WO1999013807A1 - Manipulator - Google Patents

Manipulator Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1999013807A1
WO1999013807A1 PCT/GB1998/002795 GB9802795W WO9913807A1 WO 1999013807 A1 WO1999013807 A1 WO 1999013807A1 GB 9802795 W GB9802795 W GB 9802795W WO 9913807 A1 WO9913807 A1 WO 9913807A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
manipulator
thumb
motor
fingers
drive means
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB1998/002795
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Irfan Kausar
Original Assignee
University College London
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GBGB9719635.6A priority Critical patent/GB9719635D0/en
Priority to GB9719635.6 priority
Application filed by University College London filed Critical University College London
Publication of WO1999013807A1 publication Critical patent/WO1999013807A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/68Operating or control means
    • A61F2/70Operating or control means electrical
    • A61F2/72Bioelectrical control, e.g. myoelectric
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/54Artificial arms or hands or parts thereof
    • A61F2/58Elbows; Wrists ; Other joints; Hands
    • A61F2/583Hands; Wrist joints
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/0009Gripping heads and other end effectors comprising multi-articulated fingers, e.g. resembling a human hand
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J15/00Gripping heads and other end effectors
    • B25J15/02Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated
    • B25J15/0206Gripping heads and other end effectors servo-actuated comprising articulated grippers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/54Artificial arms or hands or parts thereof
    • A61F2/58Elbows; Wrists ; Other joints; Hands
    • A61F2/583Hands; Wrist joints
    • A61F2/585Wrist joints
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/54Artificial arms or hands or parts thereof
    • A61F2/58Elbows; Wrists ; Other joints; Hands
    • A61F2/583Hands; Wrist joints
    • A61F2/586Fingers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30433Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements using additional screws, bolts, dowels or rivets, e.g. connecting screws
    • A61F2002/30438Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements using additional screws, bolts, dowels or rivets, e.g. connecting screws using nuts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30518Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts
    • A61F2002/30523Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts by means of meshing gear teeth
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30518Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts
    • A61F2002/30523Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts by means of meshing gear teeth
    • A61F2002/30527Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts by means of meshing gear teeth using a gear box
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/30Joints
    • A61F2002/30001Additional features of subject-matter classified in A61F2/28, A61F2/30 and subgroups thereof
    • A61F2002/30316The prosthesis having different structural features at different locations within the same prosthesis; Connections between prosthetic parts; Special structural features of bone or joint prostheses not otherwise provided for
    • A61F2002/30329Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2002/30518Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements with possibility of relative movement between the prosthetic parts
    • A61F2002/30528Means for limiting said movement
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2002/5067Prostheses not implantable in the body having rolling elements between articulating surfaces
    • A61F2002/5069Ball bearings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2002/5072Prostheses not implantable in the body having spring elements
    • A61F2002/5073Helical springs, e.g. having at least one helical spring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/54Artificial arms or hands or parts thereof
    • A61F2/58Elbows; Wrists ; Other joints; Hands
    • A61F2/583Hands; Wrist joints
    • A61F2/586Fingers
    • A61F2002/587Thumbs
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/68Operating or control means
    • A61F2/70Operating or control means electrical
    • A61F2002/701Operating or control means electrical operated by electrically controlled means, e.g. solenoids or torque motors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0025Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2220/00Fixations or connections for prostheses classified in groups A61F2/00 - A61F2/26 or A61F2/82 or A61F9/00 or A61F11/00 or subgroups thereof
    • A61F2220/0025Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements
    • A61F2220/0041Connections or couplings between prosthetic parts, e.g. between modular parts; Connecting elements using additional screws, bolts, dowels or rivets, e.g. connecting screws

Abstract

A manipulator comprises a motor (12) and respective drive means connected to said motor (12) for moving separately the fingers (100) and a thumb (102) of said manipulator, each drive means being stallable whereby the fingers (100) and thumb (102) are separately moveable.

Description

MAN1PULATOR

This invention relates to a manipulator, in particular to a prosthetic hand, and more particularly to a prosthetic hand having an improved gripping action.

The advent of bioengineering in recent years has led to the development of many novel limb prostheses. Myoelectric hand prostheses operate by detecting flex/extend nervous signals, typically of voltage 40 mV, in the muscles remaining in the stump of the arm and convert these signals into appropriate close/open motions of the hand. Examples of commercially available prostheses are the Steeper Myoelectric Hand, manufactured by Hugh Steeper Limited, Queen Mary's University Hospital, Roehampton, UK and the Bock System Electric Hand, manufactured by Otto Bock Orthopadische Industrie, Duderstadt, Germany.

With reference to Figure 1 , both of these available prostheses use a single motor driven by a 6V battery to move simultaneously the fingers 100 and thumb 102 of the hand towards each other at equal constant speeds. With no object placed between the digits of the hand, the hand would close with the digits meeting at a point 104 midway between their extremities. Accordingly, in order to pick up an object, the patient must position the hand so that the object is located midway between the fingers 100 and thumb 102.

This is an unnatural and difficult manoeuvre for a patient to adapt to and control. The natural gripping manoeuvre is to bring the thumb into contact with the object and move the fingers at speed towards the object; as the fingers come into contact with the object, the thumb provides the gripping force with substantially no further motion of the thumb. Additionally, as a single motor is used, a combination of a high closure speed of the fingers and thumb with a high gripping force is not practicable; one of these properties must be sacrificed in favour of the other. By way of example, the Steeper hand has a closure speed of 95 mm/sec and a maximum gripping force of 35 N, whilst the Bock hand has a closure speed of 30 mm/sec and a maximum gripping force of 50 N.

In order to overcome these disadvantages, attempts have been made to design a prosthetic hand which utilises two separate motor and gearbox assemblies, one for moving the fingers at a relatively high speed and the other for moving the thumb at a relatively low speed to apply the gripping force. Whilst this arrangement provides a prosthetic hand which is closable at a speed independent of the maximum gripping force obtainable at the digits, the physical size and weight of the hand, and the power consumption of the hand, is much greater than those of models including only one motor. This makes the hand unsuitable for use by a patient.

The present invention seeks to solve these and other problems.

In a first aspect, the present invention provides a manipulator comprising a motor and respective drive means selectively connected to said motor for moving separately fingers and a thumb of said manipulator.

Examples of such a manipulator include a prosthetic hand, a myoelectric prosthetic hand and a hand-like manipulator for remote handling of radioactive or other hazardous objects.

Preferably, each drive means is stallable whilst permitting the other drive means to operate.

Preferably said drive means is selectively connected to said motor for moving sequentially the fingers and a thumb of said hand.

Preferably, the manipulator further comprises a differential gearbox connected between said motor and each said drive means. The term "differential gearbox" is not limited to a standard bevel gear differential gearbox, but extends to alternative arrangements, for example, utilising ball bearings, for providing differential motion to a pair of outputs. Alternatively, the manipulator may further comprise a clutch connected between said motor and each said drive means.

Preferably, first and second outputs from the gearbox are connected to respective drive means, the outputs being arranged so that the fingers and thumb are movable at different speeds.

The manipulator may further comprise means for applying a retarding force to the drive means for the thumb to transfer a driving torque input to said gearbox from said motor initially to the drive means for the fingers.

Preferably, the first output is arranged to transfer therefrom a driving force input to said gearbox from said motor to the drive means for the fingers when a reaction force of prescribed magnitude is applied to the drive means for the fingers. Preferably the magnitude of said force is less than the maximum gripping force of the manipultor. More preferably, said reaction force is applied to the fingers and the magnitude of said force is less than 1 N.

Preferably, the manipulator further comprises means coupled to at least one of the drive means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator in the event of relative movement of the fingers and thumb when the motor is switched off.

Preferably said means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipultor is adapted to store elastic energy imparted thereto by said motor.

The means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator may comprise a resilient member coupled between the thumb and the drive means for the thumb. Alternatively the thumb of the manipulator may comprise a resilient member for re-establishing the gripping force of the manipultor.

In a second aspect, the present invention provides a manipulator comprising a motor, drive means connected to said motor for moving fingers and a thumb of said manipulator to grip an object therebetween, and means coupled to the drive means for maintaining a gripping force of the manuipulator in the event of relative movement of the fingers and thumb when the motor is switched off.

Preferred embodiments will now be described, purely by way of example, and with reference to the accompanying drawings, and in which:-

Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of a prior prosthetic hand;

Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram of a prosthetic hand (with drive shafts omitted for greater clarity);

Figure 3 shows a diagram of circuit for energising a motor of the hand;

Figure 4 shows one embodiment of a differential gearbox;

Figure 5 shows the geometry of the fingers and thumb of the hand; and

Figure 6 shows another embodiment of a differential gearbox.

Referring first in particular to Figure 2, a prosthetic hand 10 comprises a motor 12 which operates under the control of electro-myogram (EMG) signals output by the contraction of flexor and extensor muscles in the arm of the patient. These signals are detected by prosthetic sensors (not shown) located on the surface of the patient's skin and converted into signals for activating the motor 10 by means of an electronic circuit 14, an example of which is shown in Figure 3. The circuit comprises voltage rails 16 and 18, AND gates 20, 22 and 24, and "return" 26, comprising two NOR gates C and D. Activation of the return 26 is described below. First and second inputs of AND gate 20 are connected to voltage rails 16 and 18 respectively. The output of AND gate 20 is connected to the first input of NOR gate D. The second input of NOR gate D is connected to the output of NOR gate C. Similarly, the first input of NOR gate C is connected to the output of NOR gate D. The second input of NOR gate C is connected to voltage rail 16 via capacitor C1.

AND gate 22 has the first input connected to voltage rail 16, and the second input connected to the output of NOR gate D. The output of AND gate 22 is connected to the bases of transistors T1 and T4.

Similarly, AND gate 24 has a first input connected to voltage rail 18 and a second input connected to the output of NOR gate D. The output of AND gate 24 is connected to diode D1 , which has an output connected to the bases of transistors T2 and T3 via normally closed switch NC. The output of NOR gate C is connected to switch NC via diode D2.

The emitter of transistor T1 is connected to the collector of transistor T3, and the emitter of transistor T2 is connected to the collector of transistor T4. The emitter of transistor T2 is connected to the emitter of transistor T2 via a capacitor C2. Capacitor C2 act as a high-pass filter to stop a large e.m.f. from the motor 12 passing back to the circuit.

To close the hand, the patient contracts the flexor muscles of the forearm, creating a flexion EMG signal which is detected by a sensor located on the forearm. A signal output from the sensor passes along rail 16 and is input to AND gate 22. If "return" 26 has not been activated, to be in an "on" state, AND gate 22 outputs a signal to the bases of transistors T1 and T4 to start the motor 12 turning a drive shaft attached thereto in an anti-clockwise manner. If the return 26 is in the "on" state, capacitor C1 and resistor R3 act to generate a short pulse which is input to the second input of NOR gate C, which resets the return 26 in the "off' state to enable starting of the motor 12. When the patient relaxes the flexor muscles, the EMG signal drops to zero and the motor 12 stops.

To open the hand, the patient contracts the extensor muscles of the forearm, creating an extension EMG signal which is detected by a second sensor located on the forearm. A signal output from the second sensor passes along rail 18 and is input to AND gate 24. As "return" 26 is in the "on" state, following closure of the hand, AND gate 24 outputs a signal through diode D1 and switch NC to transistor T2 and T3, which start the motor 12 turning the drive shaft in a clockwise manner. When the patient relaxes the extensor muscles, the EMG signal drops to zero and the motor 12 stops. If the EMG signal is applied for a sufficient period of time so that the fingers reach a fully open position, switch NC opens automatically and the motor 12 stops.

If both flexor and extensor muscles are activated simultaneously (termed "co- contraction"), signals are output from both of the sensors located on the forearm. These signals are input to the first and second inputs of AND gate 20, which outputs a signal to the first input of NOR gate D. Capacitor C1 and resistor R3 act to generate a short pulse which is input to the second input of NOR gate C. The duration of this pulse is extremely short with respect to the duration of the co-contraction signal. The output of the NOR gate C becomes "high", remaining at this level indefinitely. This activates the return 26, the return remaining "on" until only a flexion signal is applied to the circuit, as described above.

The output from NOR gate C outputs a signal through diode D2 and switch NC to transistor T2 and T3, which starts the motor 12 turning the drive shaft in a clockwise manner. As the output of the NOR gate C remains high even when the co-contraction signal ends, the co-contraction signal enables the patient to move the hand from a fully closed position to a fully open position by momentarily co-contracting the flexor and extensor muscles, as opposed to having to contract the extensor muscle for a relatively long period of time.

With reference to Figure 2, drive shaft 26 of the motor 12 is connected to a double spur gearing arrangement 28 comprising gears 30, 32, 34 and 36. Gear 36 is the input gear of differential gearbox 38. Gears 30, 32, and 34 provide a simple arrangement for reducing the rate of rotation of the input gear 36 of the differential gearbox 38 with respect to the rate of rotation of the drive shaft 26. Alternative gear arrangements may be used to perform this function; depending on the output from the motor 12 gears 30 and 32 may be dispensed with altogether.

One embodiment of a differential gearbox 38 is shown in more detail in Figure 4. In this preferred embodiment, the differential gearbox is a standard bevel gear differential gearbox 38.

The differential gearbox 38 further comprises two relatively small planet gears 40 and 42 rotatably suspended on shaft 44 extending diametrically across the inside of gear 36. Two output bevel gears 46 and 48 are engaged with planet gears 40 and 42 for rotation about an axis extending parallel to the axis of rotation of input gear 36.

Bevel gear 48 of the differential gearbox 38 is engaged with a bevel gear 50 attached to a drive shaft (not shown) for driving the fingers (not shown) of the hand 10. The axis of this drive shaft is indicated by chain 52. The drive shaft for the fingers is connected to a lead screw 54 upon which a nut 56 is mounted. The nut 56 is preferably formed from a low friction plastics material, such as Delrin, in order to minimise friction between the lead screw 54 and the nut 56. The lead screw 54 has a coarse thread (for example, in a prototype device, a 0.63mm (0.25") Whitworth thread) to provide a high resistance to failure of the thread of the nut due to frictional forces applied thereto, to prevent the nut 56 from being pulled from the thread and to provide for fast movement of the nut 56 along the lead screw 54.

The bottoms of the fingers are attached to the nut 56 and pivotally mounted upon pivot 58 extending perpendicular to the axis of the drive shaft for the fingers. The fingers of the hand are joined and move together as a single unit.

Bevel gear 46 of the differential gearbox 38 is engaged with a bevel gear 60 attached to a drive shaft, the axis of which is indicated by chain 62. A brass collar 64 and a pinion gear 66 are mounted on this drive shaft. A surface of the collar 64 engages the surface of a nylon screw 68. The purpose of the collar 64 and screw 68 is to provide a mechanism for applying a small retarding force to the rotation of the drive shaft, and accordingly may be replaced by any suitable means for applying a retarding force to rotation of the bevel gear 46.

Pinion gear 66 engages a relatively larger gear 70 attached to a drive shaft (not shown) for driving the thumb (not shown) of the hand 10. In this preferred embodiment, the pinion gear has 10 teeth and the gear 70 has 75 teeth.

The axis of this drive shaft is indicated by chain 72. The drive shaft for the thumb is connected to one end of a lead screw 74, upon which a nut 76 is mounted. Lead screw 74 and nut 76 are identical to lead screw 54 and nut 56.

One end of a resilient member 78, such as a tension spring, is connected to the nut 76. In this preferred embodiment, the spring 78 has a stiffness of 29.17N/mm and a maximum tensile force of 216N. The other end of the spring 78 is connected to a mount 80 upon which the bottom of the thumb is attached. Similar to the fingers, the thumb is pivotally mounted upon pivot 82 extending perpendicular to the axis of the drive shaft for the thumb. The motion of the mount 80 is constrained between pins 86 mounted to the hand. Figure 5 shows the geometry of the thumb and fingers of the hand. The geometry of the design illustrated is based on the right hand of an average male, and may be modified or handed according to the size and needs of the patient. The distance between the pivots 58 and 82 for the fingers and thumb respectively is 64mm in a direction perpendicular to the centreline of the forearm, pivot 82 being set back 13mm from the pivot 58 in a direction parallel to the centreline of the forearm. The distances between pivot 58 and the tips of the fingers and between the pivot 82 and the tip of the thumb are 84mm and 62mm respectively. The maximum spacing between the tips of the fingers and the tip of the thumb is 90mm.

To grip an object using the hand, the patient locates the object between the fingers and thumb and places the thumb against the object. The fingers are then moved towards the thumb to make contact with the object. Depending on the size of the object and the initial position of the fingers and thumb, the fingers may rotate an angle of up to 65° before contacting the object. When contact is made with the object, their motion is stopped and the thumb is rotated towards the fingers in order to apply a gripping force to the object. Depending on the shape and resilience of the object, the thumb may rotate an angle of up to 10° towards the fingers whilst applying the gripping force, the patient stopping the rotation of the thumb when a sufficient gripping force has been applied to the object.

The closure of the hand 10 will now be described in more detail with reference to Figure 2.

With the object located between the fingers and thumb and the thumb placed against the object, the patient contracts the flexor muscles of the forearm, creating a flexion EMG signal which is detected by the sensor located thereon. This signal starts the motor 12, shaft 26 rotating in an anti-clockwise direction at a speed of approximately 14,000rpm. This high speed is stepped down by the gears 30 and 32 to approximately 4,700rpm and again by gears 34 and 36 to 1 ,240rpm.

The small retarding force applied by screw 68 on the collar 64 initially inhibits the rotation of the bevel gear 46 of the differential gearbox 38, keeping the thumb stationary. The driving force of the motor is therefore transferred wholly to the bevel gear 48 of the differential gearbox 38, which rotates at approximately 2,480rpm. Bevel gear 48 drives the bevel gear 50 to rotate the drive shaft for the fingers and the lead screw 54 at approximately 2,480rpm. As the rod rotates, the nut 56 moves towards the end of the lead screw 54 attached to the drive shaft for the fingers at a speed of approximately 52mm/sec. This motion of the nut 56 causes the fingers to rotate about the pivot 58 until they make contact with the object.

The distance between the pivot 58 and the bottom of the fingers, attached to the nut 56, is approximately 28mm. Accordingly, with the hand in a fully open position, that is, with the fingers and thumb initially at their maximum separation, the time taken for the fingers to rotate from the fully open position to a fully closed position is approximately 0.46s. With the thumb in the fully closed position, that is, having rotated 10° towards the fingers, the closure time for the hand is 0.38s.

When the fingers make contact with the object, a retarding force is applied to the fingers and, consequently, to the drive shaft for the fingers. When the magnitude of this retarding force is such that the retarding force applied to the drive shaft for the fingers is greater than the frictional force applied to the drive shaft for the thumb, by the contact between the collar 64 and screw 68, the driving force of the motor is transferred wholly to the bevel gear 46 of the differential gearbox 38, which begins rotating at approximately 2,480rpm. In this preferred embodiment, the magnitude of the retarding force required to transfer the driving force of the motor to the bevel gear 46 is less than 1 N, and is approximately 0.67N. Bevel gear 46 drives the bevel gear 60 to rotate the drive shaft attached thereto at approximately 2,480rpm. Rotation of this drive shaft rotates the pinion 66, which in turn drives the gear 70 to rotate the drive shaft for the thumb and the lead screw 74. Due to the gear ratio of the pinion 66 and the gear 70, the torque applied to the drive shaft for the thumb in increased by a factor of 7.5 in order to extend the spring 78.

As the lead screw 74 rotates, the nut 76 moves towards the end of the lead screw 74 attached to the drive shaft for the thumb. This motion of the nut 76 pulls the spring 78 attached thereto towards the lead screw 74, which in turn pulls the end 84 of the mount 80 in the same direction to rotate the thumb towards the object. As there is only a small tensile force applied to the spring during rotation of the thumb towards the object, the spring 78 remains substantially undeformed until the thumb comes into contact with the object.

Assuming that the object has a high rigidity, the thumb stops rotating as soon as it contacts the object. Continued motion of the nut 76 extends the spring 78, which in turn applies a force on the mount 80 to urge the thumb further towards the object. As further rotation of the thumb is prevented by the object, the force acting on the thumb from the spring 78 is transferred to the object as the gripping force exerted on the object by the fingers and thumb of the hand. The gripping force gradually increases until the patient stops applying the flexion signal, thereby stopping the motor 12, or until the motor 12 stalls. The maximum gripping force appliable to an object by the hand in this preferred embodiment is approximately 110N at the tips of the fingers and thumb. The selection of a spring 78 with a high stiffness enables a high gripping force to be quickly applied to the object. In addition, as only a relatively small spring extension is required in order to provide a high gripping force, the size of the prosthetic hand is not unnecessarily large.

Subsequently, if the object gripped by the hand starts to slip from the hand, the force acting on the mount 80 from the spring 78 acts to rotate the thumb further towards the fingers in order to re-establish the grip on the object without the need to switch the motor on again.

To release the object, the patient contracts the extensor muscles of the forearm, creating an EMG signal which is detected by the sensor located thereon. This signal starts the motor 12 rotating shaft 26 in a clockwise direction in order to reverse the motion of the fingers and thumb. Alternatively, the patient may apply a co-contraction signal, as described above.

As the gripping force is high at this time, the torque required to turn the bevel gear 48 for rotation of the drive shaft for the fingers is approximately 12.75 times greater than that required to turn the bevel gear 46 for rotation of the drive shaft for the thumb. Accordingly, the driving force of the motor is transferred wholly to the bevel gear 46 of the differential gearbox 38, which begins rotating at approximately 2,480rpm in the opposite direction. Rotation of the bevel gear 46 rotates the drive shaft for the thumb and the lead screw 74 so that the nut 76 moves back towards the spring 78. As spring 78 relaxes, the gripping force applied to the object decreases.

When the gripping force has fallen to 0.67 N or below, the frictional force acting on the drive shaft for the thumb, by the contact between the collar 64 and screw 68, is greater than the torque required to rotate the drive shaft for the fingers. At this time, the driving from of the motor is transferred by the differential gearbox 38 from bevel gear 60 to bevel gear 50 to rotate the drive shaft for the fingers and the lead screw 54 so that the nut 56 moves back towards the pivot 58 to rotate the fingers towards their fully open position.

When the fingers reach the fully open position, the driving force of the motor is again wholly transferred to the bevel gear 60 of the differential gearbox 38 so that the thumb is rotated towards its fully open position. At this position, the normally closed switch NC is switched into an open position, and the motor stops. The maximum closing time for the hand is 0.46 seconds. This is an improvement over the prior Steeper and Bock hands, which are 0.8s and 2s respectively. Even though typically the human hand closes in 0.27 seconds, a closure time of 0.46 seconds provides the patient with a greater control of the hand.

The preferred embodiment utilises a spring 78 to re-establish the gripping force of the hand independently from the motor 12. As an alternative to the spring 78, a torsional spring may be mounted directly on the axis of the thumb. With this arrangement, the drive shaft to the thumb would still be connected to the thumb via this spring. Another alternative is to eliminate the spring and form at least one of the thumb and fingers from resilient material, such as a tough, high stiffness elastic polymer, instead of from plastic coated metallic material used in the preferred embodiment, to provide the elasticity required to obtain a variable force. Also the use of finger and thumb pads or pulps made from a hard foam would also improve the design, as not only would they contribute to the elasticity of the system but, by deforming, would also increase the surface area in contact with the object, thereby improving the ability of the hand to grip an object.

The lead screws 54 and 74 have thread forms customary in machine tool lead screws, in which the thread is inclined at a steeper angle (approximately 80°) to the longitudinal axis than that of the Whitworth thread (approximately 45°), thereby reducing the frictional force acting on the nut but at the penalty of increased stresses on the thread. The nut may need to be metal-reinforced to withstand the additional stresses.

Alternative forms of differential gearbox may be provided. For example, Figure 6 shows a differential gearbox 200 using ball bearings to provide the differential motion. A first set of ball bearings 202 is housed in a cage formed in the central spur gear 204. Ball bearings 202 abut the faces of plates 206, 208 attached to output shafts 210 and 212 respectively. Second and third sets of ball bearings 214 and 216 abut the opposite faces of the plates 206 and 208 respectively and the faces of fixed outer thrust plates 218 and 220 respectively.

When the torque delivered by the output shafts 208 and 210 is equal, the ball bearings 202 rotate with the central spur gear 204 within the cages without spinning, so that both of the output shafts 208, 210 are driven at the same speed. When a retarding torque is applied to one of the output shafts, for example, shaft 208, so that it stops, ball bearings 202 spin on their own axes in order to accommodate the rotation of the central spur gear 204 and the speed of the other output shaft is doubled.

By using ball bearings to provide the differential motion, as opposed to central spur gears, the size of the differential gearbox 200 may be smaller than that of a gearbox 38 using gears, and is suitable for low torque applications, such as the above described prosthetic hand.

Each feature disclosed in the specification, including the claims and drawings, may be provided independently or in any appropriate combination.

Claims

1. A manipulator comprising a motor and respective drive means selectively connected to said motor for moving separately the fingers and a thumb of said manipulator.
2. A manipulator according to Claim 1 , each drive means being stallable whilst permitting the other drive means to operate.
3. A manipulator according to Claim 1 or 2, wherein said drive means is selectively connected to said motor for moving sequentially the fingers and a thumb of said manipulator.
4. A manipulator according to any of Claims 1 to 3, further comprising a clutch connected between said motor and each said drive means.
5. A manipulator according to any of Claims 1 to 3, further comprising a differential gearbox connected between said motor and each said drive means.
6. A manipulator according to Claim 5, wherein first and second outputs from the gearbox are connected to respective drive means, the outputs being arranged so that the fingers and thumb are movable at different speeds.
7. A manipulator according to Claim 6, wherein the manipulator comprises means for applying a retarding force to the drive means for the thumb to transfer a driving force input to said gearbox from said motor initially to the drive means for the fingers.
8. A manipulator according to Claim 6 or 7, wherein the first output is arranged to transfer therefrom a driving torque input to said gearbox from said motor to the drive means for the fingers when a reaction force of prescribed magnitude is applied to the drive means for the fingers.
9. A manipulator according to Claim 8, wherein the magnitude of said force is less than the maximum gripping force of the manipulator.
10. A manipulator according to Claim 8 or 9, wherein said reaction force is applied to the fingers and the magnitude of said force is less than 1 N.
11. A manipulator according to any preceding claim, wherein the manipulator further comprises means coupled to at least one of the drive means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator in the event of relative movement of the fingers and thumb when the motor is switched off.
12. A manipulator according to Claim 11 , wherein said means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator is adapted to store elastic energy imparted thereto by said motor.
13. A manipulator according to Claim 11 or 12, wherein said means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator comprises a resilient member coupled between the thumb and the drive means for the thumb.
14. A manipulator according to Claim 11 or 12 , wherein the thumb of the manipulator comprises a resilient member for re-establishing the gripping force of the manipulator.
15. A manipulator comprising a motor, drive means connected to said motor for moving fingers and a thumb of said manipulator to grip an object therebetween, and means coupled to the drive means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator in the event of relative movement of the fingers and thumb when the motor is switched off.
16. A manipulator according to Claim 15, wherein said means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator is adapted to store elastic energy imparted thereto by said motor.
17. A manipulator according to Claim 15 or 16, wherein said means for maintaining a gripping force of the manipulator comprises a resilient member coupled between the thumb and the drive means for the thumb.
18. A manipulator according to Claim 15 or 16, wherein the thumb of the manipulator comprises a resilient member for re-establishing the gripping force of the manipulator.
19. A manipulator according to any preceding claim, being a prosthetic hand.
20. A manipulator substantially as hereinbefore described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
PCT/GB1998/002795 1997-09-15 1998-09-15 Manipulator WO1999013807A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GBGB9719635.6A GB9719635D0 (en) 1997-09-15 1997-09-15 Manipulator
GB9719635.6 1997-09-15

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU90889/98A AU9088998A (en) 1997-09-15 1998-09-15 Manipulator

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1999013807A1 true WO1999013807A1 (en) 1999-03-25

Family

ID=10819114

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/GB1998/002795 WO1999013807A1 (en) 1997-09-15 1998-09-15 Manipulator

Country Status (3)

Country Link
AU (1) AU9088998A (en)
GB (1) GB9719635D0 (en)
WO (1) WO1999013807A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1195151A1 (en) * 1999-05-19 2002-04-10 Harada Electronics Co., Ltd Movable finger for prostheses, upper extremity prostheses using this movable finger, and movable finger controller
NL2003156C2 (en) * 2009-07-09 2011-01-11 Univ Delft Tech Artificial hand.

Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1479256A (en) * 1965-06-25 1967-05-05 Istitut Naz Per L Assicurazion Prosthesis forearm myoelectric control device comprising a transistor amplifier for myoelectric currents
US4114464A (en) * 1976-02-25 1978-09-19 Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Artificial hand and drive apparatus for such hand
US4246661A (en) * 1979-03-15 1981-01-27 The Boeing Company Digitally-controlled artificial hand
GB2072020A (en) * 1980-03-24 1981-09-30 Steeper Hugh Ltd Hand prosthesis
GB2163570A (en) * 1984-08-24 1986-02-26 Hanger & Co Ltd J E Artificial hand
US4623354A (en) * 1984-10-22 1986-11-18 Northwestern University Myoelectrically controlled artificial hand
EP0219478A1 (en) * 1985-10-15 1987-04-22 Centri Gummifabrik Ab Artificial hand
US4955918A (en) * 1989-05-30 1990-09-11 University Of Southern California Artificial dexterous hand
US5378033A (en) * 1993-05-10 1995-01-03 University Of Kentucky Research Foundation Multi-function mechanical hand with shape adaptation
US5413611A (en) * 1992-07-21 1995-05-09 Mcp Services, Inc. Computerized electronic prosthesis apparatus and method
WO1995024875A1 (en) * 1994-03-12 1995-09-21 Royal Infirmary Of Edinburgh Nhs Trust Hand prosthesis

Patent Citations (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR1479256A (en) * 1965-06-25 1967-05-05 Istitut Naz Per L Assicurazion Prosthesis forearm myoelectric control device comprising a transistor amplifier for myoelectric currents
US4114464A (en) * 1976-02-25 1978-09-19 Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter Haftung Artificial hand and drive apparatus for such hand
US4246661A (en) * 1979-03-15 1981-01-27 The Boeing Company Digitally-controlled artificial hand
GB2072020A (en) * 1980-03-24 1981-09-30 Steeper Hugh Ltd Hand prosthesis
GB2163570A (en) * 1984-08-24 1986-02-26 Hanger & Co Ltd J E Artificial hand
US4623354A (en) * 1984-10-22 1986-11-18 Northwestern University Myoelectrically controlled artificial hand
EP0219478A1 (en) * 1985-10-15 1987-04-22 Centri Gummifabrik Ab Artificial hand
US4955918A (en) * 1989-05-30 1990-09-11 University Of Southern California Artificial dexterous hand
US5413611A (en) * 1992-07-21 1995-05-09 Mcp Services, Inc. Computerized electronic prosthesis apparatus and method
US5378033A (en) * 1993-05-10 1995-01-03 University Of Kentucky Research Foundation Multi-function mechanical hand with shape adaptation
WO1995024875A1 (en) * 1994-03-12 1995-09-21 Royal Infirmary Of Edinburgh Nhs Trust Hand prosthesis

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP1195151A1 (en) * 1999-05-19 2002-04-10 Harada Electronics Co., Ltd Movable finger for prostheses, upper extremity prostheses using this movable finger, and movable finger controller
EP1195151A4 (en) * 1999-05-19 2003-04-02 Harada Electronics Co Ltd Movable finger for prostheses, upper extremity prostheses using this movable finger, and movable finger controller
US6896704B1 (en) 1999-05-19 2005-05-24 Harada Electronics Co., Ltd. Movable finger for prostheses, upper extremity prostheses using this movable finger, and movable finger controller
NL2003156C2 (en) * 2009-07-09 2011-01-11 Univ Delft Tech Artificial hand.

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU9088998A (en) 1999-04-05
GB9719635D0 (en) 1997-11-19

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Dalley et al. Design of a multifunctional anthropomorphic prosthetic hand with extrinsic actuation
US8512415B2 (en) Powered ankle-foot prothesis
US9339397B2 (en) Artificial ankle-foot system with spring, variable-damping, and series-elastic actuator components
US9333097B2 (en) Artificial human limbs and joints employing actuators, springs, and variable-damper elements
AU704747B2 (en) Hand prosthesis
EP0219478A1 (en) Artificial hand
Chiri et al. Mechatronic design and characterization of the index finger module of a hand exoskeleton for post-stroke rehabilitation
Pons et al. The MANUS-HAND dextrous robotics upper limb prosthesis: mechanical and manipulation aspects
US8029414B2 (en) Strengthening glove
EP1024768B1 (en) Upper limb prosthesis
WO2011118646A1 (en) Robot hand and robot device
DiCicco et al. Comparison of control strategies for an EMG controlled orthotic exoskeleton for the hand
Wege et al. Development and control of a hand exoskeleton for rehabilitation of hand injuries
US4928546A (en) Robotic devices
In et al. Exo-glove: A wearable robot for the hand with a soft tendon routing system
US4364593A (en) Object grasping system
EP0268341B1 (en) Gripping device
Massa et al. Design and development of an underactuated prosthetic hand
US8449624B2 (en) Arm prosthetic device
Pylatiuk et al. Progress in the development of a multifunctional hand prosthesis
Kyberd et al. The design of anthropomorphic prosthetic hands: A study of the Southampton Hand
EP2436358B1 (en) Recovering system for training user to move hands
WO1990002030A1 (en) Methods and apparatus for mechanically intelligent grasping
US4246661A (en) Digitally-controlled artificial hand
US8597369B2 (en) Equilibrium-point prosthetic and orthotic ankle-foot systems and devices

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AL AM AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BY CA CH CN CU CZ DE DK EE ES FI GB GE GH GM HR HU ID IL IS JP KE KG KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV MD MG MK MN MW MX NO NZ PL PT RO RU SD SE SG SI SK SL TJ TM TR TT UA UG US UZ VN YU ZW

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): GH GM KE LS MW SD SZ UG ZW AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE BF BJ CF CG CI CM GA GN GW ML MR NE SN TD TG

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: KR

REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: 8642

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase
NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: CA