WO2000002604A1 - Method for determining dialysance and device for carrying out the method - Google Patents

Method for determining dialysance and device for carrying out the method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000002604A1
WO2000002604A1 PCT/EP1999/004689 EP9904689W WO0002604A1 WO 2000002604 A1 WO2000002604 A1 WO 2000002604A1 EP 9904689 W EP9904689 W EP 9904689W WO 0002604 A1 WO0002604 A1 WO 0002604A1
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Prior art keywords
dialysierfl
dialyzer
concentration
dialysance
initial value
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PCT/EP1999/004689
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Rainer Goldau
Helmut Steil
Original Assignee
Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh
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Priority to DE19830662.8 priority Critical
Priority to DE19830662 priority
Application filed by Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh filed Critical Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh
Publication of WO2000002604A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000002604A1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • A61M1/1601Control or regulation
    • A61M1/1603Regulation parameters
    • A61M1/1605Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid
    • A61M1/1607Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid before use
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • A61M1/1601Control or regulation
    • A61M1/1603Regulation parameters
    • A61M1/1605Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid
    • A61M1/1609Physical characteristics of the dialysate fluid after use
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M1/00Suction or pumping devices for medical purposes; Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids; Drainage systems
    • A61M1/14Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris
    • A61M1/16Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators; Reciprocating systems for treatment of body fluids, e.g. single needle systems for haemofiltration, pheris with membranes
    • A61M1/1601Control or regulation
    • A61M1/1617Control or regulation using measurements made during a temporary variation of a characteristic of the fresh dialysis fluid
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/33Controlling, regulating or measuring
    • A61M2205/3317Electromagnetic, inductive or dielectric measuring means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61MDEVICES FOR INTRODUCING MEDIA INTO, OR ONTO, THE BODY; DEVICES FOR TRANSDUCING BODY MEDIA OR FOR TAKING MEDIA FROM THE BODY; DEVICES FOR PRODUCING OR ENDING SLEEP OR STUPOR
    • A61M2205/00General characteristics of the apparatus
    • A61M2205/33Controlling, regulating or measuring
    • A61M2205/3324PH measuring means

Abstract

According to the inventive method for determining the dialysance of a dialysis machine during an extracorporeal blood treatment, the concentration of a particular substance in the dialysis liquid is altered in the channel of the dialysis liquid, upstream of the dialysis machine. The concentration of said substance is altered based on a predetermined starting value and then restored to the starting value. The concentration of the substance in the dialysis liquid is measured with a measuring device (17, 18) located upstream or downstream of the dialysis machine. The quotient from the integral of the difference between the outgoing concentration in the dialysis liquid cdo(t) and the predetermined starting value cdo1 over time and the integral of the difference between the incoming concentration in the dialysis liquid cdi(t) and the starting value cdi1 over time is calculated in an evaluation and arithmetic unit (23) and the dialysance is then determined based on the quotient calculated and the flow rate Qd of the dialysis liquid in the channel of the dialysis liquid.

Description

Method for determining the dialysance and apparatus for carrying out the method

The invention relates to a process for determining the dialysance of a dialyzer during an extracorporeal blood treatment, and an apparatus for performing the method.

A key task of the kidneys of man lies in the secretion of uric substances from the blood and the regulation of water and electrolyte excretion. Hemodialysis is a treatment method for compensating for the malfunctioning kidneys with respect to the removal of uremic substances and adjusting the electrolyte concentration in the blood.

The blood is passed during hemodialysis in an extracorporeal circuit through the blood chamber of a dialyzer, which is separated by a semi-permeable membrane from a dialysing fluid chamber. The dialyzing fluid flows through a blood electrolytes contained in a certain concentration dialysis. The concentration (c d) of the dialysis fluid corresponding to the concentration of the blood of a healthy person. During the treatment, the patient's blood and the dialysis fluid at both sides of the membrane is generally in counter-current with a predetermined flow rate (Q b and Q d) guided past. The uremic substances diffuse through the membrane from the blood compartment to the dialysis liquid chamber, while diffusing in the blood and in the dialysis liquid electrolytes known from the chamber of higher concentration to lower concentration chamber. By applying a transmembrane pressure of metabolism can also be affected.

In order to optimize the blood treating method, the determining parameters of the hemodialysis during the extrakoφoralen blood treatment (in vivo) is necessary. Of particular interest is the value for the exchange performance of the dialyzer, which is represented by the so-called "clearance" or "dialysance D".

As clearance for a given substance K the one virtual (calculated) blood volume is called, which is released per minute under defined conditions in the dialyzer entirely of a particular substance. The dialysance is another term for determining the performance of a dialyser, wherein the concentration of the eliminated substance is included in the dialysis liquid. In addition to these parameters to describe the performance of the dialyzer other parameters of importance as the values ​​of the aqueous portion of the blood, the blood volume and blood inlet concentration etc are still ..

The measurement techniques and mathematical quantification of the blood purification process and the determination of the aforesaid parameters of the dialysis is relatively complex. With regard to the calculation bases Gotch is on Sargent ,, YES. FA: Principles and biophysics of dialysis in: Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, W. Drukker, FM Parsons, JF mowers (ed). 1983 referred Nijhoff, The Hague.

The dialysance or clearance, for a given electrolyte, for example sodium, are determined at an ultrafiltration rate of zero as follows. The dialysance D is equal to the ratio between the blood-side mass transport for these electrolytes (Q b x (cbi - cbo)) and the difference in concentration of this electrolyte between the blood and the dialysis fluid at the respective input of the dialyzer (cbi - cdi).

D = Qb CBI cbo

(1) cbi -cdi

For reasons of mass balance applies:

Qb (cbi -cbo) = - Qd (cdi-cdo) (2)

From the above two equations (1) and (2) follows:

D = Qd - Cdi ~ CD0 (3) cbi -cdi

Mean here in (1) to (3):

Q b = blood flow effective

Q d = dialysis fluid flow cb = substance concentration in the blood cd = substance concentration in the dialysis fluid inlet of the dialyzer i = o = outlet of the dialyzer

The effective blood flow is the flow of the blood fraction in which the substances to be removed are dissolved, that is, it refers to the (aqueous) solution volume for this substance. Depending on the substance of the Plasmawasserfluß or Blutwasserfluß can, ie, the total water content in whole blood.

The known methods for in vivo determination of hemodialysis parameters based on the above considerations. Here is an effort to get along in the blood side without direct Meßeingriff as this fact represents a significant hazard. The quantities to be determined must therefore be derived solely from the dialysate measurements.

DE 39 38 662 C2 (EP 0428927 Al) describes a method for in vivo determination of hemodialysis parameters, wherein the dialysate electrolyte transfer different in each case at two

Dialysateingangskonzentrationen is measured. Assuming that the blood input concentration is constant, the dialysance is determined that the difference between the differences of the dialysis fluid ion concentration at the input side and the output side of the dialyzer is determined at the time of the first and second measurements according to the known method, this by the difference between the dialysis fluid ion concentration is split at the entrance side at the time of the first measurement and the second measurement, and multiplied by the dialysis fluid flow. In this process, the relatively long measuring time proves to be disadvantageous, which is due to the fact that only a stable state of equilibrium must at the dialyzer after setting the dialysis fluid to the new input concentration value set before the new measured value can be added. It takes a period of time due to the system until a conductivity jump at the dialyzer inlet leads to stable conditions at the dialyzer. In addition, a relatively long time is required to adjust the device side a constant value for the dialysis fluid inlet concentration. EP 0272414 Bl describes an apparatus for determining the change of the intravascular blood volume during hemodialysis. In addition to the intravascular blood volume, the dialysance of the dialyzer is to be determined. The method of measurement for determining the dialysance is not described in detail, however, it is proposed to carry out for determining the dialysance conductivity measurements both on the blood and on the dialysate side, whereby the integral of the conductivity change on the blood and dialysate side is to be formed.

In the article by Niels A. Lassen, Ole Henriksen, Per Sejrsen in Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Vol. 3, Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow, Part I, American Physiological Society, 1983, the Bolusantwort a intrakoφoralen circuit is on treated injection and subsequent measurement of the concentration closer, with issues of signal folding play an important role.

The invention has the object to provide a method that a rapid determination of the dialysance during a blood treatment extrakoφoralen allowed. In addition, the invention has for its object to provide an apparatus for performing the method.

The solution of this object is achieved according to the invention with the features indicated in claim 1 and 4 characteristics.

For determining the dialysance D is the concentration of a particular substance in the dialysis fluid in the dialyzer Dialysierflussigkeitsweg (dialysis fluid inlet concentration cdi) upstream from a predetermined initial value CDIL changed and restored to the initial value. For example, a bolus of a hypertonic NaCl solution can be supplied to the Dialysierflussigkeitsweg upstream of the dialyzer, which has on the dialysis treatment can not influence. Then, the concentration of the substance in the dialysis liquid downstream of the dialyzer (Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo) is measured, the changed starting from a predetermined initial value and sets again to the initial value. When the change in

Dialysis fluid inlet concentration is unknown in its course over time, the concentration of the substance is also measured upstream of the dialyzer.

Determining the dialysance is based on the calculation of two integrals from which the quotient is formed. It is the quotient of the integral of the difference between the

Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo and the initial value CDOL over time and the integral of the difference between the dialysis fluid inlet concentration cdi and calculates the initial value CDIL over time and the dialysance is determined by reference to the quotient and the predetermined flow rate of the dialysis fluid in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg. The integration can be carried out within relatively narrow limits, which are based on the width of the concentrate bolus.

It is advantageous that it is not necessary to adjust a constant value for the dialysis fluid inlet concentration. It is sufficient to supply the relatively uncontrolled addition of a concentrate bolus in the Dialysierflüssigkeit-.

The dialysate inlet and -ausgangskonzentration is preferably determined by measuring the conductivity of the dialysis fluid. Instead of conductivity sensors but also optical and other sensors for measuring the dialysate inlet or can - starting concentration be arranged in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg. In the following procedure, and according to the invention an apparatus for implementing the method is explained in detail with reference to the figures.

Show it:

1, the device for determining the dialysance together with the essential components of a hemodialysis apparatus in a schematic representation and

2, the dialysate inlet and -ausgangskonzentration as

Function of time.

The device for determining the dialysance D of the dialyser of a dialysis device may form a separate module. But it can also be part of the dialysis machine, especially since some components of the device for determining the dialysance in the known dialysis machines already exist. Hereinafter, the apparatus for determining the dialysance will be described along with the essential components of the dialysis machine.

The dialysis device comprises a dialyzer 1, which is divided by a semi-permeable membrane 2 into a blood chamber 3 and a dialysing fluid. 4 Of the patient a blood supply line 5 leads to the inlet of the blood chamber 3 and a blood discharge line 6 leads from the outlet of the blood chamber 3 back to the patient. In the blood supply line 5 a, the flow rate of blood in the extracorporeal circuit, which predetermines the blood pump 7 is connected.

The inlet of the dialysis fluid chamber 4 is connected via a dialysis fluid 8 with a dialysis fluid source 9 and the outlet of the dialysis fluid through a dialysis fluid outlet line 10 to a drain. 11 In the dialysis fluid outlet line 10, a flow rate of the dialysis liquid in the dialysis liquid pump 12 is connected Dialysierflussigkeitsweg predetermining.

The blood pump 7, and the dialysis solution pump 12 are controlled via control lines 13, 14 from a central control unit 15 of the dialysis machine, which has an input unit 16 to which the delivery rates of the pumps can be specified.

In the dialysis fluid 8 and the

Dialysierflüsssigkeitsabführleitung 10 is in each case a measuring device 17, 18 arranged for determining the concentration of the dialysis liquid at the inlet of the dialyzer 1 and the concentration of the dialysis liquid at the outlet of the dialyzer. The measuring devices 17, 18 for determining the dialysate inlet and -ausgangskonzentration cdi, cdo upstream and disposed downstream of the dialyzer 1 have conductivity sensors preferably measure the temperature-corrected conductivity of the dialysis liquid on the basis of the Na concentration. The conductivity sensors are connected via data lines 19, 20 to a memory unit 21st The storage unit 21 receives the measured values ​​of the sensors and stores them in a time sequence from. the measured values ​​of a computing and evaluation unit 23 are fed via a data line 22nd From the central control unit 15 of the dialysis apparatus, the computing and evaluation unit receives, via the data line 24 of the preset dialysing fluid 12 flow rate of the dialysis fluid in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg. At the computing and evaluation unit, a display unit 26 is connected via a data line 25, on which the dialysance D of the dialyzer 1 and possibly other parameters of the hemodialysis be displayed. To change the dialysis fluid inlet concentration cdi upstream of the dialyzer 1, an apparatus 27 is provided. With the device 27 a concentrate bolus may be given the current flowing in the dialyzer 1 dialysis fluid, so that the Na concentration in the dialysis fluid upstream of the dialyser Dialysierflussigkeitsweg briefly increased.

The sequence of measurement for determining the dialysance D is controlled by a control unit 28 to which the device 27 concentration of the dialysis fluid and the computing and evaluation unit 23 via data lines 29, 30 are connected to the variation of Na.

Subsequently, the value set in the control unit 28 the program sequence to measure the dialysance D is explained in detail.

At the beginning of the measurement flows through the dialysis fluid having a predetermined concentration of Na, through the dialysis fluid chamber 4, the dialyzer 1 with a predetermined dialysis fluid pump 12 by the flow rate Q d. The device 27 now increases the dialysis fluid inlet concentration cdi within a short time interval (concentrate bolus), which is detected by the upstream of the dialyzer arranged conductivity sensor 17th Which is adjusting in dialysis Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo is detected by means of the downstream of the dialyzer conductivity sensor 18th

Figure 2 shows the side profile of the dialysate inlet and - starting concentration cdi, cdo upstream and downstream of the dialyzer. From the given dialysis-fluid Qd, the initial value of Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangs-CDOL and -eingangskonzentration CDIL and the time profile of the dialysate inlet and -ausgangskonzentration cdi (t), CdO (t) calculates the calculating and analyzing the dialysance D according to the following equation:

Figure imgf000012_0001

The calculated dialysance D is then brought to the display unit 26 for display. If the dialysance D is known, still more hemodynamic parameters, such as the blood input concentration cbi can be calculated and displayed according to equation (3).

The denominator (cdi (t) -cdil) dt corresponds to the direction indicated in Figure 2 with A the area under the curve I, which indicates the time course of the dialysis fluid inlet concentration cdi. The counter j (cdo (t) - CDOL) dt corresponds to the area B of the signal indicative of the time course of Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo curve II.

Integration limits can be determined so that the dialysance D itself can be determined with sufficient accuracy. Here, the integration limits are based on the width of the concentrate bolus.

To simplify the procedure and empirical scaling factors for the quotient or separately for individual integrals use can be found to account for systematic variations due eg to small integration limits. Furthermore, (5) lists the following formula using, instead of the formula (4), if an ultrafiltration rate UF UF 0 and <<Q B is applied.

[J (cdi (t) - CDIL) dt - f (cdo (t) - CDOL) dt] Qd - UF (f (cdo (t) - CDOL) dt)

D f (cdi (t) - CDIL) dt (1 - UF ^)

Claims

Patentanspr├╝che
1. A process for determining the dialysance of a dialyzer während an extracorporeal blood treatment in which the blood to be treated durchströmt the blood chamber of the subdivided by a semipermeable membrane into the blood chamber and a dialyzer in a Dialysierflüssigkeitskammer extrakoφoralen circuit and Dialysierflüssigkeit durchströmt in a Dialysierflussigkeitsweg the Dialysierflüssigkeitskammer of the dialyzer at a predetermined Flußrate, wherein
the concentration of a particular substance in the Dialysierflüssigkeit in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg upstream of the dialyzer (Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t)) starting from a predetermined initial value CDIL verändert and is again set to the initial value, then the concentration daß starting CDOL verändert (cdo (t) Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration) from a predetermined initial value and then adjusts the substance in the Dialysierflüssigkeit downstream of the dialyser to the initial value,
the Dialysierfl├╝ssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo (t) is measured and
the dialysance D is determined from the Dialysierfl├╝ssigkeitseingangskonzentration and Dialysierfl├╝ssigkeitsausgangskonzentration,
characterized in that the quotient daß from the integral of the difference between the Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo (t) and the initial value CDOL über t is the time and the integral of the difference between the Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t) and the initial value CDIL über the time t is calculated and the dialysance D is determined on the basis of the calculated quotient and the predetermined Flußrate Qd of Dialysierflüssigkeit in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the daß Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration upstream of the dialyzer is measured.
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that for determining the daß Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangs- or -ausgangskonzentration the Leitfähigkeit the Dialysierflüssigkeit is measured.
4. A device for Durchführung of the method according to one of Ansprüche 1 to 3 in connection with a blood treatment device in which the blood to be treated in a extrakoφoralen circuit through the blood chamber of by a semipermeable membrane into the blood chamber and Dialysierflüssigkeitskammer divided durchströmt dialyzer and Dialysierflüssigkeit in a Dialysierflussigkeitsweg durchströmt the Dialysierflüssigkeitskammer of the dialyzer, one being the Flußrate Qd of Dialysierflüssigkeit predetermining the Dialysierflussigkeitsweg Dialysierflüssigkeitspumpe is connected, with
means (27) for Verändern the concentration of a particular substance in the Dialysierflüssigkeit in Dialysierflussigkeitsweg upstream of the dialyzer (Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t)) starting from a predetermined initial value CDIL and for adjusting the back Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration to the initial value,
a Meßeinrichtung (18) for measuring the concentration of the substance in the Dialysierflüssigkeit downstream of the dialyzer (Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo (t)) and
a computing and evaluation unit (23) for determining the dialysance D of the Dialysierfl├╝ssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t) and the Dialysierfl├╝ssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo (t),
characterized,
daß the computing and evaluation unit (23) is formed so the quotient daß from the integral of the difference between the Dialysierflüssigkeitsausgangskonzentration cdo (t) and the predetermined initial value CDOL über t is the time and the integral of the difference between the Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t) and the initial value CDIL über the time t is calculated and the dialysance Qd can be determined in the Dialysierflüssigkeit Dialysierflussigkeitsweg D on the basis of the calculated quotient and the predetermined Flußrate.
5. The device according to claim 4, characterized in that a daß Meßeinrichtung (17) for measuring the Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangskonzentration cdi (t) is provided upstream of the dialyzer.
6. Device according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that the daß Meßeinrichtung for measuring the Dialysierflüssigkeitseingangs- or -ausgangskonzentration cdi (t), CdO (t) in an upstream Dialysierflussigkeitsweg or arranged downstream of the dialyser having Leitfähigkeitssensor (17, 18).
PCT/EP1999/004689 1998-07-09 1999-07-06 Method for determining dialysance and device for carrying out the method WO2000002604A1 (en)

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BR9911985-4A BR9911985A (en) 1998-07-09 1999-07-06 Process for determining the dialisance and apparatus for performing the process
JP2000558862A JP4219094B2 (en) 1998-07-09 1999-07-06 Method for determining dialysance and apparatus for the method
AU51569/99A AU5156999A (en) 1998-07-09 1999-07-06 Method for determining dialysance and device for carrying out the method
CA002336923A CA2336923C (en) 1998-07-09 1999-07-06 Method for determining dialysance and an apparatus for this method

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DE10212247C1 (en) * 2002-03-19 2003-12-18 Fresenius Medical Care De Gmbh Method for determining a treatment parameter on a hemofiltration device and hemofiltration device for using the method
AU2007229392B2 (en) * 2001-07-03 2008-07-24 Jms Co., Ltd Blood dialysis apparatus having convenient controlling unit
US7563240B2 (en) 2003-04-11 2009-07-21 Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh Haemodialysis device
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WO2012016671A1 (en) * 2010-07-31 2012-02-09 Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh Device and method for detecting the direction of the flow of liquid through a dialyser
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US8287724B2 (en) * 2007-07-05 2012-10-16 Baxter International Inc. Dialysis fluid measurement systems using conductive contacts
JP2011120821A (en) * 2009-12-14 2011-06-23 Nikkiso Co Ltd Blood purifier
EP2687248B1 (en) 2012-07-18 2014-10-29 Gambro Lundia AB Apparatus and method for determining a parameter indicative of the progress of an extracorporeal blood treatment
ES2628375T3 (en) 2012-12-20 2017-08-02 Gambro Lundia Ab An apparatus for extracorporeal blood treatment
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US7520979B2 (en) 2001-07-03 2009-04-21 Jms Co., Ltd. Blood dialysis apparatus having convenient unit
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AU2007229392B2 (en) * 2001-07-03 2008-07-24 Jms Co., Ltd Blood dialysis apparatus having convenient controlling unit
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US6939471B2 (en) 2002-03-19 2005-09-06 Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh Method for determining a treatment parameter on a haemofiltration device, and haemofiltration device for applying the method
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US9132224B2 (en) 2010-07-31 2015-09-15 Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland Gmbh Device and method for detecting the direction of the flow of liquid through a dialyzer
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JP2002520096A (en) 2002-07-09
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CA2336923A1 (en) 2000-01-20
CA2336923C (en) 2008-01-29
JP4219094B2 (en) 2009-02-04

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