WO1997027822A1 - Artificial muscle - Google Patents

Artificial muscle Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1997027822A1
WO1997027822A1 PCT/CA1997/000061 CA9700061W WO9727822A1 WO 1997027822 A1 WO1997027822 A1 WO 1997027822A1 CA 9700061 W CA9700061 W CA 9700061W WO 9727822 A1 WO9727822 A1 WO 9727822A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
muscle
artificial muscle
defined
artificial
substrate
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CA1997/000061
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
John Chilver
Original Assignee
John Chilver
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US59408396A priority Critical
Priority to US08/594,083 priority
Application filed by John Chilver filed Critical John Chilver
Publication of WO1997027822A1 publication Critical patent/WO1997027822A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/68Operating or control means
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/10Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements
    • B25J9/1075Programme-controlled manipulators characterised by positioning means for manipulator elements with muscles or tendons
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F7/00Magnets
    • H01F7/06Electromagnets; Actuators including electromagnets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/08Muscles; Tendons; Ligaments
    • A61F2002/0894Muscles
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/50Prostheses not implantable in the body
    • A61F2/68Operating or control means
    • A61F2002/6863Operating or control means magnetic

Abstract

An artificial muscle cell comprises an elastomeric substrate and an electromagnetic actuator in the form of a coil the turns of which are embedded in the substrate so as to be movable therewith. Enablement of the actuator causes an electromagnetic attraction between the turns of the coil thereby resulting in the contraction of the coil primarily along the longitudinal axis thereof, and the elastomer. An artificial muscle may comprise a single cell or a plurality of cells suitably arranged in a lattice type network, and may be used to operate articulated joints, for example.

Description

ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE

HELD OF INVENTION

This invention relates to an artificial analogue of muscle tissue, otherwise known as artificial muscles. These devices mimic in some measure the actions of naturally occurring muscles, and find use in robodc applications and prostheses, for example.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

Muscle tissue comprises a plurality of muscle fibres which contract under

a suitable stimulus. Although the tensile force generated by individual fibres is very small, their cumulative effect can be very high. It has been contemplated to form artificial muscle using polymer gel fibres that contract in response to changes in the pH of the gel. Microscopic nickel-titanium

fibres have also been reported to find use in a similar application. One of the difficulties with both of these types of fibres relates to their relatively slow response time. It does not appear that there has been any commercially viable production of an artificial muscle to the present time.

In US Patent 4,176,411 there is disclosed an artificial muscle-like pump which employs a plurality of electro-magnets embedded in an elastomeric material which

is impregnated with ferromagnetic particles. The geometry of the coils of these electro¬

magnets is fixed, which is to say that upon activation of the electromagnets, the dimensions of the coils will not change. Such activation engenders the attraction of the

ferromagnetic particles, primarily in the radial direction, and the elastomeric substrate therewith, causing it to contract radially. Such radial contraction is to be contrasted with the predominately axial contraction of natural muscle tissue. It will be appreciated that in the absence of the ferromagnetic particles, the enablement of the electromagnets will not result in any contraction of the substrate. The mass of the electromagnets, and of the ferromagnetic particles, together with the relatively large cross-sectional diameter of the structures will tend to make them somewhat inflexible and prone to thermal build-up under heavy duty use. It is a primary object of my invention to provide artificial muscle structures which mimic the action of muscle tissue.

It is another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle that may be

light weight and formed in thin sections.

It is still another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle that is relatively flexible.

It is yet another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle which

permits a more efficient heat dissipation.

It is another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle wherein the

response time can be easily controlled.

It is yet another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle wherein

the response time can be controlled so as to be variable between very rapid and slow.

It is still another object of my invention to provide artificial muscle wherein

the muscular force can be easily varied and controlled. SUMMARY OF INVENTION

In accordance with one aspect of my invention, an artificial muscle comprises an elastomeric substrate extending in at least two dimensions, and an electromagnetic actuator comprising a coil having a longitudinal axis wherein the turns of the coil are embedded in the substrate in a manner whereby enablement of the actuator

serves to create an electromagnetic attraction between the turns, serving to decrease the

dimension of the wire coil along its longitudinal axis, and the substrate therewith, and thereby cause the muscle cell to contract in a manner that is similar to that of natural muscle tissue. The wire coils are essentially open, and may be wound so as to be relatively

flat, whereby thin, flexible artificial muscle structures from which heat is readily

dissipated can be fabricated.

The magneto-constrictive action of the muscle cells of the invention does not necessitate or require the presence of any ferromagnetic particles in the substrate, and

accordingly the muscle cells of the invention may be formed with a density comparable

to that of natural muscle tissue.

The indication that the substrate extends in two dimensions is not meant to infer that the substrate extends in two dimensions only. The artificial muscles of the

invention have a length, width and thickness, and in accordance with the preferred

embodiment the dimension of the artificial muscles in the thickness is preferably

appreciably less than that in the length and width. Moreover, although the enablement

of the actuator will preferably act to change the length of the muscle, change may also be experienced in the width and thickness. Preferably, the substrate is impregnated with a substance to increase the magnetic permeability thereof, suitably with ferromagnetic particles.

In accordance with the preferred embodiment, the actuator is embedded in the substrate by molding. However, it will be understood that other means linking the substrate to the actuators may also be employed as convenient.

It will be appreciated that merely by controlling the current supplied to an

actuator, both the speed of response of the actuator and the forces generated thereby can be varied, and that the response time may be very rapid if desired. In addition, the effectiveness of the magnetic interaction of the electromagnetic field generated by the actuator may be varied to vary the basic characteristics of the artificial muscle. Still other ways of changing the characteristics of the muscle may occur to those skilled in the art.

The elastomeric material of the substrate includes natural and synthetic rubbers and rubber-like materials having a modulus of elasticity that will be appropriate for the intended use of the artificial muscle. The electromagnetic actuator in a preferred form comprises a wire coil which has in transverse cross section a major axis and a minor axis, wherein the

dimension on the minor axis is substantially less than that of the major axis,

commensurate with the desired thickness of the muscle.

Each actuator and associated substrate forms a muscle cell, and a muscle

may comprise a single cell or a plurality of such cells. Where a plurality of cells are

employed, these may conveniently be in the form of a generally two dimensional lattice, and the actuators may be connected in parallel relationship or otherwise, as desired.

Composite muscle structures may also be formed from groups of muscle cells. The muscles of the invention will find a wide range of applications, including without limitation, the actuation of joints, which may be articulated in a similar manner to those of animal skeletons, constricting sleeves for use as casts, and peristaltic pumps. Moreover, it will be appreciated that the muscle cells of the invention are simple motors, and they may find other uses than those suggested above.

Typically and preferably, the artificial muscle will be held with the substrate under tension, and enablement of the actuator or actuators will serve to increase the tension of the muscle at its anchor points by decreasing the tension of the substrate between the anchor points. However, other forms of operation may also be used. The foregoing objects and aspects of the invention, together with other

objects, aspects and advantages thereof will be more apparent from a consideration of the following description of the preferred embodiment thereof taken in conjunction with the

drawings annexed hereto. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings,

Fig. 1 shows in highly schematic form an artificial muscle formed as a lattice of

muscle cells of the invention, in plan form;

Fig. 2 shows the muscle of Fig. 1 in side elevation;

Fig. 3 shows on enlarged scale three component elements of the muscle of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is similar to Fig. 3, but shows the elements in contracted form;

Fig. 5 shows in perspective view one of the elements of Fig. 3 in greater detail, broken to show indefinite length; Fig. 6 is a cross-section on line 6 - 6 of Fig. 5, together with surrounding structure; Fig. 7 is similar to Fig. 6, but shows the muscle in contracted form;

Fig. 8 shows a composite embodiment of an artificial muscle of the invention; and Fig. 9 shows a composite embodiment of another artificial muscle arrangement of the invention. DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

Referring to the drawings in detail, an artificial muscle is identified

generally therein by the numeral 10. Muscle 10 comprises a thin elastomeric substrate 12 having longitudinally opposed ends 14, 16, terminated by anchors 18, 20 by which muscle 10 may be secured to an artificial joint. A plurality of electromagnetic actuators 30 are embedded in substrate 12. Each actuator 30 comprises a coil 32 of conductor wire; as best seen in Fig. 6, the coils in cross-section have a major axis 34 and a minor axis 36, with the dimension along the minor axis being substantially less than that along the major

axis so as to have a low aspect ratio consistent with the desired thickness of muscle 10. Coils 32 have a longitudinal axis 38, the axis of each of the coils being parallel. In effect the coils 32 are arranged to form a two dimensional lattice of actuators 30 arranged in rows 42 and columns 44. A pair of electrical buses 46, 48 extends along the length of

substrate 12. The longitudinally opposed ends of coils 32 of each row 44 of the coils are

respectively connected to buses 46 and 48 by yokes 50, 52 so as to be in electrical

parallelism, the yokes also serving to anchor the coils within substrate 12. An enabling

electromotive force is conveniently applied to busses 46, 48 through conductor 54, causing an electromagnetic contraction of coils 32, as will be further described. Such contractive force is enhanced by impregnating substrate 12 with ferromagnetic particles

58.

In use, muscle 10 will normally be anchored through anchors 18, 20 so as to place substrate 12 under tension. A suitable electromotive force applied to buses 46, 48 will then cause the electromagnetic actuators 30 to contract under the influence of the electromagnetic field. The primary contraction will be along the longitudinal axis of coils 32, as suggested by arrows 56 in Fig. 4. However, coils 32 will also tend to assume a circular form, whereby the cross sectional shape of the muscle 10 will move towards that depicted in Fig. 7. This contraction in the transverse plane will tend to contract the muscle 10 in the longitudinal plane; it will also have the effect of increasing the contractile force that may be generated for a given length of muscle cell. The rate and degree of contraction generated are easily regulated by controlling the electromotive force applied to buses 46, 48, and suitably a feedback circuit (not shown) will be used to control the operation of muscle 10, as is generally known in the art.

It will be appreciated that each electromagnetic actuator 30, together with the supporting portion of substrate 12, forms an artificial muscle cell 80. Within reason, there is no limit to the physical dimensions of a muscle cell 80, of the number of such cells that may be employed to form a composite muscle such as muscle 10, and of their

manner of deployment. Thus, where more than one muscle cell is employed, the cells

may be connected so as to be individually operated or operated in groups, as may be desired for any particular purpose. Accordingly, the artificial muscles of the invention

may be embodied in widely different forms. One such form is suggested in Fig. 8,

wherein an artificial muscle 110 comprises three muscle cells 80 arranged in a striated manner. In Fig. 9, a composite artificial muscle 210 is built up from three groups A,B & C of muscles 10, with each group being operative independently of any other group. Numerous other arrangements will occur to persons in the art according to the desired function of the artificial muscle.

Claims

1. An artificial muscle cell comprising an elastomeric substrate extending in at least two dimensions, and an electromagnetic actuator therefor
characterized wherein said actuator comprises a wire coil having a
longitudinal axis embedded in said substrate in a manner whereby enablement of said actuator serves to decrease the dimension of said wire coil along said longitudinal axis and thereby cause said muscle cell to contract.
2. An artificial muscle cell as defined in Claim 1 wherein said elastomeric substrate is impregnated with a substance to increase the magnetic permeability thereof.
3. An artificial muscle cell as defined in Claim 2 wherein said substance comprises ferromagnetic particles.
4. An artificial muscle cell as defined in Claim 1, 2 or 3 wherein said wire coil has in transverse cross section a major axis and a minor axis, and the dimension on the minor axis is substantially less than that on said major axis.
5. An artificial muscle cell as defined in Claim 4 wherein said wire coil has
a length, and terminates at ends opposed by said length, and wherein each
said end is secured to a yoke.
6. An artificial muscle comprising a plurality of muscle cells as defined in any one of claims 1-5.
7. An artificial muscle as defined in Claim 6 wherein said plurality of muscle cells are formed in a two dimensional lattice.
8. An artificial muscle as defined in Claim 6 wherein said plurality of muscle cells are electrically connected in parallel relationship.
PCT/CA1997/000061 1996-01-30 1997-01-29 Artificial muscle WO1997027822A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US59408396A true 1996-01-30 1996-01-30
US08/594,083 1996-01-30

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU14344/97A AU1434497A (en) 1996-01-30 1997-01-29 Artificial muscle

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1997027822A1 true WO1997027822A1 (en) 1997-08-07

Family

ID=24377457

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/CA1997/000061 WO1997027822A1 (en) 1996-01-30 1997-01-29 Artificial muscle

Country Status (2)

Country Link
AU (1) AU1434497A (en)
WO (1) WO1997027822A1 (en)

Cited By (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2004027970A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2004-04-01 Danfoss A/S An elastomer actuator and a method of making an actuator
WO2004109817A2 (en) * 2003-06-09 2004-12-16 Universita Di Pisa Electroactive polymer contractible actuator
EP2239837A1 (en) * 2007-12-28 2010-10-13 Kyushu Institute of Technology Actuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
US8106544B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2012-01-31 Seth Andrew Kane Electro-magnet based telescoping artificial muscle actuator
US8231687B2 (en) 2002-08-22 2012-07-31 Victhom Human Bionics, Inc. Actuated leg prosthesis for above-knee amputees
US8692442B2 (en) 2012-02-14 2014-04-08 Danfoss Polypower A/S Polymer transducer and a connector for a transducer
US8852292B2 (en) 2005-09-01 2014-10-07 Ossur Hf System and method for determining terrain transitions
US8891222B2 (en) 2012-02-14 2014-11-18 Danfoss A/S Capacitive transducer and a method for manufacturing a transducer
WO2015017898A1 (en) * 2013-08-08 2015-02-12 Clarus Technologies Pty Ltd Bionic muscle
US8986397B2 (en) 2003-11-18 2015-03-24 Victhom Human Bionics, Inc. Instrumented prosthetic foot
US9066817B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2015-06-30 Victhom Human Bionics Inc. High torque active mechanism for orthotic and/or prosthetic devices
US9066819B2 (en) 2005-04-19 2015-06-30 össur hf Combined active and passive leg prosthesis system and a method for performing a movement with such a system
US9078774B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2015-07-14 össur hf Systems and methods for processing limb motion
US9271851B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2016-03-01 össur hf. Systems and methods for actuating a prosthetic ankle
US9358137B2 (en) * 2002-08-22 2016-06-07 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Actuated prosthesis for amputees
US9526635B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2016-12-27 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Actuated leg orthotics or prosthetics for amputees
US9526636B2 (en) 2003-11-18 2016-12-27 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Instrumented prosthetic foot
US9561118B2 (en) 2013-02-26 2017-02-07 össur hf Prosthetic foot with enhanced stability and elastic energy return
US9707104B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-07-18 össur hf Prosthetic ankle and method of controlling same based on adaptation to speed
US9808357B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2017-11-07 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Reactive layer control system for prosthetic and orthotic devices
US9895240B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2018-02-20 Ösur hf Powered prosthetic hip joint
US10195057B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2019-02-05 össur hf. Transfemoral prosthetic systems and methods for operating the same
US10251762B2 (en) 2011-05-03 2019-04-09 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Impedance simulating motion controller for orthotic and prosthetic applications
US10279540B2 (en) 2014-02-20 2019-05-07 Okinawa Institute Of Science And Technology Schoo Controllable and reversible pH-responsive rollable 2D nano structures
GB2568458A (en) * 2017-10-09 2019-05-22 Hyper Realism Ltd Electromagnetic device

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3201729A (en) * 1960-02-26 1965-08-17 Blanchi Serge Electromagnetic device with potted coil
US4176411A (en) * 1977-11-28 1979-12-04 Runge Thomas M Cardiac assist device employing electrically stimulated artificial muscle
FR2591928A1 (en) * 1985-12-23 1987-06-26 Lorin De La Grandmaison Didier Device for joining two objects and causing their relative distance to vary
US5062855A (en) * 1987-09-28 1991-11-05 Rincoe Richard G Artifical limb with movement controlled by reversing electromagnet polarity
US5250167A (en) * 1992-06-22 1993-10-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators
EP0628385A1 (en) * 1993-06-11 1994-12-14 Wolfgang Daum Elastic body

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3201729A (en) * 1960-02-26 1965-08-17 Blanchi Serge Electromagnetic device with potted coil
US4176411A (en) * 1977-11-28 1979-12-04 Runge Thomas M Cardiac assist device employing electrically stimulated artificial muscle
FR2591928A1 (en) * 1985-12-23 1987-06-26 Lorin De La Grandmaison Didier Device for joining two objects and causing their relative distance to vary
US5062855A (en) * 1987-09-28 1991-11-05 Rincoe Richard G Artifical limb with movement controlled by reversing electromagnet polarity
US5250167A (en) * 1992-06-22 1993-10-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators
EP0628385A1 (en) * 1993-06-11 1994-12-14 Wolfgang Daum Elastic body

Cited By (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8231687B2 (en) 2002-08-22 2012-07-31 Victhom Human Bionics, Inc. Actuated leg prosthesis for above-knee amputees
US9649206B2 (en) 2002-08-22 2017-05-16 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Control device and system for controlling an actuated prosthesis
US9358137B2 (en) * 2002-08-22 2016-06-07 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Actuated prosthesis for amputees
US7400080B2 (en) 2002-09-20 2008-07-15 Danfoss A/S Elastomer actuator and a method of making an actuator
WO2004027970A1 (en) * 2002-09-20 2004-04-01 Danfoss A/S An elastomer actuator and a method of making an actuator
WO2004109817A2 (en) * 2003-06-09 2004-12-16 Universita Di Pisa Electroactive polymer contractible actuator
WO2004109817A3 (en) * 2003-06-09 2005-02-10 Univ Pisa Electroactive polymer contractible actuator
US9526636B2 (en) 2003-11-18 2016-12-27 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Instrumented prosthetic foot
US8986397B2 (en) 2003-11-18 2015-03-24 Victhom Human Bionics, Inc. Instrumented prosthetic foot
US10195057B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2019-02-05 össur hf. Transfemoral prosthetic systems and methods for operating the same
US9271851B2 (en) 2004-02-12 2016-03-01 össur hf. Systems and methods for actuating a prosthetic ankle
US9078774B2 (en) 2004-12-22 2015-07-14 össur hf Systems and methods for processing limb motion
US9066819B2 (en) 2005-04-19 2015-06-30 össur hf Combined active and passive leg prosthesis system and a method for performing a movement with such a system
US9717606B2 (en) 2005-04-19 2017-08-01 össur hf Combined active and passive leg prosthesis system and a method for performing a movement with such a system
US8852292B2 (en) 2005-09-01 2014-10-07 Ossur Hf System and method for determining terrain transitions
US9730824B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2017-08-15 Victhom Laboratory Inc. High torque active mechanism for orthotic and/or prosthetic devices
US9526635B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2016-12-27 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Actuated leg orthotics or prosthetics for amputees
US9066817B2 (en) 2007-01-05 2015-06-30 Victhom Human Bionics Inc. High torque active mechanism for orthotic and/or prosthetic devices
US9808357B2 (en) 2007-01-19 2017-11-07 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Reactive layer control system for prosthetic and orthotic devices
EP2239837A4 (en) * 2007-12-28 2013-03-27 Kyushu Inst Technology Actuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
EP2239837A1 (en) * 2007-12-28 2010-10-13 Kyushu Institute of Technology Actuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
US10299943B2 (en) 2008-03-24 2019-05-28 össur hf Transfemoral prosthetic systems and methods for operating the same
US8106544B2 (en) 2009-02-23 2012-01-31 Seth Andrew Kane Electro-magnet based telescoping artificial muscle actuator
US10251762B2 (en) 2011-05-03 2019-04-09 Victhom Laboratory Inc. Impedance simulating motion controller for orthotic and prosthetic applications
US8692442B2 (en) 2012-02-14 2014-04-08 Danfoss Polypower A/S Polymer transducer and a connector for a transducer
US8891222B2 (en) 2012-02-14 2014-11-18 Danfoss A/S Capacitive transducer and a method for manufacturing a transducer
US9895240B2 (en) 2012-03-29 2018-02-20 Ösur hf Powered prosthetic hip joint
US9561118B2 (en) 2013-02-26 2017-02-07 össur hf Prosthetic foot with enhanced stability and elastic energy return
US9707104B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2017-07-18 össur hf Prosthetic ankle and method of controlling same based on adaptation to speed
AU2014305656B2 (en) * 2013-08-08 2018-11-08 Clarus Technologies Pty Ltd Bionic muscle
WO2015017898A1 (en) * 2013-08-08 2015-02-12 Clarus Technologies Pty Ltd Bionic muscle
US10039632B2 (en) 2013-08-08 2018-08-07 Clarus Technologies Pty. Ltd. Bionic muscle
US10279540B2 (en) 2014-02-20 2019-05-07 Okinawa Institute Of Science And Technology Schoo Controllable and reversible pH-responsive rollable 2D nano structures
GB2568458A (en) * 2017-10-09 2019-05-22 Hyper Realism Ltd Electromagnetic device

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
AU1434497A (en) 1997-08-22

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Hunter et al. A comparative analysis of actuator technologies for robotics
JP5937044B2 (en) Transducers, actuators, and a method of manufacturing a transducer
US5847631A (en) Magnetic relay system and method capable of microfabrication production
Yeom et al. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators
US6960864B2 (en) Electroactive polymer actuator and diaphragm pump using the same
USRE42903E1 (en) Electronically controlled prosthetic knee
EP1438503B1 (en) Shape memory alloy actuator with improved temperature control
US6184607B1 (en) Driving strategy for non-parallel arrays of electrostatic actuators sharing a common electrode
US7834527B2 (en) Dielectric elastomer fiber transducers
US8237324B2 (en) Bistable electroactive polymers
JP3303196B2 (en) Linear magnetic actuator
US20080093954A1 (en) Elastomer actuator and a method of making an actuator
JP3851925B2 (en) The self-expanding stents
US7224813B2 (en) Loudspeaker using an electro-active device
JP3015382B2 (en) Micro-positioner system and method
US4779582A (en) Bistable electromechanical valve actuator
AU757721B2 (en) Heart assist system employing magnetic repulsion force
US3551764A (en) Piezoelectric linear actuator
EP0363923B1 (en) Rapid acting countercurrent expulsion system
DE19909305B4 (en) Method for driving an electromagnetic valve for actuating an engine valve
EP0592083A1 (en) Permanent magnet brushless torque actuator
US5814907A (en) Electromagnetic force motor with internal eddy current damping
US3488536A (en) Bistable permanent magnet coupling system
Menciassi et al. A SMA actuated artificial earthworm
US7586242B2 (en) Actuator and method for manufacturing planar electrode support for actuator

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): KE LS MW SD SZ UG AT BE CH DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL

AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AL AM AT AU AZ BA BB BG BR BY CA CH CN CU CZ CZ DE DE DK DK EE EE ES FI FI GB GE HU IL IS JP KE KG KP KR KZ LC LK LR LS LT LU LV MD MG MK MN MW MX NO NZ PL PT RO RU SD SE SG SI SK SK TJ TM TR TT UA UG US UZ VN AM AZ BY KG KZ MD RU TJ TM

121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
REG Reference to national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: 8642

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: JP

Ref document number: 97527201

Format of ref document f/p: F

NENP Non-entry into the national phase in:

Ref country code: CA

122 Ep: pct application non-entry in european phase