Connect public, paid and private patent data with Google Patents Public Datasets

Composition pulverulente pour revetements

Info

Publication number
WO1997022671A1
WO1997022671A1 PCT/JP1996/003671 JP9603671W WO1997022671A1 WO 1997022671 A1 WO1997022671 A1 WO 1997022671A1 JP 9603671 W JP9603671 W JP 9603671W WO 1997022671 A1 WO1997022671 A1 WO 1997022671A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
weight
below
coating
powder
composition
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/JP1996/003671
Other languages
English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
Nobuhiko Tsuda
Ryuzi Iwakiri
Original Assignee
Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D127/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D127/02Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers not modified by chemical after-treatment
    • C09D127/12Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers not modified by chemical after-treatment containing fluorine atoms
    • C09D127/16Homopolymers or copolymers of vinylidene fluoride
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08FMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING CARBON-TO-CARBON UNSATURATED BONDS
    • C08F259/00Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to polymers of halogen containing monomers as defined in group C08F14/00
    • C08F259/02Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to polymers of halogen containing monomers as defined in group C08F14/00 on to polymers containing chlorine
    • C08F259/06Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to polymers of halogen containing monomers as defined in group C08F14/00 on to polymers containing chlorine on to polymers of vinylidene chloride
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D133/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides, or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D133/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C09D133/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen atom being present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • C09D133/10Homopolymers or copolymers of methacrylic acid esters
    • C09D133/12Homopolymers or copolymers of methyl methacrylate
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08LCOMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    • C08L27/00Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
    • C08L27/02Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers not modified by chemical after-treatment
    • C08L27/12Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers not modified by chemical after-treatment containing fluorine atoms
    • C08L27/16Homopolymers or copolymers or vinylidene fluoride
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08LCOMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    • C08L33/00Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and only one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
    • C08L33/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C08L33/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which oxygen atoms are present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • C08L33/10Homopolymers or copolymers of methacrylic acid esters
    • C08L33/12Homopolymers or copolymers of methyl methacrylate
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S525/00Synthetic resins or natural rubbers -- part of the class 520 series
    • Y10S525/934Powdered coating composition
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/29Coated or structually defined flake, particle, cell, strand, strand portion, rod, filament, macroscopic fiber or mass thereof
    • Y10T428/2982Particulate matter [e.g., sphere, flake, etc.]
    • Y10T428/2991Coated
    • Y10T428/2998Coated including synthetic resin or polymer
PCT/JP1996/003671 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Composition pulverulente pour revetements WO1997022671A1 (fr)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP32908195A JP3941128B2 (ja) 1995-12-18 1995-12-18 粉体塗料用組成物
JP7/329081 1995-12-18

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1996631790 DE69631790T2 (de) 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Pulverlackzusammensetzung
DE1996631790 DE69631790D1 (de) 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Pulverlackzusammensetzung
US09091267 US6551708B2 (en) 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Powder coating composition containing vinylidene fluoride copolymer and methyl methacrylate copolymer
EP19960941887 EP0869157B1 (en) 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Powder coating composition

Related Child Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10370653 Continuation US6803419B2 (en) 1995-12-18 2003-02-24 Method for preparing a powder coating composition

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1997022671A1 true true WO1997022671A1 (fr) 1997-06-26

Family

ID=18217416

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/JP1996/003671 WO1997022671A1 (fr) 1995-12-18 1996-12-16 Composition pulverulente pour revetements

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (2) US6551708B2 (ja)
JP (1) JP3941128B2 (ja)
DE (2) DE69631790D1 (ja)
EP (1) EP0869157B1 (ja)
WO (1) WO1997022671A1 (ja)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0927206A1 (en) * 1997-07-17 1999-07-07 Elf Atochem North America, Inc. Fluoropolymer powder coatings from modified thermoplastic vinylidene fluoride based resins
EP1026202A1 (en) * 1997-10-24 2000-08-09 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Aqueous resin dispersion composition
EP1078961A1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2001-02-28 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Thermosetting powder coating composition

Families Citing this family (39)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2000026767A (ja) 1998-05-01 2000-01-25 Daikin Ind Ltd 熱硬化性粉体塗料組成物
DE69925167T2 (de) * 1999-10-04 2006-02-16 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Hochwitterungsbeständige pulverlackzusammensetzung
EP1227138A1 (en) * 1999-10-04 2002-07-31 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Method of storing thermosetting fluororesin powder coating composition
US6635221B1 (en) * 1999-10-04 2003-10-21 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Method of rust inhibition with thermosetting fluorine-containing resin powder coating composition
US20030073961A1 (en) * 2001-09-28 2003-04-17 Happ Dorrie M. Medical device containing light-protected therapeutic agent and a method for fabricating thereof
JP4103399B2 (ja) 2002-01-22 2008-06-18 旭硝子株式会社 含フッ素樹脂粉体塗料組成物および塗膜を有する物品
US6635714B1 (en) * 2002-04-30 2003-10-21 Atofina Chemicals, Inc. Weatherable fluoropolymer-acrylic composition
US7396539B1 (en) * 2002-06-21 2008-07-08 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Stent coatings with engineered drug release rate
US7217426B1 (en) 2002-06-21 2007-05-15 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Coatings containing polycationic peptides for cardiovascular therapy
US20040063805A1 (en) * 2002-09-19 2004-04-01 Pacetti Stephen D. Coatings for implantable medical devices and methods for fabrication thereof
US8791171B2 (en) * 2003-05-01 2014-07-29 Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. Biodegradable coatings for implantable medical devices
US7384628B2 (en) * 2003-06-23 2008-06-10 Agtech Products, Inc. Lactic acid bacteria and its use in direct-fed microbials
JP4492057B2 (ja) * 2003-07-25 2010-06-30 ダイキン工業株式会社 フッ化ビニリデン系共重合体樹脂フィルム
CN1839185A (zh) * 2003-10-07 2006-09-27 纳幕尔杜邦公司 用于塑料透镜与装置的氟化高聚物低反射层
US6911512B2 (en) * 2003-10-10 2005-06-28 3M Innovative Properties Company Powder coating fluoropolymer compositions with aromatic materials
US7244443B2 (en) 2004-08-31 2007-07-17 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Polymers of fluorinated monomers and hydrophilic monomers
US8236865B2 (en) * 2005-02-02 2012-08-07 Kureha Corporation Hydrophilic vinylidene fluoride resin composition and method for production thereof
US7625973B2 (en) * 2005-02-24 2009-12-01 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Methods for preparing fluoropolymer powder coatings
US7803867B2 (en) * 2005-05-19 2010-09-28 Arkema Inc. Highly weatherable roof coatings containing aqueous fluoropolymer dispersions
US20090012235A1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2009-01-08 Basf Corporation Dispersant for use in a fluorocarbon coating composition
US7956144B2 (en) * 2006-02-03 2011-06-07 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Acrylic resin for use in fluorocarbon coating compositions and method of forming the same
US7838582B2 (en) * 2006-02-03 2010-11-23 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Hyperdispersant for use in fluorocarbon coating compositions
JP5151978B2 (ja) 2006-05-11 2013-02-27 旭硝子株式会社 粉体塗料組成物
US9028859B2 (en) 2006-07-07 2015-05-12 Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc. Phase-separated block copolymer coatings for implantable medical devices
KR20090075662A (ko) * 2006-09-20 2009-07-08 바스프 에스이 코팅 조성물에 있어서의 중합체 분산물의 용도
US8198377B2 (en) * 2007-07-10 2012-06-12 Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Thermal fluidity modifier for powder coating material, method for producing the same, and powder coating material
US9040646B2 (en) 2007-10-04 2015-05-26 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Expandable TFE copolymers, methods of making, and porous, expanded articles thereof
US8637144B2 (en) * 2007-10-04 2014-01-28 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Expandable TFE copolymers, method of making, and porous, expended articles thereof
US9650479B2 (en) 2007-10-04 2017-05-16 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Dense articles formed from tetrafluoroethylene core shell copolymers and methods of making the same
WO2009146194A1 (en) * 2008-04-16 2009-12-03 Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. Fluoropolymer-based medical implant coating compositions
WO2010080202A1 (en) * 2008-12-19 2010-07-15 3M Innovative Properties Company Thick film fluoropolymer powder coating
WO2012084578A1 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-28 Solvay Specialty Polymers Italy S.P.A. Vinylidene fluoride copolymers
US9751967B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2017-09-05 Solvay Specialty Polymers Italy S.P.A. Vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene polymers
WO2014034581A1 (ja) 2012-08-30 2014-03-06 東レ株式会社 フッ化ビニリデン樹脂微粒子の製造方法、およびフッ化ビニリデン樹脂微粒子
JP6129120B2 (ja) 2014-06-09 2017-05-17 富士ゼロックス株式会社 熱硬化性粉体塗料、熱硬化性粉体塗料の製造方法、塗装品、及び塗装品の製造方法
WO2016002724A1 (ja) * 2014-07-01 2016-01-07 旭硝子株式会社 粉体塗料用組成物、粉体塗料および塗装物品
JP5862845B1 (ja) * 2014-07-01 2016-02-16 旭硝子株式会社 粉体塗料用組成物、粉体塗料および塗装物品
JPWO2016076235A1 (ja) * 2014-11-11 2017-08-31 旭硝子株式会社 粉体塗料用組成物、粉体塗料および塗装物品
US9644054B2 (en) 2014-12-19 2017-05-09 W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Dense articles formed from tetrafluoroethylene core shell copolymers and methods of making the same

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS50116582A (ja) * 1974-02-28 1975-09-11
JPH04227743A (en) * 1990-05-10 1992-08-17 Atochem North America Inc Powder coating of vinylidene fluoride/ hexafluoropropylene copolymer
JPH08183925A (ja) * 1994-12-29 1996-07-16 Nkk Corp 耐摩耗性に優れた塗料組成物および塗装金属板

Family Cites Families (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS4838229B1 (ja) * 1970-08-20 1973-11-16
US4520170A (en) * 1982-09-20 1985-05-28 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Method for reinforcing perfluoroelastomer compositions
US4981535A (en) * 1982-09-30 1991-01-01 General Technology Applications, Inc. Process for making finely divided solids
GB2194539B (en) * 1986-09-01 1990-08-01 Labofina Sa Pvdf-based powder coatings
GB8713362D0 (en) * 1987-06-08 1987-07-15 Ici Plc Fluorocopolymer compositions
US5030394A (en) * 1988-11-08 1991-07-09 Labofina, S.A. PVdF-based powder coatings
JP2550254B2 (ja) * 1991-04-17 1996-11-06 三井・デュポンフロロケミカル株式会社 テトラフルオロエチレン共重合体樹脂粉体組成物及びその製造法
GB9125894D0 (en) * 1991-12-05 1992-02-05 Evode Ind Coatings Ltd Fluoropolymer-containing powders
CA2090149C (en) * 1992-06-02 2000-05-09 Atofina Chemicals, Inc. Powder coatings
WO1994006837A1 (en) * 1992-09-18 1994-03-31 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Fluorochemical polymer systems
JPH07216265A (ja) * 1993-12-23 1995-08-15 Fina Res Sa 制御可能な光沢を有するフツ素化粉末コーテイング
CN1137150C (zh) * 1997-07-17 2004-02-04 北美埃尔夫爱托化学股份有限公司 用于粉末涂料的共混物的制备方法

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS50116582A (ja) * 1974-02-28 1975-09-11
JPH04227743A (en) * 1990-05-10 1992-08-17 Atochem North America Inc Powder coating of vinylidene fluoride/ hexafluoropropylene copolymer
JPH08183925A (ja) * 1994-12-29 1996-07-16 Nkk Corp 耐摩耗性に優れた塗料組成物および塗装金属板

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of EP0869157A4 *

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0927206A1 (en) * 1997-07-17 1999-07-07 Elf Atochem North America, Inc. Fluoropolymer powder coatings from modified thermoplastic vinylidene fluoride based resins
EP0927206A4 (en) * 1997-07-17 2004-11-10 Atofina Chem Inc Fluoropolymer powder coatings from modified thermoplastic vinylidene fluoride based resins
EP1026202A4 (en) * 1997-10-24 2001-04-18 Daikin Ind Ltd Aqueous resin dispersion composition
US6359030B1 (en) 1997-10-24 2002-03-19 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Aqueous resin dispersion composition
EP1026202A1 (en) * 1997-10-24 2000-08-09 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Aqueous resin dispersion composition
EP1078961A1 (en) * 1998-04-30 2001-02-28 Daikin Industries, Ltd. Thermosetting powder coating composition
EP1078961A4 (en) * 1998-04-30 2001-11-28 Daikin Ind Ltd Thermosetting powder coating composition
US6506843B1 (en) 1998-04-30 2003-01-14 Dajkin Industries, Ltd. Thermosetting powder coating composition

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US6803419B2 (en) 2004-10-12 grant
EP0869157A4 (en) 2000-05-31 application
JPH09165535A (ja) 1997-06-24 application
DE69631790T2 (de) 2005-01-27 grant
DE69631790D1 (de) 2004-04-08 grant
JP3941128B2 (ja) 2007-07-04 grant
EP0869157B1 (en) 2004-03-03 grant
US6551708B2 (en) 2003-04-22 grant
US20010003127A1 (en) 2001-06-07 application
US20030170455A1 (en) 2003-09-11 application
EP0869157A1 (en) 1998-10-07 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4048136A (en) Metallic tone powder coating composition
WO2001005854A1 (fr) Composition durcissable
JPH01149878A (en) Primer composition and usage thereof
WO1999050322A1 (en) Copolymer, process for producing the same, and resist composition
WO1997017382A1 (fr) Poudre fine de polytetrafluoroethylene, sa fabrication et son utilisation
US6312807B1 (en) UV-absorbing core/shell particles
WO1991015518A1 (en) Suspension polymerization of vinylic compound
WO1999028393A1 (fr) Composition d'oxyde photocatalytique, film mince et materiau composite
JPH0418453A (en) Organic-inorganic composite powder and production of the same powder
JPH032276A (en) Black pigment granular powder
JPS57126848A (en) Resin composition having metallic luster
WO1995017349A1 (fr) Particules de silice reactive ultra-fines, suspension les contenant et composition de revetement dur
WO2005116155A1 (ja) 塗料組成物、塗膜及び水中摩擦低減方法
JPS6327855A (en) Toner for electrostatic image development
JPH03103466A (en) Thermoplastic resin composition having permanent antistatic property
US6352764B1 (en) Multi-layer articles including UV-absorbing polymeric compositions
JPS62215646A (en) Propylene polymer composition
WO2003072621A1 (en) Impact modifier, process for producing the same, and thermoplastic resin composition
JPH0249009A (en) Monomer composition
JPH0292974A (en) Water-dispersible paint and method for forming coating film using the paint
JPS60229964A (en) Paint for antistatic use
WO1994005729A1 (en) Water-base molten fluororesin dispersion composition
EP0739960A4 (en) Fluoropolymer coating composition and coated article
JPH01161079A (en) Adhesive for heat sealing
JPH03231944A (en) Flame retardant resin composition

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): US

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE CH DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE

DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 09091267

Country of ref document: US

WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 1996941887

Country of ref document: EP

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 1996941887

Country of ref document: EP

WWG Wipo information: grant in national office

Ref document number: 1996941887

Country of ref document: EP