Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response

Info

Publication number
WO1999031933A1
WO1999031933A1 PCT/US1998/026159 US9826159W WO1999031933A1 WO 1999031933 A1 WO1999031933 A1 WO 1999031933A1 US 9826159 W US9826159 W US 9826159W WO 1999031933 A1 WO1999031933 A1 WO 1999031933A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
membrane
device
microphone
cavity
air
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1998/026159
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Eric M. Jaeger
Geoffrey R. Ball
Duane E. Tumlinson
Original Assignee
Symphonix Devices, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R25/00Deaf-aid sets providing an auditory perception; Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception
    • H04R25/60Mounting, assembling or interconnection of hearing aid parts, e.g. inside tips, housing or to ossicles; Apparatus or processes therefor
    • H04R25/604Arrangements for mounting transducers
    • H04R25/606Arrangements for mounting transducers acting directly on the eardrum, the ossicles or the skull, e.g. mastoid, tooth, maxillary or mandibular bone, or mechanically stimulating the cochlea, e.g. at the oval window
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R19/00Electrostatic transducers
    • H04R19/01Electrostatic transducers characterised by the use of electrets
    • H04R19/016Electrostatic transducers characterised by the use of electrets for microphones
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R2225/00Details of deaf aids covered by H04R25/00, not provided for in any of its subgroups
    • H04R2225/67Implantable hearing aids or parts thereof not covered by H04R25/606

Abstract

The present invention is a microphone device (108) with an increased membrane flexibility, and decreased acoustic compliance of sealed cavity (200). Vibrations of a membrane (202) are transmitted through a primary air cavity (206), and through an aperture (202) of a microphone (208).

Description

IMPLANTABLE MICROPHONE HAVING IMPROVED SENSITIVITY AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention is related to hearing systems and, more particularly, to implantable microphone devices that may be utilized in hearing systems.

Conventional hearing aids are placed in the ear canal. However, these external devices have many inherent problems including the blockage of the normal avenue for hearing, discomfort because of the tight seal required to reduce the squeal from acoustic feedback and the all -too- common reluctance for hearing-impaired persons to wear a device that is visible.

Recent advances in miniaturization have resulted in the development of hearing aids that can be placed deeper in the ear canal such that they are almost unnoticeable .

However, smaller hearing aids inherently have problems, which include troublesome handling and more difficult care.

Implantable hearing devices offer the hope of eliminating problems associated with conventional hearing aids. One requirement for a fully implantable hearing device or system is an implantable microphone.

All microphones necessarily contain an interface between the internal components and the environment in which it will be situated. For non-piezoelectric designs, air- conduction microphones utilize a membrane, which can be made of various materials, stretched or formed to varying tensions. The tension in the membrane has a first order effect on the response of the microphone. A highly stretched membrane will tend to resonate at a high frequency, with a flat response at frequencies below the resonance. However, a higher tension in the membrane will also tend to lower the sensitivity of the microphone .

Prior art implantable microphones for use with hearing systems have comprised an electret microphone disposed within an air cavity, enclosed by a stretched stainless steel membrane. The air cavity is hermetically sealed, necessitated by implantation in the body. The membrane is stretched tight and laser welded; the resulting system frequency response therefore has a low sensitivity and a sharp high frequency resonance peak. An improved device response would have high sensitivity, comparable to an electret microphone alone in air, and would be generally flat across the audio frequency, especially in the range of speech (500-4,000 Hz). Additional requirements for an improved implanted microphone include low distortion and low noise characteristics.

Traditional, non-implantable type microphones have an air cavity behind the membrane that is not sealed, with reference to the nearest surface behind the membrane. Traditional microphones are concerned with optimal membrane displacement, and typically have several air cavities which are used to influence the shape of the microphone response . An implantable microphone design that incorporates a membrane, enclosing a sealed chamber containing an electret microphone, is necessarily concerned with an optimal pressure build-up in the sealed cavity. This pressure build-up in turn displaces the membrane of the electret microphone. However, a sealed air cavity presents new challenges to the design and optimization of implantable microphones. With the advent of fully implantable devices for stimulating hearing, there is a great need for implantable microphones that provide excellent audio performance. The present invention provides improved audio performance through improvement of microphone design.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides implantable microphone devices that may be utilized in hearing systems, particularly in systems having bone mounted and other implantable drivers. The device comprises a flexible membrane disposed over a sealed cavity. The membrane may be made substantially flexible by etching or forming the membrane until it is very thin. Also, the sealed cavity may be limited to a very small volume which decreases the sealed air cavity acoustic compliance. Both of these examples simultaneously increase overall sensitivity of the device and move the damped resonance peak to higher frequencies. In a preferred aspect an implantable microphone device is provided which comprises a housing and a membrane disposed over a surface of the housing to define a primary air cavity therebetween. A microphone assembly is secured within the housing. The microphone assembly has a secondary air cavity and an aperture which couples the secondary air cavity to the primary air cavity so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity and aperture to the secondary air cavity. A microphone transducer is disposed in the secondary air cavity to detect said transmitted vibrations. Preferably, the microphone transducer comprises an electret membrane, a backplate, and electrical leads. Advantageously, a protective cover over the membrane is provided to protect the membrane from direct impact , where the protective cover is perforated to allow for free flow of vibration to the membrane.

In one configuration, the housing further includes a rear chamber. The rear chamber encases electric leads to the microphone, and provides external access to the leads through a hermetic feedthrough. In yet another configuration, the membrane may comprise at least one compliance ring. Preferably, a plurality of compliance rings may be used. The compliance ring may be either etched or formed into the membrane or otherwise secured to it by any suitable means . In a second aspect of the implantable microphone device, surface details are positioned on a surface of the housing. Preferably, the surface details may include pits, grooves, or at least one hole which connects the primary air cavity to a rear chamber of the housing. The surface details are provided to increase resonance peak damping.

In a third aspect, the implantable microphone comprises a housing comprising a rear chamber and includes a thin-walled tube section or other port opening for filling or evacuating specialty gases from said chamber. Filling the various cavities of the microphone with specialty gases decreases the acoustic compliance of those cavities. Accordingly, the housing further comprises a microphone assembly which may be vented, such that the gases can permeate each cavity of the implantable microphone. Alternatively, surfaces details on the housing, such as holes, may also connect the various cavities of the microphone device.

In a fourth aspect, the implantable microphone device, comprises a biocompatible material positioned proximate to the membrane. Preferably, the biocompatible material is biodegradable and degrades over time. Example materials include lactide and glycolide polymers. The position of the biocompatible material may vary from, for example, simple contact with only the front surface of the membrane to complete encapsulation of the entire microphone. This material provides protection from initial tissue growth on the microphone which may occur after implantation of the device. A volume occupying layer may be used to occupy a space between the membrane and an opposing surface of the biocompatible material. The volume occupying layer may naturally, over time, permanently fill up with body fluids or may comprise a permanent, biocompatible fluid-filled sack. In either form, these fluids will maintain an interface between the membrane and the surrounding tissue.

In a fifth aspect, the implantable microphone device comprises a microphone assembly with the secondary air cavity removed such that the electret membrane is directly exposed to the primary air cavity. The removal of the secondary air cavity creates a further reduction in overall air cavity volume which leads to a reduction in the acoustic compliance of the microphone.

In a sixth aspect, the implantable microphone device has a modified microphone assembly which eliminates the electret membrane. The assembly comprises an insulation layer secured on the inside surface of the implantable microphone membrane. An electret membrane-type material is, in turn, secured on the insulation layer. A backplate is disposed within the primary air cavity proximate to the insulation/membrane-type material combination. This aspect of the invention provides the advantage of a direct electret displacement, a lower overall component count, and an overall thinner microphone profile.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Fig. 1 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone in a hearing system; Figs. 2A-2C show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone of the present invention;

Fig. 3 shows a top view of a protective cover; Figs. 4A-4B show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with compliance rings; Figs. 4C-4D show a top view of an implantable microphone with compliance rings;

Figs. 5A-5B show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an air cavity and surface details; Fig. 6 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with a vented electret microphone;

Fig. 7 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an exposed electret microphone;

Fig. 8A-8B shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an electret microphone with no electret membrane and a cross-sectional view of the membrane of this embodiment, respectively;

Fig. 9 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with a biocompatible material; and

Fig. 10 shows a cross- sectional view of an implantable microphone with synthetic skin.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In the description that follows, the present invention will be described in reference to hearing systems. The present invention, however, is not limited to any use or configuration. Therefore, the description the embodiments that follow is for purposes of illustration and not limitation. The same reference numerals will be utilized to indicate structures corresponding to similar structures.

Fig. 1 illustrates an embodiment of the present invention in a hearing system. An implantable microphone 100 is located under the skin and tissue behind the outer ear or concha. The implantable microphone picks up sounds through the skin and tissue. The sounds are then translated into electrical signals and carried by leads 102 to a signal processor 104 which may also be located under skin and tissue. The signal processor 104 receives the electrical signals from the implantable microphone 100 and processes the electrical signals appropriate for the hearing system and individual. An exemplary signal processor may include a battery and signal processing circuitry on an integrated circuit. For example, the signal processor may amplify certain frequencies in order to compensate for the hearing loss of the hearing-impaired person and/or to compensate for characteristics of the hearing system.

Electrical signals from the signal processor 104 travel via leads 106 to a direct-drive hearing device 108.

The leads may pass through a channel in the bone as shown or may run under the skin in the ear canal (not shown) . In a preferred embodiment, the direct-drive hearing device is a Floating Mass Transducer (FMT) described in U.S. Application No. 08/582,301, filed January 3, 1996 by Geoffrey R. Ball et al . , which is hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes .

The direct -drive hearing device vibrates in response to the electric signals and transfers the vibration to the malleus by direct attachment utilizing a clip 110. Although the direct -drive hearing device is shown attached to an ossicle, device 108 may be attached to any structure that allows vibrations to be generated in the inner ear. For example, the direct-drive hearing device may be attached to the tympanic membrane, ossicle, oval and round windows, skull, and within the inner ear. However, if the implantable microphone and direct -drive device are both anchored to bone of the skull, it may be advantageous isolate one of the devices to prevent feedback.

Figs. 2A-2C show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone of the present invention. Typically, implantable microphone 100 is located under the skin and within the underlying tissue. In a preferred embodiment, the implantable microphone is placed against bone of the skull and may be attached to the bone (e.g., surgical screws) . A shock absorbent material may be placed between the implantable microphone and the bone of the skull for vibration isolation. The shock absorbent material may include silicone or polyurethane .

The implantable microphone generally includes a housing 200, a microphone 208, and a membrane 202. The membrane flexes as it receives sounds transmitted through the skin and tissue. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane 202 and housing 200 both include titanium and are laser welded 209 together. In other embodiments, the housing 200 may include ceramic and the membrane 202 may include gold, platinum or stainless steel.

In order to optimize the response of the microphone, the membrane 202 must be sufficiently flexible. Increased membrane flexibility can be achieved, for example, by starting with a 0.0050" thick sheet of titanium (or other suitable material) and then chemically etching a circular portion of the sheet down to between 0.0005 " -0.0020 " . Etching can be performed on one or both sides of the membrane 203, 204. As a result, a circular band 210 of thicker (0.0050") titanium is left around the edges of the membrane. The thick band 210 provides stability to the membrane 202, and keeps the membrane in a flexible, unstressed or only slightly stressed state. The band 210 also provides for ease of attachment to the housing 200 at weld locations 209.

Preferably, the flexibility of the membrane 202 is defined in terms of the frequency response which it generates in open air, without an air cavity on either side. For example, the membrane will have a resonance frequency lower than 12,000 Hertz when measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometry. Resonance frequency measurements have been made with a Polytec Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer. In a preferred alternative, the flexibility of the membrane is defined as a function of its deflection when subjected to a force, centered on the membrane, supplied by a 3/32" diameter rod with a spherical tip. Force deflection measurements have been made with an Instron Tensile/Compression materials tester.

The membrane 202 disposed over the housing 200, defines a primary air cavity 206 therebetween. This cavity will typically be a hermetically sealed cavity necessitated by implantation into the body. Electro-acoustic simulation (lumped-parameter modeling) , finite element analysis, and physical prototyping has shown that once the membrane is sufficiently flexible, the one variable that has a first order effect on frequency response is the acoustic compliance of this air cavity. Optimizing device response is accomplished by decreasing the acoustic compliance of this air cavity. Acoustic compliance is determined by the following equation:

CA = V/pc2 = V/γP0

Where

V = volume of the air cavity p = density of gas in the air cavity c = velocity of sound in the gas 7 = specific ratio of heats P0 = pressure of gas in air cavity

Preferably, the primary air cavity is defined as a volume that has an acoustic compliance of less than 4.3 x 10"14 m5/N measured parametrically .

From the equation above it can be seen that a decrease in compliance may be obtained through a decrease in air cavity volume. Accordingly, in a preferred embodiment, the primary air cavity 206 has a very small volume. The depth of the primary air cavity, can range, for example, from 0.0005" to 0.0020". In a preferred embodiment, the primary air cavity may define a specific volume of no greater than 6 cubic millimeters (0.00036 in3). The depth of the primary air cavity 206 may be accomplished by machining a specified depth into a surface of the housing 212 or by etching the membrane lower surface 204 directly opposite the housing 200, or a combination of both procedures.

The decrease in acoustic compliance can also be achieved by increasing the bulk modulus of the gas in the primary air cavity, equal to pc2 . This may be accomplished by increasing the pressure in the chamber, or by using a gas with a high density and velocity of sound, relative to air.

Typical gases may include, for example, xenon, argon, helium, nitrogen, and the like.

In one embodiment, the microphone 208 is an electret microphone. It comprises a secondary air cavity 226, an electret membrane 222, a back plate 224, and an aperture or vent 220. An aperture 220 is connected to the primary air cavity 206 and allows vibrations of the membrane 202 to be transmitted as sound waves through the primary air cavity 206 and aperture 220 into the secondary air cavity 226. The sound waves passing through the secondary air cavity 226 generate vibrations on a surface of an electret membrane 222. The microphone, performs like a transducer, and subsequently transforms these vibrations into electrical signals. Since the response is driven by the characteristics of the primary air cavity 206, the characteristics of the electret microphone 208 can be adjusted to enhance overall microphone 100 response. In one embodiment, the aperture 220 acts as an acoustic resistance at the front end of the electret and is optimized such that the response peak of the response is damped, but overall sensitivity is minimally affected. This will create a flatter frequency response curve, and has been demonstrated with physical prototypes . In a preferred embodiment leads 228 carry the electrical signals from the microphone 208 to a direct-drive hearing device (Fig. 1) which vibrates in response to the electric signals and transfers the vibration to the malleus or other appropriate inner ear structure . The typical implantable microphone 100 will include a rear chamber 207. The rear chamber 207 is suited for encasing the leads 228 which pass from the electret microphone 208. A hermetically sealed feedthrough 230 is included in the housing 200 which allows the leads 228 to exit the rear chamber .

In another embodiment, the implantable microphone 100 includes a protective cover 240. The protective cover protects the implantable microphone (and membrane) from damage when a user's head is struck with an object as may sometimes happens in contact sports. The protective cover 240 includes inlet ports 242 which allow sounds to travel to the membrane uninhibited. The protective cover 240 may include a number of materials including plastic, stainless steel, titanium, and ceramic.

Fig. 3 shows a top view of a protective cover. As shown, protective cover 240 (and therefore the underlying membrane 202) is the majority of the top surface area of the implantable microphone. In this example, there are six inlet ports 242 through which sound may travel to the underlying membrane 202.

Figs. 4A-4B show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with compliance rings. In a preferred embodiment, the compliance rings are provided to ensure a smooth frequency response by creating a single node, pistonlike displacement of the membrane. The compliance rings may be fabricated using two different methods. Fig. 4A shows a cross-sectional view of the membrane 202 that has been depth etched to form rings 260 having a rectangular cross-section. The cross-sectional shape of the rings 260 is a function of the manufacturing process (i.e. depth of etching) . An alternative manufacturing process, shown in Fig. 4B, provides compliance rings 250 formed mechanically, for example, by stamping. These rings may provide additional flexibility to the membrane. Figs. 4C and 4D show a top view of the membrane 202 and further show how the rings 250, 260 may be positioned on the membrane . Figs. 5A-5B show a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with a primary cavity and surface details. In another embodiment of the implantable microphone, a surface of the housing 212 immediately opposite the lower surface of the membrane 204 will have fabricated surface details such as pits or grooves 213. The pits or grooves 213 are configured such that peak resonance damping may be optimized. In yet another embodiment of this concept, the primary air cavity 206 will have at least one hole 215 which connects the primary air cavity 206 to the rear chamber 207.

The result of the communication between the primary air cavity and the rear chamber is the formation of a resonance chamber for response shaping. The diameter of the hole or holes may, for example, be less than .020". Preferably, both cavities will remain hermetically sealed to the outside.

Fig. 6 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an internally vented microphone 208. The internally vented microphone is another embodiment of the present invention having a membrane 202, a housing 200, a microphone 208 and a rear chamber 207. In this embodiment, the microphone 208 comprises a secondary air cavity 226, an electret membrane 222, a back plate 224, an aperture 220 and a vent 225. The aperture 220 connects the secondary air cavity 226 to the primary air cavity 206 so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity 206 through the aperture 220 to the secondary air cavity 226. A vent 225 is provided to connect the secondary air cavity 226 to the rear chamber 207. The rear chamber 207 encases the microphone leads 228. The portion of the housing 200 which surrounds the rear chamber further comprises a feedthrough 230 and a gas-fill device 118. The gas-fill device aids in filling the microphone 100 with specialty gases, such as Xenon. Because of the aperture 220 and vent 225, the gas is allowed to permeate the entire microphone device. Conversely, gas can be evacuated from the entire microphone device as well. The device 118 will be a hollow thin-walled tube which can be easily sealed using a crimp- induced cold weld or other similar means for sealing the tube. In another embodiment, the first surface of the housing 212 may have surface details, such as holes (Fig. 5B) which will also allow a gas to permeate from the rear chamber 207 to the primary cavity 206. In all instances it is preferred that the cavities within the device remain hermetically sealed from the outside. Fig. 7 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an exposed electret microphone membrane. Another embodiment of the present invention provides an implantable microphone having a membrane 202, a housing 200, a microphone 208 and a rear chamber 207. The microphone 208, is an electret microphone, that has been modified such that the membrane 222 is directly exposed to the primary air cavity 206. This is accomplished by eliminating the top of the microphone protective cover 227, thus eliminating the aperture 220 and the secondary air cavity 226, as well. Exposing the electret membrane 222 directly to the primary air cavity 206 reduces the volume of the air cavity 206. Accordingly the acoustic compliance of the primary cavity is decreased and the performance may be improved. Fig. 8A shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with an electret microphone having no electret membrane. Another embodiment of the present invention, contains an electret microphone that has been modified such that the electret membrane 222 (See Fig. 7) is eliminated. The lower surface 204 of the membrane 202 has an insulation layer 221 secured directly on to the lower surface of the membrane 204. An electret membrane-type material 223 is placed directly onto the insulation layer 221. This material could be, for example, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) , Teflon® FEP, or single-side metallized mylar. Fig. 8B shows a cross section of the membrane 202 with the various layers attached. The backplate 224 is placed in close proximity to the PVDF layer 223 and is disposed within the air cavity. In this configuration, the membrane 202 will function as the membrane of the electret microphone. The primary air cavity volume 206 is considerably reduced which optimally decreases its acoustic compliance. Fig. 9 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with a biocompatible material. Since the implantable microphone is to be received into the human body it may be coated with a protective biocompatible material. The coating (not shown) may be parylene or similar substance and will completely encapsulate the microphone to aid in biocompatability . In a preferred embodiment, a biodegradable material 310 may be placed directly in front of the membrane 202. In this configuration, the initial tissue growth that typically occurs after surgical implantation (the healing process) would not be allowed to impinge on the microphone membrane 202. Human tissue that impinges or adheres to the membrane 202 may affect its frequency response. Preferably, the material will degrade over time and be absorbed into the body. After the healing process is concluded, the volume of space occupied by the biodegradable material 310 will fill with body fluids. Biodegradable materials suitable for this embodiment include lactide and glycolide polymers. The materials may be held in place by the protective cover or made to adhere to the membrane surface.

Fig. 10 shows a cross-sectional view of an implantable microphone with "synthetic skin". In another embodiment of the present invention, a synthetic skin 400 or similar material, is made to adhere 410 to the membrane 202. This patch 400 can be sewn to the edges of the skin of a patient, taking the place of the real skin removed by a surgeon. Placement could be anywhere on the side of the head, or it could be used in place of a tympanic membrane.

While the above is a complete description of preferred embodiments of the invention, various alternatives, modifications and equivalents may be used. It should be evident that the present invention is equally applicable by making appropriate modifications to the embodiments described above. For example, the above has shown that the implantable microphone and audio processor are separate; however, these two devices may be integrated into one device. Therefore, the above description should not be taken as limiting the scope of the invention which is defined by the metes and bounds of the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS;
1. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing; a membrane disposed over a surface of the housing to define a primary air cavity therebetween; a microphone assembly secured on the housing and having an aperture open to the primary air cavity, the microphone having a secondary air cavity coupled to the primary air cavity through the aperture so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity and aperture to the secondary air cavity; and a microphone transducer disposed in the secondary air cavity to detect said transmitted vibrations.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the microphone transducer comprises an electret membrane, a backplate, and leads.
3. The device of claim 1, wherein the housing comprises a rear chamber.
4. The device of claim 3 , wherein the housing further comprises a hermetic feedthrough for access to leads encased in the rear chamber and connected to the microphone assembly.
5. The device of claim 1, further comprising a protective cover over the membrane.
6. The device of claim 5, wherein the protective cover over the membrane is a perforated cover.
7. The device of claim 5, wherein the protective cover is a wire grid.
8. The device of claim 1, wherein the membrane is a substantially flexible membrane.
9. The device of claim 1, wherein the membrane has a free standing resonant frequency in air below 12,000 Hz.
10. The device of claim 1, wherein a peripheral portion of the membrane is substantially thicker than a center portion of the membrane.
11. The device of claim 10, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005 and 0.0025".
12. The device of claim 1, wherein the membrane comprises at least one compliance ring.
13. The device of claim 1, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume that has an acoustic compliance of less than 4.3 x 10"14 m5/N.
14. The device of claim 1, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume of less than 6 mm3.
15. The device of claim 1, wherein the primary air cavity, includes a gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride .
16. The device of claim 1, wherein the primary air cavity is hermetically sealed.
17. The device of claim 1, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
18. The device of claim 17, wherein the membrane is laser or projection welded to the housing.
19. The device of claim 1, wherein the membrane deflects no less than 0.015" per pound over the range of 0.05 to 0.25 lbs when subjected to a centered force from a spherical tipped 3/32" rod.
20. The device of claim 1, wherein the device is completely encapsulated by a biocompatible material.
21. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing; a membrane disposed over the surface of the housing to define a primary air cavity therebetween; surface details positioned on the surface of the housing; a microphone assembly secured on the housing and having an aperture open to the primary air cavity, the microphone having a secondary air cavity coupled to the primary air cavity through the aperture so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity and aperture to the secondary air cavity; and a microphone transducer disposed in the secondary air cavity to detect said transmitted vibrations.
22. The device of claim 21, wherein the housing comprises a rear chamber.
23. The device of claim 21, wherein the housing further comprises a hermetic feedthrough for access to leads encased in the rear chamber and connected to the microphone assembly.
24. The device of claim 21, wherein the surface details include pits or grooves.
25. The device of claim 22, wherein the surface details include at least one hole which connects the primary air cavity to the rear chamber.
26. The device of claim 21, further comprising a protective cover over the membrane.
27. The device of claim 26, wherein the protective cover over the membrane is a perforated cover.
28. The device of claim 21, wherein the membrane is a substantially flexible membrane.
29. The device of claim 21, wherein a peripheral portion of the membrane is substantially thicker than a center portion of the membrane.
30. The device of claim 29, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005" and 0.0025".
31. The device of claim 21, wherein the membrane comprises at least one compliance ring.
32. The device of claim 31, wherein the at least one compliance ring is either etched or formed.
33. The device of claim 21, wherein the primary air cavity, includes a gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoπde .
34. The device of claim 21, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
35. The device of claim 34, wherein the membrane is laser welded to the housing.
36. The device of claim 21, wherein the microphone transducer comprises an electret membrane, a backplate, and leads.
37. The device of claim 21, wherein the device is completely encapsulated by a biocompatible material .
38. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing comprising a rear chamber; a membrane coupled to the housing, the membrane being a substantially flexible membrane and disposed over the surface of the housing to define a primary air cavity therebetween; a device adapted to remove or fill the rear chamber with a gas; a microphone assembly secured on the housing and having an aperture open to the primary air cavity, the microphone assembly having a secondary air cavity coupled to the primary air cavity through the aperture so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity and aperture to the secondary air cavity and having a vent connecting the secondary air cavity to the rear chamber; and a microphone transducer disposed in the secondary air cavity to detect said transmitted vibrations.
39. The device of claim 38, wherein the first surface of the housing comprises surface details.
40. The device of claim 38, wherein the primary air cavity, the secondary air cavity, and the rear chamber include a dense gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride .
41. The device of claim 38, wherein the housing further comprises a hermetic feedthrough for access to leads encased in the rear chamber and connected to the microphone assembly.
42. The device of claim 38, further comprising a protective cover over the membrane.
43. The device of claim 42, wherein the protective cover over the membrane is a perforated cover.
44. The device of claim 38, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005" and 0.0025".
45. The device of claim 38, wherein the membrane comprises at least one compliance ring.
46. The device of claim 45, wherein the at least one compliance ring is either etched or formed.
47. The device of claim 38, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
48. The device of claim 47, wherein the membrane is laser welded to the housing.
49. The device of claim 38, wherein the device is completely encapsulated by a biocompatible material .
50. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing; a membrane disposed over a surface of the housing to define a primary air cavity therebetween; a volume occupying material positioned proximate to the membrane; a microphone assembly secured on the housing and having an aperture open to the primary air cavity, the microphone having a secondary air cavity coupled to the primary air cavity through the aperture so that vibrations of the membrane are transmitted through the primary air cavity and aperture to the secondary air cavity; and a microphone transducer disposed in the secondary air cavity to detect said transmitted vibrations.
"51. The device of claim 50, wherein the volume occupying material is a biodegradable and degrades over time.
52. The device of claim 51, wherein the biodegradable material is selected from the group including lactide and glucolide polymers.
53. The device of claim 50, wherein the device is completely encapsulated by a biocompatible material.
54. The device of claim 50, wherein the volume occupying material is a biocompatible fluid-filled sack.
55. The device of claim 50, wherein the membrane deflects no less than 0.015" per pound over the range of 0.05 to 0.25 lbs when subjected to a centered force from a spherical tipped 3/32".
56. The device of claim 50, wherein the membrane is a substantially flexible membrane.
57. The device of claim 50, wherein a peripheral portion of the membrane is substantially thicker than a center portion of the membrane.
58. The device of claim 57, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005" and 0.0025".
59. The device of claim 50, wherein the membrane has a free standing resonant frequency in air below 12,000 Hz.
60. The device of claim 50, wherein the membrane comprises at least one compliance ring.
61. The device of claim 60, wherein the at least one compliance ring is either etched or formed.
62. The device of claim 50, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume that has an acoustic compliance of less than 4.3 x 10~14 m5/N.
63. The device of claim 50, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume of less than 6 mm3.
64. The device of claim 50, wherein the primary air cavity, includes a gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride .
65. The device of claim 50, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
66. The device of claim 65, wherein the membrane is laser or projection welded to the housing.
67. The device of claim 50, wherein the volume occupying layer is a permanent, non-biodegradable, synthetic tissue.
68. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing; a membrane disposed over a surface of the housing to define an air cavity therebetween; and a microphone assembly secured on the housing, the microphone assembly comprising a microphone transducer having an electret membrane, a backplate, and leads, the electret membrane being exposed to the air cavity.
69. The device of claim 68, further comprising a protective cover over the membrane.
70. The device of claim 69, wherein the protective cover over the membrane is a perforated cover.
71. The device of claim 68, wherein the housing comprises a rear chamber and a hermetic feedthrough for access to leads encased in the rear chamber and connected to the microphone assembly.
72. The device of claim 68, wherein the membrane is a substantially flexible membrane.
73. The device of claim 68, wherein the membrane has a free standing resonant frequency in air below 12,000 Hz.
74. The device of claim 68, wherein a peripheral portion of the membrane is substantially thicker than a center portion of the membrane.
75. The device of claim 74, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005" and 0.0025".
76. The device of claim 68, wherein the membrane comprises at least one compliance ring.
77. The device of claim 76, wherein the at least one compliance ring is either etched or formed.
78. The device of claim 68, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume that has an acoustic compliance of less than 4.3 x 10"14 m5/N.
79. The device of claim 68, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume of less than 6 mm3.
80. The device of claim 68, wherein the primary air cavity, includes a gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride .
81. The device of claim 68, wherein the membrane deflects no less than 0.015" per pound over the range of 0.05 to 0.25 lbs when subjected to a centered force from a spherical tipped 3/32".
82. The device of claim 68, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
83. The device of claim 82, wherein the membrane is laser or projection welded to the housing.
84. The device of claim 68, wherein the device is completely encapsulated by a biocompatible material.
85. An implantable microphone device, comprising: a housing; a membrane disposed over a surface of the housing to define an air cavity therebetween; an insulation layer secured on an interior surface of the membrane; and an electret membrane coupled to the insulation layer; and a backplate disposed within the air cavity.
86. The device of claim 85, wherein the housing comprises a rear chamber and a hermetic feedthrough for access to leads encased in the rear chamber and connected to the microphone assembly.
87. The device of claim 85, wherein the membrane is a substantially flexible membrane.
88. The device of claim 85, further comprising a protective cover over the membrane.
89. The device of claim 88, wherein the protective cover over the membrane is a perforated cover.
90. The device of claim 85, wherein the primary air cavity defines a volume that has an acoustic compliance of less than 4.3 x 10"14 m5/N.
91. The device of claim 85, wherein the primary air cavity, includes a gas selected from the group of argon, helium, xenon, nitrogen, and sulfur hexafluoride .
92. The device of claim 85, wherein the housing and membrane are composed of titanium.
93. The device of claim 92, wherein the membrane is laser or projection welded to the housing.
94. The device of claim 85, wherein the membrane deflects no less than 0.015" per pound over the range of 0.05 to 0.25 lbs when subjected to a centered force from a spherical tipped 3/32".
95. The device of claim 79, wherein a peripheral portion of the membrane is substantially thicker than a center portion of the membrane.
96. The device of claim 95, wherein the center portion of the membrane is etched or formed to a thickness of between 0.0005" and 0.0025".
97. The device of claim 85, wherein the membrane has a free standing resonant frequency in air below 12,000 Hz.
PCT/US1998/026159 1997-12-16 1998-12-09 Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response WO1999031933A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US08/991,447 1997-12-16
US08991447 US6093144A (en) 1997-12-16 1997-12-16 Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2000539679A JP2002509414A (en) 1997-12-16 1998-12-09 Implantable microphone with improved sensitivity and frequency response
EP19980963002 EP1060638A1 (en) 1997-12-16 1998-12-09 Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1999031933A1 true true WO1999031933A1 (en) 1999-06-24

Family

ID=25537224

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1998/026159 WO1999031933A1 (en) 1997-12-16 1998-12-09 Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response

Country Status (4)

Country Link
US (5) US6093144A (en)
JP (1) JP2002509414A (en)
EP (1) EP1060638A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1999031933A1 (en)

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001045457A2 (en) * 1999-12-16 2001-06-21 John Nicholas Marshall Implantable hearing aid 1.1
US6978190B2 (en) 2000-12-27 2005-12-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Programming of cyclical machines
WO2011001405A1 (en) * 2009-07-02 2011-01-06 Nxp B.V. Transducer with resonant cavity
WO2011066295A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-06-03 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable microphone for hearing systems
WO2012018400A1 (en) 2010-08-03 2012-02-09 Sonitus Medical, Inc. Implantable piezoelectric polymer film microphone
US9794702B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2017-10-17 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable microphone for hearing systems

Families Citing this family (96)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6093144A (en) * 1997-12-16 2000-07-25 Symphonix Devices, Inc. Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response
US6364825B1 (en) 1998-09-24 2002-04-02 St. Croix Medical, Inc. Method and apparatus for improving signal quality in implantable hearing systems
US6516228B1 (en) * 2000-02-07 2003-02-04 Epic Biosonics Inc. Implantable microphone for use with a hearing aid or cochlear prosthesis
US6636768B1 (en) 2000-05-11 2003-10-21 Advanced Bionics Corporation Implantable mircophone system for use with cochlear implant devices
US6648813B2 (en) * 2000-06-17 2003-11-18 Alfred E. Mann Foundation For Scientific Research Hearing aid system including speaker implanted in middle ear
DE10041727C2 (en) * 2000-08-25 2003-04-10 Cochlear Ltd The implantable hermetically sealed housing for an implantable medical device
WO2002083034A3 (en) 2001-04-12 2003-05-01 Otologics Llc Hearing aid with internal acoustic middle ear transducer
EP2221030A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2010-08-25 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geräte GmbH Implantable electrode
US20070088335A1 (en) * 2001-10-24 2007-04-19 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable neuro-stimulation electrode with fluid reservoir
US8147544B2 (en) 2001-10-30 2012-04-03 Otokinetics Inc. Therapeutic appliance for cochlea
US6736771B2 (en) * 2002-01-02 2004-05-18 Advanced Bionics Corporation Wideband low-noise implantable microphone assembly
FI118505B (en) * 2002-06-04 2007-11-30 Aspocomp Oy The multi-layer circuit board structure is formed of an acoustically active element, a method for forming an acoustically active element in a multi-layer circuit-board structure, and a multi-layer circuit-board structure
US7386143B2 (en) * 2002-10-02 2008-06-10 Otologics Llc Retention apparatus for an external portion of a semi-implantable hearing aid
WO2004050166A9 (en) * 2002-12-02 2004-12-09 Med El Elektromedizinsche Gera Fluid switch controlled trans-cutaneously via a magnetic force
DE10301723B3 (en) * 2003-01-15 2004-09-16 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geräte GmbH An implantable electromechanical transducer
US20040213426A1 (en) * 2003-04-28 2004-10-28 M/A-Com, Inc. Apparatus, methods, and articles of manufacture for a microphone enclosure
US7524278B2 (en) * 2003-05-19 2009-04-28 Envoy Medical Corporation Hearing aid system and transducer with hermetically sealed housing
US7556597B2 (en) * 2003-11-07 2009-07-07 Otologics, Llc Active vibration attenuation for implantable microphone
US7840020B1 (en) 2004-04-01 2010-11-23 Otologics, Llc Low acceleration sensitivity microphone
US7214179B2 (en) 2004-04-01 2007-05-08 Otologics, Llc Low acceleration sensitivity microphone
US7651460B2 (en) * 2004-03-22 2010-01-26 The Board Of Regents Of The University Of Oklahoma Totally implantable hearing system
US9413321B2 (en) 2004-08-10 2016-08-09 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for digital signal processing
US7867160B2 (en) 2004-10-12 2011-01-11 Earlens Corporation Systems and methods for photo-mechanical hearing transduction
EP2624597B1 (en) 2005-01-11 2014-09-10 Cochlear Limited Implantable hearing system
US8096937B2 (en) 2005-01-11 2012-01-17 Otologics, Llc Adaptive cancellation system for implantable hearing instruments
WO2006081361A3 (en) * 2005-01-27 2007-04-19 Cochlear Americas Implantable medical device
JP3866748B2 (en) * 2005-02-22 2007-01-10 リオン株式会社 Waterproof hearing aid
US7668325B2 (en) 2005-05-03 2010-02-23 Earlens Corporation Hearing system having an open chamber for housing components and reducing the occlusion effect
WO2006119274A3 (en) * 2005-05-04 2007-03-15 Univ Illinois Thin welded sheets fluid pathway
US7489793B2 (en) * 2005-07-08 2009-02-10 Otologics, Llc Implantable microphone with shaped chamber
US7903831B2 (en) * 2005-08-20 2011-03-08 Bse Co., Ltd. Silicon based condenser microphone and packaging method for the same
US7522738B2 (en) 2005-11-30 2009-04-21 Otologics, Llc Dual feedback control system for implantable hearing instrument
US8014871B2 (en) * 2006-01-09 2011-09-06 Cochlear Limited Implantable interferometer microphone
US8284955B2 (en) 2006-02-07 2012-10-09 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for digital signal processing
US20080097249A1 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-04-24 Ellipse Technologies, Inc. External sensing system for gastric restriction devices
EP2129428A4 (en) * 2007-03-29 2011-05-04 Med El Elektromed Geraete Gmbh Implantable auditory stimulation systems having a transducer and a transduction medium
US8401217B2 (en) * 2007-07-20 2013-03-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Extreme low frequency acoustic measurement system
WO2009023919A1 (en) * 2007-08-20 2009-02-26 Cochlear Limited Improvements to implantable microphones
US8295523B2 (en) 2007-10-04 2012-10-23 SoundBeam LLC Energy delivery and microphone placement methods for improved comfort in an open canal hearing aid
US8401212B2 (en) 2007-10-12 2013-03-19 Earlens Corporation Multifunction system and method for integrated hearing and communication with noise cancellation and feedback management
US8472654B2 (en) 2007-10-30 2013-06-25 Cochlear Limited Observer-based cancellation system for implantable hearing instruments
US20090163978A1 (en) * 2007-11-20 2009-06-25 Otologics, Llc Implantable electret microphone
US8265316B2 (en) * 2008-03-20 2012-09-11 Siemens Medical Instruments Pte. Ltd. Hearing aid with enhanced vent
US20090281366A1 (en) * 2008-05-09 2009-11-12 Basinger David L Fluid cushion support for implantable device
WO2009146494A1 (en) * 2008-06-04 2009-12-10 Cochlear Limited Implantable microphone diaphragm stress decoupling system
US9533143B2 (en) * 2008-06-13 2017-01-03 Cochlear Limited Implantable sound sensor for hearing prostheses
EP2301262B1 (en) 2008-06-17 2017-09-27 Earlens Corporation Optical electro-mechanical hearing devices with combined power and signal architectures
US8396239B2 (en) 2008-06-17 2013-03-12 Earlens Corporation Optical electro-mechanical hearing devices with combined power and signal architectures
EP2301261A4 (en) 2008-06-17 2013-03-06 Earlens Corp Optical electro-mechanical hearing devices with separate power and signal components
EP2303204A4 (en) 2008-06-25 2014-06-25 Cochlear Ltd Enhanced performance implantable microphone system
WO2010009504A1 (en) * 2008-07-24 2010-01-28 Cochlear Limited Implantable microphone device
KR20110086804A (en) 2008-09-22 2011-08-01 사운드빔, 엘엘씨 Balanced armature devices and methods for hearing
CA2740877C (en) * 2008-10-15 2015-02-03 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Inner ear drug delivery device and method
US8750988B2 (en) 2008-11-10 2014-06-10 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Hydrogel-filled drug delivery reservoirs
EP2405871B1 (en) 2009-03-13 2018-01-10 Cochlear Limited Compensation system for an implantable actuator
US8855350B2 (en) * 2009-04-28 2014-10-07 Cochlear Limited Patterned implantable electret microphone
WO2010138911A1 (en) 2009-05-29 2010-12-02 Otologics, Llc Implantable auditory stimulation system and method with offset implanted microphones
WO2010141895A1 (en) 2009-06-05 2010-12-09 SoundBeam LLC Optically coupled acoustic middle ear implant systems and methods
US9544700B2 (en) 2009-06-15 2017-01-10 Earlens Corporation Optically coupled active ossicular replacement prosthesis
DK2443773T3 (en) * 2009-06-18 2017-02-27 Earlens Corp Optically coupled cochlear implant systems
EP2443843A4 (en) 2009-06-18 2013-12-04 SoundBeam LLC Eardrum implantable devices for hearing systems and methods
WO2011005500A3 (en) 2009-06-22 2011-03-31 SoundBeam LLC Round window coupled hearing systems and methods
WO2011005479A3 (en) 2009-06-22 2011-03-31 SoundBeam LLC Optically coupled bone conduction systems and methods
WO2010151636A3 (en) 2009-06-24 2011-05-26 SoundBeam LLC Optical cochlear stimulation devices and methods
WO2010151647A3 (en) 2009-06-24 2011-03-31 SoundBeam LLC Optically coupled cochlear actuator systems and methods
US20110082327A1 (en) * 2009-10-07 2011-04-07 Manning Miles Goldsmith Saline membranous coupling mechanism for electromagnetic and piezoelectric round window direct drive systems for hearing amplification
EP2490757B1 (en) * 2009-10-23 2014-03-19 Advanced Bionics, LLC Fully implantable cochlear implant systems including optional external components
US8671763B2 (en) * 2009-10-27 2014-03-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Sub-surface windscreen for outdoor measurement of infrasound
GB2479705B (en) * 2010-01-15 2014-06-25 Timothy James Midgley Seizure detection
CN102939770B (en) 2010-03-19 2015-12-09 领先仿生公司 Waterproof enclosure and acoustic elements including equipment
US9060229B2 (en) 2010-03-30 2015-06-16 Cochlear Limited Low noise electret microphone
US20110319021A1 (en) 2010-05-28 2011-12-29 Sonitus Medical, Inc. Intra-oral tissue conduction microphone
EP2656639A4 (en) 2010-12-20 2016-08-10 Earlens Corp Anatomically customized ear canal hearing apparatus
EP2664163A2 (en) 2011-01-11 2013-11-20 Advanced Bionics AG At least partially implantable microphone
CN106878838A (en) 2011-01-18 2017-06-20 领先仿生公司 Moisture Resistant Headpieces And Implantable Cochlear Stimulation Systems Including The Same
WO2011064409A3 (en) 2011-03-17 2012-03-01 Advanced Bionics Ag Implantable microphone
WO2011064410A3 (en) 2011-03-17 2012-03-01 Advanced Bionics Ag Implantable microphone
EP2687023A2 (en) * 2011-03-17 2014-01-22 Advanced Bionics AG Implantable microphone
US9119010B2 (en) * 2011-12-09 2015-08-25 Sophono, Inc. Implantable sound transmission device for magnetic hearing aid, and corresponding systems, devices and components
US9179228B2 (en) * 2011-12-09 2015-11-03 Sophono, Inc. Systems devices, components and methods for providing acoustic isolation between microphones and transducers in bone conduction magnetic hearing aids
CN104039474B (en) * 2011-12-22 2017-12-01 美铝美国公司 A method for the diameter of the expanded metal container
WO2013163115A1 (en) 2012-04-26 2013-10-31 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Non-pressure sensitive implantable microphone
US20130303835A1 (en) * 2012-05-10 2013-11-14 Otokinetics Inc. Microactuator
US9167362B2 (en) 2012-09-13 2015-10-20 Otokinetics Inc. Implantable receptacle for a hearing aid component
US9173024B2 (en) * 2013-01-31 2015-10-27 Invensense, Inc. Noise mitigating microphone system
US9264004B2 (en) 2013-06-12 2016-02-16 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for narrow bandwidth digital signal processing
US9398394B2 (en) 2013-06-12 2016-07-19 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for stereo field enhancement in two-channel audio systems
US9397629B2 (en) 2013-10-22 2016-07-19 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for digital signal processing
US9615813B2 (en) 2014-04-16 2017-04-11 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc. Device for wide-band auscultation
US9564146B2 (en) 2014-08-01 2017-02-07 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for digital signal processing in deep diving environment
US9615189B2 (en) * 2014-08-08 2017-04-04 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc Artificial ear apparatus and associated methods for generating a head related audio transfer function
US9445779B2 (en) * 2014-10-02 2016-09-20 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Infrasonic stethoscope for monitoring physiological processes
US9638672B2 (en) 2015-03-06 2017-05-02 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc System and method for acquiring acoustic information from a resonating body
US9538274B1 (en) * 2015-10-05 2017-01-03 Hit Incorporated Smart microphone with voice control functions
CN105181118A (en) * 2015-10-17 2015-12-23 中北大学 Broadband MEMS vector hydrophone simulating seal beard
US9621994B1 (en) 2015-11-16 2017-04-11 Bongiovi Acoustics Llc Surface acoustic transducer

Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3938615A (en) * 1974-07-11 1976-02-17 Jacob Bodenger Stethoscope consisting of a stethoscope chest piece and a sound mixer
US5859916A (en) * 1996-07-12 1999-01-12 Symphonix Devices, Inc. Two stage implantable microphone

Family Cites Families (29)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US518492A (en) * 1894-04-17 Uthosbaphina comi
US2702354A (en) * 1952-02-28 1955-02-15 Astatic Corp Contact microphone
US3588382A (en) * 1967-10-11 1971-06-28 Northern Electric Co Directional electret transducer
US3736436A (en) * 1971-11-04 1973-05-29 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Electret pressure transducer
US3949742A (en) * 1974-09-20 1976-04-13 Frigitronics, Inc. Medical dressing
US4063050A (en) * 1976-12-30 1977-12-13 Industrial Research Products, Inc. Acoustic transducer with improved electret assembly
JPS6057796B2 (en) * 1978-04-06 1985-12-17 Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd
JPS5756640Y2 (en) * 1978-09-30 1982-12-06
JPS5838098A (en) * 1981-08-29 1983-03-05 Sony Corp Plane driving type loudspeaker
DE3407980A1 (en) * 1983-04-20 1984-10-25 Tadashi Sawafuji Crystal sound generator
DE3315548A1 (en) * 1983-04-29 1984-12-06 Victor Wassilieff Lock, in particular Child-proof closure
US4524247A (en) * 1983-07-07 1985-06-18 At&T Bell Laboratories Integrated electroacoustic transducer with built-in bias
US4591668A (en) * 1984-05-08 1986-05-27 Iwata Electric Co., Ltd. Vibration-detecting type microphone
US4730283A (en) * 1986-09-15 1988-03-08 Industrial Research Products, Inc. Acoustic transducer with improved electrode spacing
US5085628A (en) * 1988-09-09 1992-02-04 Storz Instrument Company Implantable hearing aid coupler device
US5146435A (en) * 1989-12-04 1992-09-08 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Acoustic transducer
JP2560932Y2 (en) * 1990-05-22 1998-01-26 株式会社 オーディオテクニカ Vibration plate of an electro-dynamic microphone
DE4104358C2 (en) * 1991-02-13 1992-11-19 Implex Gmbh, 7449 Neckartenzlingen, De
NL9101563A (en) * 1991-09-17 1993-04-16 Microtel Bv Electroacoustic transducer of the electret type.
US5303210A (en) * 1992-10-29 1994-04-12 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Integrated resonant cavity acoustic transducer
JPH06225385A (en) * 1993-01-27 1994-08-12 Sony Corp Dome-like vibrator for speaker
US5329593A (en) * 1993-05-10 1994-07-12 Lazzeroni John J Noise cancelling microphone
US5624376A (en) * 1993-07-01 1997-04-29 Symphonix Devices, Inc. Implantable and external hearing systems having a floating mass transducer
US5548658A (en) * 1994-06-06 1996-08-20 Knowles Electronics, Inc. Acoustic Transducer
US5452268A (en) * 1994-08-12 1995-09-19 The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. Acoustic transducer with improved low frequency response
US5624377A (en) * 1995-02-16 1997-04-29 Larson-Davis, Inc. Apparatus and method for simulating a human mastoid
DE69733837T2 (en) * 1996-05-24 2006-04-27 Lesinski, S. George, Cincinnati Improved microphones for implantable hearing aid
US5814095A (en) * 1996-09-18 1998-09-29 Implex Gmbh Spezialhorgerate Implantable microphone and implantable hearing aids utilizing same
US6093144A (en) * 1997-12-16 2000-07-25 Symphonix Devices, Inc. Implantable microphone having improved sensitivity and frequency response

Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3938615A (en) * 1974-07-11 1976-02-17 Jacob Bodenger Stethoscope consisting of a stethoscope chest piece and a sound mixer
US5859916A (en) * 1996-07-12 1999-01-12 Symphonix Devices, Inc. Two stage implantable microphone

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2001045457A2 (en) * 1999-12-16 2001-06-21 John Nicholas Marshall Implantable hearing aid 1.1
WO2001045457A3 (en) * 1999-12-16 2001-12-27 John Nicholas Marshall Implantable hearing aid 1.1
US6978190B2 (en) 2000-12-27 2005-12-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Programming of cyclical machines
WO2011001405A1 (en) * 2009-07-02 2011-01-06 Nxp B.V. Transducer with resonant cavity
WO2011066295A1 (en) * 2009-11-24 2011-06-03 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable microphone for hearing systems
US8721518B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2014-05-13 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable microphone for hearing systems
CN104581592A (en) * 2009-11-24 2015-04-29 Med-El电气医疗器械有限公司 Implantable microphone for hearing systems
US9794702B2 (en) 2009-11-24 2017-10-17 Med-El Elektromedizinische Geraete Gmbh Implantable microphone for hearing systems
WO2012018400A1 (en) 2010-08-03 2012-02-09 Sonitus Medical, Inc. Implantable piezoelectric polymer film microphone
EP2600796A1 (en) * 2010-08-03 2013-06-12 Sonitus Medical, Inc. Implantable piezoelectric polymer film microphone
EP2600796A4 (en) * 2010-08-03 2014-01-22 Sonitus Medical Inc Implantable piezoelectric polymer film microphone

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6093144A (en) 2000-07-25 grant
US20040039245A1 (en) 2004-02-26 application
EP1060638A1 (en) 2000-12-20 application
US6626822B1 (en) 2003-09-30 grant
US6422991B1 (en) 2002-07-23 grant
JP2002509414A (en) 2002-03-26 application
US7955250B2 (en) 2011-06-07 grant
US20080167516A1 (en) 2008-07-10 application
US7322930B2 (en) 2008-01-29 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5694475A (en) Acoustically transparent earphones
US5113967A (en) Audibility earplug
US5737436A (en) Earphones with eyeglass attatchments
US6381336B1 (en) Microphones for an implatable hearing aid
US20060025648A1 (en) Surgically implantable hearing aid
US6137889A (en) Direct tympanic membrane excitation via vibrationally conductive assembly
US7425196B2 (en) Balloon encapsulated direct drive
US20040202344A1 (en) Method and apparatus for tooth bone conduction microphone
US20050020873A1 (en) Totally implantable hearing prosthesis
US7076076B2 (en) Hearing aid system
US20090052698A1 (en) Bone conduction hearing device with open-ear microphone
US5692059A (en) Two active element in-the-ear microphone system
US5220612A (en) Non-occludable transducers for in-the-ear applications
US6068589A (en) Biocompatible fully implantable hearing aid transducers
US20020122563A1 (en) Bone conduction hearing aid
US7313245B1 (en) Intracanal cap for canal hearing devices
US4852683A (en) Earplug with improved audibility
US6031922A (en) Microphone systems of reduced in situ acceleration sensitivity
US20090043149A1 (en) Hearing implant
US20040047483A1 (en) Hearing aid
US6707920B2 (en) Implantable hearing aid microphone
US7444877B2 (en) Optical waveguide vibration sensor for use in hearing aid
US20090028356A1 (en) Diaphonic acoustic transduction coupler and ear bud
US6516228B1 (en) Implantable microphone for use with a hearing aid or cochlear prosthesis
US20090123010A1 (en) Hearing device with an open earpiece having a short vent

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AU BR CA JP MX

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
ENP Entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: JP

Ref document number: 2000 539679

Kind code of ref document: A

Format of ref document f/p: F

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 1998963002

Country of ref document: EP

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 1998963002

Country of ref document: EP

WWW Wipo information: withdrawn in national office

Ref document number: 1998963002

Country of ref document: EP