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Method for computer network operation providing basis for usage fees

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Publication number
WO1999052053A2
WO1999052053A2 PCT/IB1999/000581 IB9900581W WO1999052053A2 WO 1999052053 A2 WO1999052053 A2 WO 1999052053A2 IB 9900581 W IB9900581 W IB 9900581W WO 1999052053 A2 WO1999052053 A2 WO 1999052053A2
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WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
node
content
data
network
file
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/IB1999/000581
Other languages
French (fr)
Other versions
WO1999052053A3 (en )
Inventor
François-Xavier NUTTALL
Original Assignee
Audiosoft Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q30/00Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce
    • G06Q30/06Buying, selling or leasing transactions
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F21/00Security arrangements for protecting computers, components thereof, programs or data against unauthorised activity
    • G06F21/10Protecting distributed programs or content, e.g. vending or licensing of copyrighted material
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/08Payment architectures
    • G06Q20/10Payment architectures specially adapted for electronic funds transfer [EFT] systems; specially adapted for home banking systems
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/08Payment architectures
    • G06Q20/10Payment architectures specially adapted for electronic funds transfer [EFT] systems; specially adapted for home banking systems
    • G06Q20/102Bill distribution or payments
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/22Payment schemes or models
    • G06Q20/29Payment schemes or models characterised by micropayments
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/38Payment protocols; Details thereof
    • G06Q20/382Payment protocols; Details thereof insuring higher security of transaction
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/38Payment protocols; Details thereof
    • G06Q20/40Authorisation, e.g. identification of payer or payee, verification of customer or shop credentials; Review and approval of payers, e.g. check credit lines or negative lists
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q20/00Payment architectures, schemes or protocols
    • G06Q20/38Payment protocols; Details thereof
    • G06Q20/40Authorisation, e.g. identification of payer or payee, verification of customer or shop credentials; Review and approval of payers, e.g. check credit lines or negative lists
    • G06Q20/401Transaction verification
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q30/00Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce
    • G06Q30/06Buying, selling or leasing transactions
    • G06Q30/0601Electronic shopping
    • G06Q30/0633Lists, e.g. purchase orders, compilation or processing

Abstract

A computer network (100) having a requesting node (110) and a providing node (108) permits data transfer therebetween when permitted by an authorizing node (112). Reports generated in response to authorizations (154, 156) and reports generated in response to data transfers (152, 158) are reconciled at a reconciliation node (118) to improve the accuracy of payments collected and paid for use of the data. Such payments include copyright royalties for audio, video, and other works recorded in digital format.

Description

METHOD FOR COMPUTER NETWORK OPERATION PROVIDING BASIS FOR

USAGE FEES

FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to computer networks for data transfer and to monitoring use of such data for example for fee accounting for usage rights.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Publishers of information in digital form desire to prevent the unauthorized and unaccounted distribution or usage of electronically published materials. Electronically published materials are typically distributed in a digital form and recreated on a computer based system. Audio and video recordings, computer programs, books, and multimedia are examples of works that are suitable for publishing electronically. The sales revenue for companies in the electronic publishing and information systems industries includes payments based on an accounting for delivery of information in digital form, for example the sale of an audio CD at a retail outlet. Any unaccounted distribution of a work results in decreased revenue to the distributor and decreased royalty for the owner of usage rights in the work. For example, being able to copy an audio recording CD to another digital medium from which the audio can be retrieved and played circumvents payment for distribution from which royalty for copyright may have been due to the owner of rights in the work.

Owners of rights in electronically published works also desire to prevent the unauthorized and unaccounted distribution or usage of such materials. When records of the distribution and usage of a work are held exclusively by the distributor, falsification of records results in increased profit for the distributor and loss of royalty income for the owner of rights.

Unauthorized and unaccounted distribution can be curbed by preventing unauthorized copying of the work onto digital storage media and unauthorized transmission of the work over computer networks. Unauthorized and unaccounted usage can be curbed by preventing storage of the work for reuse or by monitoring the use of stored copies. Existing systems and methods for preventing storage, transmission, and unmonitored use of digital works place a heavy burden of cost on the consumer desiring access to a work in digital form. The continued expansion of publication and use of works in digital form cannot remain within the policies for intellectual property protection (such as providing incentives to authors and publishers) without systems and methods for computer network operation that provide an accurate basis for usage fees.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A system for the control of distribution and use of digital works includes a distribution and usage reporting mechanism for accurately calculating fees associated with such distribution and use. The system operates according to a method for transferring data from a content providing node to a content requesting node. The method includes the steps of: (a) transmitting a first request to the content providing node, the first request for notifying an authorizing node; (b) receiving a permit from the authorizing node in response to the notification; (c) determining a file name in response to the permit; (d) transmitting to the content providing node a second request comprising the file name; (e) transmitting to an event reporting node a first report in response to receiving the permit; (f) receiving data from the file; and (g) transmitting to the event reporting node a second report in response to receiving the file.

By obtaining the permit without direct communication between the content requesting node and the authorizing node, manipulation of the authorizing node by the content requesting node is prevented. The content requesting node has an incentive to manipulate the authorizing node in order to receive unlimited authorization. The content providing node has an incentive to maintain proper authorization because revenues to the content providing node may be based on the number of authorized transfers.

Although a work may be identified in the request received at the content providing node, the content providing node may be prevented from obtaining information leading to the filenames that comprise the work. The content providing node may have an incentive to provide free transfers of the work for other commercial or personal use; however, by determining the file name in response to the permit and preventing access to the permit from the content providing node, the content providing node cannot identify particular files that correspond to a particular work. By transmitting reports from the content requesting node to an event reporting node, modification of data transfer reports by the content providing node is prevented. Accurate records provide basis, for example, for fees payable to owners of rights in the work.

By transmitting a first report prior to data transfer and a second report after data transfer, a duration of the usage of the data may be used as a basis, for example, for revenues to distributors and payments to owners of rights. Falsification of the duration of usage by the content requesting node is prevented.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING Fig. 1 is a block diagram of a network in one embodiment of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a data flow diagram for a portion of the network of Fig. 1 that, inter alia, creates content files on a content providing node.

Fig. 3 is a data flow diagram for a portion of the network of Fig. 1 that, inter alia, satisfies a data transfer request. Fig. 4 is a data flow diagram for a portion of the network of Fig. 1 that, inter alia, accomplishes payments, for example, to owners of rights in data transferred. Fig. 5 is a table of outcomes for lost transmissions of reports. Fig. 6 is a functional flow diagram for a portion of a method of validating a request by an authorizing node. Fig. 7 is a functional flow diagram for a portion of a method of creating a permit by an authorizing node.

Fig. 8 is a functional flow diagram for a portion of a method of validating a permit by a content requesting node.

Fig. 9 is a functional flow diagram for a portion of a method of reporting, by a content requesting node, a start of data transfer.

Figs. 10 through 1 2 are functional flow diagrams for portions of a method of obtaining and using content files and reporting a summary of data transfer.

Fig. 1 3 is a memory map of a data structure of a map file of the present invention.

Fig. 14 is a memory map of a data structure of a header of a content file of the present invention.

Fig. 1 5 is a memory map of a data structure of a request of the present invention.

Fig. 1 6 is a memory map of a data structure of a permit of the present invention. Fig. 17 is a memory map of a data structure of a start report of the present invention.

Fig. 1 8 is a memory map of a data structure of a summary report of the present invention.

Fig. 19 is a memory map of a data structure of an access report of the present invention.

Fig. 20 is a memory map of a data structure of a debit report of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Data transfer in the present invention is illustrated among computer systems using a communication network. A communication network of the present invention includes at least one computer system at each of several network nodes. Each node is coupled by a link from time to time for communication with other nodes of the network. Each link includes conventional computer communication technology of the type including, for example, local area, wide area, dedicated telephone, or satellite services and including conventional data communication hardware and software. The popular computer networks known as the Internet, World Wide Web, and National Information Infrastructure are examples of such a communication network having nodes possibly at physically separate locations and addressed by a node address, for example a uniform resource locator (URL), a name from a domain name system (DNS), or an Internet Protocol address (IP).

Communication network 100 of Fig. 1 includes computer systems, each shown in a block, that communicate for data transfer. Communication of messages is illustrated by one or more lines between blocks, though it is apparent that one communication link between any two blocks is sufficient for any number of message lines. Practice of variations of the invention is independent of whether such a link is maintained continuously, as in a dedicated line, or is maintained for the duration of the message as in some public multiple access facilities.

Communication technology provides known mechanisms and computer software for message transfer. This technology surrounds the message content data with other data that provide a mechanism for various purposes including tracking messages, synchronizing equipment, and assuring accurate and secure transfer of message content data. In the description that follows, digital works are transferred between nodes. The term "content," therefore, refers to a digital work or a portion thereof.

Network 100 includes content acquisition node 102, content managing node 104, provider preparation node 106, content providing node 108, content requesting node 1 10, authorizing node 1 1 2, banking node 1 14, event reporting node 1 1 6, and reconciling node 1 18.

In operation, for content to be transferred on request to any of perhaps millions of content requesting nodes, the content is first received from a source and formatted for storage on one or more of perhaps thousands of content providing nodes. Initially, a content developer, publisher, or distributor provides digital works, for example multimedia files, to content acquisition node 102 for encoding in a format efficient for storage and access by content managing node 104. Content is conveyed on line 130 as it becomes available for management by content managing node 104. Content from content managing node 104 is conveyed on line 1 32 and then made unique to each content providing node 108 by formatting processes performed by provider preparation node 106. Content providing node 108 receives content from time to time from provider preparation node 106 on line 134.

To request a data transfer in a preferred embodiment for the Internet, a user or consumer at content requesting node 1 10 uses a network browser, such as

Microsoft Internet Explorer, and follows an Internet link (clicks on a portion of an HTML file display), causing a message in HTTP format to be conveyed on line 1 36 to content providing node 108. Content providing node 108 forwards the request on line 1 38 to authorizing node 1 1 2. If the request is valid, authorizing node 1 1 2 creates a permit and sends it on line 146 to content requesting node 1 10. A permit is a message created to uniquely respond to the request from a particular content requesting node. Using portions of the permit, content requesting node 1 10 requests on line 1 36 particular files from content providing node 108. In response, such particular files are conveyed on line 148 to content requesting node 1 10, completing the data transfer.

Accounting for the above described transfer of content includes, for example, receiving payment from the user of content requesting node 1 10, making payment for distribution services to at least the operator of content providing node 108, and making payment to one or more owners of rights in the content. These accounting transactions find accurate basis in a reconciliation of reports from a variety of network nodes that are reported at separate times during the data transfer process. For example, when authorizing node 1 1 2 receives the request and queries an access authority data base on content managing node 104 via lines 140 and 142, content managing node 104 logs the query and reports the log on line 1 56 from time to time to reconciling node 1 18. With knowledge of the identity of content requesting node 1 10, an identity of the user, and a price of the requested work for a requested purpose (for example, copy or preview), authorizing node confirms a debit of an account kept on banking node 1 14 by messages conveyed on line 144. Banking node 1 14 logs the debit and reports the log on line 1 54 from time to time to reconciling node 1 1 8. When the data transfer begins and again when at least some of the data has been transferred, content requesting node 1 10 reports on line 150 to event reporting node 1 1 6. Event reporting node 1 1 6 logs the events and from time to time reports the log on line 1 52 to reconciling node 1 1 8. By comparing reports received on lines 1 52, 1 54, 1 56, and possibly 1 58 (from content providing node 108), reconciling node 1 18 distinguishes valid complete data transfers from incomplete transfers and from events that could indicate intentional interference with the integrity of network 100. For each valid complete transfer, reconciling node 1 1 8 allocates revenues generated from the debits of users' accounts, discussed above with reference to line 144. Reconciling node 1 18 then initiates funds transfers with messages to banking node 1 14 on line 1 60 for payments of, for example, distribution fees and royalties.

Each node of network 100 may represent more than one conventional computer system that performs, inter alia, methods of the present invention. Multiple computers or multiple data storage devices may be necessary for maintaining a particular node's functions operational in periods of high network traffic. Such multiple computers may be at various physical locations, provided that only one network node address (for example, an IP address) is associated with each node. A method of the present invention for preparing content for storage on a content providing node includes separation of content and map information. When content is divided for convenience into several files in a conventional file storage system, map information identifies the particular files from the entire inventory on the storage system and the order of presentation of the files for reconstituting a particular work. Separation of content and map information facilitates security measures without unduly compromising rapid provision of a work or performance of a work on a content requesting node.

For example, as shown in Fig. 2, content acquisition node 102 encodes (using conventional data formatting and compression technology) contract items associated with the work and encodes the work itself. When the work is primarily an audio recording, contract items may additionally include: name of the album, producer, label, publisher, mail order company, publishing year, bar code, album and track distribution levels, title of a track, performers, authors, composers, ISRC code for the title, language, track number, duration, extract start and end times, number of allowed copies, price to preview (listen), price to make copy, rights collecting societies, authorized distribution areas, album cover picture, liner notes, other graphics, music style, associated country, and possibly pictures associated with the recording and text to be shown while the work is being played. Receiver processes 204 and 206 (using conventional communication and data storage technology) on content managing node 104, receive the encoded contract items and content and store each respectively on access authority data base (AADB) 208 and content masters store 210. When a particular content providing node 108 is identified, works to be provided by that node are selected from content masters store 210 and scrambled by process 214 (using conventional data security technology). Scrambling is a preferred (though weak) form of encryption that allows some security without unduly burdening data transfer or use of the work when requested. The scrambled result of a work is combined with a header, which includes encrypted data from access authority data base 208, to form one or more content files. Content files 21 7 are transferred for storage on store 216 of content providing node 108.

Process 21 2 prepares map files 21 8 for transfer and storage on store 21 6. Descriptors of the work, of the content files, and of content providing node 108 are obtained from AADB 208 and formatted and encrypted by process 21 2 (using conventional data formatting and encryption technology). Some or all of the descriptors, alone or in combination, may be subject to rigorous encryption. The map file permits content file locations to be random or at least unpredictable in store 21 6, substantially decreasing the likelihood of unauthorized access without the system performance penalties associated with encrypting content files 21 8 on store 21 6.

In a preferred embodiment for an audio recording, the map file includes a version number of a group of content files and a node address and pathname to each content file of the group. The node address corresponds to the unique node address of the content providing node for which content files are being prepared. Each node address and pathname is encrypted separately. Each content file of the group provides a different level of sound quality for the same audio material. Different levels of quality provide, for example, flexibility in meeting the audio fidelity of different content requesting nodes. Fig. 13 illustrates an example map file data structure 1 300 when instantiated in memory at provider preparation node 106. Fig. 14 illustrates an example data structure 1400 of a header of a content file when instantiated in memory at provider preparation node 106.

Content files 21 7 and map files 218 are organized for convenient access on store 216 using a conventional file system such as a directory system, shadowed physical drives, or a RAID system.

As indicated by ellipsis in Fig. 2, many content acquisition nodes may supply content to content managing node 104. Many content providing nodes may be supplied with content files from content managing node 104. Due to differing security and traffic support requirements, it is preferred to operate network 100 with physically separate nodes 104 and 106. In a variation, the functions of nodes 104 and 106 may be combined on one node or combined with content acquisition node

102.

Various methods of the present invention for data transfer use to advantage (a) the cooperation of several network nodes, (b) linking a request through a registered node, (c) creating a permit using data from multiple sources, (d) using encryption, current time of day, or encryption keys based on unique properties of a node, and/or (e) providing unique structures and separate access to content files and map files. These features, inter alia, accomplish validating the request, validating the permit, and validating the data transfer operation itself. When validation is unsuccessful, data transfer is stopped, preserving the integrity of network 100. The integrity of network 100 may be compromised by unauthorized copying, transfer, or use of a digital work.

For example, as shown in Fig. 3, a data transfer begins at content requesting node (CRN) 1 10. There a consumer or service user obtains a listing of titles, each title for a digital work. Process 302 (using a conventional browser and operating system) responds to user input, for example a mouse switch closure ("click") when an on-screen cursor points to a portion of an HTML page identifying a title, and in the conventional manner generates a message 303 to content providing node (CPN) 108. Process 304 (using conventional HTTP message technology) forwards the request 305 to authorizing node (AN) 1 1 2. Fig. 1 5 illustrates an example request data structure 1 500 when instantiated in memory at authorizing node 1 1 2. In a variation, process 304 determines the price to be billed for the request type and title and includes price and price currency with the forwarded request. Price information is stored in file 306 which is available for editing by the operator of content providing node 108. In a preferred embodiment, validate payment process 310 obtains price information via the associated map file from each content file after the validity of the request has been determined.

Process 308 validates the request by denying further processing to requests that do not meet predetermined criteria. In one variation, shown in Fig. 6, process 308 includes the steps beginning at step 600. At step 602, the node address of content providing node (CPN) 108 is obtained from access authority data base (AADB) 208. At step 604, the CPN node address as provided in request 305 is compared to the CPN node address as provided from AADB 208. If a match is found, control passes to step 606, else to step 608 where the request is ignored. At step 606, the node address of the calling page (which contains the link that was followed by process 302) is compared to the CPN node address provided by AADB 208. If a match is found, the request is considered valid and control passes to process 310, else to step 608 where the request is ignored.

Process 310 (using conventional data base and communication technology) validates payment by the user by confirming that the user (via pay price process 310) has made a proper debit on the user's account. If a debit cannot be confirmed, request 305 is ignored. If confirmation of the debit transaction is successful, control passes to process 31 2.

Process 312 creates a permit by combining information from more than one source. In one variation, shown in Fig. 7, process 31 2 includes the steps beginning at step 700. At step 702, a map file 31 5 for the requested content is obtained either from the request or from store 216 on content providing node 108. At step 704, content providing node address, content price, and price currency are obtained from request 305. At step 706, local date and time are obtained from the authorizing node 1 1 2. These data items are arranged, for example, in data structure 1 600 instantiated in memory of authorizing node 1 1 2, as illustrated in Fig. 1 6. At step 708 some or all data in permit data structure 1600 are encrypted to provide permit 31 3. At step 710, permit 31 3 is sent to content requesting node 1 10.

Process 314 validates the permit by stopping the transaction for permits that do not meet predetermined criteria. In one variation, shown in Fig. 8, process 314 includes the steps beginning at step 800. At step 802, that portion of the permit that is encrypted is decrypted. At step 804, the syntax of each content file location (content. CPN. node address. pathname) is checked. The several pathnames in the permit provide ready access to the content file matching the sound quality level specified in request 305 (see Fig. 1 5, request. sound. quality). If the syntax check fails, control passes to step 810 to stop the transaction. Otherwise control passes to step 806 where the content requesting node address provided in permit 31 3 is compared to the node address of content requesting node 1 10. If no match, control is transferred to step 810. If a match is found, control passes to step 808, the current date and time on content requesting node 1 10 is compared to the date and time value stamped by authorizing node (AN) 1 1 2 on permit 31 3 (AN. date. time). If the current time is more than a predetermined amount (for example, 5 minutes) after AN. date. time, then control passes to step 810 and the transaction stops. Otherwise, control passes to step 81 2 and, in due course, to process 316. Process 316 reports the start of a data transfer between content providing node 108 and content requesting node 1 10. Generation of the report may occur before data transfer actually starts or during an initial phase of data transfer. A start report is made to one or more event reporting nodes as specified by a list on content providing node 108. The report is transmitted by packet message techniques on a separate port so as to avoid interference with the data transfer itself which may be underway on another port. The two ports may share the same communication hardware such as a single line to an Internet Service Provider, as is well known in applications of TCP/IP. For other communication hardware and software configurations, concurrent ports may be arranged on two or more hardware communication links.

In one variation, shown in Fig. 9, process 316 includes the steps beginning at step 900. At step 902, one or more event reporting node addresses and the content managing node address are obtained from list 31 8 on content providing node 108. At step 904, a port is opened for each event reporting node on list 318. In a preferred embodiment, ports 1000 through 101 6 are used, although other port numbers may be equivalently accommodated by the communication software on content requesting node 1 10. If no event reporting node successfully responds after attempts have been made to couple it for communication, then either the transaction is stopped or the transaction continues without the capability to generate reports. At step 906, a port is opened for reporting to content managing node 104, using the next available port number from the range 1000 through 101 6. At step 908, information from request 305 is obtained and placed in a data structure in memory. Fig. 1 7 illustrates a start report data structure 1 700 when instantiated in memory at content requesting node 1 10. For data structure 1 700, such data includes the content requesting node address, the username and password, and the price, currency, and specified sound quality. At step 910, data from permit 31 3 is added to the start report data structure. For data structure 1 700, such data includes the content file location for the specified sound quality level, i.e. a corresponding content. CPN. node. address. pathname. quality. level. At step 91 2, data from the content file header is added to the start report data structure. For data structure 1 700, such data include the title, artist, copyright, duration, ID. code. type (whether ISRC, ISWC, or etc.), the ID. code. number, the content providing node address, and a file number (a serialized number assigned by encoding process 202). At step 914, local values of the content requesting node are added to the start data structure. For data structure 1 700, such values include a transaction number for discriminating reports from the same user, the current date and time, an encryption key unique to the content requesting node, and values from which the country in which content requesting node 1 10 is located. These later values include in one variation of the present invention, the time zone, the language identified by the operating system of node 1 10 and the keyboard identified by the operating system of node 1 10. Country location is important to allocating royalties under the laws that vary from one jurisdiction (country) to another. At step 916, the report is placed in final format using conventional techniques and at step 91 8 it is sent to each event reporting node, for example node 1 16, and to content managing node 104.

Process 320 obtains and uses the requested content files. After a content file header has been received by process 320, the transaction may be stopped if contents of the header do not compare favorably with the permit. In one variation, a summary report is prepared before data transfer of all requested files is complete. Further requests for files may be made in response to receiving an acknowledgment that the summary report has been received by the event reporting node. In a second variation, a duration of use of the files is measured and reported in a summary report, prepared and sent after all files have been received or usage is determined to be substantially completed. In the later case, shown in Fig. 10, process 320 includes the steps beginning at step 1000. At step 1002, a port is opened for content provider node file transfer (in addition to ports opened for reporting as discussed above). At step 1004, the header of the requested content file is obtained. The pathname to this content file is provided in permit 31 3 for a corresponding sound quality of content requesting node 1 10. After decrypting the pathname itself, at step 1006, the header of the specified content file is decrypted.

At step 1008, if the content providing node address in the obtained content file header does not match the content providing node address as permitted, the transaction stops at step 1010. Otherwise, control passes to step 1012.

At step 101 2, the usage mode as permitted is compared to the usage mode as requested. The user specifies a usage mode at the time of picking a title for a digital work to facilitate calculation of an appropriate price. For example, in many cases, the price for previewing a work (as in listening to a portion of an audio work) is less than the price for making a copy of a work for unlimited use. If the requested and permitted usage modes both indicate a copy is to be made, that is, the data transferred will be stored for repeated use, then control passes to step 1202 on Fig.

1 2. Otherwise, control passes to step 1 102 of Fig. 1 1 . Steps 1 102 through 1 108 obtain all subsequent blocks of the requested content file and, after each block is received, perform the digital work according to the data in that respective block. Unscrambling of the data may be required. Performance or preview may be, for example one or more of the following: playing audio, showing visual, performing multimedia, or executing computer program digital works. For example, when an audio file is being received, unscrambling is performed and the resulting data may be played without interruption.

At step 1 1 10, information from several sources is combined to form a summary report. One purpose of the summary report is to indicate for purposes of reconciliation, the duration the digital work was being performed. Fig. 1 8 illustrates a summary report data structure 1 800 when instantiated in memory at content requesting none 1 10. For summary report 328, data items from start report structure 1 700 (having the same names) are formatted in summary report data structure 1 800. At step 1 1 12, the summary report is sent through ports opened in steps 902 and 904 to one or more event reporting nodes. The transaction is completed at step 1 1 14. If at step 101 2, a copy of the work has been permitted, control passes to step 1 202. At step 1 202, a destination file for receiving the digital work is opened on the content requesting node 1 10. At step 1 204, an encryption key is prepared using conventional data security technology. At step 1 206, the content file header is obtained and written to the destination file. At steps 1 208 through 1 214, each block of the requested content file is obtained, encrypted, and written to the destination file. At step 1 21 6, the destination file is closed. At step 1 21 8 the transaction is completed.

From time to time, reports are generated by various nodes for checking the integrity of network 100 and for allocating revenues received by debiting user accounts as described with reference to Fig. 3 process 310. Five reports are provided in network 100. Access report 332 is provided by content managing node 104 from queries of AADB 208 initiated by authorizing node processes 308 through 31 2. Fig. 19 is a memory map of data structure 1900 of an access report record when instantiated in memory of content managing node 104 or reconciling node

1 1 8. Report 342 is provided by banking node 1 14 from debit transactions requested by process 310 of authorizing node 1 1 2. Fig. 20 is a memory map of a data structure of a debit report record when instantiated in memory of banking node 1 14 or reconciling node 1 1 8. Reports 326 and 328 respectively provide the start and summary information from content requesting node 1 10. Data structures 1 700 and 1 800 correspond to a single record of the start report and summary report respectively when instantiated in memory of reconciling node 1 18. Finally, report 336 describing what content files were sent and when sent may be generated by content providing node 108. Each report consists of multiple records, each record having multiple fields.

Because these reports have some fields in common, comparison of the data in identical fields ("reconciliation") provides the basis for distinguishing valid complete transactions from interrupted and unauthorized transactions. For example, an access report record 1 900, debit report record 2000, start report 1 700, and summary report 1 800 may each include a tracking field for the value: request. CRN. node. address. transaction. number. For preparing the start report and summary report, content requesting node 1 10 may receive such a tracking field value with the permit. By noting whether all four records having the same value for this tracking field have been received at reconciling node 1 1 8, conclusions about network integrity and allocation of funds can be reliably made.

A method for reconciling reports of the present invention includes accommodations for high volume event report processing. In addition, reconciled reports may be used to identify nodes having suspect operations and thereby provide a way of detecting unauthorized copying and use of digital works.

In combination with the operation of the AADB 208, unauthorized use may be blocked. For example, if unauthorized transactions frequently involve the same content providing node address, that node address may be deleted from the list of registered content providing nodes by an appropriate operation on AADB 208.

When a content requesting node makes a request through the link at the offending content providing node address, the request will be denied at the authorizing node.

An example of a reconciliation method of the present invention is illustrated in Fig. 4. Event reporting node 1 16 receives start report 326 and summary report

328 at high traffic levels from numerous content requesting nodes. Each report is logged as an event by process 402 using conventional database technology. Logged events are stored for a time in events data base 404. Synchronization of multiple parallel event reporting nodes may result in additional database transactions by event reporting node 1 1 6 as to records in events data base 404.

From time to time records from events data base 404 are provided to reconciling node 1 1 8. Process 406, using conventional data base technology, accomplishes the comparison of records having one or more respective field values that are identical. In one variation, the tracking field is used exclusively. Table 502 in Fig. 5 identifies results of reconciliation for several combinations of reports being reconciled. If for a given tracking field value (or at a given time, date, content requesting node, and content providing node), reports A 332, B 342, C 326, D 328, and possibly E 336 have been logged, then a group of messages accomplishing a normal request and payment for data transfer can be inferred to have been completed successfully. Allocation of earnings by process 408 follows the identification of such a reconciliation result.

If on the other hand, one or more of the expected reports is not timely received for reconciliation having the given common field values, then it can be suspected that software on one or more nodes of network 100 may have been manipulated, compromising network integrity. Due to the large number of content requesting nodes and the lack of physical controls that could protect software on such nodes from being manipulated, it is likely that at least some of the failures to receive all expected reports may be a consequence of content requesting node software manipulation. In cases 508 and 510, some or all requested data transfer might have been successful; however, allocation of earnings may not be justified when there remains a possibility that a user of the respective content requesting node may insist that the debit to his account be reversed.

Allocation of earnings by process 408 is consummated by generating, according to conventional banking messaging and data base technology, requests for funds transfer by process 410 in banking node 1 14.

As described in detail above, network 100 overcomes the problems of the prior art and provides a basis for accurate allocation of earnings to the owners of rights in digital works stored on systems of the present invention or transferred according to methods of the present invention. These and other benefits are provided with lesser system performance penalties than heretofore possible.

The present invention has been described in the preferred embodiments. Several variations and modification shave also been described and suggested. Other embodiments, variations, and modifications known to those skilled in the art may be implemented without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention as recited in the claims below.

Claims

CLAIMSWhat is claimed is:
1 . A method for managing access to a digital work, the method for execution by a first computer system ( 1 1 8), the method comprising: receiving via a network a first report (1 52), the first report being provided in response to a transaction that transferred via the network the digital work from a second computer system ( 108) to a third computer system (1 10), the first report comprising a transaction identifier; receiving via the network a second report ( 1 56) that originated from a fourth computer system (104), the second report comprising a first value and a payee identifier; comparing the first value and the transaction identifier; and transmitting onto the network a message ( 1 60) enabling payment in accordance with the comparison, the message comprising the payee identifier.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein receiving the first report comprises: receiving via the network from a fifth computer system ( 1 1 6) a plurality of records; and determining the first report in accordance with a record of the plurality.
3. A method for managing access to a digital work, the method for execution by a first computer system (1 10), the method comprising: transmitting via a network a first request (303) for the digital work to a second computer system (108), the first request for notifying a third computer system (1 1 2); receiving via the network a permit (146) from the third computer system (1 1 2), the permit sent in response to notification from the second computer system (108); determining a file identifier in accordance with the permit; transmitting via the network a second request (321 ) to the second computer system (108), the second request comprising the file identifier; receiving via the network the digital work from the second computer system (108); receiving via the network from the second computer system (108) a first identifier of a fourth computer system (1 16); and transmitting via the network to the fourth computer system ( 1 16) a report (1 50) in response to receiving the digital work.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein: the permit comprises a value; and the method further comprises discontinuing performance of the method in response to comparing the value and a network address of the first computer system.
5. A method for managing access to a digital work, the method for execution by a first computer system (108), the method comprising: receiving via a network a first request (303) from a second computer system ( 1 10), the first request comprising a network address of the second computer system and an identifier of the digital work; transmitting via the network to a third computer system (1 1 2) the network address and a file identifier corresponding to the digital work; receiving via the network a second request (321 ) from the second computer system (1 10), the second request comprising the file identifier; and transmitting via the network to the second computer system (1 10) a second network address and the digital work, the second network address for use by the second computer system in reporting access to the digital work.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein the first computer system further comprises: a first file (21 8) comprising the identifier of the digital work and the file identifier; and a second file (21 7) identified by the file identifier, the second file for storing the digital work.
7. The method of claim 5 wherein the first computer system further comprises a store (216) for a plurality of digital works including the digital work, the store comprising: a map file (21 8) comprising the identifier of each respective digital work and a corresponding respective file identifier; and a multiplicity of content files (21 7) respectively identified by a respective file identifier, the multiplicity stored in an arbitrary order as described in a map file.
8. A method for managing access to a digital work, the method for execution by a first computer system (1 1 2), the method comprising: receiving via a network a request (305) from a second computer system (108), the request comprising a first network address of the second computer system (108), a second network address of a third computer system (1 10), and an identifier of the digital work; providing the identifier of the digital work in a query of a database to obtain an authorized network address; discontinuing performance of the method in response to comparing the first network address and the authorized network address; and transmitting via the network a permit to the third computer system ( 1 10), the permit comprising a file identifier obtained by the query.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein the database is operated by a fourth computer system ( 104) and the method further comprises transmitting via the network the permit to the fourth computer system.
10. The method of claim 8 wherein the request comprises a transaction identifier and the permit further comprises the transaction identifier.
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US20010016837A1 (en) 2001-08-23 application
US6999946B2 (en) 2006-02-14 grant
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US20050080910A1 (en) 2005-04-14 application
WO1999052053A3 (en) 2000-02-03 application
US7089315B2 (en) 2006-08-08 grant
US6889206B1 (en) 2005-05-03 grant
US7266528B2 (en) 2007-09-04 grant
US7581013B2 (en) 2009-08-25 grant
US7765159B2 (en) 2010-07-27 grant
US20050080735A1 (en) 2005-04-14 application
US20060095387A1 (en) 2006-05-04 application
US6202056B1 (en) 2001-03-13 grant
JP2002510821A (en) 2002-04-09 application

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