WO2000000123A1 - Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level - Google Patents

Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2000000123A1
WO2000000123A1 PCT/US1998/013287 US9813287W WO0000123A1 WO 2000000123 A1 WO2000000123 A1 WO 2000000123A1 US 9813287 W US9813287 W US 9813287W WO 0000123 A1 WO0000123 A1 WO 0000123A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
adhesive
management device
pa
faecal management
preferably
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1998/013287
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Gianfranco Palumbo
Vincenzo D'acchioli
Original Assignee
The Procter & Gamble Company
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by The Procter & Gamble Company filed Critical The Procter & Gamble Company
Priority to PCT/US1998/013287 priority Critical patent/WO2000000123A1/en
Publication of WO2000000123A1 publication Critical patent/WO2000000123A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/45Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators characterised by the shape
    • A61F13/49Absorbent articles specially adapted to be worn around the waist, e.g. diapers
    • A61F13/495Absorbent articles specially adapted to be worn around the waist, e.g. diapers with faecal cavity
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F13/00Bandages or dressings; Absorbent pads
    • A61F13/15Absorbent pads, e.g. sanitary towels, swabs or tampons for external or internal application to the body; Supporting or fastening means therefor; Tampon applicators
    • A61F13/56Supporting or fastening means
    • A61F13/66Garments, holders or supports not integral with absorbent pads
    • A61F13/82Garments, holders or supports not integral with absorbent pads with means for attaching to the body
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F5/00Orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints; Nursing devices; Anti-rape devices
    • A61F5/44Devices worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial or other discharge; Portable urination aids; Colostomy devices
    • A61F5/451Genital or anal receptacles

Abstract

The present invention relates to faecal management devices (10) which are provided with topical adhesives for attachment of the device to the skin. In particular the present invention relates to adhesives (20) which provide secure attachment and are pleasing to the skin upon application, yet cause no discomfort upon removal. This is achieved by selecting the chemical composition and rheological characteristics of the adhesives, particularly the viscous modulus G'' in combination with the thickness C of the adhesive layer applied to the flange (12) of the device (10) for attachment to the skin.

Description

FAECAL COLLECTOR WITH IMPROVED ADHESIVE FLANGE ATTACHMENT MEANS TO FACILITATE REMOVAL WITH LOW PAIN LEVEL

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a faecal management device for babies, children or adults to be attached directly to the skin between the buttocks of the wearer. The device utilises an improved adhesive having a specified rheology and application thickness in order to attach the device to the skin of the wearer so as to facilitate easy application and removal of the device from the wearer, whilst ensuring maintenance of the device in the desired position, particularly on moist and wet skin for the entire period of wear, including circumstances or periods of wear during which the wearer is active, i.e. not bedridden.

Background of the Invention

Faecal management devices are known articles of manufacture that are designed to be worn principally by incontinence sufferers and in particular by bedridden patients. Such faecal management devices are attached to the natural anal region or artificial anus of the wearer and are intended to entrap and immediately contain faecal material and other bodily discharges.

Such devices as they are mostly known today are designed to be worn by bedridden patients. As such the devices are constituted of a relatively long and narrow tube, at one extremity of which there is an aperture and a skin attachment device upon which an adhesive can be applied. Examples of these bags are disclosed for example in US 3,577,989, which details a disposable elimination-trapping bag for incontinence sufferers including a container member having an open-top portion, and a flange secured to the container member around the open-top portion. The flange may include a layer of adhesive on its surface as a means of attachment of the bag to the wearer or alternatively discloses the use of elastic straps to attach the bag to the wearer. US 4,784,656 also describes a receptacle for collecting faecal matter from incontinence sufferers. The faecal collector comprises a gasket, conduit means or a cylinder and a receptacle; the receptacle and conduit means are each formed from two sheets of odour barrier thermoplastic film that are heat sealed along their side edges, respectively and the side surface of the gasket is coated with a layer of adhesive; GB 2 152 387, teaches a faecal collector for incontinence sufferers comprising a collection bag and a ring, which is provided with an adhesive. The faecal collector comprises a pair of panels of thermoplastic sheet material joined at their margins to define an elongate bag having an opening at one end.

Other types of faecal management bags having a flatter shape are known from EP 245 064. EP 245 064 discloses bags having a front and a rear wall, the front wall containing the aperture and attachment means to the body. The attachment means is a skin compatible water resistant material such as a hydrocelloid and a water insoluble viscose elastic binder.

Due to their typical elongated shape and dimensions, such devices particularly when worn by active wearers, such as infants or non bedridden incontinent adults, can readily twist around the thighs of the wearers and/or can cause the formation of folds and kinks in the devices themselves. Under such circumstances the pressure and stress exerted upon the bag will naturally increase due to the movement of the wearer and the pressure of the wearer's body upon the bag. Consequently, the likelihood that the faecal material once excreted and contained within the bag will be caused to exert pressure upon the attachment means of the device will increase and as a result not only will the storage capacity of the device be detrimentally affected but also more importantly it may result in unintentional detachment of the device from the wearer during use. Such an occurrence is unacceptable causing distressing consequences for both the wearer and the carer. Hence, it is critical that the faecal management devices are designed such that they are securely attached to the skin of the wearer and do not become unintentionally unattached during all circumstances of use.

In order to provide the desired level of adhesion of the device to the wearer, the prior art typically discloses the utilisation of certain adhesives having very high cohesive strengths such as rubber based adhesives and acrylics. These adhesives are then applied as thick layers over the entire surface of the flange of the device to maximise the adhesive force by which the device is secured to the skin of the wearer. Indeed it is apparent that these devices and in particular the adhesives have been designed for use on faecal management devices utilised by bedridden patients particularly those having an artificial anus whereby maximum adhesion takes priority over any other criteria such as patient comfort.

However, the adhesive must have a skin compatible composition and not be harsh or aggressive towards the skin or cause skin irritation or inflammation. Also it is preferred if the adhesive is compliant with the skin of the wearer such that maximum skin surface contact between the adhesive and the skin is achieved. Moreover, it is also desirable to provide an adhesive such that the faecal management device can be readily removed from the wearer, without the wearer experiencing any unacceptable pain level. This is particularly important under circumstances, where the device is misplaced, and removal and reapplication of the device once or even a number of times is required and or to ensure the application of such devices on sensitive skin and wearer groups such as infants. However, on the other hand the desired level of adhesion, albeit painless should of course also be maintained during such multiple applications of the device.

The problem of the achieving the desired adhesion level is further exacerbated under wet skin conditions. Typically, prior to the placement of the faecal management device, the skin is cleaned and is usually as a result moist. The currently available adhesives, such as hydrocolloids, however often do not immediately strongly adhere to the skin and may need to be held in place until sufficient minimum adhesion occurs. Moreover, the overall adhesive ability of such adhesives tends to be significantly reduced on wet skin surfaces per se, so that the device will typically not remain attached to the skin during wearer if any pressure is exerted onto the device, for example by the movement of the wearer or during the defaecation process.

Moist and wet skin however is not just a problem which is prevalent at the device application stage, as a significant amount of moisture is also generated during the use of the device from the wearer and from the faecal material. The resulting humid environment naturally further increases when the faecal management device is utilised in combination with a diaper. Under such circumstances current adhesives typically cannot absorb this moisture and again the adhesive strength is reduced to such an extent that the device will often become detached under exertion of pressure during wear. It is hence very important to provide an adhesive which maintains its adhesive strength on wet skin.

None of the prior art in the field of faecal management bags however even recognises or addresses the problem of providing these devices with an adhesive which meets these criteria.

The prior art in the general field of adhesives for attachment to the skin is in contrast more developed in the field of articles such as band-aids, plasters and bandages. These articles are however typically applied in an emergency situation, where for example, a cut into the skin of the wearer has occurred and absorption of the body liquids emanating from a wound is desired. In this context performance aspects of the article such as easy application and use of the product, comfortable wear as well as painless removal, and discreteness are again sin subordinate, to other criteria in this case such as sterility, healing support, and mechanical protection of the wound.

WO 97/42985 discloses a wound dressing comprising a layer of absorbent foam material which is coated with a layer of skin adhering hydrophobic gel which have a lower specific adhesivity.

Another field wherein the use of such adhesives has been disclosed is in absorbent such as for example sanitary napkins, as described in for example US statutory invention registration H1602 or WO 96/33683 and WO 95/16424. The latter discloses sanitary articles having a topical adhesive which is applied on the wearer facing side of a sanitary napkin along the entire periphery. WO

96/13238 discloses a topical adhesive which is described in terms of frequency dependency. EP-638 303 discloses the use of a topical adhesive on side cuffs of sanitary napkins in order to keep the cuffs in an upright position. Swiss publication CH-643730 discloses the use of a very long sanitary napkin having chamfered outer edges with a topical adhesive at the four corners of the outer edges in order to provide a topical adhesive area well outside the region of pubic hair growth.

However all of these disclosures typically disclose a product which is designed to be utilised in combination with an undergarment and hence the degree of adhesion actually provided is very low and is not designed to withstand any excessive pressure. Moreover the adhesive is only discussed in general terms or concentrates on the area of application of the adhesive to the article. The nature of adhesive per se other than the basic physical requirements such as pressure sensitivity are not discussed in particular with reference to the chemical composition or the adhesive criteria.

Similarly from the field of urinary management devices it is known, for example from WO 92/11825, to provide a urinary incontinence pad having a resilient body on the exterior surface of which is applied a layer of adhesive such as a hydrophilic hydrogel adhesive. However again urinary devices have to meet entirely different functional criteria than faecal management devices. In particular, faecal management devices contain solid or semi solid waste which can readily move within the confines of the bag and exert pressure upon the orifice and thereby cause dis-attachment of the device from the wearer. In contrast such urinary pads can readily absorb the liquid such that it will not flow out of the absorbent and therefore such devices are not designed to be able to withstand the pressures commonly exerted within a faecal management device.

Hence there still exists a need to provide a faecal management device having an adhesive for the secure attachment and painless removal of the device from the skin in-between the buttocks of the wearer so as to be suitable for use of sensitive skin of an infant and it is thus an object of the present invention to provide such as device. It is another objective of the present invention to provide an adhesive that exhibits an ability to adhere to skin upon reapplication, particularly multiple reapplication for example when the device is misplaced is maintained, whilst still allowing painless removal.

It is yet a further objective of the present invention that the adhesive will adhere to moist or wet skin, independent of whether this is direct application of the device onto wet skin, or moisture which is generated on the skin surface during the wearing period of the device.

In addition to the above objectives of the present invention it is also desirable for the adhesives to provide additional benefits such as delivery/dispersal of a compound or composition which is beneficial for the skin or for the body in general.

It has now been surprisingly found that the above drawbacks will be substantially alleviated by providing the flange of the faecal management device with an adhesive as defined hereinafter. The adhesive provides secure attachment, is pleasing to the skin upon application, and yet causes no discomfort upon removal. This is achieved by selecting the characteristics of the topical adhesive, particularly in terms of the viscous modulus G" of the topical adhesive and the thickness C of the layer of topical adhesive applied to the device.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, the overall performance of the devices is further improved, if the bags are provided with a particular configuration, thus allowing the utilisation of the devices for a number of wearer groups such as babies, children and active adult incontinence sufferers, in addition to bedridden adult incontinence suffers.

In another aspect of the present invention, the faecal management device with its specific adhesive can be advantageously used in combination with a reusable underwear garment or preferably with a disposable diaper.

Brief description of the drawings It is believed that the invention will be better understood from the foregoing description in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a faecal management device i in accordance with the present invention.

Figure 2 shows a perspective view of the faecal management device in conjunction with a disposable diaper; and

Figure 3 is a partially cut-away perspective view of a disposable diaper embodying the present invention.

Summary of the Invention

Any faecal management device known in the art can be provided with the adhesive according to the present invention. Typically faecal management devices comprise a bag (11) having an aperture (21) and a flange (12) surrounding the aperture for adhesive attachment to the perianal area of a wearer as visible from Figure 1. The topical adhesive allows attachment of faecal management devices to the skin of the wearer, the adhesive being provided as a layer having a certain thickness or calliper C measured in millimetres (mm), typically on at least part of the wearer facing surface of the flange.

Detailed analysis of the sequence of common situations occurring from the application of a faecal management device to the time of removal of such a device has shown that specific adhesive characteristics need to be preferably satisfied in order to achieve the desired performance objectives, in particular to secure initial attachment, secure attachment during use and painless removal after wear. The characteristics which have been considered in this context are the elastic modulus describing the elastic behaviour of the material and the viscous modulus which describes the viscous behaviour of the adhesive material.

The viscous behaviour of the adhesive can be interpreted to represent an indication of the ability of the adhesive to quickly attach and securely adhere to a particular surface. The elastic behaviour can be interpreted as an indication of the "hardness" behaviour of the adhesive. Its value is also critical for good initial attachment. Their combination is believed to be an indicator of the required force upon removal. The relation between elastic and viscous modulus is considered to be an indication on which fraction of the removal energy will be dissipated within the adhesive and which fraction is available to trigger the actual removal.

In order to provide topical adhesives for secure initial and prolonged attachment and easy/painless removal the relation between the elastic modulus and the viscous modulus as well as their dynamic behaviour is also of importance.

The adhesive has an elastic modulus at a temperature of 37°C (100° Fahrenheit) abbreviated G'37ι a viscous modulus at a temperature of 37°C (100° Fahrenheit) of G"37, and a viscous modulus at a temperature of 25°C (77°Fahrenheit) of G"25.

The adhesive according to the present invention preferably satisfies the following conditions;

G'37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range 1500 Pa to 20000 Pa, preferably 1500 Pa to 15000 Pa, most preferably 3000 Pa to 10000 Pa.

G"37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range 100 Pa to 15000 Pa, preferably 100 Pa to 10000 Pa, most preferably 300 Pa to 5000 Pa.

and the ratio of G'37 (1 rad/sec) / G"37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range of 1 to 30.

The rheological behaviour can also be related to the values of the Glass Transition Temperature Tg. For topical adhesives according to the present invention Tg should preferably be less than -15°C, more preferably less than - 20°C and most preferably less than -25°C. The rheological behaviour and acceptance of a adhesive can also be related to the specific heat capacity. Preferably the specific heat capacity of the adhesive is less than 4 J/g/K, more preferably less than 3 J/g/K and most preferably less than 2 J/g/K.

The rheological behaviour and acceptance of a topical adhesive can also be related to the specific heat conductivity of the adhesive. Preferably the specific heat conductivity is as low as possible, preferably between 1 and 0.1 W/m/K, most preferably between 0.6 and 0.1 W/m/K .

Provided the above rheological conditions are satisfied the adhesives will also satisfy conditions such as sufficient cohesiveness (to prevent residue of adhesive on the skin) which are critical for commercial use of such adhesives and apparent to those skilled in the art. Adhesive compositions which satisfy the above criteria can be used as adhesives for the flange provided they also satisfy the common requirements of being safe for use on human or animal skin during use and generally after disposal of the device.

Often the criteria of hygienic appearance such that adhesive compositions which are transparent or white upon application are preferred.

The above rheological criteria and other considerations can be satisfied by adhesive compositions which are medically suitable substantially water insoluble pressure sensitive adhesives comprising a polymer which forms a 3-dimensional matrix, and comprising less than 10%, preferably less than 5% by weight of said adhesive of hydrocolloids. The polymeric compound or composition is preferably selected from the group consisting of acrylics, sulphonated polymers, vinyl alcohols, vinyl pyrrolidine, polyethylene oxide, or combinations thereof. The adhesive also preferably comprises a plasticiser. The plasticising compound or composition is preferably selected from the group consisting of water, alcohols (preferably glycerol), glycols, polyglycols, or combinations thereof.

According to the present invention, it has been discovered that the relation between the thickness or calliper C, measured in millimetres (mm), of the layer in which the adhesive is provided, typically onto at least a portion of the wearer facing surface of the flange, and the viscous modulus G"25 at about 100 rad/sec of the topical adhesive, is relevant to the scope of providing an easy and painless removal from the wearer's skin of such a topical adhesive applied on at least part of the wearer facing surface of a faecal management device for attachment of said device to the skin of a wearer.

The adhesive of the present invention is provided as a layer having a thickness C such that the viscous modulus G"25 (100 rad/sec) and the thickness C satisfy the following empirical equation:

G"25 < [(7.00 + C) x 3000] Pa

and preferably also the following empirical equation:

G"25 < [(5.50 + C) χ 1700] Pa

Detailed Description of the Invention

According to the present invention the adhesive can be utilised on faecal management devices (10) which are applied to the perianal area of a wearer as visible from Figure 1. The word "skin" according to the present invention does not only relate to the specific derma of the user but includes the mucous tissue as well as the hair which is typically found in the genital region.

The adhesive is provided with the preferred pattern, typically on the wearer facing surface (23) of the flange (12) of the device (10), as a layer having a thickness or calliper C that is preferably constant. The layer can be preferably continuous or alternatively discontinuous, e.g. in form of dots, spirals, or stripes.

Even though adhesives are used like pressure sensitive adhesives on human skin hair and mucous tissues, it is understood that the topical adhesive compositions could only with difficulty be considered typical pressure sensitive adhesives (referred to as PSA hereinafter) on the basis of the most characteristic rheological behaviours identifying such materials.

In fact as the person skilled in the art of adhesives knows, the most characteristic feature that distinguishes a PSA from other substances that can temporarily adhere objects (e.g. water between two glass plates could) is the fact that their rheological parameters and especially the Elastic Modulus G' vary greatly with the frequency of applied stresses. More in particular, G' of PSA can increase over some orders of magnitude, while the frequency of applied stresses varies from typical bonding frequency to typical debonding frequency, i.e. 1 rad/s to 100 rad/s as indicated below.

As a first consequence, it is therefore inadmissible to define materials intended for use as "adhesives" by giving values of rheological parameters and especially of G' at a fixed value of frequency. This can be misleading because in the absence of other characteristics it will include materials which have no practical value. It is hence necessary that rheological characterisation must be on the basis of dynamic considerations. This not only applies to the Elastic Modulus G' but also to the viscous modulus G" and hence also for tan (d) = G" / G'. It is well known that typical PSAs have not only a high variation of G' across the considered frequencies, but also that there is an even higher variation of G" which can get close or become even higher than the value of G', i.e. tan (d) becomes about or even greater than 1 , in particular at the frequencies that are typical of debonding.

Without wishing to be bound by theory this can be interpreted as meaning that a high fraction of the energy applied for the debonding is dissipated within the adhesive (so it is not effective in causing the debonding) and through the interface of the adhesive and the skin, while this fact causes macroscopically the recording of a very high level of adhesive force.

As indicated above materials useful as adhesives according to the present invention have rheological characteristics which are measured at a reference temperature of 37°C (as usual body temperature of humans) and in a range of frequencies. It has been found that upon application of a faecal management device with a adhesive the adhesive contact is formed at a low frequency, while debonding happens at the speed of removing the device. This speed is expressed as a frequency of 100 rad/s, while the low frequency of forming the adhesive bond has been found to be on the order of 1 rad/s. Therefore, the frequency range for use according to the present invention is between 1 and 100 rad/s.

It is believed that the adhesive bonding characteristics are selected most appropriately at human body temperature. Since the adhesive according to the present invention is used directly on skin and the person skilled in the art is directed to select the adhesive composition to have a small specific heat capacity (e.g. preferably less than 4 J/g/K) the actual temperature of the adhesive will reach 37°C very quickly or even be warmed up by a human prior to application.

In order to provide good conditions of bonding, i.e. at a frequency of about 1 rad/sec, the absolute values of the elastic modulus should not be too high, otherwise the adhesive is too hard and it is not able to intimately join or mold to the surface to which it is expected to adhere. It is also important to have a low absolute value of G" in order to have good cohesion which is particularly valuable for use with faecal management while the material remains soft and capable of gently adhering to skin.

The ratio of G'37 (1 rad/sec) over G"37 (1 rad/sec) is important to ensure that these two values are balanced upon adhesion to the skin.

Importantly, the ratio of G'37 (100 rad/sec) - G"37 (100 rad/sec)

G'37 (1 rad/sec) - G"37 (1 rad/sec)

needs to be large enough to ensure that the dynamic behaviour of both the elastic and the viscous module are maintained in a relationship which provides secure adhesion and painless and easy removal.

Finally the person skilled in the art will also recognise that the Glass Transition Temperature Tg of the adhesive composition, the specific heat capacity, and the specific heat conductivity are parameters which are useful to more fully define the group of useful adhesives.

The following set of characteristics should preferably be satisfied for the adhesive of the present invention:

G'37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range 1500 Pa to 20000 Pa, preferably 1500 Pa to 15000 Pa, most preferably 3000 Pa to 10000 Pa.

G"37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range 100 Pa to 15000 Pa, preferably 100 Pa to 10000 Pa, most preferably 300 Pa to 5000 Pa.

the ratio of G'37 (1 rad/sec) / G"37 (1 rad/sec) is in the range of 1 to 30.

the ratio G'37 (100 rad/sec) - G"37 (100 rad/sec) G'37 (1 rad/sec) - G"37 (1 rad/sec) is not less than 0.5, preferably in the range 0.7 to 3, most preferably in the range 1 to 1.8.

The value of the ratio G'37/G"37 at least for the frequency range from above 1 rad/s up to 100 rad/s should preferably be 3.3 or above, more preferably 5 or above, most preferably 10 or above, while not exceeding about 30, preferably 20, anywhere in the frequency interval.

The rheological behaviour can also be related to the values of the Glass Transition Temperature Tg. For topical adhesives according to the present invention Tg should preferably be less than -15°C, more preferably less than - 20°C and most preferably less than -25°C.

The rheological behaviour and acceptance of a adhesive can also be related to the specific heat capacity. Preferably the specific heat capacity of the topical adhesive is less than 4 J/g/K, more preferably less than 3 J/g/K and most preferably less than 2 J/g/K.

The rheological behaviour and acceptance of a topical adhesive can also be related to the specific heat conductivity of the adhesive. Preferably the specific heat conductivity is as low as possible, more preferable between 1 and 0.1 W/m/K, most preferably between 0.6 and 0.1 W/m/K.

In order to provide adhesive compositions which satisfy the requirements of the above rheological and physical characteristics of an adhesive any medically suitable substantially water insoluble pressure sensitive adhesives comprising a polymer which forms a 3-dimensional matrix, and comprising less than 10%, preferably less than 5% by weight of said adhesive of hydrocolloids, meeting the these characteristics may be utilised .

The term hydrocolloid as used herein refers to materials mixtures of materials selected from starch, modified starches such as dextrin, cellulose ester such as carboxymethycellulose, natural gums such as pectin karaya, gelatin, guar gum, gum arabic, locust bean gum, and carboxypolymethylene.

According to the present invention the 3 dimensional matrix also referred to herein as a gel. comprises as an essential component a polymer which can be physically or chemically cross linked. The polymer may be naturally or synthetically derived. The uncrosslinked polymer includes repeating units derived from vinyl alcohols, vinyl ethers and their copolymers, carboxy vinyl monomer, vinyl ester monomers, esters of carboxy vinyl monomers, vinyl amide monomers, hydroxy vinyl monomers, cationic vinyl monomers containing amines or quaternary groups, N-vinyl lactam monomer, polyethylene oxides, polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP), acrylics such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate, methoxydiethoxyethyl methacrylate and hydroxydiethoxyethyl methacrylate and sulphonated polymers such as acrylamide sulphonated polymers and mixtures thereof. Alternatively, the uncrosslinked polymer may be a homopolymer or copolymer of a polyvinyl ether, or a copolymer derived from half ester of maleic ester. Similarly any other compatible polymer monomer units may be used as copolymers such as for example polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylic acid or ethylene and vinyl acetate.

As another alternative, the polymers may be block copolymer thermoplastic elastomers such as ABA block copolymers such as styrene-olefin-styrene block copolymers or ethylene-propylene block copolymers. More preferably such polymers include hydrogenated grade Styrol/Ethylene-Butylene/Styrol (SEBS), Styrene/lsoprene/Styrene (SIS), and Styrol/Ethylene-Propylene/Styrol (SEPS).

Particularly preferred polymers are acrylics, sulphonated polymers such as acrylamide sulphonated polymers, vinyl alcohols, vinyl pyrrolidine, polyethylene oxide and mixtures thereof.

According to the present invention the 3 dimensional adhesive matrix also essentially comprises a plasticiser, which is preferably a liquid at room temperature. This material is selected such that the polymer may be solubilized or dispersed within the plasticiser. For embodiments wherein irradiation cross linking is to be carried out, the plasticiser must also be irradiation cross linking compatible such that it does not inhibit the irradiation cross linking process of the polymer. The plasticiser may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.

Suitable plasticisers include water, alcohols, polyhydric alcohols such as glycerol and sorbitol, and glycols and ether glycols such as mono- or diethers of polyalkylene gylcol, mono- or diester polyalkylene glycols, polyethylene glycols (typically up to a molecular weight of about 600), glycolates, glyceril, sorbitan esters, esters of citric and tartaric acid, imidazoline derived amphoteric surfactants, lactams, amides, polyamides, quaternary ammonium compounds, condensation products of polyethylene imine and epichlorohydrin, liquid polybutenes, esters such phthalates, adipates, stearates, palmitates, sebacates, or myristates, natural or synthetic oils such as vegetable oils, mineral oils, and combinations thereof. Particularly preferred are polyhydric alcohols, polyethylene glycol (with a molecular weight up to about 600), glycerol, sorbitol, water and mixtures thereof.

Typically the adhesive comprises a ratio of polymer to plasticiser by weight of from 1 : 100 to 100:1 , more preferably from 50:1 to 1 :50. However, the exact amounts and ratios of the polymer and plasticiser will depend to a large extent on the exact nature of polymer and plasticisers utilised and can be readily selected by the skilled person in the art. For example a high molecular weight polymer material will require a greater amount of plasticiser than a low molecular weight polymer.

In addition to the polymer and plastisicer components of the adhesive, the adhesive may comprise a number of optional additional components for example the composition may comprise from 0% to 50% by weight of the composition, of a tackifying resin. Such tackifying resins are particularly useful in combination with ABA block copolymer adhesive compositions. Suitable tackifying resins include for example rosin derivatives, terpene, and terpene-phenolic resins, hydrocarbon resins such as C5 and C5/C9 resins, aromatic resins and hydrogenated resins.

Other suitable optional ingredients include from 0% to 10 % and more preferably form 0% to 5 % by weight of substances for further facilitating and stabilising the 3-dimensional matrix and the matrix forming process. For example for hydrophobic adhesive compositions these may be fatty acids of Cδ to C22> their metallic salts and their polyoxo-derivatives; lanolin derivatives; silica; bentonite, montmorillonite and their derivatives; waxes or mixtures thereof.

Other common additives known in the art such as preservatives, antioxidants, anti UV agents, pigments, mineral fillers and mixtures thereof may also be comprised within the adhesive composition in quantities up to 10% each respectively.

According to the present invention the polymer component of the adhesive can be physically or chemically cross linked in order to form the 3 dimensional matrix. Physical cross linking refers to polymers having cross links which are not chemical covalent bonds but are of a physical nature such that there are areas in the 3 dimensional matrix having high crystallinity or areas having a high glass transition temperature. Chemical cross linking refers to polymers which are linked by chemical bonds. Preferably the polymer is chemically cross linked by radiation techniques such as thermal-, E beam- , UV-, gamma or micro-wave radiation.

In addition when chemical crosslinks are formed in the system, a polyfunctional cross linker and/or a free radical initiator may be present in the premix to initiate the crosslinking upon irradiation. Such an initiator can be present preferably in quantities up to 5% by weight.

The resulting adhesive compositions may be divided into three family types; hydrophilic, hydrophobic and mixed phase compositions dependant upon the nature of the components of the adhesive.

Hydrophilic adhesives are compositions in which typically the plasticiser is water or glycerol or glycol and/or mixtures thereof and the polymeric phase is of synthetic (e.g. polyacrylics). Optionally such compositions may comprise up to 10% by weight of hydrocolloid natural gums.

Hydrophobic adhesives are compositions in which the plasticiser is typically an oil or blend of oils of vegetable or mineral origin and the polymer is usually a synthetic polymer, preferably an elastomer, which is soluble or dispersible in such oils. Mixed phase adhesives are compositions in which both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components, possibly in both plasticisers and polymers, form two or more separate phases. In such cases an emulsifier is preferably present at a suitable level to form stable emulsions between the incompatible phases.

The preferred adhesive compositions for use in the present invention are hydrophilic as these are particularly effective in adhering to wet skin. .

Suitable adhesives for use herein include Promeon, available from Promeon Division of Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis Minnesota, USA and hydrogel adhesive available form 3M.

The adhesive is provided, typically on at least a portion of the wearer facing surface of the flange, as a layer having a thickness or caliper C that is preferably constant, or that alternatively can vary over the surface interested by the application of the adhesive.

When considering particularly the removal phase of an adhesive composition for attachment to the skin of a wearer, it is commonly recognised that good conditions of removal, i.e. at a frequency of about 100 rad/sec, of the topical adhesive applied to at least part of the wearer facing surface of the flange, are achieved when the adhesive can be easily removed from the skin, and particularly from the bodily hair that are typically located on this area of the skin where the flange contacts the body, without causing pain to the wearer, therefore without adhering too hard upon removal, to the skin and the hair of the wearer. Moreover, a good removal implies that the adhesive does not leave residues on the skin or on the hair.

According to the present invention, the relationship between the thickness or calliper C measured in millimetres (mm) of the layer in which the adhesive is provided, typically onto at least part of the wearer's facing surface of the flange of the faecal management device, and the viscous modulus G"25 at 25°C and at about 100 rad/sec of the topical adhesive gives an indication on the painless and easy removal of the adhesive from the skin. Without being bound to any theory, it is believed that for higher values of G"25 at 100 rad/sec, which overall correspond to a higher adhesiveness of the composition, a thicker calliper or thickness C of the adhesive layer is needed so that the energy applied for the removal is more evenly distributed within the mass of the adhesive, and is therefore transferred smoothly to the skin, SO avoiding peaks of energy that typically cause the pain sensation to the wearer. In other words, thinner layers of the adhesive necessitate an adhesive with a lower G"25 at 100 rad/sec to achieve a reduced pain sensation upon removal of the device.

According to the present invention, the adhesive of the present invention provided as a layer having a thickness C measured in millimetres (mm), is such that the viscous modulus G"25 (100 rad/sec) and the thickness C of the adhesive layer satisfy the following empirical equation:

G"25 < [(7.00 + C) x 3000] Pa

and preferably the following empirical equation:

G"25 < [(5.50 + C) x 1700] Pa

While in a preferred embodiment of the present invention the thickness C of the adhesive layer is constant, such adhesive layer can also have different thicknesses in different portions of the wearer facing surface of the flange where it is applied, provided that the above mentioned relationship between C and G"25 is in any case satisfied.

In order to evaluate the effect of the thickness C of the adhesive layer in its relationship with the viscous modulus G"25 (100 rad/sec) of the topical adhesive of the present invention on the removal of the topical adhesive used for the attachment of a disposable absorbent article to the skin of a wearer, a Removal Pain Grade Test has been developed. In this test the adhesion of standard substrates, on which the same topical adhesive has been provided in layers having different thicknesses, on the skin of the forearm of members of a sensory panel is achieved, and upon successive removal the pain is evaluated in terms of pain grade as described herein after. Any faecal management device known in the art can be provided with the adhesive according to the present invention.

Description of the faecal management device

Typically faecal management devices (10) comprise a bag (11) having an aperture (21) and a flange (12) surrounding the aperture for preferably adhesive attachment to the perianal area of a wearer as visible from Figure 1. Any faecal management device known in the art can be provided according to the present invention.

The bag (11) as used herein is a flexible receptacle for the containment of excreted faecal matter. The bag (11) can be provided in any shape or size depending on the intended use thereof, i.e. whether the device is intended for bedridden patients or active patients suffering from incontinence or requiring an artificial bowel or for infants. For example, elongated bags which are principally tubular or rectangular are typically utilised by bedridden patients and elderly incontinence sufferers. For more active wearers whether infants or adults, the faecal management device should preferably be anatomically shaped such that the device follows the contours of the body and can be worn inconspicuously by the wearer under normal garments.

Particularly, preferred shapes are flat circular type bags, cone shaped bags, truncated shaped bags and pyramidal or truncated pyramidal shaped bags. In a most preferred embodiment of the present invention, the bag (11) has a substantially truncated cone shape. Typically the bags will have a wearer facing portion (16) and a garment facing portion (17). The wearer facing portion (16) of the faecal management device (10) is disposed adjacent the buttocks of the wearer. As such, the wearer facing portion (16) amply covers the buttocks of the wearer and does not hang between the thighs of the wearer.

In addition, the bag (11) is preferably shaped to allow at least partial insertion and retention of the bag in-between the buttocks of the wearer and thereby ensure good contact between the flange and the skin of the wearer. For example, the bag (11)may be provided with a neck portion or conduit. The bag (11) is preferably designed to provide sufficient volume for faecal material under a variety of wearing conditions, also when worn by a freely moving, i.e. not bedridden wearer. Sitting on the bag, for example, will result in a largely reduced volume in some areas of the bag. Thus, the bag (11) is preferably shaped to provide sufficient volume in areas which are not subjected to much pressure in wearing conditions such as sitting.

The bag (11) is designed to safely contain any entrapped material, typically it will be liquid impermeable, yet it may be breathable. The bag (11) is designed of sufficient strength to withstand rupture in use, also when pressure on the bag (11) is exerted in typical wearing conditions, such as sitting.

According to the present invention, depending on the shape of the bag (11) required, the bag (11) may be provided from a unitary piece of material or from a number of separate pieces of material, which may be identical or different and which are sealed at their respective peripheries.

In one preferred embodiment the bags herein have a wearer facing portion (16) and a garment facing portion (17) which comprise separate pieces of material. The wearer facing portion (16) and the garment facing portion (17) are sealed at the periphery of the bag (11), thus creating a bag peripheral rim (18). As is visible from Figure 1 , the wearer facing portion (16) of the bag (11) may comprise two further sections (19), which are secured to each other by means known to the man skilled in the art, such as adhesive, thermobonding or pressure bonding in order to provide the desired bag configuration. Said rim (18) may also be inside the bag, thus being coextensive with the inner surface (15) of the bag (11) rather than with the outer surface (30) of the bag (11). Preferably the bag (11) is asymmetrical to the transversal axis, so that the distance measured in the longitudinal direction from the centre of the aperture (21) to the front end of the bag (11 ) is shorter than the distance measured to the rear end of the bag (11).

According to the present invention the bag (11) can comprise one or multiple layers, preferably two or three layers. The layer on the inside of the bag (11), which will typically at least partially come in contact with faecal material is called the inner layer. The outermost layer of the bag, which will typically at least partially come in contact with the skin to the wearer and the garments of the wearer, is called the outer layer.

The layers of the bag material may be provided from any material, preferably so that the bag is liquid impervious. The layers may in particular comprise any material such as non-wovens or films. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention a laminate may be formed from a non-woven layer and a film. The laminate can be formed by means known to the man skilled in the art.

Any non-woven layer can comprise felt fabrics, spunlaced fabrics, fluid jet entangled fabrics, air-laid fabrics, wet-laid fabrics, dry-laid fabrics, melt-blown fabrics, staple fibre carding fabrics, spunbonded fabrics, stitch-bonded fabrics, apertured fabrics, combinations of the above or the like.

Suitable film materials for any of said layers preferably comprise a thermoplastic material. The thermoplastic material can be selected from among all types of hot-melt adhesives, polyolefins especially polyethylene, polypropylene, amorphous polyolefins, and the like; material containing meltable components comprising fibres or polymeric binders including natural fibres such as cellulose - wood pulp, cotton, jute, hemp; synthetic fibres such as fibreglass, rayon, polyester, polyolefin, acrylic, polyamid, aramid, polytetrafluroethylene metal, polyimide; binders such as bicomponent high melt/low melt polymer, copolymer polyester, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate/chloride copolymer, copolymer polyamide, materials comprising blends wherein some of the constituent materials are not meltable; air and vapour permeable materials including microporous films such as those supplied by EXXON Chemical Co., Ill, US under the designation EXXAIRE or those supplied by Mitsui Toatsu Co., Japan under the designation ESPOIR NO; and monolithic breathable materials such as Hytrel™ available from DuPont and Pebax™ available from ELF Atochem, France.

In a preferred embodiment a film, which is comprised in any layer, is preferably permeable to gases such as air and to vapour such as water vapour in order to avoid the problem of entrapment and condensation of moisture vapour given off by the body of the wearer and thus, the hot, clammy and uncomfortable conditions after a short period of use. The outer layer of the bag is preferably provided with a non-woven layer. Such material layers present an uneven surface to the skin of the wearer and thus reduce significantly the problem of occlusion and greatly improve skin healthiness.

In one preferred embodiment of the present invention the bag comprises two layers. Preferably the outer layer comprises a non-woven layer and the inner layer comprises a film.

In yet another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the bag (11) comprises three layers, preferably one film and two non-woven layers. In an even more preferable embodiment the film is interposed between the two non-woven layers. This sequence of layers results in a closed fibrous structure, which has a particularly pleasing sensation on contact with the skin of the wearer. In yet another preferred embodiment the inner layer comprises a film and the other two layers comprise non-wovens.

The non-woven layer or the non-woven layers comprised by the bag (11) may be hydrophobic or hydrophilic. If the bag (11) does not comprise a film layer, preferably at least one non-woven layer is hydrophobic. As a consequence, fluid penetration is resisted through the wearer facing portion (16) and the garment facing portion (17) of the faecal management device (10). If the bag comprises a film or a hydrophobic non-woven layer, further non-woven layers may be hydrophilic.

Typically, the non-woven layer is treated with a surface active material, such as a fluorchemical or other hydrophobic finishings, to provide the requisite hydrophobicity. The non-woven layer, however, may equally be treated with coatings of liquid impervious materials such as hot-melt adhesives or coatings of silicone or other hydrophobic compounds such as rubbers and vegetable and mineral waxes or it may be physically treated using nano-particulates or plasma coating techniques, for example.

The non-woven layer can also be treated with agents to improve the tactile perceivable softness of the wearer facing portion (16) and the garment facing portion (17). The agents include but are not limited to vegetable, animal or synthetic oils, silicone oils and the like. The presence of these agents are known to impart a silky or flannel-like feel to the non-woven layer without rendering it greasy or oily to the tactile sense of the wearer. Additionally, surfactant material, including anionic, non-anionic, cationic and non-cationic surfactants, may be added to further enhance softness and surface smoothness.

Furthermore, the non-woven layer may be impregnated with a lotion to provide desirable therapeutic or protective coating lotion benefits. The lotion coating on the wearer facing portion (16) and the garment facing portion (17) is transferable to the skin of the wearer by normal contact and wearer motion and/or body heat. Generally, mineral oil in the form of a lotion is recognised as being effective in imparting a soothing, protective coating to the skin of the wearer. It is also possible to impregnate the non-woven layer with a solid oil phase of cream formulation or to incorporate into the non-woven layer an array of pressure- or thermal- or hydrorupturable capsules containing for example, baby oil.

In one embodiment of the present invention the bag (11) may contain absorbent material. The absorbent material may comprise any absorbent material which is capable of absorbing and retaining liquids. The absorbent material may comprise a wide variety of liquid-absorbent materials commonly used in disposable diapers and other absorbent articles such as comminuted wood pulp, which is generally referred to as airfelt. Examples of other suitable absorbent materials include creped cellulose wadding; meltblown polymers, including coform; chemically stiffened, modified or cross-linked cellulosic fibers; tissue, including tissue wraps and tissue laminates; absorbent foams; absorbent sponges; superabsorbent polymers; absorbent gelling materials; or any other known absorbent material or combinations of materials.

The absorbent material may be positioned in the bag (11) in any suitable manner. For example, the absorbent material may be loosely arranged within the bag or may be secured to the inner layer of the bag (11). Any known techniques for securing absorbent material to nonwoven and film substrates may be used to secure the absorbent material to the inner layer of the bag. The absorbent material may also be arranged to have any desired shape or configuration (e.g., rectangular, oval, circular, etc.).

As shown in Figure 1 the bag (11) is provided with an aperture (21) whereby faecal matter is received from the body prior to storage within the bag cavity. The aperture (21) is surrounded by a flange (12) and may be provided in any shape or size, such as circular, oblong, heart shaped and may be symmetrical or asymmetrical, preferably the aperture has an oblong configuration either in the longitudinal or in the transversal direction or in both directions, e.g. the contours of the aperture are in the shape of two ellipses with the respective main axes being substantially perpendicular.

The flange (12) is attached to the bag (11) according to any means known to the man skilled in the art which may provide permanent or releasable attachment. Preferably however, the flange is attached to the bag by adhesive. Typically, the bag will be attached to the flange, towards the outer periphery of flange so as not to cause any obstruction for the entering faecal matter.

The flange may be provided in any size depending on the wearer group for which the device is intended. Similarly the flange may be provided in any shape and preferably has a symmetrical shape preferably comprising a plurality of lobes (13). The flange (12) may comprise a front projection (28) and a rear projection (29) to the perineal and coccygeal area of a wearer.

The flange comprises a garment facing surface (22) and a wearer facing surface (23). In an preferred embodiment these are two large, substantially flat surfaces, however, the flange may also comprise projections designed to fit the perineal or coccygeal area of the wearer.

The flange (12) should be made of soft, flexible and malleable material to allow easy placement of the flange to the perianal area. Typical materials include nonwoven materials, wovens, open celled thermoplastic foams, closed-cell thermoplastic foams, composites of open celled foams and stretch nonwoven, and films. A closed-cell foam of polyethylene has been found effective, but more preferably an open celled polyurethane foam is used. Preferably, such foams have a thickness within the general range of 0.1 to 5 millimetres and a density of 5 to 250 g/m2, more preferably 50 g/m2. Other thermoplastic foam materials, or other suitable plastics sheet materials having the described properties of such foams (i.e., softness, pliability, stretchability, and contractability) might also be used. Preferably, the material of garment facing surface (23) of the flange (12) may extend into the defined aperture area so as to form a skirt or flap of material which prevents unintentional adhesion of the surface edges of the flange defining the aperture to oneanother during use.

According to the present invention the adhesive (20) is preferably covered with a release means (not shown) in order to protect the adhesive (20), such as siliconized paper. The adhesive (20) can cover the entire wearer facing surface (23) of the flange (12) or more preferably have at least one, preferably two to six non-adhesive portions. These portions may be adhesive free or may contain inactivated or covered adhesives. As is evident from Figure 1 , the adhesive is in one preferred embodiment not applied to the entire wearer facing surface area of the flange (12), so as to provide lobes (13) on either side of the flange (12) which are non-adhesive and can thereby serve to facilitate placement and removal of the device whilst avoiding contact with the adhesive. These lobes are however preferably also covered by the release means. Before application of the faecal management device (10) to the skin of the wearer, the release means if present is removed.

The adhesive (20) can be applied to the wearer facing surface of the flange (12) by any means known in the art such as slot coating, spiral, or bead application or printing. Typically the adhesive is applied at a basis weight of from 20g/m2 to 2500g/m2, more preferably from 500g/m2 to 2000g/m2 most preferably from 700g/m2 to 1500g/m2 depending on the end use envisioned. For example, for faecal management devices (10) to be used for babies the amount of adhesive may be less than for faecal management devices (10) designed for active adult incontinence sufferers.

Detailed description of a diaper to be worn in combination with the faecal management device

The faecal management device (10) of the present invention has been found to be particularly useful and beneficial when used in conjunction with a garment, or diaper (50), preferably a disposable diaper - refer to Figure 2. The faecal management device (10) is preferably first positioned in the perianal area of the wearer before the disposable diaper (50) is applied. In particular, the diaper (50) is positioned over the faecal management device (10) and fastened in a conventional manner around the body of the wearer. It has been found that, in addition, to providing excellent separation between urine and faecal material, the combined faecal management device (10) and diaper (50) system actually reduces skin irritation, which may at times occur, especially since the group of typical wearers includes the very old, the very young and the unhealthy wearers. In effect, the presence of the faecal management device (10) permits the formation of a separation layer between the skin of the wearer and the diaper (50), i.e. a part of the absorbent core (58) of the diaper (10). The diaper (50) can be of the conventional type (an embodiment of which is described below although not a limiting example by any means) or can be adapted to contain in an effective and comfortable manner the faecal management device (10) according to the teachings of the present invention.

As used herein, the term "disposable diapers" refers to articles which absorb and contain body extrudates; and more specifically, refers to articles which are placed against or in proximity to the body of the wearer to absorb and contain the various extrudates discharged from the body and which are intended to be discarded after a single use (i.e., they are not intended to be laundered or otherwise restored or reused) and, preferably, to be recycled, composted or otherwise disposed of in an environmentally compatible manner. As used herein, the term "diaper" refers to a garment generally worn by infants or incontinence sufferers that is drawn up between the legs and fastened about the waist of the wearer.

Figure 3 is a partially cut-away perspective view of a diaper (50) embodying the present invention prior to it being placed on the wearer over the faecal management device (10). As is visible from Figure 3, a preferred diaper (50) comprises a body portion (52) and a refastenable mechanical fastening device (54). A preferred body portion (52) comprises a liquid pervious topsheet (56), and absorbent core (58), a liquid impervious backsheet (60), and elastically contractible leg cuffs (62); each leg cuff (62) preferably comprising a side flap (64) and one or more elastic members (66). For simplicity purposes, only one elastic member (66) is shown in the side flap (64). While the topsheet (56), the absorbent core (58), the backsheet (60), the side flaps (64), and the elastic members (66) may be assembled in a variety of well-known configurations. A preferred disposable diaper configuration is shown and generally described in US 3,860,003, an even more preferred disposable diaper configuration is. shown and generally described in WO 93/16669. In this preferred diaper configuration, the backsheet (60) is joined to the topsheet (56); the absorbent core (58) is positioned between the topsheet (56) and the backsheet (60); the side flaps (64) extend outwardly from and along each side edge of the absorbent core (58); and the elastic member (66) is operatively associated with each side flap (64).

Figure 3 shows the body portion (52) in which the topsheet (56) and the backsheet (60) are coextensive and have length and width dimensions generally larger than those of the absorbent core (58). The topsheet (56) is superposed on the backsheet (60) thereby forming the periphery (68) of the body portion (52).

The body portion (52) has an inside surface (74) and an outside surface (76). When a backsheet (60) is used, it typically forms the outside surface (76) of the body portion (52). The inside surface (74) is that surface of the diaper (50) opposite the outside surface (76) and in the embodiment shown is typically formed by the topsheet (56). In general, the inside surface (74) of the diaper (50) is that surface coextensive with the outside surface (76) and which is for the greater part in contact with the wearer when the diaper (50) is worn.

The absorbent core (58) of the body portion (52) may be any absorbent means which is generally compressible, conformable, non-irritating to the skin of the wearer, and capable of absorbing and retaining liquids such as urine and other certain bodily discharges. The absorbent core (58) may be manufactured in a variety of sizes and shapes (for example, rectangular, hour-glass, "T"-shaped, asymmetric, etc.) and from a wide variety of liquid absorbent materials commonly used in disposable diapers and other absorbent articles such as comminuted wood pulp which is generally referred to as airfelt. Examples of other suitable absorbent materials include creped cellulose wadding, meltblown polymers including coform, crosslinked cellulosic fibers, tissue including tissue wraps, absorbent foams, absorbent sponges, superabsorbent polymers, absorbent gelling materials, or any equivalent materials or combinations of materials. The configuration and construction of the absorbent core (58) may also be varied (for example, the absorbent core (58) may have varying caliper zones, hydrophilic gradients, superabsorbent gradients, or lower average density and lower average basis weight acquisition zones; or may comprise one or more layers or structures). Further, the size and absorbent capacity of the absorbent core (58) may be varied to accommodate wearers ranging from infants to adults.

The backsheet (60) is impervious to liquids (for example, urine) and is preferably manufactured from a thin plastic film, preferably a thermoplastic film, although other flexible liquid impervious materials may also be used. As used herein, the term "flexible" refers to materials which are compliant and which will readily conform to the general shape and contours of the human body. The backsheet (60) prevents the exudates absorbed and contained in the absorbent core (58) from soiling articles which are in contact with the diaper (50) such as undergarments and bedding. The backsheet (60) may thus comprise polymeric films such as thermoplastic films of polyethylene or polypropylene, or composite materials such as film-coated non-woven material. Exemplary films are manufactured by Tredegar Industries, Inc. of Terre Haute, Ind., USA or BP- Chemical PlasTec, Rotbuchenstrasse 1 , D-8000 Mϋnchen, Germany.

The backsheet (60) is preferably textured to provide a more clothlike appearance. Further, the backsheet (60) may also permit vapours to escape from the absorbent core (58) while still preventing exudates from passing through the backsheet (60) by, for example, being supplied with microapertures. The size of the backsheet (60) is dictated by the size of the absorbent core (58) and the exact diaper design selected.

The topsheet (56) of the diaper is compliant, soft feeling and non-irritating to the skin of the wearer. Further, the topsheet (56) is liquid pervious permitting liquids (for example, urine) to readily penetrate through its thickness. A suitable topsheet (56) may be manufactured from a wide range of materials, such as porous foams, reticulated foams, apertured films; or woven or non-woven webs of natural fibres (for example, wood or cotton fibres) or from a combination of natural and synthetic fibres. Preferably, it is made of a material that isolates the skin of the wearer from liquids retained in the absorbent core (58). There are a number of manufacturing techniques which may be used to manufacture the topsheet (56). For example, the topsheet (56) may be a non- woven web of fibres. An exemplary topsheet (56) is carded and thermally bonded by means well-known to those skilled in the fabric art. A suitable topsheet (56) is manufactured by, for example, Veratec Inc., a division of International Paper Company, of Walpole, Mass., USA. A topsheet (56) particularly preferred for incontinence garments comprises a formed thermoplastic film.

According to the present invention the adhesives meeting the defined rheological properties may in addition to their utilisation in faecal management devices also find application to attach other articles to the skin. Suitable articles may be disposable absorbent articles such as sanitary napkins and panty liners. The present invention may also find utility to attach to the skin or wear protective articles such as genital-, knee- or elbow-protectors or bandages; clothing such as bras, surgical gowns, or parts of garments during fitting at a tailor; nasal plasters; prosthesis such as breast replacements or wigs; heat wraps, pads, and/or packs, e.g. for topical relief of pain or simply to provide warmth; cold wraps e.g. to provide pain relieve from bruises and to reduce swelling; hearing aids; protective face masks; ornamental articles such as jewellery, earrings, guises, tattoos; goggles or other eye wear. Such articles are non-absorbent for bodily liquids.

Removal Pain Grade Test

The Removal Pain Grade Test is utilized to evaluate the pain during removal from the skin of a wearer of a sample provided with a layer of a adhesive and previously attached to the wearer's skin. The test specifically evaluates the pain upon removal of each sample as compared to the pain obtained by removing a reference sample constituted by a commercial strong medical plaster.

Sample preparation.

The test is performed on rectangular samples 60x20 mm made of a polyester film 23 μm thick, such as that sold by Effegidi S.p.A. of Colorno (Parma, Italy), provided on one side with a continuous layer of the topical adhesive having the selected thickness, applied with an Acumeter Model LH-1 extruder. The reference sample is a 60x20 mm sample of a of an adhesive non woven fabric available from Beiersdorf A.G. Hamburg, Germany under the Tradename Fixomull stretch.

Test method.

A panel of six graders is selected for the test. The test is performed in a climatically controlled laboratory maintained at a temperature of 23 °C and a Relative Humidity of 50%. No special treatment of the wearer's skin is required beyond normal cleaning/washing with water and soap. The skin is then allowed to dry for at least two hours before the test to allow the skin to reach equilibrium with the room conditions. Different adhesive are evaluated in the test in comparison with the reference sample R. Each sample is applied by hand by an operator to the inner part of the grader's forearm, being centred between the wrist and the elbow, with the short side of the sample aligned with the length of the arm. The operator exerts on each sample with the palm of the hand the same pressure that is typically applied to cause a medical plaster to adhere to the skin. Each sample is worn for the prescribed time, and then it is removed from the grader's skin by the operator with a slow and smooth pull.

Four series of one reference sample R and the test samples are each applied, worn and then removed from the wearer's skin; each sample is worn for one minute, with a 5 minute wait between two subsequent samples of the same series, and a 15 minute wait between two different subsequent series. The reference sample R is always applied, worn and removed as the first sample of its respective series. The sequence of application/wear/removal of the test samples in each of the first three series is random, provided that no repetition in each series is allowed, and that no sequence is repeated in the first three series. In the fourth series one of the test samples is tested twice, the reference R always being the first one. Overall each sample has to be tested an equal number of times (24 times).

The graders were asked to evaluate each sample using a pain scale ranging from 0 to 10, where 0 corresponds to no pain and 10 corresponds to the pain upon removal of the reference sample R. The pain values for each sample were obtained as a mean of 24 observations. The results collected from the test were analysed by a statistical analysis program "Comparison of Population Means - Paired Samples", that showed that the differences between the pain values of the samples are statistically significant.

Claims

1. A faecal management device (10) comprising a bag (11), said bag (11) having an aperture and a flange (12) surrounding said aperture (21) said flange (12) having a wearer facing surface (23) and a garment facing surface (22), wherein said wearer facing surface comprises an adhesive (20), and wherein adhesive is provided as a layer having a thickness C measured in millimetres (mm),
said adhesive having a viscous modulus at a temperature of 25┬░C (77┬░F), G"25.
wherein said viscous modulus G"25 (100 rad/sec) and said thickness C of said adhesive satisfy the following equation:
G"25 < [(7.00 + C) χ3000] Pa
2. A faecal management device (10) according to claim 1 characterized in that said viscous modulus G"25 (100 rad/sec) and said thickness C satisfy the following equation:
G"25 < [(5.50 + C) x 1700] Pa
3. A faecal management device (10) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said adhesive has an elastic modulus at a temperature of 37┬░C (100┬░F), G'37, and having a viscous modulus at a temperature of 37┬░C (100┬░F), G"37, and is selected to have;
a) G'37 (1 rad/sec) in the range 1500 Pa to 20000 Pa, preferably 1500 Pa to 15000 Pa, most preferably 3000 Pa to 10000 Pa;
b) G"37 (1 rad/sec) in the range 100 Pa to 15000 Pa, preferably 100 Pa to 10000 Pa, most preferably 300 Pa to 5000 Pa; and c) the ratio G'37 (1 rad/sec) / G"37 (1 rad/sec) in the range 1 to 30.
4. A faecal management device (10) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said adhesive (20) is a substantially water insoluble pressure sensitive adhesive comprising a polymer which forms a 3- dimensional matrix, and comprising less than 10%, preferably less than 5% by weight of said adhesive of hydrocolloids.
5. A faecal management device according to claim 4, wherein said adhesive (20) comprises a polymer selected from acrylics, sulphonated polymers, vinyl alcohols, vinyl pyrrolidine, polyethylene oxide or mixtures thereof.
6. A faecal management device (10) according claim 4, wherein said adhesive (20) further comprises a plasticiser.
7. A faecal management device (10) according to claimn 6, wherein said plasticiser is selected from polyhydric alcohols, polyethylene glycols, sorbitol, water or mixtures thereof
8. A faecal management device according to claim 4, wherein said adhesive (20) is hydrophilic or a hydrophilic-hydrophobic mixed phase adhesive.
9. A faecal management device (10) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said wearer facing surface (23) of said flange (12) comprises at least one non-adhesive portion (13).
10. A faecal management device (10) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that said adhesive (20) is provided as a continuous layer.
11. A faecal management device (10) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said adhesive (20) is applied to said wearer facing surface by slot coating.
12. A faecal management device (10) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said bag (11) has a substantially truncated cone shape.
13. The use of a faecal management device (10) according to any of the preceding claims in combination with a disposable diaper (50).
14. The use of a faecal management device (10) according to claim 13 whereby said faecal management device (10) is first positioned in between the buttock cheeks of the wearer and then said disposable diaper (50) is positioned over said faecal management device (10) and fastened in a conventional manner around the trunk of said wearer.
PCT/US1998/013287 1998-06-26 1998-06-26 Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level WO2000000123A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US1998/013287 WO2000000123A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1998-06-26 Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level

Applications Claiming Priority (19)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US1998/013287 WO2000000123A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1998-06-26 Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level
AU82670/98A AU8267098A (en) 1998-06-26 1998-06-26 Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level
AU48211/99A AU752479B2 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
PCT/US1999/013003 WO2000000236A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
BR9912213A BR9912213A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 waste management device with adhesive flange
AU45562/99A AU4556299A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent articles with skin adhesive
JP2000556820A JP2003524441A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 With adhesive flange waste processing attachment
PCT/US1999/012958 WO2000000235A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent articles with skin adhesive
CA 2336202 CA2336202A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
JP2000556819A JP2003526387A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent article having an adhesive of the skin
EP19990931779 EP1087798A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
CN 99809315 CN1311699A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
BR9912217A BR9912217A (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 faecal collector having an attachment means in the breathable skin
CA 2334818 CA2334818A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent articles with skin adhesive
EP19990928511 EP1089774A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent article with skin adhesive
PE00057899A PE07822000A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-25 disposable absorbent articles with improved adhesive attachment to the skin with low pain
PE00057199A PE06482000A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-25 Devices for handling stool with medium adhesive attachment flange to facilitate removal with low pain
TW88115404A TW415838B (en) 1998-06-26 1999-09-07 Disposable absorbent article and functional article adhesive for attachment to skin
TW88115409A TW418086B (en) 1998-06-26 1999-09-07 Disposable human waste management device and use of said device

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO2000000123A1 true WO2000000123A1 (en) 2000-01-06

Family

ID=22267373

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1998/013287 WO2000000123A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1998-06-26 Faecal collector with improved adhesive flange attachment means to facilitate removal with low pain level
PCT/US1999/013003 WO2000000236A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
PCT/US1999/012958 WO2000000235A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent articles with skin adhesive

Family Applications After (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1999/013003 WO2000000236A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Waste management device with adhesive flange
PCT/US1999/012958 WO2000000235A1 (en) 1998-06-26 1999-06-11 Disposable absorbent articles with skin adhesive

Country Status (9)

Country Link
EP (2) EP1087798A1 (en)
JP (2) JP2003526387A (en)
CN (1) CN1311699A (en)
AU (3) AU8267098A (en)
BR (2) BR9912213A (en)
CA (2) CA2336202A1 (en)
PE (2) PE06482000A1 (en)
TW (2) TW415838B (en)
WO (3) WO2000000123A1 (en)

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WO2001060303A1 (en) * 2000-02-15 2001-08-23 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable absorbent article with deactivatable adhesive
US6565549B1 (en) * 2000-02-15 2003-05-20 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article with thermally activatable adhesives
US6572600B1 (en) 2000-02-15 2003-06-03 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable article with deactivatable adhesive
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WO2001060301A1 (en) * 2000-02-15 2001-08-23 The Procter & Gamble Company Absorbent article with water-activatable topical adhesives
EP1468661A1 (en) * 2003-04-17 2004-10-20 The Procter &amp; Gamble Company Disposable excreta device
WO2004093766A1 (en) * 2003-04-17 2004-11-04 The Procter & Gamble Company Disposable excreta device
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US8353888B2 (en) 2004-12-29 2013-01-15 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc. Multilayer absorbent article
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WO2007019201A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-15 The Procter & Gamble Company Hard surface cleaning article comprising an adhesive
EP1749470A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-07 The Procter and Gamble Company Hard surface cleaning article comprising an adhesive
EP1749471A1 (en) * 2005-08-05 2007-02-07 The Procter and Gamble Company Hard surface cleaning article comprising an adhesive
US10299051B2 (en) 2013-08-09 2019-05-21 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Bone conduction hearing aid system
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WO2000000236A1 (en) 2000-01-06
BR9912217A (en) 2001-10-16
AU4821199A (en) 2000-01-17
AU4556299A (en) 2000-01-17
CA2334818A1 (en) 2000-01-06
WO2000000235A1 (en) 2000-01-06
AU8267098A (en) 2000-01-17
JP2003524441A (en) 2003-08-19
CN1311699A (en) 2001-09-05
BR9912213A (en) 2002-11-05
TW415838B (en) 2000-12-21
JP2003526387A (en) 2003-09-09
EP1089774A1 (en) 2001-04-11
PE07822000A1 (en) 2000-10-28
PE06482000A1 (en) 2000-09-22
TW418086B (en) 2001-01-11
CA2336202A1 (en) 2000-01-06
AU752479B2 (en) 2002-09-19
EP1087798A1 (en) 2001-04-04

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