WO1999033392A1 - Deformable probe with automatic detection of the position of the probe - Google Patents

Deformable probe with automatic detection of the position of the probe Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1999033392A1
WO1999033392A1 PCT/AT1998/000320 AT9800320W WO9933392A1 WO 1999033392 A1 WO1999033392 A1 WO 1999033392A1 AT 9800320 W AT9800320 W AT 9800320W WO 9933392 A1 WO9933392 A1 WO 9933392A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
probe
ƒ
da
characterized
sensors
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/AT1998/000320
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Falko Skrabal
Jürgen FORTIN
Original Assignee
Falko Skrabal
Fortin Juergen
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to AT219097 priority Critical
Priority to ATA2190/97 priority
Application filed by Falko Skrabal, Fortin Juergen filed Critical Falko Skrabal
Publication of WO1999033392A1 publication Critical patent/WO1999033392A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/31Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor for the rectum, e.g. proctoscopes, sigmoidoscopes, colonoscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/00002Operational features of endoscopes
    • A61B1/00057Operational features of endoscopes provided with means for testing or calibration
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B1/00Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor
    • A61B1/005Flexible endoscopes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/03Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs
    • A61B5/036Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs by means introduced into body tracts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B5/00Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons
    • A61B5/06Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
    • A61B5/065Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe, e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61BDIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
    • A61B34/00Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery
    • A61B34/20Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis
    • A61B2034/2046Tracking techniques
    • A61B2034/2061Tracking techniques using shape-sensors, e.g. fiber shape sensors with Bragg gratings

Abstract

The invention relates to a deformable probe (1) which can be placed in cavities or mediums which cannot be observed. The probe comprises a plurality of deformation and distortion sensors (4, 7) which are distributed along the length of the probe (1). The supply lines (3) are preferably guided outward in a multiplex circuit and are connected to a computer (9). A differential iterative computing method is used for calculating the deformation and position of the probe, and the position of the probe is displayed on a screen (10).

Description

V e rfo rmbare S ondem it au to ma tic D e te ti onder S ond s position

In the art or in medicine, there is often the need in non-visible cavities which are unknown in its location or Verkümmung, or in non-accessible media from outside, the shape and position of the cavity or to detect localized there deformable probes.

Particularly in endoscopy (colonoscopy), there is often the need to control the position of the endoscope in the body, so as to recognize slings or loops of the endoscope which make it difficult to further advance. Currently, for an expensive X-ray machine is used that is not most physicians, who drove through this investigation. That is why this investigation must often be interrupted, or the investigation process is extremely difficult and painful for the patient.

Currently there is no system that eliminates the disadvantages and are known to the investigators the location of the endoscope in a simple manner. In FR 2732225 Al (Mazars) a probe is described which einfuhrt is independently in the hollow body. For this purpose this probe is equipped with Bimetallamellen or with piezoelectric elements and divided into individual segments, the self-deform against each other in such a way as the foremost segment it has set the subsequent segments. This is so dangerous and not feasible because it would require that the examined cavity during the entire study period participates no natural deformation. Especially in the case of the intestine This is not true because the intestine is equipped with muscle cells and has a natural movement by peristalsis. This is not to be recorded with the described device.

In WO 95/04556 (ACTIVE CONTROL) describes a cardiac catheter, whose deformation is observed on X-ray screen, where difficult curvatures can be formed by piezoelectric elements that are connected to the conventional cables do not accomplish.

In the EP 0077526 A2 (OLYMPUS) a servo device for operating an endoscope is described, wherein the manual rotation of the operation lever is detected by strain of a piezoelectric rubber, whereby the servo device is controlled. However, detection of the probe location is not durchfuhrbar with this device. In US 4899731 A (TAKAYAMA) the deflection of the control head of an endoscope is effected by an alloy obtained by heating a defined angle. This allows you to save Although the cables for the endoscope, but the deformation of the probe can not be detected.

In US 4930494 A (Takehana) the angle of the Insertionsteiles an endoscope is changed in a similar manner, wherein the heating is achieved by heat coils. Again, a detection of the probe location is not possible.

The object of the present invention is to avoid the disadvantages described and to provide a probe which allows the position of a cavity or a probe (such as an endoscope) which is inserted into this cavity, seen with any loop and loop formations from the outside ,

According to the invention this object is achieved in that the length of the probe multiple deformation sensors are mounted, and these sensors transmit either via electric cables or via radio their signals to a computer which calculates from the signals of the individual sensors the exact deformation and position of the probe , This deformation sensors may also wirelessly transmit the curvature of the probe to the subject person either via electric cables or wherein preferably providing a screen that is displayed on the position of the probe with all its turns and loops.

Preferably, either as sensors strain gauges or piezoelectric elements are used, distributed over the length of the probe, are attached to the probe. These strain gauges or piezoelectric elements are connected by wires to a computer outside the body. This host may preferably be graphically represented on the screen, the exact position and curvature of the probe. The number of sensors required is determined by the minimum radius of curvature that is, from the steepness of the device. The smaller the radius of curvature and the more flexible the device, the more sensors are necessary over the course.

For a conventional colonoscope having a curvature diameter of 5 cm at the front 20cm long part and of 12 cm in the remaining part, resulting in a device length of approximately 1.3 meters, a number of 25 to 150 sensors that accurately all the deformations of the device can calculate.

Preferably, or conventional examination equipment, where no more sensors may be attached, in a possible hollow space of the probe (for example, the working channel of an endoscope) is for finished probes inserted a flexible probe which can remain in the device throughout the examination process. The outer diameter of this probe is given by the diameter of the cavity of the outer probe and eg is in the normal case for the endoscope 3 mm.

The preparation of this probe is preferably such that the piezoelectric elements or the strain gauges be completed with the electrical connections, and then a thin plastic or rubber membrane is placed over the sensors in a vulcanization, or shrinkage Besprühungsverfahren. So then to achieve a smooth surface of the device. To little as possible having to carry electrical cables to the outside, is also suitable multiplex circuit to which the sensors are linked to each other, and as is well known from the literature. Characterized (28 sensors of 8 lines, for example) can be supplied to x * (xl) / 2 x sensors of electric wires.

The signals from the sensors (strain gauges or piezoelectric elements) need to specify the curvature of the probe in three-dimensional space, where each 2 sensors are sufficient offset by about 90 degrees at the circumference of the device, to calculate a three-dimensional deformation. Alternatively, sensors that can accommodate a deformation in more than one plane are. In this case, only one sensor on the respective length of the probe would have to distributed to be attached.

From the input of all the sensors and out of the diameter of curvature of the device results then - despite placement of only a few sensors distributed over the length of probe - an accurate three-dimensional image of the position of the probe in the cavity or not perceptive medium.

For the calculation process, it is convenient to transfer in a known manner, the analog signals of the individual sensors via AD converter to the computer.

For accurately determining the position of the probe from the obtained radii of curvature following formula, for example, provides for the calculation of, wherein one advantageous example assumes the origin of the graphical and mathematical representation at the point of introduction.

ω curvature and curve direction φ at the point i of the deformation sensors:

ω .DELTA.Z ξi + .DELTA.Z r - Z ψl

φ. = arctan

.DELTA.Z ψl J

Figure imgf000005_0001
Twist α at the location j of the torsion sensors: cti. Verwtndungswtnkel at the StelleL, Σd. distal resistance ι .. proxtmaler resistance
Figure imgf000006_0001

Interpolated curvature ω (l) or twisting (l) along the probe length 1: g i (l). Interpoiationsfunktton

... number of deformation sensors

Figure imgf000006_0002
linear and cos 2 Interpolar Transportation function:

Figure imgf000006_0003

In general, the interpolation must g, (l) have the following property:

s (/) = f strength at yield (/) = ι

/ = 0 differential curvature relative to the origin:

dl - d - siπ (α (/) + φ (,)) dl."D. ∞s (a (,) + φ (,))

Iterative computation of the probe coordinates for each section .DELTA.l: x (θ) = 0 v (θ) = 0 z (θ) = 0 dr x (l + Al) = x {l) + - - Al dl y (l + Al) = y (l) + ^. al dl

Figure imgf000006_0004

It is obvious that the device described can be applied to other applications in medicine, but also in technical areas and the protection should be extended to these other applications. The invention is explained in more detail below based on schematic drawings. In the drawings Fig. 1 is a probe of the invention, Fig. 2 shows a section of the probe in the region of the deformation sensors, Fig. 3 is a phantom for calibration of the probe and Fig. 4 is a circuit diagram (multiplex circuit) for signal acquisition.

In Fig. 1 a probe 1 is shown, containing the electrical leads 3, the strain sensors 4 in its inner lumen. 2 Since the deformation of the probe 1 can be very strong, however, the deformation sensors 4 are only slightly extensible, it can be advantageous in that the deformation sensors are 4 applied to a rigid medium, having substantially a similar deformability as the sensors themselves. In the Fig. 1, for example, a short hollow plastic body 5 is used as the rigid medium that gets communicated to the deformation of the outer tube 1. This hollow plastic body 5 must therefore be kept short to the deformability of the entire probe is not at risk. In order to ensure that the position of the probe 1 relative to the location of the inserted device - in the case at the location of the Colonosko- pes (not shown) - is constant, it is proposed a Asymmetry (example 6 nose or groove) on the to attach probe.

In order to detect also a possible longitudinal twist of the probe 1, it might be advantageous to add additional diagonal to the axis, with deviations in both opposite directions mounted strain gauges to install as torsion sensors 7 on the probe. Given the small outer diameter in relation to the length of the probe distortion will not be completely ruled out, although it will be emphasizing on, by use of lock or-torsion materials winding-twisting to prevent. It could prove to be beneficial in the center of the probe 1, a warp-resistant material, for example, bring a metal wire 8, but the twists prevent the curvature allowed.

The leads 3 are connected to a computer 9, which is calculated from the signals of the distributed along the length of the probe 1 strain sensors 4 and represents the deformation of the screen 10 conveniently in three dimensions.

To manage the probe 1 purified in a conventional manner after use, or washed, is provided to allow forming, for example, the electrical leads 3 to the computer 9 in a plug 11 which can be closed when necessary with a tight cover 12 and is automatically closed when withdrawing from the computer. 9

Thus the investigators know which part of the probe 1 has already been introduced in the living body, preferably only the inserted portion of the probe 1 should be displayed on the screen 10th DA to could enter the length of the portion of the inserted probe 1 in the computer, for example, the examiner. In addition could possibly at the opening of the hollow body a distance collector (not shown) is attached which records the length of the inserted probe. 1 This could for example be a mechanical or electronic motion sensor. In addition, it could prove to represent the sections of the probe 1 on the screen 10 at equidistant intervals cm specification.

In Fig. 1, an embodiment of the probe tip is further shown, the opposite of the computer-facing side of the probe 1 can be fixed in the cavity of a further probe torsion. For this purpose, the wire shown in Fig. 1 8 is connected to the tip of the probe with a soft deformable material 13 (such as soft rubber), wherein the wire 8 extends in advancing this deformable material thereby reducing the diameter and and shortens the deformable material on retraction, so that the probe tip in the desired position in the cavity of the outer probe (not shown) can be fixed.

1 and 2 as shown in Fig., two deformation sensors 4a and 4b are, in the illustrated example strain gauges 4a and 4b to about 90 ° attached to the circumference of the hollow body 5, to detect the deformation of the probe 1 in the three-dimensional space , Here, it may prove advantageous to install a third strain sensor 4c at about 135 ° offset from the other two strain sensors 4a and 4b to measurement fluctuations compensate.

As shown in Fig. 3, it may prove advantageous to calibrate the probe 1 with the help of a phantom 14, in which the probe is inserted and defines the constant of the probe and known curvatures. This calibration can take place once done (calibration) or prior to use. To calculate the curvature from the signals of the sensors, it may prove to be advantageous to use advanced mathematical techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic or differentiated elle geometry.

In FIG. 4, the circuit diagram for the data acquisition is illustrated. It is, for example, an analog multiplexing circuit. The resistance of the strain gauges 4a, 4b, 4c is advantageous as determined by the 4-Drahtmeßmethode. When used in living bodies, the measuring current according to the medical requirements (eg EN 60-601-1) is kept low, for example of the order of 400μA. Also, the measuring current is advantageous as held as alternating current at a medical application, wherein the frequency may be approximately 40 kHz.

Claims

PATENTANSPR├ £ CHE
1. Deformable probe (eg. As an endoscope), characterized in that the daß über Länge the probe (1) a plurality of strain sensors (4) are mounted, said sensors either über electrical lines (3 ) or über radio übermitteln their signals to a computer (9), the calculated (from the signals of the individual sensors 4) the exact deformation and position of the probe (1).
2. A probe according to claim 1, characterized in that it daß, the sensors (4) to Dehnungsmeßstreifen (4a, 4b, 4c) is, in each case two Dehnungsmeßstreifen (4a, 4b) by about 90 degrees offset on the circumference of the probe (1) are mounted.
3. A probe according to claim 2, characterized in that a third daß Dehnungsmeßstreifen (4c) on größeren circular sector between the two Dehnungsmeßstreifen (4a, 4b) is mounted.
4. A probe according to claim 1, characterized in that it concerns da├ƒ piezoelectric elements, the sensors (4), the ├╝ber the Verkr├╝mmung the probe (1) electrical lines (3) to the ├ñu├ ƒere end of the probe (1) and transfer them to a computer located there (9).
5. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 4, characterized daß, the electrical lines (3) are in ausgeführt multiplexing circuit.
6. A probe according to Anpruch 5, characterized in that it daß at the Mulitplexschal- tung a mixture of space and time multiplexing is.
7. A probe according to claim 6, characterized in that f├╝rx da├ƒ electrical lines (3), the hineinf├╝hren in the probe (1), x * (xl) / 2 sensors (4) driven k├ ╢nnen.
8. A probe according to claim 5, characterized in that at daß defined frequency sensors (4), the multiplexing circuit is ausgeführt than frequency division multiplexed.
9. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 8, characterized in that a flexible membrane daß über the sensors (4) and electric wires (3), for example. B. attached plastic or rubber, which has a smooth Oberfläche.
10. A probe according to claim 9, characterized in that daß the flexible membrane surrounding the sensors (4) and the electrical lines (3), is shrunk, aufgesprüht or vulcanized.
11. Sondenach one of Ansprüche 1 to 10, characterized in that daß the probe (1) is at least 130cm long, has a diameter of max.3mm, at the tip of the probe (1) an L über änge mounted ca.20cm of the sensors (4) at a distance of about 2 cm and the remaining Länge the probe (1), the distance between the sensors (4) about 5 cm beträgt.
12. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 11, characterized daß, at the computer (9) facing the end of the probe (1) deformation (eg nose (6) or groove) is mounted.
13. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 12, characterized in that daß within the probe (1) a möglichst torsionally rigid wire (8) is mounted.
14. Sondenach one of Ansprüche 1 to 13, characterized in that daß a phantom (14) für the calibration / calibration of the probe (1) is provided which, at placing of the probe (1) in purports phantom (14), known Krümmungen the probe (1).
15. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 14, characterized in that daß on the screen (10) of the computer (9), the Längenangabe of the probe (1) at several places is angezeigbar.
16. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 15, characterized in that daß the calculation of the coordinates of the probe (1) according to the iterative equation system takes place:
«
Figure imgf000010_0001
z (/ + Δ /) = z (/) + Δ / -
Figure imgf000010_0002
17. A probe according to claim 16, characterized in that the daß Inteφolationsgleichung g, (l) has the following property:
Figure imgf000011_0001
18. A probe according to claim 17, characterized in that a linear daß Inteφolationsgleichung g, is used (l):
1 <L il IL
L (-1 <1 <L ι -L il g « = lL
L ╬╣ <1 <L
L. -L i + .l
(I +1
1> L i + l
19. A probe according to claim 17, characterized in that daß a cos 2 Inteφolationsgleichung g, (l) is used:
Figure imgf000011_0002
20. A probe according to Ansprüche 1 to 19, characterized in that für daß the probe (1) another probe having an inner lumen größer in diameter than the probe (1), (eg working channel of an endoscope) for Verfügung.
21. A probe according to claim 20, characterized in that daß the probe (1) on the right-side nerabgewandten in the inner lumen of the probe is äußeren torsion adjusted.
22 Sondenach claim 21, characterized in that the probe (1) daß is at the top of a deformable part (13) lying by one inside the probe (1) stiff wire (8) in diameter vergrö can be ßert or reduced.
23. A probe according to claim 22, characterized in that the deformable part consists daß (13) made of a soft rubber that can be verlängert or verkürzt through the wire (8).
PCT/AT1998/000320 1997-12-29 1998-12-23 Deformable probe with automatic detection of the position of the probe WO1999033392A1 (en)

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AT219097 1997-12-29
ATA2190/97 1997-12-29

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US6517477B1 (en) 2000-01-27 2003-02-11 Scimed Life Systems, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
EP1530943A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-05-18 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
WO2005084542A1 (en) * 2004-03-04 2005-09-15 Agency For Science, Technology And Research Apparatus for medical and/or simulation procedures
US7172552B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2007-02-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
WO2008094949A2 (en) 2007-01-29 2008-08-07 Neoguide Systems, Inc. System for controlling an instrument using shape sensors
EP2064984A3 (en) * 2007-11-29 2009-09-02 Olympus Medical Systems Corporation Therapeutic device system and manipulator system
US8083879B2 (en) 2005-11-23 2011-12-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Non-metallic, multi-strand control cable for steerable instruments
US8182418B2 (en) 2008-02-25 2012-05-22 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Systems and methods for articulating an elongate body
US8361090B2 (en) 2002-01-09 2013-01-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and method for endoscopic colectomy
US8517923B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2013-08-27 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Apparatus and methods for facilitating treatment of tissue via improved delivery of energy based and non-energy based modalities
US8568299B2 (en) 2006-05-19 2013-10-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Methods and apparatus for displaying three-dimensional orientation of a steerable distal tip of an endoscope
US8721530B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-05-13 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Tendon-driven endoscope and methods of use
US8758232B2 (en) 2008-06-30 2014-06-24 Oliver Crispin Robotics Limited Robotic arm
WO2014110118A1 (en) * 2013-01-10 2014-07-17 Ohio University Method and device for evaluating a colonoscopy procedure
US8845524B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-09-30 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US8882657B2 (en) 2003-03-07 2014-11-11 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Instrument having radio frequency identification systems and methods for use
US8888688B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-11-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
US9220398B2 (en) 2007-10-11 2015-12-29 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. System for managing Bowden cables in articulating instruments
CN105283115A (en) * 2013-05-29 2016-01-27 奥林巴斯株式会社 Calibration assisting device, bending system and calibration method
EP3031385A4 (en) * 2013-08-06 2017-03-22 Olympus Corporation Insertion system and method for adjusting shape detection characteristics of shape sensor

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Cited By (42)

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US8747301B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2014-06-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US8602973B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2013-12-10 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US7699771B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2010-04-20 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US7066880B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2006-06-27 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
US7172552B2 (en) 2000-01-27 2007-02-06 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Catheter introducer system for exploration of body cavities
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US9808140B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2017-11-07 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Steerable segmented endoscope and method of insertion
US8888688B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2014-11-18 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
EP1530943A1 (en) * 2000-04-03 2005-05-18 Neoguide Systems, Inc. Steerable endoscope and improved method of insertion
US10105036B2 (en) 2000-04-03 2018-10-23 Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc. Connector device for a controllable instrument
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