WO1997030654A1 - Implantable tooth replacement, abutment therefor and process for making abutments - Google Patents

Implantable tooth replacement, abutment therefor and process for making abutments Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1997030654A1
WO1997030654A1 PCT/EP1997/000871 EP9700871W WO9730654A1 WO 1997030654 A1 WO1997030654 A1 WO 1997030654A1 EP 9700871 W EP9700871 W EP 9700871W WO 9730654 A1 WO9730654 A1 WO 9730654A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
abutment
implant
characterized
shape
ceramic
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/EP1997/000871
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Arnold Wohlwend
Original Assignee
Arnold Wohlwend
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH48296 priority Critical
Priority to CH482/96 priority
Priority to CH1471/96 priority
Priority to CH147196 priority
Application filed by Arnold Wohlwend filed Critical Arnold Wohlwend
Publication of WO1997030654A1 publication Critical patent/WO1997030654A1/en

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0012Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools characterised by the material or composition, e.g. ceramics, surface layer, metal alloy
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C13/00Dental prostheses; Making same
    • A61C13/0003Making bridge-work, inlays, implants or the like
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C13/00Dental prostheses; Making same
    • A61C13/0003Making bridge-work, inlays, implants or the like
    • A61C13/0006Production methods
    • A61C13/0009Production methods using a copying machine
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/005Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/0077Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars with shape following the gingival surface or the bone surface
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K6/00Preparations for dentistry
    • A61K6/02Use of preparations for artificial teeth, for filling or for capping teeth
    • A61K6/0205Ceramics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C13/00Dental prostheses; Making same
    • A61C13/0003Making bridge-work, inlays, implants or the like
    • A61C13/0022Blanks or green, unfinished dental restoration parts
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/005Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers
    • A61C8/0054Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers having a cylindrical implant connecting part
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/005Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers
    • A61C8/0059Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers with additional friction enhancing means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/005Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers
    • A61C8/006Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers with polygonal positional means, e.g. hexagonal or octagonal
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61CDENTISTRY; APPARATUS OR METHODS FOR ORAL OR DENTAL HYGIENE
    • A61C8/00Means to be fixed to the jaw-bone for consolidating natural teeth or for fixing dental prostheses thereon; Dental implants; Implanting tools
    • A61C8/0048Connecting the upper structure to the implant, e.g. bridging bars
    • A61C8/005Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers
    • A61C8/0069Connecting devices for joining an upper structure with an implant member, e.g. spacers tapered or conical connection

Abstract

An implantable tooth replacement consists of an implant (27) which can be secured in a jawbone, an abutment (9) made of a ceramic material which can be secured to the implant (27) by a securing screw (29), a tooth prosthesis, e.g. a crown or bridge, and a securing means for fixing said abutment to said tooth prosthesis. The ceramic material has a fracture toughness KIC of at least 6 MPa.m1/2 and a flexural strength of at least 700 or 800 MPa and consists at least to the extent of 90 wt.% of zirconium oxide.

Description

IMPL A NTIERBARER MEDICAL, ABUTMENT THEREFOR AND METHOD FOR

MANUFACTURING ABUTMENTS

The present invention relates to an implantable

A dental prosthesis according to the preamble of claim 1, em abutment of such implant system, as well as process for the preparation of an abutment position.

Dentures systems used today, hereinafter referred tatsysteme as Implan¬, consist essentially of two Tei¬ len: the implant itself, which introduced surgically into the Ober¬ or lower jaw under the gums insbe¬, sondere screwed, is there during 3 -6 months belas- sen, is to achieve em healing (osseointegration); and the so called abutment, which is fastened to the so-called Implan¬ tat-shoulder with that on the abutment surfaces künstli¬ crown connects. After the healing of the implantation tes the gum is opened surgically to management on the implant to screw the Abut--. Subsequently, the crown on the abutment either by screwing or Kle¬ is bung befestig *:. Most commonly, both implants and abutments from titanium are used today, with the biocompatibility and the potential osseointegration of titanium has certainly established itself as an implant material from Grün¬. The dark color of the titanium implant is - since the implant is surrounded by opaque bone - not bothersome, unlike that of a titanium abutments. It resul¬ advantage thereof discoloration of the gingiva (gum), so that color-em-pending matching is difficult to remaining teeth, also, the implant head, in general, to a different natural tooth diameter.

The implant shoulder and being impersonated tooth root at the level of their gingival By Trittes have different cross sections in Dimen¬ sion and shape. Is beispiels¬ as a missing, upper central incisor by a single tooth implant replaced, a more triangular, larger cross-sectional shape of the gingival passage point the circular, a diameter of about four millimeters having Implantat¬ shoulder m must be transferred.

To overcome these difficulties, at least in part, various solutions have been proposed. Thus prefabricated Titanbutments, for example, arranged so that titanium components can be placed sufficiently far below the Gmgiva. However, thereby the definitive cementation difficult animals m of Klmik, because then the edges of the crown due to the arcade-shaped Gmgivaverlaufes particularly at the proximal surfaces massively subgmgival come to rest (under the toothed meat), and excess cement under Um¬ objects only by means of a flap opening of the gums safety-may be more removed.

Another approach is the grinding of a konven¬ tional abutments made of pure titanium, in which the dental technician umpräpariert the titanium abutment individually, so that the pre- paration limit angegli¬ the arcade-shaped surfaces is Gmgivaverlauf. This em evenly subgmgivaler crown edge profile of about 1.0 to 1.5 mm depth can be achieved, which significantly facilitates the later cement residue removal, after definitive Zemen¬ orientation of the crown. Em crown scaffold from a high gold content alloy this individuali¬ overbased titanium abutment is üoergossen and then blinded with Kera¬ mik. This approach facilitates the permanent cementation, but it requires the correct implant position, as necessary corrections to achieve an optimum gmgivalen aesthetics are limited. In the case of a thin gingiva there is the risk of a me¬-metallic shimmering through.

Under "correct implant position" means the place of a tooth root positioning of the implant. The Im¬ Plantat "incorrect" position, will then offer or be preferable if for example the Knochensub- substance is an integral addition to be imitated tooth root or if there is more space available.

Another possibility is given by the use of Abut- ments that are made of alumina. Thus, the use of a densely sintered, high purity alumina ceramic (about 99.5% AI2O3) is spielsweise described in US-A-5,125,839. It is thus here the material of pure titanium replaced by ceramic, and in the case of a thin gingiva no longer is the danger of metallic shimmering By be¬.

Such alumina abutments are generally prepared so that alumina powder pressed under pressure in shape and is thus compacted. Porosities in the compacted mass are inevitable, are - auf¬ due to the brittleness of the resulting compacted mass - minimum and maximum wall thicknesses essential to ensure the stability of the substantially hollow-cylindrical abutments. Incorrect placement of implants, however, require an asymmetrical wall thickness shape of the abutment to compensate to the degeneration with respect to the impersonated root centered position of the implant. Abutments of alumina are needed, therefore, overall only a few, optimally placed implants: can be. Also, it is not certain whether

can withstand the significant, occurring during biting and chewing forces permanently abutments of alumina.

The abutment is about the mounting bolt to the implanted in the jaw bone - implant attached, generally nensechskant- a home in abutment or inner octagonal opening is provided so that a counter-stop is given when tightening the fastening bolt - in particular screwed. To this end, a hollow pin is Kant with corresponding Aussensechs- or plugged external octagon shape in this opening, the hollow pin receives the screwdriver. During tightening of the fastening screw (force of about 30 N) of said hollow pin so that the implant when screwing the abutment surfaces not from the Kno¬ is moved serves as a rotation lock. To achieve these hexagon or -achtkantöffnung with her on the introducing of the screwdriver hinausge¬ Henden, the necessary inner diameter requires that the training is to provide greater strength to the abutment sendurchmesser sufficient, the stability ensuring end Minimalwand¬.

Since aluminum oxide is röntgentransluzent, checking the fit in the mouth of the patient is difficult. Alumina is - like all ceramic materials - fen hard to beschlei-, making the necessary especially with incorrect positioning post difficult.

The object of the present invention is to overcome the above-mentioned, adhering to the prior art problems, which is achieved by an implant system, wherein the kenn¬ features of claim 1 are realized respectively by an abutment having the characterizing features of arrival award 6, as well as process for producing a Abut¬ ments for such an implant system, wherein the kenn¬ features of claims 8, 16, or 18 are realized.

Further advantageous or alternative designs are registered m be¬ the characterizing features of the dependent claims.

The invention will be described purely by way of example with reference to drawings. Show it:

Fιg.1 an elevation of an implant system with crown

Pine; 2 shows an abutment for accurate placement of implants in ground plan and elevation;

Figure 3 is an elevational view of a prefabricated abutments for

Receiving a crown; 4a, 4b and 4c show various Abutmentformen; 5a and 5b are representations of implants and to passen¬ the abutments with specially designed Kontaktflä¬ chen; Fιg.6a-6f is a schematic representation of a possible manufacturing method for position em erfmdungsgemässes Abut¬ management; 7 is a abutment with attached clamp; 8 shows a fixed rail to a natural tooth abutments; 9 shows a milling machine for creating the outer shape of an abutment; 10 shows em example of automatic production of a

Abutments in a copying machine; 11 is a schematic representation of emer computer-supported production of an abutment;

12 shows an elevation of a working die and a vorge Sintered abutment with an inner ring; 13 shows em prefabricated abutment with vorgefertig¬ system, attached crown part; 14 shows a prefabricated plastic sleeve to create a plastic Modellabutments and 15A to 15d is a schematic illustration of a computer-aided manufacture of Abutmentaussenformen.

In Fig.l em implant system is shown, wherein em - ge optionally titanium - manufactured implant 27 m incorporated a jawbone 26 - optionally screwed - is. An abutment 9 is connected via a fastening screw 29, which 30 m which is provided with an internally threaded screw hole 31 is screwed in the implant 27 through an opening provided in the abutment opening with the implant 27th The abutment 9 is seated on emer upper latch surface of the implant 27, the so-called implant shoulder 32. The abutment 9 is substantially shaped as a hollow cylinder, wherein em stegarti¬ ger projection 33 inside the opening 30 serves as a stop for the head of the fastening screw 29th The abutment 9 is the implant shoulder tπch- 32 adjacent area terförmig supplied ground, whereby both Implantatfehlstellun- gen corrected out as well as the transition from the round cross-sectional shape to the triangular rather the natural tooth ge can be formed. According to the evaluated crown shape, the abutment 9 is prepared to Bukkai- and Inzisalseite, the crown 11 is placed thereon.

To ensure the long-term success of an implant-supported crown or bridge reconstruction is needed - such as loading shown already in the introduction - a ceramic abutments with the highest possible strength and toughness values. Partially yttria-stabilized zirconia (tetragonal zirconia stabili¬ overbased) has a ceramic material not only emen high flexural strength value from 900 to 1300 Pa and a low Young's modulus of about 200 kPa, but also what is meaningful insbesonder a high toughness value having a fracture toughness of about 9-10 Mpa * m 1/2. The high value of fracture toughness can be static explain repair in which voltage ranges (for example, crack tips) incorrect, ober¬ flächliche defects by a phase transformation volumensvergrössernde self-stabilized zirconia with the ability of tetragonal (TZP) or partially (PSZ) can. In this case, the metastable tetragonal phase of the zirconia m is converted to the thermodynamically stable monoklme Pnase. This effect can be achieved by

Using a high purity zirconia powder be effected, the alkaline earth metal oxides such as MgO and CaO, and / or rare alkaline earth oxide, such as Y2O3 mixed, which permit stabilization of the tetragonal or cubic phase at room temperature.

Thus, the zirconium oxide exceeds by far the most crucial for the me¬ chanical load ratios of the high purity, dense sintered alumina having a bending gefestigkeit in the range of 500-600 Pa, and one with 3-4.5 MPa / m 1/2 only half as large fracture toughness achieved. The properties excellent for Zirconiaoxide physical Ei¬ allow an individual to grind the abutment regardless of minimum mass, the Anferti¬ supply of highly esthetic restorations on single tooth implants allowed. The clinical preparation will ER- Leichert by the abutments are ground be¬ in the dental laboratory.

Instead of the above-described zirconium oxide also other biocompatible ceramics or alloys may be used, the bending strength values above 700 MPa and the fracture toughness is at least 6 MPa-m / 2. Thus Le¬ can alloys of Al2θ3 ~ ZrO 2 are used, wherein beispiels¬, in a proportion of 15 vol% ZrO 2 strengths of 1000 MPa are attainable. Also SISS ^ or TiC or fiber-reinforced ver¬ ceramics such as SiC fiber, SiC whiskers, Al2θ3-SiC fiber can be provided. The Materia¬ lien listed here are merely exemplary, are essential to these Mate¬ rials own ends physical properties, the lower limits listed above are by given. It is understood that materials with higher breaking strength and fracture toughness values ​​beein¬ influence the durability and lifetime of the implant system in a positive way, but on the other hand their use up due to the difficult machinability, if necessary - and here was far the limit set - makes problematic.

Within the scope of the invention or "zirconia" any, having the above characteristics ceramic or ceramic combination is to be understood to have the geforder¬ th physical properties in the following with "Oxide Ceramics".

While it is the poor grindability of oxide ceramics to be regarded as a disadvantage if the preparation of Keramikdi¬ punched sleeves directly in the patient's mouth is done, as this so¬ well for the patient and for the dentist extraordi- is dentlich tedious. The treatment time for the preparation of a Oxidkeramikabutments requires 2-3 times as long compared with the preparation of a natural tooth. However, in the laboratory, for example, can be prepared quickly and accurately for rough preparation by applying diamantgesinterter slices. Also, the poor grindability of Zrθ2- abutments can be fully compensated (below s.dazu) by applying a zwischengesinterten Abutmenttyps. Such abutments can also be processed in the laboratory by a dental technician in an ideal way. For example, a waste pressure relative implant position taken directly after placing the implant, remains during the healing phase of the implants sufficient time to prepare this ZrO 2 abutments in the laboratory and ready to sinter so that gland at the abutment (screwing the abutments on the implant) an individual and therefore optimum provisional Versor¬ supply immediately be Stigt befe¬ to the fixtures or the ZrO 2 abutments.

It proves advantageous to, not the posit- on the abutment 9 loading strengthened crown 11 with a com- use today, glass ionomer cement or phosphate, but stigten to befe¬ with a resilient throughout the lifetime of the binder. The cements known to be used are rigid and transmit the large forces that occur when biting on the chewing surface, directly onto the Ceramic Abutment 9 and the implant 27 to the jawbone 26. The na¬-natural teeth is located between the bone and the tooth a buffer zone (PDL), which prevents Zahnabsplitterung in most cases. Although the use of a Teflon ring between the implant and the abutment is known, but this may lead to a loosening of the screw connection between the abutment and the implant. To ensure the success of the implant system, the provision of such a buffer zone between the implant and the crown or bridge restoration beneficial. According to the invention is formed da¬ to the joint 28 as an elastic intermediate layer. The hard composite, glass ionomer cement or phosphate is replaced for example by cement emen silicone or composite base, wherein these soft-remaining Kunststoffüller an¬ place of glass fillers containing haltn. Also cements Komposit¬ base with resilient polymeric materials as additives or with reversible thermoplastic components smd suitable. Such cement is elastic and damps

Strokes, which can otherwise cause fracture of the abutments and hence the loss of the implant system. Instead of such elastic cement or, where appropriate, also be present additionally, the surface of the prepared abutments can be covered with a plastic jacket, the wirk¬ as dämp¬ Fende intermediate layer between the abutment and the crown part is sam. The joint 28 serves as a buffer zone. The provision ei¬ ner such, acting as a buffer zone fugue se has beispielswei¬ such a cement and / or the Abut- management includes covering plastic layer, turns out not only for the novel implant system as vorteil¬ way.

Zirconia abutments offer due to their excellent physical properties even with complex Implan¬ tatSituationen, since problems neither extremely thin, smd weni¬ ge tenth of a millimeter expected measured even with thick side walls and fractures or desquamation neither the dental service even at fixing the abutment to the implant may occur.

To each implant situation cover, even with in¬ properly placed implants, and despite the difficult Be¬ grindability of Oxidkeramikabutments, technician dental technicians the various prefabricated Abutmenformen be provided (Figure 2, 3, 4a, 4b and 4c ) that reduce the grinding work to a minimum and make it possible to resolve any implant situation in a rational way. By a properly operated diagnosis the correct selection of the appropriate abutment shape is simplified. Abutmentformen, as shown m Figures 2 and 3 are indicated, if the Im¬ Plantat is set correctly and smd only minimal preparations necessary. Depending on requirements, em roughly vorgeform- tes abutment 9a can to milled with side faces 5 or there are suitable plexeren space available, ie larger and wider interdental spaces, adapted abutment are used 9b. Abutmentformen 9c, 9d and 9f, as shown in 4a, 4b and 4c may be applied, if the implant is not set correctly. There are aesthetic Schleifkorrek- structures possible for not only the Abutmentkörper whose Sei¬ tenwände are designed to be substantially thicker than beispiels¬, at the abutments of 2 and 3, but also the Abutmenthals can be modified and in any form as required nachpräpariert become. This abutment shape has also been developed for the indication in the molar region. This is especially clear reference to 4c, the left part of 4c represents an asymmetric basic form of an abutment 9f in which - to compensate for the incorrect, decentered Positio¬ discrimination of the implant 27 - the same time a particularly large and also a especially small wall thickness is realized. Thus, it is - as the right part of the 4c ​​shows - possible nevertheless to place correctly the dental prosthetic reconstruction. 11

In order to facilitate the operation of regrinding and Nachpräparierens the abutments of zirconia, are intermediately sintered and / or in the "green" stage abutment located shapes, similar to that found m the 4a and 4b are shown to Ver¬ addition, after the clinical Emprobe be re-sintered zirconium material for high quality. For direct veneering of the abutment, this form is also advantageous because it is given the possibility of a proper ceramic support.

Thus, the problem of difficult workability of zirconia allows the

Figure imgf000012_0001
counter the extra-oral Präpaxation using diamond grinders and / or selecting pre-built, ready calcined or zwischengesin¬ terter Abutmentformen. The use of zirconium oxide for the first time allows Formge¬ environment for abutments as they were produced until now only of metals such as titanium, but not brittle, less resilient Al2θ3 ~ ceramic mik. So 5a exemplary showing a import Plantat 27a abutment 9e combination, wherein the abutment Plantat 9e a sharp-edged degree at the contact surface to the Im¬ 27a has. If such an abutment made Alu¬ miniumoxid be shaped so takes a - reduction even under the Voraus¬ that this was pre-sintered and resintered in one package (as discussed below in greater detail be¬ enrolled) - due to the relatively low fracture toughness of alumina with a unfavorable fracture behavior are expected.

5 b shows a special shape of the contact surface 43 of an abutment 9g. In this case, 43 projections 44 are provided on this contact surface, be pressed 29 against the implant shoulder 32, the screw for tightening the Befestigungs¬ and - as the material of the implant, for example titanium, is softer than the material of the inventive abutment 9g - intervene in this , Thereby an excellent sealing abutment implant is achieved. Bacteria flow due to leakage is prevented, which could lead to inflammation and otherwise the success of the implant system stems would be questioned. These projections 44 may be spielsweise ring-shaped and arranged kon¬ centered about the opening 30, representing with slightly rounded edges, of such a kind of labyrinth seal.

Due to the different forms of ceramic abutments various demands can be met. So the Kcnturgebung can correctly aligned with the natural teeth wer¬, making a buccal Gingivarezeεsion can be avoided. The cross-sectional situation of tooth root and Zahnhals- area at the gingival penetration point can be correctly ge staltet. An incorrect implant position or -längsachse can be improved. Subgingival preparative tion limit may, on the arcade-like Gmgiva- course be designed properly in the proximal region.

Reference to the figures 6a-6f a way of manufacturing is be¬ registered position of a zirconium oxide abutments purely schematically: zirconium oxide can not, as in the development of Herstel¬ Alummiumoxidkeramik, are pressed directly into a form, since this, as mentioned in the introduction ' shown, extremely high pressures would require. Moreover, would not biocompatible zirconia produced in this way. Zirkonoxidpul¬ ver or shavings isostatically on a mandrel (not provided dar¬) are pressed so that an enlarged tube shape 34 is ent (6a). The increase results from the fact that the material shrinks to a certain amount during the subsequent sintering process. These tube mold 34 is in the so-called "green", dhnicht sintered state shortened to the desired length and ge two sides, in approximately wedge-shaped, zugeschrägt (Figure 6b). Thereafter, on the faces zuge¬ the implant side a recess 35 formed (6C), which with a special tool 41 (Fig.6d) - preferably with an ultrasound device - for a hexagon socket (other Ein¬ also handle shapes are possible) formed which comes into engagement with a ent speaking external hex 36 on the implant shoulder (s.Fιg.1 and 5) and determines the Relativstellur.g the abutment on the implant. Such Spezialin¬ instrument 41 can be seen from Fig.6d, the 41b in the form of a foreign hexagon carries at one stabfor¬-shaped, for orientation in the opening 30 'provided an annular projection portion 41a. If now this device placed in longitudinal ultra- traschallSchwingungen while voltage 30 'of the pipe shape within the Öff¬ 34 is maintained, so a precise internal hexagon shape since the kera¬ mix material is easily workable in this stage, is generated. With a Spiralboh¬ rer the opening is widened 30 'from above, at the same time the web-like projection 33 is obtained (6E). (Not shown) made of a zirconia ceramic pellet, which was bar kompak¬ advantage, for example, at room temperature at about 2000, are chips, for example of a length of 2/10 mm, milled stock removal. Also, powder material having particle sizes between for example 30 to 500 microns may need ge.

The in accordance with the abutment shape obtained above with reference to Figure 6a to 6e beschrie¬ surrounded steps, enlarged 9 'and the chips will now be presintered for Zirkonoxidke¬ Ramik at about 1180 ° C. If necessary abutment shape 9 'and chips can also be established from a pre-sintered Presslmg.

The processing of the ceramic in the so-called green state, that is, in nicnt presintered condition, as the processing in halbgesmterten (presintered) state, has the advantage over the methods which create by milling the desired shapes directly from the fer¬ tiggesintertem operation block, the advantage that in the machining of the ceramic less micro cracks are incorporated m the surface and that of the naturally high tool wear, which is given in the processing of high-strength materials is reduced.

Danacn the chips are mixed with water to form a thick paste and ge m and laid around the abutment shape 9 '(the so-called working pack 36). The chips or the Pulverkör¬ partners added water can contain different additives, so 1% acetic acid to facilitate the handling of the pulp, for example, by the addition of Ca, it results em thixotropic behavior. By adding Al¬ koholen example, the stability or there are suitable pact is increased integral of the mixture. Type and quantity d ^ r Beimischun¬ gen will therefore provide genschaft depending on the desired or required egg. A thin paint layer of 10 to 50 μ, carried auf¬ to the inner and outer side of the abutment shape 9 1, closes the pores of the surface and serves as a release agent for the working pack 36. In the subsequent post-sinter that for zirconium oxide at a temperature of ca 1500 ° C is carried out, and in which abutment shape 9 'and Ar¬ beitspackung 36 shrink in the same, defined mass, the lacquer burns without residue, with a minimum gap between abutment shape 9' and working pack 36 results, so that the latter easily from the abutment shape 9 'entfer¬ nen, or - particularly due to the porous consistency - can radiate. The sintering process can be well controlled precisely based ei¬ ner such work package 36 since the change of the external dimensions allow direct control of the shrinking process.

In Figure 7, the procedure during fixing of the abutment 9 is shown on the implant. The inventive Zirkonoxidkeramikabutment hexagon to the attachment of an inner can be dispensed as a rotation lock. By moving the implant in the Kno¬ during fixing of the abutment surfaces 9 when screwing of the fastening screw 29 passing through the opening 30 in the abutment 9 (Figure 1) is inserted, to bind sub, the counter torque is to be applied here, for example a clamping device 3 (for example, a hemostat) constructed. This clamping device 3 summarizes the abutment 9 at two opposite outer surfaces and keeps it during the screwing of the fastening screw 29 tightly. The zirconia used is to be able to withstand these forces strong enough, which is not true for aluminum miniumoxidkeramikabutments generally however. In this way it is possible to reduce the central opening 30 of the abutment to a minimum because only the space for the screw head and screwdriver will compel be¬. The wall thickness is thus obtained the free preparation of the abutments available or Gessjmtdurchmesser an abutment can be lowered.

8 shows another way, the build in fixing abutments necessary counter torque. For this purpose, a rail may be provided 7 connecting an abutment 9 with a na¬-natural tooth 8, or even more abutments 9 un- behind the other or ver¬ binds in combination with natural teeth. This serves as a rotation lock bar 7 is cemented to the natural tooth 8 and the one or more to be fixed (s) the abutment (s) 9 provisionally, wherein a respective OC clusale opening is seen vor¬ for receiving the screwdriver 10th

9 shows a way to make the dental prosthetic Rekon¬ constructive tions work even more efficiently by the Cad-Cam technology is involved in the working procedure. To one or more stored in the computer internal shapes of prefabricated dental prosthetic Rekonstruk¬ are functions such as crown or bridge elements, with a computer-aided milling machine to the exterior surfaces of attached to an implant model abutments 9, transferred. A uniform outer shape of the abutment is always guaranteed, and prefabricated crown parts 11 (Fig.1) can be used without further adaptation, since the respective inner surface fits exactly to the corresponding Abut- ment surface. This plastic or ceramic be¬ standing crown portions 11 can be ground down and correcting color adapted to the adjacent teeth.

The CAD-CAM technology can be incorporated into the workflow further to copy an abutment shape of plastic. This means that first the pre-preparation ei¬ nes plastic abutments in the mouth or on the model durchge leads is. For this purpose, prefabricated Kunst¬ example, nylon sleeves 50 as shown in Figure 14, are formed in the mouth or on the model by applying the self-curing acrylic desired Abutmentaussenform. In order to avoid this operation, a rotation of the plastic sleeve 50, the plastic sleeve 50 may be provided on the inside with a entspre¬ sponding contact surface, such as an integrated metal support 50a. Subsequently, this model by means of a Kopierfrässystems, with the sintering process jewei¬ then adjusted, necessary enlarging factor back to the presintered ceramic is transmitted mikabutment which is sintered finished after grinding. Especially suitable for the zwischengesin- failed and different forms of ZrO 2 abutments her¬ excellently.

The enlargement of the abutment can, for example, shown as 11 in Figure 10 and carried out in various ways:

In Figure 10, an automatic, mechanical Herstellungsmög- friendliness is represented by abutments. Here, a material model Kunst¬ is spanned 13 of an abutment and a Keramikabutmentrohling 14 with clamping screws 15 to the brackets 16 of a co pierfrässystems and fixed via a connection piece 17 in the mutual position. Here, the zirconia abutment can be copied or machined according zwischengesinterten state. should be ground when the abutment in zwischengesinterten Zu¬ stand, an enlargement must be provided 18. By using a diamond wheel 19, or of other, corresponding to abrasive grinding tools and by abundant water cooling during grinding of

Abutments it is quite possible, even a finished sintered oxide ceramics in adequate time - and then without enlargement - to grind. The feed motor 20 moves the support with the clamped abutment relatively slowly at approximately 20 revolutions per minute. there is a screw thread 21 which moves the brackets with the abutments slowly forward between the feed motor 20 and the holder 16 with the clamped plastic model of an abutment 13. In contrast to the feed motor 20 of the drive motor 22 for the diamond wheel 19 must have a high speed as it is for example ensured with air turbines. A guided with bearing shaft 23, the mechanical scanning device 24 is guided on the Oberfläcne of Kunst¬ material model 13 and on the opposite side the abutment of the ceramic blank 14 is ground according herausge¬. 11 shows a computer-based variation in which the scanning of the plastic abutments 13 and the milling out of the ceramic abutments in successive steps, and thereby leads durchge is. The scanning device 12 may comprise, for example, a laser optical system or a mechanical scanning probe. The measured data are stored (shown by 37 schematically). The Ceramic Abutment is herausgefrässt after replacing the scanning device 12 by a drilling unit 38, and Auswech¬ clauses of the plastic model 13 from a ceramic block 39, and against a forward or fertiggesintertes abutment, from the latter computer controlled.

The 15A-15d show another way to model the abutment shape coputerunterstützt. The outer shape of the teeth, which - as described above - have been created in wax or plastic as a model, it is - similar to that described with reference to Figure 11 operation -. Recorded, stored and processed by software, so that on the screen a reduced form 51 of the thus sampled outer shape 51a can be created and these will be available in the form of data. Also other, predetermined, in the storage library may be present Abutmentaussenformen can be used to do so. These data then form the basis for processing the coating applied to a working model on the implant analog, unpolished Abutmentrohformen 52 of different diameter, whereby - if it is pre-sintered abutments - the corresponding shrinkage factor is observed. 15C shows the already ground-down abutment 53, the stock removal is indicated by dotted lines. Thereafter, then for the creation of the crowns or brückenprothetischen reconstruction (Fiσ.15d) the Zahnaust "Enform 54 - corresponding to the stored data - and the inner tooth shape are modeled according to the data of the fitting 54a Abutmentaussenform.

12 shows a presintered or green stage be¬ find pending abutment 9 'with a working die 40 having an implant corresponding upper contact surfaces. Since the different depending on the type of implant Innenabmes¬ solutions of the abutment must have the necessary magnification, to compensate for the given during the subsequent sintering shrinkage, which is enlarged, bottom opening by the use of an intermediate piece 24, vor¬ geous provided from Kunsttoff. For the sintering process of this enlarged abutment 9 is now set to 'the working stump 40, which in turn is subjected during the heat treatment keiner- lei significant size change, the Abut¬ element 9' will shrink to the desired size, the Zwi¬ rule piece 24 burns thereby without resistance.

13 shows a prefabricated abutment 9 of zirconium oxide with a prefabricated crown portion 11'aus plastic or

the ground is supplied to the crown shape and color matched to adjacent teeth ceramic. These abutments are useful in a correct implant situation for a final restoration. But even as a temporary restoration in the so-called Abutmentconnection (cutting open the gums and screwing the Abtuments), this implant crown combination is excellent because the patient can be supplied with an optimum gap supply of optimum materials on the same day.

In the following, a possible procedure for lung Herstel¬ an implant-supported bridge or crown is to be described:

A precise impression of the implant position is Vorausset¬ requisite for the proper fit of the superstructure in the mouth. The production of a gingival mask on the McDell is unamgänglich so that the gingival shares the abutments can be designed correctly. This is followed by the dental laboratory, the preparation of Zirkonoxidabutments according to one of the methods described above. The Abut¬ management of the gingiva is adjusted. In the laboratory, a Grob¬ preparation takes place under water-cooling, which in practice together with the fill-up Wax try-in can be corrected. For the rough preparation diamond disks are used for fine and coarse preparation, conical shaped diamond grinder. Delegating the Abutmentpräparation to the dental laboratory not only valuable clinical chair time is saved, but the dental technician enjoys on his working model and a better overview of the in¬ dividual grinding of the abutment to achieve optimal gingival vale aesthetics. The dentist then up part only the aesthetic fine correction from cervical abutment, if not already one of the above-described methods (Cad-Cam, copy milling) is used to obtain the form.

A separate try-filling of the wax-up with the abutment is necessary because so that the abutment height, cervical limit, correct position of the exit point and the aesthetics can be checked. If necessary, a correction of Abut¬ ments in the mouth of the patient by em Nachpräparieren makes sense. Only the patient's mouth, it is possible to hang in Zusammen¬ with the soft tissues of the definitive shape of the abutment to be determined.

Logically, the supply of Vollkeramikkro- happens nen.

this prepared according to Zementierkonzept either by silicatization or by sandblasting the Abutmentoberflache for Zementierprozedere of crowns or bridges to the abutment is. Subsequently, the abutment by means of a

Screw fixed under a torque of 31 Ncm, the screw head Gold¬ m: t gutta percha closed, the Abutmentober- surface cleaned, dried, and silanated, and the crown or bridge for the other Zementierungsschritte pre- pared.

The abutment has made a good compatibility with the common porcelain systems. It should be noted that the coefficient of thermal expansion of Keramikverblendmasse is tuned to the entspre ¬-reaching base ceramic. Zirconia has a coefficient of thermal expansion of 9.5-70.5 (10 -6 -. ° K ~ ^ In the rule, the thermal expansion coefficient of the veneering ceramic ¬ 6 ° κ -'1 should be less a factor of about 1x10 "than that of the Abutmentmaterials. In special cases it is possible by ¬ made to blind each abutment directly, whereby a screw-caused removable reconstruction is ent.

Claims

1. An implantable dental prosthesis, comprising a securable in a jaw bone implant (27), an existing of a ceramic material abutment (9), which is connectable via a fastening screw (29) with the implant (27) of a dental prosthetic Rekonstruk¬ tion, is characterized as tooth crown or Zahnbrücke-, and a Befesti¬ restriction means for connecting said abutments with loading uncommitted dental prosthetic reconstruction gekenn¬ characterized in that said ceramic material has a fracture toughness of at least 6 MPa KJ Q * m 1/2 and a Bie auf¬ has ¬ gefestigkeit of at least 700 MPa and 800 MPa.
2. dental prosthesis according to claim 1, characterized in that the ceramic material is essentially, which means at least 90 wt.%, Consists of zirconium oxide.
3. contains dentures according to claim 2, characterized in that the ceramic material is between 0 to 10 wt.% ei¬ nes rare Erdoxides and / or an alkaline earth metal oxide.
4. dental prosthesis according to claim 3, characterized in that as rare earth oxide are provided yttrium oxide, or as Erdaika- lioxide calcium and / or magnesium oxide.
5. A dental prosthesis according to one of the preceding claims, DA by in that the dental prosthetic Rekon¬ constructive tion, such as a crown (11) with the abutment (9) via a the abutment (9) covering plastic coating and / or via an elastic , is Befesti¬ restriction means, in particular a cement silicone-based or based on composites, respectively.
6. abutment for a dental prosthesis according to one of vorherge¬ Henden claims, characterized in that the loading said ceramic material has a fracture toughness of at least 6 MPa KJ Q * m 1/2 and a flexural strength of wenig¬ least 700 MPa or at least 800 has MPa and vor¬ preferably essentially, which means at least 90Gew.%, consists of zirconium oxide, in particular zwi¬ rule 0 to 10 wt.% of a rare Erdoxides and / or an alkaline earth metal oxide are contained as a rare earth oxide and optionally yttria or alkaline earth metal oxides of calcium and / or magnesium oxide are provided as.
7. Abutment according to claim 6, characterized in that a contact surface (43) of the abutment (9) with a corresponding, on the implant (27) intended area - the implant shoulder (32) - formed counter surface, preferably concentrically arranged annular Vor¬ cracks (44) for engaging the implant shoulder (32).
8. A process for preparing an a ceramic material abutment for a dental prosthesis according to one of claims 1 to 4 or for an abutment (9) according to claim 6 or 7, wherein a specific, predetermined by the implant situation and / or the implant ( 27) predetermined, three-dimensional contour of the abutment (9) is determined, after which in a step that is referred to as Vor¬ treating, one by one through the post-treatment at a - surrounded pregiven ein¬ passing shrinkage of the ceramic material - in particular during sintering magnification enlarged, three-dimensional abutment shape (9 ') is generated, which abutment shape is subjected to (9 1) of the after-treatment, wherein a Schrump¬ evaporation takes place on a manufactured the abutment (9) entspre¬ necessary degree, characterized in that - a to the te enlargen predetermined magnification factor and the three-dimensional outer and possibly also the inner contour of the abutment form (9 ') corresponding working pack (36) is produced from a material having approximately the same shrinkage factor as the ke¬ ramische material,
- the working pack (36) for after-treatment at least from the outside to the abutment shape (9 '), this in particular completely encasing, thereby Abut¬ is ment form (9: 1) stabilized during the aftertreatment is packed, and
- the working pack (36) after the post-treatment of the abutment shape (9 ') is separated.
9. The method according to claim 8, characterized in that as material for the ceramic abutment (9) and if appropriate also as a material for the working pack (36) zirconia is used.
10. The method according to claim 8 or 9, characterized gekennzeich¬ net, that the pretreatment comprises compacting the Grün¬ stadium of the ceramic material and / or a Vorsin¬ esterification, in particular -at a temperature between 1000 and 1300 ° C.
11. The method according to any one of claims 8 to 10, characterized denotes ge, that the material for the working pack (36) of compacted and / or - in particular in emer temperature between 1000 and 1300 ° C - presintered oxide ceramic consists.
12. The method according to claim 11, characterized in that the compacted and / or presintered material for the working pack (36) is brought in powder or chip form.
13. The method according to any one of claims 8 L - S :. 12, characterized in that prior to introducing the abutment shape (9 ') in the working pack (36) the abutment shape (9') on its outer side, on its gegebenenfals Innensei¬ te, is covered with a thin layer of a release agent, optionally wherein the working pack (36) - after introduction of the abutment shape (9 ') in the same - is brought m Block¬ form.
14. A method according to any one of claims 8 to 13, characterized indicates overall that the post-treatment at a tertemperatur the ceramic material corresponding Sin¬ a resintering - for zirconium oxide at about 1500 ° C - includes.
15. The method according to any one of claims 8 to 14, wherein the pretreatment comprises the steps of:
- the ceramic material is pressed in the green state isosta¬ table under pressure into shape, one with ei¬ ner through opening (30 ') provided with tubular shape (34), a so-called green compact is formed; - the tubular shape (34) is obliquely at one end on two sides abge¬;
- the through hole (30 ') is machined bevel in the area of ​​Ab¬ that a cylindrical Erwei¬ esterification is produced; - extension will be processed as, in particular with
Using ultrasound, that the positioning of the abutment (9) on the implant (27) fixing the form, in particular a hexagon shape (35) is formed;
- m of the through hole (30 1) is em counterpart, in particular em web-like projection (33) for the Be¬ fastening screw (29) incorporated; such a post-treatment to be subjected to Abut¬ management form (9 ') preserving.
16. A method for producing a made of a ceramic
Material existing abutment for a dental prosthesis according to one of claims 1 to 4 and for em abutment (9) according to claim 6 oαer 7, wherein emo bes' immte, predetermined by the predetermined implant situation and / or the implant (27), three-dimensional contour of the determined abutments (9), then em model, in particular a Kunst¬ material model (13) created, which a copy milling system clamped together with a ceramic blank (14) on supports (16) and - if appropriate, via a connecting piece (17) - in is positionally fixed thereto, being guided on the one hand a first scanning device (24) over the surface of the plastic model (13), and the other part of the ceramic blank (14) corresponding to - is ground, wherein optionally (a feed motor - ins¬ particular by means of a diamond disk (19) 20) the holders (16) (with the plastic model 13) and the ceramic blank (14) via a screw thread (21) moving at about 20 revolutions per minute.
17. The method according to claim 16 as a pretreatment in one of the processes according to any one of claims 8 to 14, wherein the grinding of the ceramic blank (14) is carried out with the determined by the subsequent treatment Vergrösserungsfak- tor.
18. A method for producing a group consisting of a ceramic material abutment for a dental prosthesis according to one of claims 1 to 4 or for an abutment (9) according to claim 6 or 7, wherein a determined (by the given implant situation and / or the implant 27) predetermined, determined three-dimensional contour of the abutment (9), then a model, in particular a plastic model (13) is created, whose form in a - in particular computer-controlled - sample and if appropriate processing device via a - optionally removable - is read in second scanning device (12) in data form and stored, whereupon - optionally after exchange of the model to a ceramic block (39) and a Keramikabutmet base form and the scanning device (12) σegen a drilling unit (38) - a corresponding shape of the ceramic block (39) is worked out or the όus Keramikabutmet base form.
19. The method of claim 18 8 to 14, wherein the machining the shape of the ceramic block (39) is carried out with the determined by the subsequent treatment EXPANDING serungsfaktor as a pretreatment in one of the processes according to any of the claims.
20. The method according to any one of claims 16 to 19, characterized in that the first and second Abtastvor¬ device (12, 24) is a mechanical probe.
21. The method according to one of Ansprüche- 16 to 19, characterized in that the first and second Abtastvor- direction (12, 24) is uniform from one laser optics with Auswerteein¬.
PCT/EP1997/000871 1996-02-22 1997-02-23 Implantable tooth replacement, abutment therefor and process for making abutments WO1997030654A1 (en)

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CH482/96 1996-02-22
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EP1023876A2 (en) * 1998-12-29 2000-08-02 Silvio De Luca Supporting device for the manufacture of dental prosthetic components
NL1013536C2 (en) * 1999-11-09 2001-05-11 Johannes Cornelis Stanislas Be Dental implant.
US6689202B2 (en) * 2000-07-21 2004-02-10 Jeneric/Pentron Incorporated Molds for the manufacture of a dental restoration and methods of making dental restorations
WO2004054464A2 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-07-01 Stefan Neumeyer Abutment for a dental implant, dental implant comprising such an abutment, and method for the production of dentures by means of said dental implant
EP1529498A1 (en) * 2003-11-05 2005-05-11 Friadent GmbH Multi part non metal implant
EP1522271A3 (en) * 1998-07-29 2006-05-17 Franz Sutter Device for holding and/or creating a dental prosthesis
WO2007006390A1 (en) 2005-07-14 2007-01-18 Gebr. Brasseler Gmbh & Co. Kg Dental implant
EP1870073A1 (en) * 2006-06-23 2007-12-26 Aepsilon Rechteverwaltungs GmbH Material and blank for dentures
EP1913895A2 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-04-23 DeguDent GmbH Method for manufacturing the head part of a dental implant and production set for such a method
EP2324793A1 (en) * 2009-11-19 2011-05-25 3M Innovative Properties Company A method and a system in the preparation of a dental restoration, a measuring element and use thereof
US20120064490A1 (en) * 2004-01-27 2012-03-15 Ivoclar Vivadent Ag Inorganic-inorganic composite material and method for producing the same
US8141217B2 (en) 2003-04-04 2012-03-27 Xawex Ag Process for producing dental prostheses
DE102011055957B3 (en) * 2011-12-02 2013-03-28 Lennart-Marten Risch Method and apparatus for the production of dental primary and secondary parts

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EP0389461A1 (en) * 1989-03-23 1990-09-26 Sandvik Aktiebolag Artificial onlay tooth crowns and inlays
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EP1522271A3 (en) * 1998-07-29 2006-05-17 Franz Sutter Device for holding and/or creating a dental prosthesis
EP1023876B1 (en) * 1998-12-29 2012-03-28 Silvio De Luca Supporting device for the manufacture of dental prosthetic components
EP1023876A2 (en) * 1998-12-29 2000-08-02 Silvio De Luca Supporting device for the manufacture of dental prosthetic components
NL1013536C2 (en) * 1999-11-09 2001-05-11 Johannes Cornelis Stanislas Be Dental implant.
WO2001034056A1 (en) 1999-11-09 2001-05-17 Beekmans Johannes Cornelis Sta One-part dental implant
US6689202B2 (en) * 2000-07-21 2004-02-10 Jeneric/Pentron Incorporated Molds for the manufacture of a dental restoration and methods of making dental restorations
US7943068B2 (en) * 2000-07-21 2011-05-17 Ivoclar Vivadent, Inc. Method of making a dental restoration
WO2004054464A2 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-07-01 Stefan Neumeyer Abutment for a dental implant, dental implant comprising such an abutment, and method for the production of dentures by means of said dental implant
WO2004054464A3 (en) * 2002-12-13 2004-12-02 Stefan Neumeyer Abutment for a dental implant, dental implant comprising such an abutment, and method for the production of dentures by means of said dental implant
US8141217B2 (en) 2003-04-04 2012-03-27 Xawex Ag Process for producing dental prostheses
WO2005044134A1 (en) * 2003-11-05 2005-05-19 Dentsply International Inc. Multi part non metal implant
EP1529498A1 (en) * 2003-11-05 2005-05-11 Friadent GmbH Multi part non metal implant
US20120064490A1 (en) * 2004-01-27 2012-03-15 Ivoclar Vivadent Ag Inorganic-inorganic composite material and method for producing the same
US9090511B2 (en) * 2004-01-27 2015-07-28 Ivoclar Vivadent Ag Inorganic-inorganic composite material and method for producing the same
WO2007006390A1 (en) 2005-07-14 2007-01-18 Gebr. Brasseler Gmbh & Co. Kg Dental implant
EP1870073A1 (en) * 2006-06-23 2007-12-26 Aepsilon Rechteverwaltungs GmbH Material and blank for dentures
US8408902B2 (en) 2006-06-23 2013-04-02 Institut Straumann Ag Material and blank for dentures
WO2007147549A1 (en) * 2006-06-23 2007-12-27 Aepsilon Rechteverwaltungs Gmbh Material and blank for dentures
EP1913895A3 (en) * 2006-10-20 2009-05-06 Peter Gampert Method for manufacturing the head part of a dental implant and production set for such a method
EP1913895A2 (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-04-23 DeguDent GmbH Method for manufacturing the head part of a dental implant and production set for such a method
WO2011063169A3 (en) * 2009-11-19 2011-08-18 3M Innovative Properties Company A method and a system in the preparation of a dental restoration, a measuring element and use thereof
EP2324793A1 (en) * 2009-11-19 2011-05-25 3M Innovative Properties Company A method and a system in the preparation of a dental restoration, a measuring element and use thereof
US9326833B2 (en) 2009-11-19 2016-05-03 3M Innovative Properties Company Method and a system in the preparation of a dental restoration, a measuring element and use thereof
DE102011055957B3 (en) * 2011-12-02 2013-03-28 Lennart-Marten Risch Method and apparatus for the production of dental primary and secondary parts
WO2013079724A1 (en) 2011-12-02 2013-06-06 Lennart-Marten Risch Method and device for producing primary and secondary dental parts

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