be formed from a thin wire fashioned in the shape of a loop, bonded to the RFID IC 132 and laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 of the optical disc

100 within the annular non-storage area 128. FIG. 10 depicts a closed loop antenna 172 while FIGS. 11 and 12 illustrate open loop antennas 174 & 176.

Referring now to FIG. 13, the antenna 134 may be a spiral antenna 178.

Preferably, the spiral antenna 178 comprises a spiral pattern of a conductive metal such as copper which may be integrally formed on the inner surface on the protective layer 116. Alternatively, the spiral antenna 178 may comprise a thin wire which is spiraled around the center aperture 122. The wire is bonded to the RFID IC 132 and laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. Referring now to FIGS. 14 and 15, exemplary slot antennas 180 & 182 are illustrated. A circular slot antenna is shown in FIG. 14. The circular slot antenna 134 preferably comprises inner and outer annular antenna elements 184 & 186 embedded or laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. A space or "slot" 188 is formed between the inner and outer annular antenna elements 184 & 186. The RFID IC 132 is positioned within the slot 188 and interconnected (e.g., bonded) to each element 184 & 186. Alternately, as shown in FIG. 15, the antenna 134 may be a curvilinear slot antenna 182 comprising first and second curvilinear antenna elements 190 & 192. Preferably, the first and second curvilinear antenna elements 190 & 192 are embedded or laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 and oriented so that a slot 194 is formed between them. The RFID IC 132 may be positioned within the slot 194 and interconnected (e.g., bonded) to each element 190 & 192.

Turning now to FIGS. 16 and 17, exemplary split monopole antennas 196 & 198 are illustrated. The split monopole antennas 196 & 198 may include a generally circular antenna element 200 & 202 embedded or laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 within the annular non-storage area 128. Various impedance adjustment elements 138 may be utilized to tune the impedance of the split monopole antennas 196 & 198. Such impedance adjustment elements 138 may include, but are not limited to, notches 204 formed in the antenna element 200 or distributed elements 206, 208, 210 & 212 interconnected to the RFID IC 132 or antenna element 200 & 202, or electromagnetically coupled to the antenna 196 & 198. It should be appreciated that many impedance adjustment element configurations, geometries, and placements are possible. Consequently, modification of the antennas 196 & 198 shown in FIGS. 16 and 17 by one skilled in the art to utilize other impedance adjustment elements would not depart from the scope and spirit of the invention.

Referring now to FIGS. 18, 19, 20, 21 , and 22, the antenna 134 may be a patch antenna. Typical patch antennas which may be utilized with the present invention include, but are not limited to, patch antennas having conventional geometries such as the linearly polarized patch antenna 214 shown in FIG. 18 and circularly polarized patch antenna 216 shown in FIG. 19, or alternatively, application specific geometries (e.g., geometries tailored to fit within a circular or disk shaped area) such as the conforming patch antenna 218 shown in FIG. 20 and the annular patch antenna 220 shown in FIG. 21. Such patch antennas 214, 216, 218 & 220 may include a patch element 222, one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 and a conducting ground plane 142 (FIG. 22) laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 of the optical disc 100 within the annular non-storage area 128. As shown in FIG. 22, the patch element 222 and impedance adjustment elements 138 are preferably separated from the conducting ground plane 142 by an insulating layer or substrate 140.

Referring now to FIGS. 23, 24, and 25, the metal or metallized annulus 118 forming the data storage layer 112 of the optical disc 100 may be used as at least part of the antenna of the RFID transponder 130. As shown in FIG. 23 and 24, the RFID IC 132 may be bonded directly to the annulus 118 and laminated between the outer Iayers114 & 116 within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. As shown in FIG. 25, one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 may be formed within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100 to adjust the impedance of the antenna 134 (e.g., annulus 118). The data storage layer 112 may also be used as a parasitic loading element for a dipole or meander dipole antenna (i.e., in place of impedance loading bars 170 shown in FIGS. 5 and 6).

Turning now to FIGS. 26, 27 and 28, the metal or metallized annulus 118 may form the conducting ground plane of the antenna 134 (wherein the antenna requires a ground plane). The antenna 134 may, for example, be a patch antenna 224 & 226 including a patch element 228 and one or more impedance adjustment elements 138 suspended over a conducting ground plane. Preferably, the patch element 228 and impedance adjustment elements 138 are embedded or laminated between a first outer layer 114 of the optical disc 100 and an insulating layer 140. The annulus 118 is similarly embedded or laminated between the insulating layer 140 and a second outer layer 118 so that the patch element 228 and impedance adjustment elements 138 are physically separated from the annulus 118 by the insulation layer 140. As shown in FIG. 26, the antenna 134 may be a conforming circular patch antenna 224 having a generally curved overall shape which conforms to the curvature of the annulus 118. In this manner, the area of the patch element 228 and impedance adjustment elements 138 may be increased so that utilization of the surface area of the annulus 118 as the ground plane of the antenna 134 is optimized.

Components of the RFID transponder 130 which are interconnected with the patch element 228 may optionally be positioned within the annular non- storage area 128 of the optical disc 100. For example, in FIG. 28, the RFID IC 132 is located within the annular non-storage area 128 and interconnected to patch element 228 (which is formed over the annulus 118). Similarly, impedance adjustment elements (i.e., impedance matching circuits 230 & 232) may be positioned either over the annulus (e.g., impedance matching circuit 230) or within the annular non-storage area 128 (e.g., impedance matching circuit 232). However, wherein the impedance adjustment elements 138 are located within the annular non-storage area 128 of the optical disc 100, a second conducting ground plane (not shown) may be required. Referring now to FIG. 29, an optical disc 100 in accordance with an alternative embodiment of the present invention is shown. The information storage and communication circuit of this optical disc 100 may comprise an integrated circuit (IC) 250 embedded or laminated between the outer layers 114 & 116 of the optical disc 100. The IC 250 may be interconnected to electrical contacts 252 mounted to the surface of the disc 100 within the annular non-storage area 128. Preferably, the IC 250 comprises control and processing circuitry and memory. Typical memory may include, for example, read-only memory (ROM), random access memory (RAM), and non-volatile programmable memory for data storage. The electrical contacts 252 preferably allow the IC 230 to communicate with an external system (i.e., an optical disc player, an optical disc recorder, etc.) to provide functions such as authentication of the optical disc 100, indexing of information recorded to the optical disc 100, enablement/disablement of playback of the optical disc 100, tracking of the number of times the optical disc 100 has been played, and the like. The electrical contacts 252 may also provide electrical power to the IC 250 for its operation. Preferably, when the optical disc 100 is recorded or played, the contacts 252 mate with contacts on the drive of the player/recorder (not shown) so that information may be communicated between the IC 250 and an external system (see FIG. 30).

Further, the IC 250 may be an RFID IC and may be coupled to both the electrical contacts 252 and an antenna (such as any of the antennas shown in FIGS. 1 through 28). In this manner, information stored in the IC 250 may be read through either the contacts 252 or through the antenna (see FIGS. 1 though 28) via an RFID interrogator. The electrical contacts 252 and the antenna may be used at the same time or separately. For example, when used simultaneously, the electrical contacts 252 may be used by a driver to provide power to the IC 250 while the antenna may be used by an interrogator to read information. Alternatively, power may be transmitted through the antenna, and information through the electrical contacts 252. When used separately, an RFID interrogator may be used at the point of sale of the disc 200, or during a similar business process (i.e., inventory, delivery, etc.), to read information stored in the IC 250. For example, the electrical contacts 252 may be used by a disc drive (i.e., in an audio CD player, compact disc drive, DVD player, etc.) to read information from the IC 250. This would allow the disc drive to be made without an RFID interrogator, thereby reducing its cost and complexity.

Referring now to FIG. 30, a system 300 for playing (and/or recording) optical discs of the present invention is shown. In an exemplary embodiment, the system 300 includes a conventional player and/or recorder (e.g., a disc drive) 302 for reading information from or writing information to the optical disc 100, an interrogator 304 for communicating with the RFID transponder 130, and a controller 306 which integrates operation of and controls data transfer via the player/recorder 302 and interrogator 304. Memory 306 may also be provided for storing information (i.e., information read from the optical disc 100 or received from the RFID transponder 130, information to be written to the optical disc 100 or RFID transponder 130, data against which information received from the RFID transponder 130 may be compared, etc.).

Wherein the system 300 is used to play (e.g., read) an optical disc 100, the interrogator 304 may interrogate the RFID transponder 130 by communicating a request for data contained within the transponder's memory.

Preferably, the RFID transponder 130 responds to the transmitted request by communicating the requested information. This information may then be decoded and used by the controller 306 to control operation of the player 302. For example, the RFID transponder 130 may transmit a code, password, etc. which commands the controller 306 to allow the player to begin playback of the disc 100 by the system 300. Preferably, unless this code is received by the interrogator 304, the optical disc 100 could not be played by the player 302.

In this manner, the system 300 would provide a means of authenticating optical discs 100 to be played, thereby making them more secure against theft or counterfeiting.

Similarly, the system 300 could be used to prevent the optical disc 100 from being viewed by a particular audience. For example, the optical disc 100 may contain information (i.e., movies, music, etc.) which would be inappropriate for dissemination to a particular audience (i.e., children, employees lacking a security clearance, etc.). The system 300 could prevent an optical disc 100 containing such information from being played unless a security code is entered (i.e., by an adult, employee having an appropriate clearance, etc.) which matches a security code stored within the memory of the RFID transponder 130. The memory of the RFID transponder 130 may further include index information for the data stored on the optical disc 100. When interrogated, the RFID transponder 130 would communicate this index information to the interrogator 304. The index information could then be used to locate particular data or information stored on the disc 100. Similarly, the index information could enable or disable access to sections of information stored on the optical disc 100. In this manner, a single optical disc 100 may contain data or information which may be disseminated to a wide audience as well as information which is meant for more limited groups (i.e., classified and unclassified material, proprietary and non-proprietary data, R-rated and G-rated movies, etc.). The system 300 could interrogate the RFID transponder 130 to determine which material contained on the disc could be accessed by the particular audience using the system 300.

The interrogator 304 may also be capable of writing information to the RFID transponder 130. In this manner, information such as an access code for may be written to the RFID transponder 130 for enabling/disabling future playback of the optical disc 100. Similarly, information may be written to the RFID transponder 130 during playback. For example, a record of the usage of the disc's contents may be stored to the memory of the RFID transponder 130. The interrogator 304 may increment this record each time the optical disc 100 is played. Additional playback of the optical disc 100 could then be disabled after a predetermined number of plays.

It should be appreciated that the system 300 may include one or more electrical contacts (not shown) instead of (or in addition to) the interrogator 304 shown in FIG. 30. Preferably, these electrical contacts mate with contacts 232 of the optical disc 100 shown in FIG. 29 to allow communication between the IC 230 (FIG. 29) and the controller 306.

Referring now to FIG. 31 , 32, and 33, an exemplary RFID system utilizing optical discs in accordance with the present invention are shown. The RFID system 400 includes a hand-held interrogator or reader 402 (the interrogator may be part of a hand-held data terminal, portable computer, etc.) for interrogating the RFID transponder 130 within the optical discs 100. The interrogator reads information stored in the RFID transponder's memory. The interrogator 402 may, for example, communicate a request for data contained within the transponder's memory. Preferably, the RFID transponder 130 responds to the transmitted request by communicating the requested information. The information may then be decoded and used by the interrogator 402.

As shown in FIG. 31 and 33, the RFID system 400 may, for example, be used in a retail, rental, or library environment. The RFID transponder 130 of each optical disc 100 may be programmed with inventory information identifying the optical disc 100 (i.e., content, serial number, inventory number, price, etc.). The interrogator 402 may interrogate each optical disc's transponder 130 to retrieve this information. In this manner, the disc 100 may be inventoried without being physically handling (e.g., removed from the shelf 404 as shown in FIG. 31 or unpacked from a shipping crate 406 as shown in FIG. 33). The inventory information may similarly be utilized to locate a particular optical disc from a group of discs.

As shown in FIG. 32, the RFID system 400 may similarly be used in point-of-sale applications. Inventory information stored in the memory of the RFID transponder 130 may be read by the interrogator 402 and used during sale, rental, loan, or return transactions of an optical disc 100 with a customer or patron. The information may be used to automate the transaction and/or may be provided to a central computer system to update inventory information. For example, when a customer wants to return a previously purchased disc 100 (i.e., an audio CD), a store clerk may utilize the interrogator 402 to read the RFID transponder 130 in the disc 100 to retrieve information such as, for example, when the disc 100 was purchased, the price paid for the disc 100, whether the disc 100 was properly checked out (i.e., was not stolen), and the store from which the disc 100 was purchased. The interrogator 402 may also be capable of writing or programming information to the memory of the RFID transponder 130. For example, the RFID transponder 130 may be preprogrammed with a code which would disable playback of the optical disc 100 when played by a disc playing system such as the system shown in FIG. 30. The interrogator 402 may, at the time of sale, erase this code from the RFID transponder 130 so that the customer may play the optical disc 100 after purchase or rental. Alternatively, the interrogator 402 may write a code to the RFID transponder 130 which would allow playback of the optical disc 100. In this manner, theft of RFID equipped optical discs 100 would be deterred since the stolen discs could not be played.

Referring now to FIG. 34, an RFID system 500 may be capable of automatically sorting crates or packages 502 containing optical discs of the present invention. The RFID system 500 may also automatically verify the contents of each crate 502, enable/disable the RFID transponders of each optical disc contained within the crate 502, etc., by reading information from (and/or writing or programming information to) the RFID transponder of the optical discs within the crate 502.

The RFID system 500 includes a controller or base station 504 comprising an RF transceiver 506 coupled to one or more RF antennas 508. The base station 504 may interrogate RFID transponders embedded within labels 510 adhered to the crates 502 as they are carried along the system's primary conveyor mechanism 512 past the antennas 508. Memory contained by such RFID transponders may be programmed with destination and routing information for the crate 510 to which it is attached. The base station 504 may process this information so that the crate 510 may be automatically sorted and routed to the appropriate destination. This may be accomplished, in an exemplary embodiment, by temporarily closing a gate 514 across the primary conveyor mechanism 512. The gate 514 causes the crate 502 to be diverted onto a secondary conveyor mechanism 516 corresponding to the destination and routing information contained within the RFID transponder of the " label 510.

Similarly, the base station 504 may also interrogate and/or program the RFID transponders of each optical disc contained within the crate 502 (see also FIG. 33). The optical discs' RFID transponders may, for example, be programmed with information identifying the optical disc (i.e., title, author, content, serial number, inventory number, price, etc.). The base station 504 may interrogate each optical disc's transponder to retrieve this information without physically handling the disc (e.g., removing it from the shipping crate 502). The base station 504 may then use the information to verify whether each crate contains the proper number and type of optical discs.

The base station 504 may also be capable of writing or programming information to the memory of the RFID transponder of each optical disc within the crate 502. For example, the base station 504 may program the transponder with inventory information for use by customers (i.e., serial number, title, index information, etc.). Similarly, the base station 504 could program the transponder with a code, password, etc. which would enable playback of the optical disc when played by a system such as the system shown in FIG. 30. Stolen or counterfeited optical discs would lack this coded information and thus could not be played by the system. It is believed that the present invention and many of its attendant advantages will be understood by the foregoing description, and it will be apparent that various changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the components thereof without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention or without sacrificing all of its material advantages. The form herein before described being merely an explanatory embodiment thereof, it is the intention of the following claims to encompass and include such changes.

Claims

Claims What is claimed is:
1. An optical storage medium, comprising: an optical disc including first and second protective layers and a data storage layer disposed between said first and second protective layers, said data storage layer capable of storing optically readable information; and a circuit disposed between said first and second protective layers adjacent to said data storage layer, said circuit including memory for storing information and a communication device for communicating the information with an external system.
2. The optical storage medium according to claim 1 , wherein said circuit comprises an radio frequency identification (RFID) circuit.
3. The optical storage medium according to claim 1 , wherein said circuit comprises an RFID transponder laminated between the first and second protective layers, the RFID transponder including: an insulating substrate; an antenna integrally formed on the substrate; and a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) chip mounted to said substrate and interconnected with the antenna.
4. The optical storage medium according to claim 1 , wherein said circuit comprises a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) interconnected with an antenna.
5. The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein the RFID IC and antenna are laminated between the first and second outer layers.
6. The optical storage medium according to claim 5, wherein the antenna has a dipole structure.
7. The optical storage medium according to claim 6, further comprising a tuning stub formed in the antenna for modifying the impedance of the antenna.
8. The optical storage medium according to claim 6, further comprising a loading bar electromagnetically coupled to the antenna for modifying the impedance of the antenna.
9. The optical storage medium according to claim 6, wherein the antenna is interconnected to the RFID IC via an impedance matching circuit.
10. The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein the antenna is a meander dipole antenna.
11. The optical storage medium according to claim 10, further comprising a tuning stub formed in the antenna for modifying the impedance of the antenna.
12. The optical storage medium according to claim 10, further comprising a loading bar electromagnetically coupled to the antenna for modifying the impedance of the antenna.
13. The optical storage medium according to claim 10, wherein the antenna is interconnected to the RFID IC via an impedance matching circuit.
14 The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein the antenna is a patch antenna.
15. The optical storage medium according to claim 14, wherein the patch antenna is a linear polarized patch antenna.
16. The optical storage medium according to claim 14, wherein the patch antenna is a circularly polarized patch antenna.
17. The optical storage medium according to claim 14, wherein the patch antenna is interconnected to the RFID IC via an impedance matching circuit.
18. The optical storage medium according to claim 14, wherein said data storage layer forms the ground plane of said patch antenna.
19. The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein the antenna is a loop antenna.
20. The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein the antenna is a spiral antenna.
21. The optical storage medium according to claim 4, wherein said optical disc includes a circular aperture centered therein, and wherein the data storage layer comprises a metal annulus coaxial with the circular aperture so that the perimeter of the circular aperture and the inner circumference of the metal annulus define a annular non-storage area on said optical disc.
22. The optical storage medium according to claim 21 , wherein the RFID IC chip is laminated between the first and second protective layers within the circular non-storage area.
23. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is an patch antenna disposed within said circular non-storage area, said patch antenna having an annular patch element and ground plane.
24. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is a circular slot antenna disposed within said circular non-storage area.
25. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is a curvilinear slot antenna disposed within the circular non-storage area and having an outer edge extending along the inner edge of the data storage layer.
26. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is a dipole antenna disposed within the circular non-storage area and having a generally curved shape substantially conforming to the inner edge of the data storage layer.
27. The optical storage medium according to claim 26, further comprising an impedance loading bar electromagnetically coupled to the antenna and disposed within the circular non-storage area.
28. The optical storage medium according to claim 26, wherein the data storage layer provides impedance loading of the antenna.
29. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is a meander dipole antenna disposed within the circular non-storage area and having a generally curved shape substantially conforming to the inner edge of the data storage layer.
30. The optical storage medium according to claim 29, further comprising an impedance loading bar electromagnetically coupled to the antenna and disposed within the circular non-storage area.
31. The optical storage medium according to claim 25, wherein the data storage layer provides impedance loading of the antenna.
32. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the antenna is a split monopole antenna disposed within the circular non-storage area.
33. The optical storage medium according to claim 32, further comprising an impedance tuning element coupled to the antenna and disposed within the circular non-storage area.
34. The optical storage medium according to claim 22, wherein the metal annulus forms part of the antenna.
35. The optical storage medium according to claim 1 , wherein the communication device comprises an electrical contact.
36. The optical storage medium according to claim 1 , wherein the circuit comprises a radio frequency identification circuit and the communication device comprises an electrical contact and an antenna, and wherein said RFID circuit is interconnected to both the electrical contact and the antenna.
37. A system for playing an optical disc having an integral RFID transponder, comprising: a drive for playing the optical disc; a controller interconnected with said drive for controlling playback of the optical disc by said drive; and an interrogator interconnected with said controller, said interrogator for communicating information with the RFID transponder.
38. The system in accordance with claim 37, wherein said controller uses information communicated to said interrogator from the RFID transponder to control playback of the optical disc by said drive.
39. The system in accordance with claim 38, wherein the information comprises authentication information for enabling and disabling playback of the optical disc by said drive.
40. The system in accordance with claim 38, wherein the information comprises content information for the optical disc for selectively enabling and disabling playback of a portion of the optical disc by said drive.
41. The system in accordance with claim 37, wherein the information includes index information for the optical disc.
42. A system for recording an optical disc having an integral RFID transponder, comprising: a drive for recording information to the optical disc; and a interrogator for programing the RFID transponder.
43. The system in accordance with claim 42, further comprising a controller interconnected with said drive and said interrogator for controlling recording of the optical disc by said drive and programming of the RFID transponder by said interrogator.
44. The system in accordance with claim 42, wherein said interrogator programs the RFID transponder with authentication information for enabling and disabling playback of the optical disc.
45. The system in accordance with claim 42, wherein said interrogator programs the RFID transponder with content information representing the content of the optical disc.
46. The system in accordance with claim 45, wherein the content information provides selective enabling and disabling of playback of a portion of the optical disc.
47. The system in accordance with claim 45, wherein the content information includes index information for the optical disc.
48. A radio frequency identification (RFID) system, comprising: an interrogator having transmitting and receiving apparatus for communicating via radio frequency; and an optical storage medium having a radio frequency identification (RFID) transponder integrally formed therein, said RFID transponder configured for communicating with the transmitting and receiving apparatus.
49. The system according to claim 48, wherein the circuit comprises an RFID transponder laminated between the first and second protective layers, the RFID transponder including: an antenna; and a radio frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) interconnected with the antenna.
PCT/US1999/023630 1998-10-16 1999-10-13 Smart optical storage media WO2000023994A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10466798P true 1998-10-16 1998-10-16
US60/104,667 1998-10-16
US19962098A true 1998-11-25 1998-11-25
US09/199,620 1998-11-25

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