WO2000022820A1 - Method and apparatus for providing vcr-type controls for compressed digital video sequences - Google Patents

Method and apparatus for providing vcr-type controls for compressed digital video sequences Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO2000022820A1
WO2000022820A1 PCT/US1999/023375 US9923375W WO0022820A1 WO 2000022820 A1 WO2000022820 A1 WO 2000022820A1 US 9923375 W US9923375 W US 9923375W WO 0022820 A1 WO0022820 A1 WO 0022820A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
frame
frames
bitstream
auxiliary file
compressed
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1999/023375
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Sassan Pejhan
John Festa
Original Assignee
Sarnoff Corporation
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10376298P priority Critical
Priority to US60/103,762 priority
Application filed by Sarnoff Corporation filed Critical Sarnoff Corporation
Publication of WO2000022820A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000022820A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N5/00Details of television systems
    • H04N5/76Television signal recording
    • H04N5/78Television signal recording using magnetic recording
    • H04N5/782Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape
    • H04N5/783Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/10Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/102Programmed access in sequence to addressed parts of tracks of operating record carriers
    • G11B27/105Programmed access in sequence to addressed parts of tracks of operating record carriers of operating discs
    • GPHYSICS
    • G11INFORMATION STORAGE
    • G11BINFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER
    • G11B27/00Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/10Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel
    • G11B27/19Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel by using information detectable on the record carrier
    • G11B27/28Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Measuring tape travel by using information detectable on the record carrier by using information signals recorded by the same method as the main recording
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N9/00Details of colour television systems
    • H04N9/79Processing of colour television signals in connection with recording
    • H04N9/80Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback
    • H04N9/804Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components
    • H04N9/8042Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components involving data reduction

Abstract

A method and apparatus that provides dynamic frame rate control for compressed digital video sequences to facilitate applying VCR-like controls to the compressed digital video sequences. More specifically, for each compressed video file produced by an encoder (102), there is an associated auxiliary file, e.g., with the same prefixes as the compressed file but with a 'VCR' suffix, that would contain information about the intracoded frames (I-frames) of the compressed bitstream. This auxiliary file is created at the time that the original raw video sequence is being encoded (compressed), and contains information about the position of I-frames within the compressed bitstream. These I-frames, which can be independently decoded by a decoder (504/604), serve as reference points for decoding and displaying other predicted frames. Thus, to perform random frame access, for example, the decoder (504/604) can find the position of the nearest I-frame preceding the frame of interest by accessing the auxiliary file. The system can then decode the I-frame without displaying that decoded frame and then decode and display the frame of interest. This technique can randomly access any frame in a compressed sequence to implement fast forward and fast reverse functions.

Description

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING VCR-TYPE CONTROLS FOR COMPRESSED DIGITAL VIDEO SEQUENCES

This application claims benefit of U.S. provisional patent application serial number 60/103,762, filed October 9, 1998 and herein incorporated by reference. The invention generally relates to digital multimedia communication systems and, more particularly, to methods and apparatus for providing VCR type controls for compressed digital video sequences.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

As a result of the wide-spread use of powerful and multimedia friendly personal computers, it has become increasingly desirable to generate and view digital video clips. Video clips are becoming abundant on many INTERNET web sites and have been available on CD-ROMs for many years now. Unlike other traditional media, such as audio and text, video clips in their raw format can become prohibitively large computer files, consuming storage and bandwidth at unacceptably high rates. A substantial amount of research has therefore been performed over the past 30 years to develop efficient video compression algorithms. Several standards, including MPEG (-1, -2, -4), H.261 and H.263 have been developed. Almost all digital video sequences, whether on the web, on CD-ROMs or on local hard disks, are stored in one compressed format or another.

Given the ease with which video clips can be played back on a computer, there is a natural desire to have the same type of controls as one has with regular (analog) video players (such as Play, Stop/Pause, Fast Forward, Slow Motion, Reverse) as well as more sophisticated controls, such as random frame access, jumping to the beginning or end of a clip, or jumping to the next or previous scene. Such controls can easily be implemented for raw video: the size of the frames are fixed, the position of each frame in the bitstream is known and frames can be accessed and displayed independently from one another. For compressed video, implementing some of these controls is challenging. Compressed frames have a variable size and their position in the bitstream may not be readily available. Moreover, if predictive coding is used (such as motion compensation), a given frame may not be decodable independently of other frames in the sequence. The operations which are simple to implement for compressed streams include Play, Stop/Pause, Slow Motion and Rewind, which are currently performed by most standard software decoders. The challenging operations include random frame access, fast forward, playing in reverse and jumping to the next scene change.

Brute force solutions to these challenges could be implemented using a very powerful computer, or when dealing with very small resolution and/or relatively short sequences. For instance, the Fast Forward control could be implemented by decoding and displaying the clip at two or three times the natural speed. With high resolutions and long sequences, however, this is not a practical option, particularly in cases where the video is being streamed over a network. Therefore, there is a need in the art for a method and apparatus of providing VCR- type controls to a compressed video bitstream.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The disadvantages associated with the prior art are overcome by a method and apparatus for efficient implementation of VCR-type controls to manipulate a compressed video clip. More specifically, for each compressed video file, there is an associated auxiliary file (e.g. , with the same prefix as the file name that identifies the compressed video clip, but with a 'vcr' suffix). The VCR auxiliary file is generated during the encoding process and contains information pertaining to the position of anchor frames in the compressed bitstream. Using this information, VCR-type controls can be implemented for both local and remote files . The use of the VCR auxiliary file enables a computer to utilize VCR-type controls such as random frame access, jumps to next/previous scene, fast forward and reverse. To perform random frame access, for example, the video decoder finds the position of the nearest anchor frame preceding the frame of interest by searching the auxiliary file. The decoder then proceeds to decode that frame and subsequent frames (without displaying the decoded frames, though) until the decoder reaches the frame of interest, which is both decoded and displayed. Both Fast Forward and Reverse play are implemented as special cases of Random Frame Access, i.e., a sequence of intermittently decoded frames are displayed in forward or reverse order to produce fast forward or fast reverse control. An alternative implementation that performs reverse play, caches a Group of Pictures (i.e., caches all the frames between to neighboring anchor frames). Then, the cached frames can be displayed at any speed in reverse order.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The teachings of the present invention can be readily understood by considering the following detailed description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 depicts a block diagram of a video sequence encoder in accordance with the present invention that produces a compressed bitstream and an associated auxiliary file; FIG. 2 depicts a file structure for a first embodiment of an auxiliary file;

FIG. 3 depicts a file structure for a second embodiment of an auxiliary file;

FIG. 4 depicts a file structure for a third embodiment of an auxiliary file;

FIG. 5 depicts a block diagram of a decoder for decoding bitstreams produced by the encoder of FIG. 1; and FIG. 6 depicts a block diagram of a client and server for streaming, decoding, and displaying remote bitstreams produced by the encoder of FIG. 1.

To facilitate understanding, identical reference numerals have been used, where possible, to designate identical elements that are common to the figures.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION The major video coding techniques/standards in use today include H.263, geared towards low bit-rate video, MPEG-1, developed for CD-ROM applications at around 1.5 Mbits/s and MPEG-2, designed for very high quality video (HDTV) at around 10 Mbits/s. Although there are major differences among these three standards, they are all based on the same basic principles described below. Each frame of video can be one of three types: Intra-coded (I) frames (i.e. , anchor frames), Predicted (P) frames and Bi-directionally predicted (B) frames. The I-frames are encoded very much like still images (i.e., JPEG) and achieve compression by reducing spatial redundancy: a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) operation is applied to 8x8 blocks of pixels within the frame, starting from the top, left block and moving to the right and down the rows of pixels. To complete the encoding of an I-frame, the DCT coefficients are then quantized and entropy encoded.

The P-frames are predicted from a preceding I- or P-frame. Using motion estimation techniques, each 16x16 MacroBlock (MB) in a P-frame is matched to the closest MB of the frame from which it is to be predicted. The difference between the two MBs is then computed and encoded, along with the motion vectors. As such, both temporal and spatial redundancy is reduced. B-frames are coded in a manner similar to P- frames except that B-frames are predicted from both past and future I- or P-frames. I-frames are much larger than P or B frames, but they have the advantage of being decodable independent of other frames. P and B frames achieve higher compression ratios, but they depend on the availability of other frames in order to be decoded.

The first embodiment of the invention for implementing VCR type controls generates a small, separate auxiliary 'vcr' file for each compressed video sequence (bitstream). This auxiliary file contains key information about the associated bitstream that enables efficient implementation of VCR type controls. Specifically, for each compressed video stream there is an associated auxiliary file (e.g. , with the same prefix as the compressed file name but with a vvcr' suffix). This auxiliary file primarily contains information about the position of Intra-coded frames (I-Frames) within the compressed bitstream.

Fig. 1 depicts a block diagram of a video sequence encoder system 100 containing an encoder 102, an auxiliary file generator 104 and a storage device 108 that operate in accordance with the present invention.

The encoder 102 encodes a video sequence in a conventional manner (e.g., as described above), but also produces I-frame information for use by the auxiliary file generator 104. This information pertains to the location of the I-frames within the encoded bitstream 110, e.g. the position of the I-Frame with respect to the beginning (or end) of the bitstream. The auxiliary file generator 104 produces an auxiliary file 106 for each encoded bitstream 110. Video sequences may be encoded at either a variable or constant frame rate. The former may occur when encoders drop frames, in an irregular fashion, in order to achieve a constant bit-rate. Furthermore, even if the frame rate is constant, I-Frames may or may not occur at fixed intervals. Such aspects of the coding process are not specified by the standards but are left to implementers. For some applications, it may make sense to insert

I-Frames at fixed intervals (e.g. , every 30th frame can be an I-Frame). For other applications, implementers may decide to insert an I-Frame only whenever there is a scene change - something which may occur at irregular time intervals. The auxiliary file has a different format depending on whether I-Frames are inserted at fixed or variable intervals. When the I-frames are contained at fixed intervals, i.e., the I-frames are generated at a fixed interval by the encoder 102, the auxiliary file 106 has a particular form that facilitates efficient implementation of the invention. FIG. 2 illustrates the format of an auxiliary file 200 for use with a bitstream having a fixed I-frame interval. The auxiliary file 200 contains a field 202, e.g. , one byte, at the head of the file indicating the size of the fixed interval. Next, a field 204, e.g. , four bytes for every I-frame is included in the header to indicate the offset from the beginning (or the end) of the bitstream at which each I-frame is located.

If the interval between I-Frames is variable, the auxiliary file 200 of FIG. 2 is augmented with additional information to become the auxiliary file 300 of FIG. 3. The first field 302 of auxiliary file 300 is still that of the I-frame interval, but the field value is set to 0 (or some other special code) to indicate a variable frame rate. There will now be 2 fields per I-Frame: Field 306 containing a 2-byte frame number and field 308 containing the 4-byte offset information. Field 304, which indicates the total number of frames in the entire sequence, can be optionally added to the auxiliary file 300 (placed right after the frame interval field 302). As will be described below, this optional information can help speed up the implementation of the random frame access control.

Finally, a one-bit Scene Change Indicator (SCI) field can be inserted in the auxiliary file for each I-Frame, indicating whether there has been a scene change or not from the previous I-Frame. One way of inserting this field is to add another one-byte field 310 for each I-frame, with the first bit serving as the SCI and the other bits reserved for future use. Alternatively, the first bit of the 4-byte offset field 308 can be designated as the SCI field 312, with the remaining 31 bits used for the offset, as shown in FIG. 4.

Since the file format 300 for variable I-frame intervals is a superset of the one for fixed I-frame intervals (format 200), it could be used for both cases. This makes the implementation of the invention slightly easier. The additional 2-bytes per I-frame will make the auxiliary files larger, however, for the case of fixed I-frame interval. Whether the trade-off is worth it or not is a choice for implementers to make and will vary from one case to another. All in all, however, the size of the auxiliary files generated is negligible compared to the size of the compressed video file. For the fixed I-frame interval case, the size is basically four bytes multiplied by the number of I-frames. If I- frames are inserted as frequently as even three times a second (i.e. once every tenth frame), then the auxiliary file adds 12 bytes (84 bits) per second. Even for a very low bit- rate sequence (say 5 kbit/s) the additional storage required for the auxiliary file is negligible. For the case of variable I-frame interval, the size of the auxiliary file is approximately six bytes multiplied by the number of I-frames. That translates into 126 bits/s, assuming three I-frames per second on the average.

FIG. 5 and FIG. 6 depict block diagrams of two different systems ("players") for playback of compressed video bitstreams with VCR-type controls. FIG. 5 depicts a player 500 that operates to playback locally stored video files. This player 500 comprises a User Interface/Display 502, a decoder 504, an auxiliary file processor 506 and local storage 108. The user interacts with the system through the user interface (e.g., a graphical user interface that has various "buttons" for VCR controls). The decoded bitstream may also be displayed here or on a separate display. The decoder 504 operates like any standard decoder, except that when VCR commands are issued, it interacts with the auxiliary file processor 506 to determine the location in the bitstream from where the decoder needs to start decoding. The auxiliary file processor 506 in turn retrieves that information from the auxiliary file. Both the bitstream and the associated auxiliary file are stored locally on the storage device 108.

FIG. 6 depicts a system 600 where the bitstream and associated auxiliary file are stored remotely on a server 602. The bitstream is streamed to the player 601 over a network 612. When the user Interface/Display 602 processes a VCR command issued by the user, the decoder 604 relays this command over the network 612 to the server 602. A buffer 610 located between the network 612 and the decoder 604. The server 602 then interacts with the auxiliary file processor 606, which now resides on the server 602, to determine the location within the bitstream from which the server should start transmission.

When a user (client) requests to view a random frame within a compressed video bitstream (i.e., the user requests random frame access) within either system 500 or 600 , there are three cases to consider: 1. When the frame to be decoded (selected frame) is the one after the last decoded frame, this is the normal video sequence play mode for the systems 500 and 600. Thus, the decoder 504 or 604 operates in a conventional manner without needing to retrieve any information from the auxiliary file, i.e. , the decoder sequentially selects frames for decoding and display. 2. When the frame to be decoded (selected frame) is sometime in the future relative to the frame that is presently being decoded, but before the next I-frame, the system 500 or 600 needs to decode frames as in the usual play mode using the interframe predictions but without displaying the decoded frames until the desired frame is reached. As such, the decoder 504/604 blocks display of the decoded frames until the selected frame is decoded.

3. All other cases require special handling. First the I-frame prior to the selected frame has to be identified, i.e., the I-frame prior to the selected frame must be identified when given the current frame number being decoded and given the fact that the first frame in the sequence is an I-frame. If the I-frame interval is fixed, the selected frame is easily determined. Next, the offset of the I-frame will be read from the auxiliary file 200 and provided to the decoder 504/604. Since there is a fixed size for the auxiliary file header and a fixed sized field (4-byte field 204) for each I-frame, determining the offset is trivial. The bitstream pointer that selects frames for decoding in the decoder 504/604 would then be moved according to the offset retrieved from the auxiliary file. The I- frame and the subsequent P-frames would be decoded but not displayed until the selected frame is decoded.

When the compressed bitstream is stored remotely (as in FIG. 6), there will be no changes for scenarios one and two above since all frames have to be retrieved and decoded though not displayed sequentially. For scenario three, once the system 600 determines the last I-frame prior to the frame of interest, the system 600 sends a stop message to the server 602 supplying the bitstream, only by a request for the I-frame mentioned. The server 602 then looks up the offset of that I-frame in the auxiliary file at the server 602, reset the pointer to the compressed bitstream file, and start transmitting bits from that point. The rest of the decoding process remains as described above.

When a variable I-frame interval is used, as before, when a frame needs to be decoded, one of the three cases listed above would apply. For the first case (decoding the next frame) there is no difference. For the second and third cases, however, the decoder has to determine if there is an I-Frame which preceded the frame of interest or not. To this end, it has to look up the 2-byte frame numbers (field 306) in the auxiliary file 300 and extract the appropriate I-Frame accordingly.

To speed up the search for the appropriate I-Frame, the field 304 indicating the total number of frames in the entire sequence is used. As such, the server 602 compares the number of the frame to be decoded with the total number of frames in the sequence and determines an estimate of where in the auxiliary file the server wants to start the I- frame search.

The scenarios described above apply to both local and remote files. The only difference occurs in the third case: for local files, the player (client) 500 has to perform the tasks indicated; for remote files, the client 601 sends a request to a server 602 for a random frame, and the server 602 has to look up the auxiliary file and resume transmission from the appropriate place in the bitstream.

When a user requests a jump to the next or previous scene, the auxiliary file will be scanned to find the next/previous I-Frame that has the scene change bit set to TRUE. That frame is decoded and displayed and the clip starts playing from that point onwards. Algorithms for detecting scene changes are well-known in the art. An algorithm that is representative of the state of the art is disclosed in Shen et al. , "A Fast Algorithm for Video Parsing Using MPEG Compressed Sequences", International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 2, pp. 252-255, October 1995.

In the present invention the auxiliary file information is used to provide a fast forward effect in the decoded video. The Fast Forward operation can simply be viewed as a special case of random access. Running a video clip at, say, three times its natural speed by skipping two out of every three frames is equivalent to continuously making 'random' requests for every third frame (i.e. , requesting frame 0, 3, 6, 9, and so on). Every time a frame is requested, the random frame access operation described above first determines the position of the nearest preceding I-frame just as before. The frames from that I-frame to the selected frame are decoded but not displayed. As such, only the requested frames are displayed, i.e. , every third frame.

In addition to frame jumping and fast forward, the invention includes two embodiments for implementing Reverse play (both normal and fast speed). The first embodiment, which is simpler but less efficient, is to view the reverse play as a special case of random frame access. For each frame, the server or local decoder invokes the random frame access mechanism described above. The number of the 'random' frame to be retrieved is decremented by one or N each time, depending on the playback speed. This scheme is inefficient due to the existence of predicted frames. To see why, consider the following case:

Assume a sequence where every 10th frame (0,10,20, and so on) is an I-Frame, and all other frames are forward predicted (P-) frames. To play this video clip in reverse, using the random access method, some of the frames have to be decoded several times. For example, after frame 10 is decoded and displayed, frames 0 through 8 are decoded (but not displayed) so that frame 9 can be decoded and displayed. Then, frames 0 through 8 are decoded again so that frame 8 can be displayed, and so forth. As such, the same frames must be decoded over and over to achieve a sequence of frames to be displayed in reverse order. The need for repetitively decoding the same frames is very inefficient.

The second embodiment involves caching in memory (cache 508 or 608) all the frames in a Group of Pictures (GOP) when the Reverse control is invoked. Thus, in the example above, after frame 10 (an I-Frame) has been decoded and displayed, the decoder 504/604 can decode all frames between 0 and 9, cache them in memory (508/608 in FIGS. 5 and 6), and then display them in reverse order (from 9 to 0). While this would be much more efficient than the first embodiment, this embodiment does have the drawback of consuming significant amounts of memory, if the GOP is large and/or if the resolution of the video is high.

Although various embodiments which incorporate the teachings of the present invention have been shown and described in detail herein, those skilled in the art can readily devise many other varied embodiments that still incorporate these teachings.

Claims

What is claimed is:
1. Apparatus comprising: an encoder (102) for predictively encoding a video sequence to produce anchor frames and predicted frames of compressed information within a bitstream; and an auxiliary file generator (104), coupled to said encoder, for producing an auxiliary file containing information pertaining to the location of anchor frames within the bitstream.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 further comprising: a decoder (504) for decoding the compressed information to form a decoded video sequence; an auxiliary file processor (506), coupled to said decoder, for using the auxiliary file to identify an anchor frame location within said bitstream that occurs in the bitstream prior to a selected frame and for causing the decoder (504) to decode the bitstream starting at the identified anchor frame location.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein said decoder (504) displays only the particular frame and blocks the display of all other decoded frames.
4. A method of encoding a video sequence comprising the steps of: predictively encoding the video sequence to produce anchor frames and predicted frames in a bitstream; and generating an auxiliary file comprising information pertaining to the location of the anchor frames within the bitstream.
5. A method of decoding a bitstream comprising compressed information containing anchor frames and predicted frames and an auxiliary file containing information pertaining to the location of anchor frames within the bitstream, the method comprising the steps of: selecting a frame to be decoded; identifying, using the auxiliary file, a location within the bitstream of an anchor frame prior to the selected frame; and decoding the bitstream starting at the identified location.
6. The method of claim 5 further comprising the step of: blocking the display of decoded frames until the selected frame is decoded: and displaying the selected frame.
7. The method of claim 6 further comprising the step of repeatedly selecting frames that are spaced apart from one another within the bitstream to produce a fast forward display effect.
8. The method of claim 6 further comprising a step of repeatedly selecting frames that are spaced apart from one another, in reverse order within the bitstream to produce a reverse display effect.
9. The method of claim 6 further comprising the step of caching all frames that are decoded between two anchor frames.
10. The method of claim 6 wherein the selected frame is in a different scene.
PCT/US1999/023375 1998-10-09 1999-10-07 Method and apparatus for providing vcr-type controls for compressed digital video sequences WO2000022820A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10376298P true 1998-10-09 1998-10-09
US60/103,762 1998-10-09

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000022820A1 true WO2000022820A1 (en) 2000-04-20

Family

ID=22296915

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1999/023375 WO2000022820A1 (en) 1998-10-09 1999-10-07 Method and apparatus for providing vcr-type controls for compressed digital video sequences

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO2000022820A1 (en)

Cited By (96)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1170946A2 (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-09 Grundig AG Recording and reproducing method and apparatus
FR2842982A1 (en) * 2002-07-26 2004-01-30 Thomson Licensing Sa Method and device for processing digital images
WO2007081526A1 (en) * 2006-01-05 2007-07-19 Apple Inc. Portable media device with improved video acceleration capabilities
US8694024B2 (en) 2006-01-03 2014-04-08 Apple Inc. Media data exchange, transfer or delivery for portable electronic devices
US8892446B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2014-11-18 Apple Inc. Service orchestration for intelligent automated assistant
US8966470B2 (en) 2006-01-03 2015-02-24 Apple Inc. Remote content updates for portable media devices
US9063697B2 (en) 2006-09-11 2015-06-23 Apple Inc. Highly portable media devices
US9137309B2 (en) 2006-05-22 2015-09-15 Apple Inc. Calibration techniques for activity sensing devices
US9262612B2 (en) 2011-03-21 2016-02-16 Apple Inc. Device access using voice authentication
US9300784B2 (en) 2013-06-13 2016-03-29 Apple Inc. System and method for emergency calls initiated by voice command
US9330720B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2016-05-03 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatus for altering audio output signals
US9338493B2 (en) 2014-06-30 2016-05-10 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for TV user interactions
US9368114B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-06-14 Apple Inc. Context-sensitive handling of interruptions
US9430463B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2016-08-30 Apple Inc. Exemplar-based natural language processing
US9483461B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2016-11-01 Apple Inc. Handling speech synthesis of content for multiple languages
US9495129B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-11-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and user interface for voice-activated navigation and browsing of a document
US9502031B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2016-11-22 Apple Inc. Method for supporting dynamic grammars in WFST-based ASR
US9535906B2 (en) 2008-07-31 2017-01-03 Apple Inc. Mobile device having human language translation capability with positional feedback
US9576574B2 (en) 2012-09-10 2017-02-21 Apple Inc. Context-sensitive handling of interruptions by intelligent digital assistant
US9582608B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-02-28 Apple Inc. Unified ranking with entropy-weighted information for phrase-based semantic auto-completion
US9602929B2 (en) 2005-06-03 2017-03-21 Apple Inc. Techniques for presenting sound effects on a portable media player
US9620105B2 (en) 2014-05-15 2017-04-11 Apple Inc. Analyzing audio input for efficient speech and music recognition
US9620104B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-04-11 Apple Inc. System and method for user-specified pronunciation of words for speech synthesis and recognition
US9626955B2 (en) 2008-04-05 2017-04-18 Apple Inc. Intelligent text-to-speech conversion
US9633660B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. User profiling for voice input processing
US9633004B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. Better resolution when referencing to concepts
US9633674B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. System and method for detecting errors in interactions with a voice-based digital assistant
US9646609B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Caching apparatus for serving phonetic pronunciations
US9646614B2 (en) 2000-03-16 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Fast, language-independent method for user authentication by voice
US9668121B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-30 Apple Inc. Social reminders
US9697820B2 (en) 2015-09-24 2017-07-04 Apple Inc. Unit-selection text-to-speech synthesis using concatenation-sensitive neural networks
US9697822B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-07-04 Apple Inc. System and method for updating an adaptive speech recognition model
US9711141B2 (en) 2014-12-09 2017-07-18 Apple Inc. Disambiguating heteronyms in speech synthesis
US9715875B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-07-25 Apple Inc. Reducing the need for manual start/end-pointing and trigger phrases
US9721566B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2017-08-01 Apple Inc. Competing devices responding to voice triggers
US9734193B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-08-15 Apple Inc. Determining domain salience ranking from ambiguous words in natural speech
US9747248B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2017-08-29 Apple Inc. Wireless communication system
US9760559B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-09-12 Apple Inc. Predictive text input
US9785630B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-10-10 Apple Inc. Text prediction using combined word N-gram and unigram language models
US9798393B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2017-10-24 Apple Inc. Text correction processing
US9818400B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2017-11-14 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for discovering trending terms in speech requests
EP3249652A1 (en) 2016-05-25 2017-11-29 Axis AB Method and apparatus for playing back recorded video
US9842101B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Predictive conversion of language input
US9842105B2 (en) 2015-04-16 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Parsimonious continuous-space phrase representations for natural language processing
US9858925B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2018-01-02 Apple Inc. Using context information to facilitate processing of commands in a virtual assistant
US9865280B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-01-09 Apple Inc. Structured dictation using intelligent automated assistants
US9868041B2 (en) 2006-05-22 2018-01-16 Apple, Inc. Integrated media jukebox and physiologic data handling application
US9886953B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant activation
US9886432B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Parsimonious handling of word inflection via categorical stem + suffix N-gram language models
US9899019B2 (en) 2015-03-18 2018-02-20 Apple Inc. Systems and methods for structured stem and suffix language models
US9922642B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-20 Apple Inc. Training an at least partial voice command system
US9934775B2 (en) 2016-05-26 2018-04-03 Apple Inc. Unit-selection text-to-speech synthesis based on predicted concatenation parameters
US9953088B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2018-04-24 Apple Inc. Crowd sourcing information to fulfill user requests
US9959870B2 (en) 2008-12-11 2018-05-01 Apple Inc. Speech recognition involving a mobile device
US9966065B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-05-08 Apple Inc. Multi-command single utterance input method
US9966068B2 (en) 2013-06-08 2018-05-08 Apple Inc. Interpreting and acting upon commands that involve sharing information with remote devices
US9972304B2 (en) 2016-06-03 2018-05-15 Apple Inc. Privacy preserving distributed evaluation framework for embedded personalized systems
US9971774B2 (en) 2012-09-19 2018-05-15 Apple Inc. Voice-based media searching
US10043516B2 (en) 2016-09-23 2018-08-07 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US10049668B2 (en) 2015-12-02 2018-08-14 Apple Inc. Applying neural network language models to weighted finite state transducers for automatic speech recognition
US10049663B2 (en) 2016-06-08 2018-08-14 Apple, Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for media exploration
US10057736B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2018-08-21 Apple Inc. Active transport based notifications
US10067938B2 (en) 2016-06-10 2018-09-04 Apple Inc. Multilingual word prediction
US10074360B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-09-11 Apple Inc. Providing an indication of the suitability of speech recognition
US10078631B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-09-18 Apple Inc. Entropy-guided text prediction using combined word and character n-gram language models
US10079014B2 (en) 2012-06-08 2018-09-18 Apple Inc. Name recognition system
US10083688B2 (en) 2015-05-27 2018-09-25 Apple Inc. Device voice control for selecting a displayed affordance
US10089072B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2018-10-02 Apple Inc. Intelligent device arbitration and control
US10101822B2 (en) 2015-06-05 2018-10-16 Apple Inc. Language input correction
US10127220B2 (en) 2015-06-04 2018-11-13 Apple Inc. Language identification from short strings
US10127911B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-11-13 Apple Inc. Speaker identification and unsupervised speaker adaptation techniques
US10134385B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2018-11-20 Apple Inc. Systems and methods for name pronunciation
US10170123B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2019-01-01 Apple Inc. Intelligent assistant for home automation
US10176167B2 (en) 2013-06-09 2019-01-08 Apple Inc. System and method for inferring user intent from speech inputs
US10185542B2 (en) 2013-06-09 2019-01-22 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for enabling conversation persistence across two or more instances of a digital assistant
US10186254B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2019-01-22 Apple Inc. Context-based endpoint detection
US10192552B2 (en) 2016-06-10 2019-01-29 Apple Inc. Digital assistant providing whispered speech
US10199051B2 (en) 2013-02-07 2019-02-05 Apple Inc. Voice trigger for a digital assistant
US10223066B2 (en) 2015-12-23 2019-03-05 Apple Inc. Proactive assistance based on dialog communication between devices
US10241752B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2019-03-26 Apple Inc. Interface for a virtual digital assistant
US10241644B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2019-03-26 Apple Inc. Actionable reminder entries
US10249300B2 (en) 2016-06-06 2019-04-02 Apple Inc. Intelligent list reading
US10255907B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2019-04-09 Apple Inc. Automatic accent detection using acoustic models
US10269345B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2019-04-23 Apple Inc. Intelligent task discovery
US10276170B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2019-04-30 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US10283110B2 (en) 2009-07-02 2019-05-07 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatuses for automatic speech recognition
US10289433B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2019-05-14 Apple Inc. Domain specific language for encoding assistant dialog
US10297253B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2019-05-21 Apple Inc. Application integration with a digital assistant
US10318871B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2019-06-11 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for building an intelligent automated assistant
US10354011B2 (en) 2016-06-09 2019-07-16 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant in a home environment
US10356243B2 (en) 2015-06-05 2019-07-16 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant aided communication with 3rd party service in a communication session
US10366158B2 (en) 2015-09-29 2019-07-30 Apple Inc. Efficient word encoding for recurrent neural network language models
US10410637B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2019-09-10 Apple Inc. User-specific acoustic models
US10446143B2 (en) 2016-03-14 2019-10-15 Apple Inc. Identification of voice inputs providing credentials
US10446141B2 (en) 2014-08-28 2019-10-15 Apple Inc. Automatic speech recognition based on user feedback
US10482874B2 (en) 2017-08-15 2019-11-19 Apple Inc. Hierarchical belief states for digital assistants

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0717411A2 (en) * 1994-12-15 1996-06-19 Sony Corporation Data decoding apparatus and methods
EP0725399A2 (en) * 1995-01-31 1996-08-07 Sony Corporation Decoding and reverse playback of encoded signals
EP0729153A2 (en) * 1995-02-24 1996-08-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Optical disk and optical disk reproduction apparatus

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0717411A2 (en) * 1994-12-15 1996-06-19 Sony Corporation Data decoding apparatus and methods
EP0725399A2 (en) * 1995-01-31 1996-08-07 Sony Corporation Decoding and reverse playback of encoded signals
EP0729153A2 (en) * 1995-02-24 1996-08-28 Hitachi, Ltd. Optical disk and optical disk reproduction apparatus

Cited By (125)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9646614B2 (en) 2000-03-16 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Fast, language-independent method for user authentication by voice
EP1170946A2 (en) * 2000-07-05 2002-01-09 Grundig AG Recording and reproducing method and apparatus
EP1170946A3 (en) * 2000-07-05 2004-04-07 Grundig AG Recording and reproducing method and apparatus
WO2004013813A2 (en) * 2002-07-26 2004-02-12 Thomson Licensing Sa Trick play method
WO2004013813A3 (en) * 2002-07-26 2004-07-22 Franck Abelard Trick play method
FR2842982A1 (en) * 2002-07-26 2004-01-30 Thomson Licensing Sa Method and device for processing digital images
US9084089B2 (en) 2003-04-25 2015-07-14 Apple Inc. Media data exchange transfer or delivery for portable electronic devices
US9602929B2 (en) 2005-06-03 2017-03-21 Apple Inc. Techniques for presenting sound effects on a portable media player
US10318871B2 (en) 2005-09-08 2019-06-11 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for building an intelligent automated assistant
US8966470B2 (en) 2006-01-03 2015-02-24 Apple Inc. Remote content updates for portable media devices
US8694024B2 (en) 2006-01-03 2014-04-08 Apple Inc. Media data exchange, transfer or delivery for portable electronic devices
WO2007081526A1 (en) * 2006-01-05 2007-07-19 Apple Inc. Portable media device with improved video acceleration capabilities
US9154554B2 (en) 2006-05-22 2015-10-06 Apple Inc. Calibration techniques for activity sensing devices
US9868041B2 (en) 2006-05-22 2018-01-16 Apple, Inc. Integrated media jukebox and physiologic data handling application
US9137309B2 (en) 2006-05-22 2015-09-15 Apple Inc. Calibration techniques for activity sensing devices
US9747248B2 (en) 2006-06-20 2017-08-29 Apple Inc. Wireless communication system
US8930191B2 (en) 2006-09-08 2015-01-06 Apple Inc. Paraphrasing of user requests and results by automated digital assistant
US8942986B2 (en) 2006-09-08 2015-01-27 Apple Inc. Determining user intent based on ontologies of domains
US9117447B2 (en) 2006-09-08 2015-08-25 Apple Inc. Using event alert text as input to an automated assistant
US9063697B2 (en) 2006-09-11 2015-06-23 Apple Inc. Highly portable media devices
US10381016B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2019-08-13 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatus for altering audio output signals
US9330720B2 (en) 2008-01-03 2016-05-03 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatus for altering audio output signals
US9865248B2 (en) 2008-04-05 2018-01-09 Apple Inc. Intelligent text-to-speech conversion
US9626955B2 (en) 2008-04-05 2017-04-18 Apple Inc. Intelligent text-to-speech conversion
US10108612B2 (en) 2008-07-31 2018-10-23 Apple Inc. Mobile device having human language translation capability with positional feedback
US9535906B2 (en) 2008-07-31 2017-01-03 Apple Inc. Mobile device having human language translation capability with positional feedback
US9959870B2 (en) 2008-12-11 2018-05-01 Apple Inc. Speech recognition involving a mobile device
US10475446B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2019-11-12 Apple Inc. Using context information to facilitate processing of commands in a virtual assistant
US9858925B2 (en) 2009-06-05 2018-01-02 Apple Inc. Using context information to facilitate processing of commands in a virtual assistant
US10283110B2 (en) 2009-07-02 2019-05-07 Apple Inc. Methods and apparatuses for automatic speech recognition
US9548050B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2017-01-17 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US8903716B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2014-12-02 Apple Inc. Personalized vocabulary for digital assistant
US8892446B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2014-11-18 Apple Inc. Service orchestration for intelligent automated assistant
US10276170B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2019-04-30 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US9318108B2 (en) 2010-01-18 2016-04-19 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US9633660B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. User profiling for voice input processing
US10049675B2 (en) 2010-02-25 2018-08-14 Apple Inc. User profiling for voice input processing
US10102359B2 (en) 2011-03-21 2018-10-16 Apple Inc. Device access using voice authentication
US9262612B2 (en) 2011-03-21 2016-02-16 Apple Inc. Device access using voice authentication
US10241644B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2019-03-26 Apple Inc. Actionable reminder entries
US10057736B2 (en) 2011-06-03 2018-08-21 Apple Inc. Active transport based notifications
US9798393B2 (en) 2011-08-29 2017-10-24 Apple Inc. Text correction processing
US10241752B2 (en) 2011-09-30 2019-03-26 Apple Inc. Interface for a virtual digital assistant
US10134385B2 (en) 2012-03-02 2018-11-20 Apple Inc. Systems and methods for name pronunciation
US9483461B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2016-11-01 Apple Inc. Handling speech synthesis of content for multiple languages
US9953088B2 (en) 2012-05-14 2018-04-24 Apple Inc. Crowd sourcing information to fulfill user requests
US10079014B2 (en) 2012-06-08 2018-09-18 Apple Inc. Name recognition system
US9495129B2 (en) 2012-06-29 2016-11-15 Apple Inc. Device, method, and user interface for voice-activated navigation and browsing of a document
US9576574B2 (en) 2012-09-10 2017-02-21 Apple Inc. Context-sensitive handling of interruptions by intelligent digital assistant
US9971774B2 (en) 2012-09-19 2018-05-15 Apple Inc. Voice-based media searching
US10199051B2 (en) 2013-02-07 2019-02-05 Apple Inc. Voice trigger for a digital assistant
US9368114B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2016-06-14 Apple Inc. Context-sensitive handling of interruptions
US9697822B1 (en) 2013-03-15 2017-07-04 Apple Inc. System and method for updating an adaptive speech recognition model
US9922642B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2018-03-20 Apple Inc. Training an at least partial voice command system
US9966060B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2018-05-08 Apple Inc. System and method for user-specified pronunciation of words for speech synthesis and recognition
US9620104B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-04-11 Apple Inc. System and method for user-specified pronunciation of words for speech synthesis and recognition
US9633674B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. System and method for detecting errors in interactions with a voice-based digital assistant
US9582608B2 (en) 2013-06-07 2017-02-28 Apple Inc. Unified ranking with entropy-weighted information for phrase-based semantic auto-completion
US9966068B2 (en) 2013-06-08 2018-05-08 Apple Inc. Interpreting and acting upon commands that involve sharing information with remote devices
US10176167B2 (en) 2013-06-09 2019-01-08 Apple Inc. System and method for inferring user intent from speech inputs
US10185542B2 (en) 2013-06-09 2019-01-22 Apple Inc. Device, method, and graphical user interface for enabling conversation persistence across two or more instances of a digital assistant
US9300784B2 (en) 2013-06-13 2016-03-29 Apple Inc. System and method for emergency calls initiated by voice command
US9620105B2 (en) 2014-05-15 2017-04-11 Apple Inc. Analyzing audio input for efficient speech and music recognition
US9502031B2 (en) 2014-05-27 2016-11-22 Apple Inc. Method for supporting dynamic grammars in WFST-based ASR
US10083690B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-09-25 Apple Inc. Better resolution when referencing to concepts
US9785630B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-10-10 Apple Inc. Text prediction using combined word N-gram and unigram language models
US9760559B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-09-12 Apple Inc. Predictive text input
US9430463B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2016-08-30 Apple Inc. Exemplar-based natural language processing
US9842101B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Predictive conversion of language input
US9734193B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-08-15 Apple Inc. Determining domain salience ranking from ambiguous words in natural speech
US9966065B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-05-08 Apple Inc. Multi-command single utterance input method
US10170123B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2019-01-01 Apple Inc. Intelligent assistant for home automation
US9715875B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-07-25 Apple Inc. Reducing the need for manual start/end-pointing and trigger phrases
US9633004B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2017-04-25 Apple Inc. Better resolution when referencing to concepts
US10078631B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2018-09-18 Apple Inc. Entropy-guided text prediction using combined word and character n-gram language models
US10289433B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2019-05-14 Apple Inc. Domain specific language for encoding assistant dialog
US10169329B2 (en) 2014-05-30 2019-01-01 Apple Inc. Exemplar-based natural language processing
US9338493B2 (en) 2014-06-30 2016-05-10 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for TV user interactions
US9668024B2 (en) 2014-06-30 2017-05-30 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for TV user interactions
US10446141B2 (en) 2014-08-28 2019-10-15 Apple Inc. Automatic speech recognition based on user feedback
US10431204B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2019-10-01 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for discovering trending terms in speech requests
US9818400B2 (en) 2014-09-11 2017-11-14 Apple Inc. Method and apparatus for discovering trending terms in speech requests
US10127911B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-11-13 Apple Inc. Speaker identification and unsupervised speaker adaptation techniques
US10074360B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-09-11 Apple Inc. Providing an indication of the suitability of speech recognition
US9986419B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-05-29 Apple Inc. Social reminders
US9886432B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Parsimonious handling of word inflection via categorical stem + suffix N-gram language models
US9646609B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-09 Apple Inc. Caching apparatus for serving phonetic pronunciations
US9668121B2 (en) 2014-09-30 2017-05-30 Apple Inc. Social reminders
US9711141B2 (en) 2014-12-09 2017-07-18 Apple Inc. Disambiguating heteronyms in speech synthesis
US9865280B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2018-01-09 Apple Inc. Structured dictation using intelligent automated assistants
US9721566B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2017-08-01 Apple Inc. Competing devices responding to voice triggers
US10311871B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2019-06-04 Apple Inc. Competing devices responding to voice triggers
US9886953B2 (en) 2015-03-08 2018-02-06 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant activation
US9899019B2 (en) 2015-03-18 2018-02-20 Apple Inc. Systems and methods for structured stem and suffix language models
US9842105B2 (en) 2015-04-16 2017-12-12 Apple Inc. Parsimonious continuous-space phrase representations for natural language processing
US10083688B2 (en) 2015-05-27 2018-09-25 Apple Inc. Device voice control for selecting a displayed affordance
US10127220B2 (en) 2015-06-04 2018-11-13 Apple Inc. Language identification from short strings
US10356243B2 (en) 2015-06-05 2019-07-16 Apple Inc. Virtual assistant aided communication with 3rd party service in a communication session
US10101822B2 (en) 2015-06-05 2018-10-16 Apple Inc. Language input correction
US10255907B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2019-04-09 Apple Inc. Automatic accent detection using acoustic models
US10186254B2 (en) 2015-06-07 2019-01-22 Apple Inc. Context-based endpoint detection
US9697820B2 (en) 2015-09-24 2017-07-04 Apple Inc. Unit-selection text-to-speech synthesis using concatenation-sensitive neural networks
US10366158B2 (en) 2015-09-29 2019-07-30 Apple Inc. Efficient word encoding for recurrent neural network language models
US10049668B2 (en) 2015-12-02 2018-08-14 Apple Inc. Applying neural network language models to weighted finite state transducers for automatic speech recognition
US10223066B2 (en) 2015-12-23 2019-03-05 Apple Inc. Proactive assistance based on dialog communication between devices
US10446143B2 (en) 2016-03-14 2019-10-15 Apple Inc. Identification of voice inputs providing credentials
CN107438196B (en) * 2016-05-25 2019-09-13 安讯士有限公司 Method and apparatus for playing recorded video
TWI664855B (en) * 2016-05-25 2019-07-01 瑞典商安訊士有限公司 Method and apparatus for playing back recorded video
CN107438196A (en) * 2016-05-25 2017-12-05 安讯士有限公司 Method and apparatus for playing recorded video
EP3249652A1 (en) 2016-05-25 2017-11-29 Axis AB Method and apparatus for playing back recorded video
JP2018023090A (en) * 2016-05-25 2018-02-08 アクシス アーベー Method and device for reproducing video to be recorded
US10109316B2 (en) 2016-05-25 2018-10-23 Axis Ab Method and apparatus for playing back recorded video
US9934775B2 (en) 2016-05-26 2018-04-03 Apple Inc. Unit-selection text-to-speech synthesis based on predicted concatenation parameters
US9972304B2 (en) 2016-06-03 2018-05-15 Apple Inc. Privacy preserving distributed evaluation framework for embedded personalized systems
US10249300B2 (en) 2016-06-06 2019-04-02 Apple Inc. Intelligent list reading
US10049663B2 (en) 2016-06-08 2018-08-14 Apple, Inc. Intelligent automated assistant for media exploration
US10354011B2 (en) 2016-06-09 2019-07-16 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant in a home environment
US10067938B2 (en) 2016-06-10 2018-09-04 Apple Inc. Multilingual word prediction
US10192552B2 (en) 2016-06-10 2019-01-29 Apple Inc. Digital assistant providing whispered speech
US10089072B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2018-10-02 Apple Inc. Intelligent device arbitration and control
US10269345B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2019-04-23 Apple Inc. Intelligent task discovery
US10297253B2 (en) 2016-06-11 2019-05-21 Apple Inc. Application integration with a digital assistant
US10043516B2 (en) 2016-09-23 2018-08-07 Apple Inc. Intelligent automated assistant
US10410637B2 (en) 2017-05-12 2019-09-10 Apple Inc. User-specific acoustic models
US10482874B2 (en) 2017-08-15 2019-11-19 Apple Inc. Hierarchical belief states for digital assistants

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5828370A (en) Video delivery system and method for displaying indexing slider bar on the subscriber video screen
US6848117B1 (en) Video-on-demand system capable of performing a high-speed playback at a correct speed
US6337880B1 (en) Indexing for motion video that is compressed using interframe and intraframe techniques
JP3641686B2 (en) Method and apparatus for implementing a compressed video data reproducing function
JP4576783B2 (en) Data processing method and data processing apparatus
JP3742431B2 (en) Method for generating a signal representing an MPEG compatible digital image, method for recording the signal, and method for generating and recording the signal
KR100272817B1 (en) Image decoing device
KR100547095B1 (en) Method and apparatus for error concealment
CA2421066C (en) Transcoder-based adaptive quantization for digital video recording
JP4589466B2 (en) System and method for setting index between trick play stream and normal play stream in video distribution system
US6862402B2 (en) Digital recording and playback apparatus having MPEG CODEC and method therefor
US6507672B1 (en) Video encoder for digital video displays
KR0134871B1 (en) High efficient encoding and decoding system
US6324217B1 (en) Method and apparatus for producing an information stream having still images
CN1203667C (en) System and method for creating trick play video streams from compressed normal play video bitstream
US20020015576A1 (en) Method and apparatus for simultaneously producing compressed play and trick play bitstreams from a video frame sequence
US6850564B1 (en) Apparatus and method for dynamically controlling the frame rate of video streams
AU2007313700C1 (en) Performing trick play functions in a digital video recorder with efficient use of resources
US6229850B1 (en) Multiple resolution video compression
DE60104013T2 (en) Transcoding progressive-encoded i-slice recorded mpeg data trends for trick modes
JP4547149B2 (en) Method and apparatus for encoding a mosaic
US6009236A (en) Digital video signal record and playback device and method for giving priority to a center of an I frame
US7023924B1 (en) Method of pausing an MPEG coded video stream
KR101019634B1 (en) Media streaming system and method
US6385771B1 (en) Generating constant timecast information sub-streams using variable timecast information streams

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): BR CA CN IN JP KR

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase