WO1996027816A1 - Optical devices for accelerating and amplifying eye reactions, woven optical devices, and eyewear incorporating such devices - Google Patents

Optical devices for accelerating and amplifying eye reactions, woven optical devices, and eyewear incorporating such devices Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1996027816A1
WO1996027816A1 PCT/FR1996/000322 FR9600322W WO9627816A1 WO 1996027816 A1 WO1996027816 A1 WO 1996027816A1 FR 9600322 W FR9600322 W FR 9600322W WO 9627816 A1 WO9627816 A1 WO 9627816A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
transparency
pupil
areas
optical
eye
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/FR1996/000322
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Georges Cornuejols
Original Assignee
Georges Cornuejols
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR9502857A priority Critical patent/FR2714739B1/fr
Priority to FR95/02857 priority
Priority to FR9504359A priority patent/FR2719391B1/en
Priority to FR95/04359 priority
Application filed by Georges Cornuejols filed Critical Georges Cornuejols
Publication of WO1996027816A1 publication Critical patent/WO1996027816A1/en

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02CSPECTACLES; SUNGLASSES OR GOGGLES INSOFAR AS THEY HAVE THE SAME FEATURES AS SPECTACLES; CONTACT LENSES
    • G02C7/00Optical parts
    • G02C7/16Shades; shields; Obturators, e.g. with pinhole, with slot
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61FFILTERS IMPLANTABLE INTO BLOOD VESSELS; PROSTHESES; DEVICES PROVIDING PATENCY TO, OR PREVENTING COLLAPSING OF, TUBULAR STRUCTURES OF THE BODY, e.g. STENTS; ORTHOPAEDIC, NURSING OR CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES; FOMENTATION; TREATMENT OR PROTECTION OF EYES OR EARS; BANDAGES, DRESSINGS OR ABSORBENT PADS; FIRST-AID KITS
    • A61F2/00Filters implantable into blood vessels; Prostheses, i.e. artificial substitutes or replacements for parts of the body; Appliances for connecting them with the body; Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
    • A61F2/02Prostheses implantable into the body
    • A61F2/14Eye parts, e.g. lenses, corneal implants; Implanting instruments specially adapted therefor; Artificial eyes
    • A61F2/16Intraocular lenses
    • A61F2/1613Intraocular lenses having special lens configurations, e.g. multipart lenses; having particular optical properties, e.g. pseudo-accommodative lenses, lenses having aberration corrections, diffractive lenses, lenses for variably absorbing electromagnetic radiation, lenses having variable focus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02CSPECTACLES; SUNGLASSES OR GOGGLES INSOFAR AS THEY HAVE THE SAME FEATURES AS SPECTACLES; CONTACT LENSES
    • G02C7/00Optical parts
    • G02C7/02Lenses; Lens systems ; Methods of designing lenses
    • G02C7/04Contact lenses for the eyes
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02CSPECTACLES; SUNGLASSES OR GOGGLES INSOFAR AS THEY HAVE THE SAME FEATURES AS SPECTACLES; CONTACT LENSES
    • G02C7/00Optical parts
    • G02C7/10Filters, e.g. for facilitating adaptation of the eyes to the dark; Sunglasses
    • G02C7/105Filters, e.g. for facilitating adaptation of the eyes to the dark; Sunglasses having inhomogeneously distributed colouring

Abstract

An optical device for controlling the brightness of light seen through the pupil by the eye. The device comprises an optical means having, in each of its points where there is non-zero transparency, an average transparency for the light reaching the pupil that varies in accordance with first predetermined rules taking into account the diameter of the pupil. The device may be used in eyewear and particularly in ophthalmological lenses and spectacles.

Description

"OPTICAL DEVICES AND ACCELERATION AMPLIFICATION REACTIONS EYE, AND DEVICES OPTICAL WOVEN ARTICLES EYEWEAR INCORPORATING SUCH DEVICES"

The present invention relates to optical accelerating means and amplification of ocular reactions and eyewear incorporating such means.

Glasses and contact lenses currently known have an invariable transparency with the configuration and the diameter of the eye pupil. Some means, such as those presented in the documents US-4955904, US-4576453 and FR-A-2622984, have the form of corneal lenses including a central zone has reduced transparency. Since this central region is remote from the eye pupil, about 5 millimeters, these means do reduce the brightness perceived by the eye in a reduced solid angle and with a very high angular variation.

Sunglasses, such as that presented in the Swiss patent numbered 428257 (Tanner Zumikon) comprise parallel and angled slats placed in front of the eye. Their transparency is constant, regardless of the diameter of the pupil of the eye of the user.

Anti-glare glasses such as those disclosed in FR-A-1196569 make it possible, thanks to low transparencies area networks placed on both sides of spectacle lenses, reducing glare in the optical axis glasses without reducing side vision. However, in each direction transparent lenses of these glasses does not vary depending on the diameter of the pupil of the eye of the user.

To fight against the gene created by strong illumination, the contact lens users should wear additional glasses of reduced transparency. The benefit of using contact lenses is precisely to avoid wearing glasses is strongly reduced.

REPLACEMENT VEUILLE (RULE 26) sunglasses do not provide a tan around the eyes, nor adequate ventilation to limit perspiration.

Finally the lateral areas of the retina are not effectively protected by sunglasses that protect only the central part of the retina.

Eye pupil is a transparent iris aperture whose diameter is controlled by a muscle controlled by the nervous system according to the brightness perceived by the retina. The pupil, placed on the lens, optically behaves as a diaphragm and the illumination perceived by the retina is proportional to the area of ​​the pupil. When the ambient brightness increases, the brightness perceived by the retina tends to increase and the nervous system controls the decrease in pupil diameter for the perceived brightness does not change.

However, the pupil of the reaction rate is low, and when the user moves fast, for example ski or car, and the brightness changes rapidly between the shade of a tunnel, a row shaft or inside and sunlight, visual perception is momentarily lost.

In addition, the diameter of the pupil does not vary sufficiently, and to respond to all natural brightness levels, the user must remove and sunglasses.

Photochromic glasses have very slow reactions, of the order of several tens of seconds, and Electronic glasses comprising for example liquid crystal and a light sensor that control their transparency are complex and costly to manufacture.

The present invention intends to remedy these drawbacks by having optical devices whose apparent transparency varies with the diameter of the eye pupil, on the one hand, and presenting glasses comprising a woven surface, on the other hand. The present invention aims, in a first aspect, an optical device to control brightness perceived across a pupil of an eye characterized in that it comprises optical means which, in every point of which transparency is not zero has an average transparency, for the light rays that reach the pupil, which varies according to first predetermined rules taking into account the diameter of the pupil. With these arrangements, when the ambient light varies, the pupil diameter varies and apparent transparency of the optical medium varies every point. These characteristics allow to distribute the values ​​of the transparency in each viewing direction depending on the ambient brightness. According to preferred features, the optical device of the present invention comprises two outer sides and, on each of said outer faces, areas of low transparency whose transparency coefficient is less than one half.

Thanks to these preferred features, the optical device according to the invention is easy to produce since the external surfaces are easy to treat. For two zones each carried by one of the outer faces, the mean apparent transparency is greater when these areas overlap, that is to say when the light rays pass through the two areas when these areas are juxtaposed, it is -to say, when the light rays do not pass through both zones.

When the pupil has a small diameter, areas of low transparency of the two outer faces are assembled according to a first assembly for the apparent pupil. When the pupil has a large diameter, areas of low transparency of the external faces are assembled according to a second apparent assembly for the pupil. In this way, the apparent transparency varies with the diameter of the pupil by the geometric combination of the areas supported by the external faces.

According to other preferred features, the optical device of the invention includes, in the convex volume that contains the, internal areas of low transparency.

Through these latest features, internal areas of low transparency are observed at different angles depending on the diameter of the pupil and they have accordingly varying surfaces.

According to particular characteristics, said inner regions form approximately oriented surfaces iris of said eye. With these arrangements, internal areas for approximately views according to their edge to a side part of the pupil when the latter is expanded.

According to other particular characteristics, said low transparency are carried by planes whose distance from the center of the eye is approximately constant.

Thanks to these arrangements, the optical device has an isotropy of its optical components, and the displacement of the eye in its socket, does not change the angular distribution of the apparent transparency observed in the predetermined solid angle, for a given pupil diameter . According to other particular characteristics, said distance is between half and twice the maximum radius of said pupil.

Thanks to these provisions, the change in apparent transparency, low transparency of areas carried by one of said plans is important when observing transparency by browsing the pupil between the nearest part of the plan and its part which is furthest.

According to other features, for the light rays passing through a central area of ​​the pupil, said areas of low transparency are mainly juxtaposed and cover together substantially a predetermined solid angle and in that for light rays passing through a side region of the pupil around said central zone, low transparency zones overlap.

With these latter provisions, the mean apparent transparency in the solid angle for the pupil with the smallest diameter of the order of the average transparency of areas of low transparency.

According to other particular characteristics, the optical device according to the invention comprises a surface treatment whose transparency varies according to second predetermined rules taking into account the angle of incidence.

Thanks to these arrangements, the smaller pupil diameter corresponding to an average angle of incidence on the different optical means of the average angle of incidence corresponding to pupil of larger diameter, the variation in the pupil diameter causes a variation the apparent transparency of the optical means. In addition, the optical surface treatments are well known and the change in the transparency can be chosen.

According to other particular characteristics, the optical device according to the invention has a filter covering at least said predetermined solid angle, filter whose transparency varies over the surface.

Thus, the optical device combines the advantages of an angular variation of the apparent transparency and those described briefly above. According to a second aspect, the present invention is an optical device characterized in that it comprises a woven surface placed in front of the eye.

Thanks to these provisions, firstly, ventilation through the woven surface can be obtained, and, secondly, transparency varies depending on the angle of incidence.

The present invention also relates to eyewear, contact lenses with or without vision correction and with or without artificial iris, lens or artificial glasses pairs with or without vision correction, said eyewear comprising an optical device according to the invention as briefly described above.

Other advantages, objects and features of the present invention will emerge from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings in an explanatory and in no way limiting, in which:

1 shows in schematic section, an eye and an optical device according to the present invention. 2 shows a schematic sectional view of a pupil and a first embodiment of the optical device as shown in Figure 1 in low light.

3 shows a schematic sectional view of a pupil and the first embodiment of the optical device as shown in Figure 1 in average illuminance.

4 shows a schematic sectional view of a pupil and the first embodiment of the optical device as shown in Figure 1 in high illumination. 5 shows an axial section of an optical lens according to the invention.

6 shows a front view of one of the faces of a lens according to a second embodiment of the optical device of the present invention. FIG 6a shows a front view of another side of a lens according to the second embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

Figure 7 shows a projection parallel to an optical axis of the transparency of the lens according to the invention as presented in figures 6 and 6a.

8 shows a front view of one of the faces of a lens according to a third embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

Figure 9 shows a front view of another side of a lens according to the third embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

10 shows a sectional view of a fourth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

11 shows a sectional view of a fifth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

12 shows a sectional view of a sixth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention. 13 shows in sectional view, an eye and a seventh embodiment of the optical device according to the present invention in low light.

14 shows the operation of the embodiment shown in Figure 13 in average illuminance.

15 shows the operation of the embodiment shown in Figure 13 in high irradiance.

Figure 16 shows in sectional view an eighth embodiment of the present invention. FIG 17 and FIG 18 show, on the same scale, the front and rear faces of a first variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

FIG 19 and FIG 20 show, on the same scale, the front and rear faces of a second variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

FIG 21 and FIG 22 show, on the same scale, the front and rear faces of a third variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

Figure 23 shows a partial front view of an optical device woven according to the second aspect of the present invention.

It should be noted that throughout the description below, for explanatory concern, it represents areas including transparencies are the lowest by thicker black lines that areas having high transparency. In Figure 1 are shown an eye 1 comprising a retina 2, a lens 3 and pupil 4 driven by muscle 5, an iris 8 and having an optical axis 12, an optical lens 6 driven by a spectacle 7 mount and having a front face 9, a rear face 10 and having an optical axis 11. the eye 1 is that of the user. The eye 1 comprises a retina 2 of which forms an image of the user's environment located in the optical field of the eye 1. The lens 3 is a lens which projects the image of this part of environment on the retina 2. the pupil 4 is optically a diaphragm in front of the lens 3 and the boundary circle of the lens on which the light rays through the lens. The retina 4 is moved by 5 muscles that increase or decrease its diameter, called optically opening in decreasing function of the ambient brightness. In this manner, automatically, the total amount of light reaching the retina 2 is constant over a fairly wide range natural illumination.

For example, the diameter of the retina 2 reaches eight millimeters night and down to two millimeters high irradiance. The ratio of end surfaces corresponding to these diameters, which is here 16, is the attenuation factor of the average brightness perceived by the retina as the pupil 2 4 makes possible.

This factor is usually too low and sunlight on a sunny beach or snow glare due to excessive exposure of the retina occurs and causes discomfort, inconvenience, and sunstroke various ailments.

The optical lens 6 is presented with reference to FIGS 2 to 12. Figure 2 shows a sectional view of the pupil and the first embodiment of the optical device as shown in Figure 1 in low light.

In Figures 2, 3 and 4, the embodiment of the optical lens 6 is a lens of transparent material whose outer faces have, in some places, areas of lower transparency than that of the lens. These locations are determined by geometric shapes, lines, or any shape made according to known techniques, for example by doping, by assembly of several layers, by mixing in a material or by silk screen printing. Areas of low transparency are combined, between one face and the other, to give the effect described below, each zone optionally exhibiting a gradual change of transparency, progressive gradient. In Figure 2, the illuminance is very low, the pupil 4 of the user is very open, that is to say its diameter is very high, of the order of 8 millimeters. In the viewing direction, direction perpendicular to the plane of the pupil and in parallel to the optical axis 12 of the eye, the cone of vision is substantially a cylinder whose base is the pupil 4 and the axis is the optical axis 12 of the eye.

According to the optical axis 12, the apparent transparency of glasses for the user is high, eg 40-cents. Indeed, as seen in Figure 2, an amount approximately equal to 40 percents of the light rays parallel to the optical axis 12 and built in the cylinder, represented by two thin lines to the left of the optical means, are filtered by any area of ​​low transparency, whatsoever, on the front side 9 or on the rear face 10 of the optical lens, and are therefore not attenuated. The light rays received in the viewing direction are, for the upper part of the figure represented by the extreme rays that surround them, in a lateral cylinder 61 whose base has a large surface and a central cylinder 62 of which the base has a more limited area.

3 shows a sectional view similar to Figure 2 for an average illuminance. In Figure 3, the pupil of the user 4 is only half open, that is to say that its diameter is average, of the order of 4 millimeters. In the viewing direction, direction perpendicular to the plane of the pupil and in parallel to the optical axis 12 of the eye, the cone of vision is substantially a cylinder whose base is the pupil 4 and the axis is the optical axis 12 of the eye, this cylinder is, in Figure 3 represented by two straight thin parallel to the optical axis 12 and passing through the lateral rays of the pupil. The apparent transparency of the glasses is, for the user, for example around 20-cents. Indeed, as noted by observing Figure 3, such a proportion of the light rays parallel to the optical axis and incorporated into the cylinder 62 do not reach small area of ​​transparency and are not mitigated. 4 shows a sectional view similar to Figure 2 for a strong illumination.

In Figure 4, the illumination is strong, the pupil 4 of the user is closed, that is to say that its diameter is average, of the order of 2 millimeters. In the viewing direction, direction perpendicular to the plane of the pupil and in parallel to the optical axis 12 of the eye, the cone of vision is substantially a cylinder, as shown in Figures 2 and 3, whose base is the pupil 4 and the axis is the optical axis 12 of the eye. The apparent transparency of the glasses is, for the user, for example, about 10 percents, since such a proportion of the light rays parallel to the optical axis and incorporated in the cylinder does not reach area low transparency and are not mitigated.

In Figure 4 is shown as a solid angle 51 wherein the apparent transparency vary the first predetermined rules set forth in the description, rules taking into account the diameter of the pupil 4.

Figure 5 shows a section of an optical lens 6 through the optical axis.

In Figure 5, there are shown radii R, passing through the center of the eye 60 corresponding to changes in the transparency of the rear face of the optical lens 6. At each of these variations on the rear face of the lens optical 6 corresponds a variation of the transparency of the front face of the optical lens 6 so that the product of the two transparencies remains substantially a constant, for example preferred in a range where the ratio of the extreme values ​​is less than two

It should be noted that the particular shape of the changes in the transparency of the rear face of the optical lens 6 are not characteristic of the invention, all geometric patterns, any images, text, any signature that can be represented on this rear face . The front of the optical lens 6 then follows by homothety negative changes in the transparency of the rear face of the optical lens 6. It is understood that according to the embodiment shown in Figure 5, all directions of the eye correspond the same optical effect.

In Figure 5 are also shown side segments of the optical filter 58 covering at least said predetermined solid angle, filter whose transparency varies over the surface and whose transparency decreases to the areas surrounding the predetermined solid angle shown in Figure 4.

6 shows a front view of one of the faces of a lens according to a second embodiment of the optical device of the present invention. In Figure 6 are shown the optical axis 11, square areas of low transparency 32 and square areas of high transparency 13.

FIG 6a shows a front view of another side of a lens according to the second embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

In figure 6a is shown the optical axis 11, square areas of low transparency 14 and square areas of high transparency 15.

Both sides presented in Figures 6 and 6a include dark areas, so-called "low transparency" and light areas in a rectangle, square and here preferentially. From the center of the eye, these reasons are the negative of each other and homothetic. I.e. in all directions passing through the center of the eye and the optical lens 6, one and only one of the faces of the lens 6 is darkened. The pitch of the grating formed on the face closest to the eye is preferably equal to the ratio of the thickness of the lens on the distance from the lens center of the eye multiplied by the maximum radius of the pupil, e.g. 4 millimeters. By way of preferred example, if the thickness of the lens was 2 millimeters and the distance to the center of the eye of 40 mm, the pitch should be 0.2 millimeters, each square having a side of 0.1 millimeter. By definition of the dilation centered on the center of the eye, each square of the grid formed on the farthest side of the eye has a side of 0.105 millimeter. Figure 7 shows a projection parallel to an optical axis of the transparency of the lens according to the invention as presented in figures 6 and 6a.

In Figure 7 are represented the same elements as in Figures 6 and 6a, superimposed, as well as a central portion 22 surrounding the optical axis 12 and a side portion 23 surrounding the central portion

22. The darkening of each zone 7 is proportional to the average absorbance coefficient in the field of visible wavelengths. In Figure 7, we see that the average transparency coefficient, parallel to said optical of the central portion axis, represented by a circle of small diameter, is substantially different from the average transparency coefficient parallel to said axis of the side part, represented through the gap between the small circle and a large circle, for wavelengths lying in the visible range.

In all the eye vision directions, the appearance of the lens 6 is that described in Figure 7. The feature described above is thus substantially independent of the position of the user's eye and therefore the optical axis which positions the central area and the side area. 8 shows a front view of one of the faces of a lens according to a third embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

In Figure 8 are shown the optical axis 11 of the triangular areas of low transparency 16 and triangular areas of high transparency 17.

Figure 9 shows a front view of another side of a lens according to the third embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

In Figure 9 are shown the optical axis 11 of the triangular areas of low transparency 18 and triangular areas of high transparency 19. The two surfaces shown in Figures 8 and 9 comprise dark areas and bright areas in the shape of triangles and preferably from equilateral triangles. From the center of the eye, these reasons are the negative of each other and homothetic. I.e. in all directions passing through the center of the eye and the optical lens 6, one and only one of the faces of the lens 6 is darkened. The pitch of the grating formed on the face closest to the eye is preferably equal to the ratio of the thickness of the lens on the distance from the lens center of the eye multiplied by the maximum radius of the pupil, e.g. 4 millimeters. By way of preferred example, if the thickness of the lens was 2 millimeters and the distance to the center of the eye of 40 mm, the pitch should be 0.2 millimeters, each equilateral triangle having one side of 0, 2 millimeter. By definition of the dilation centered on the center of the eye, each network triangle on the far side of the eye has a side of 0.21 millimeter. as is well understood with reference to Figures 6, 6a and 7 only in respect of Figures 8 and 9, the optical effect shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4, is realized.

Of course, other geometric patterns used to achieve other embodiments within the spirit of the present invention. For example, photographs and raster geometrically similar negative on both sides of the optical lens gives a spectacular result.

Another prime example is horizontal or vertical straight lines parallel carried out on each of the homothetic and negative sides of the way from each other.

The staggered positioned discs also provides a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

10 shows a sectional view of a fourth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention. In Figure 10 are shown in section 20 the son of a reinforcement fabric or parallel son between them. This complex framework guides the successive son gradually down: the son of every step of the nearest network of the eye is slightly higher than the following the thread itself is slightly higher than the third overlooking its slightly turn the fourth, but the fourth is more than one step lower than the first. In addition the fabric is slightly curved, are center of curvature being on the side of the optical lens 6 which is towards the eye.

Each set of four parallel horizontal son is carried by a plane whose distance from the optical center of the eye is: - either substantially constant, and preferably, a constant having a value between one half and twice the maximum radius of the pupil ocular;

- or progressive according to the optical device of the present invention from top to bottom. According to this configuration, the apparent transparency of the optical lens 6 decreases from bottom to top and, in each viewing direction, the apparent transparency decreases with the diameter of the pupil.

Preferably, the son 20 have oblique surfaces oriented with an angle greater than or equal to 45 degrees, relative to the optical axis of the optical device. In this way, potential reflections visible on these faces reflect only the light from the user side which is generally lower than that from the other side of the optical device.

11 shows a sectional view of a fifth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

In Figure 11 is shown a plate material having a low transparency, if not zero, pierced by elongate holes 24. As an example these ports can be angled cylinders facing downwards starting from the opposite rear optical lenses and whose slope depends on the diameter such that at least one light ray passing through the center of the eye 60 through each orifice. According to this configuration, the apparent transparency of the optical lens 6 decreases from bottom to top and, in each viewing direction, the apparent transparency decreases with the diameter of the pupil.

According to the two embodiments shown in Figures 10 and 11, the lens 6 is characterized in that it has a low material structure transparency and spaces without solid material. In addition, spaces without solid material are mainly directed forwards downwards, that is to say that the forward directions down corresponding to average a larger average transparency of the lens that direction which are forward upward.

It is noted that Figure 11 also shows a variant comprising flat lamellae which are supported by planes whose distance to the center 67 of the eye 60, is constant or gradual, as explained above with reference to Figure 10, these strips being, in section, represented by the oblique lines in Figure 11.

Figure 11 also shows an alternative embodiment of the invention that the areas of low transparency are elongated particles or molecules, for example in the shape of rice grain oriented by a force field. Indeed, these particles have the same cuts the raised strips and the walls shown in Figure 11 by solid lines.

The force field which orients the particles may, for example, be an electric field used during the manufacture of the optical device. It could also be a constant field strength, for example, the fields of liquid crystal molecules of inking strengths containing elongated doping molecules which absorb light, inking directed substantially perpendicularly to the outer surfaces of the lens. The constant field can, moreover, be an electric field, optionally controlled according to the signal representative of the outgoing brightness of a sensor adapted for sensing the ambient brightness, according to known techniques, orienting said electric field, for example a liquid crystal dichroic. These different embodiments are readily to the human range of the inclusions in the art of plastic materials during cure or liquid crystal displays, for example dichroic.

12 shows a sectional view of a sixth embodiment of the optical device of the present invention.

Found in Figure 12 the items shown in Figure 2, however, the networks supported by the optical lens 6 are homothetic with respect to the center of the eye, but not in the negative of each other. Of course, networks carried by the two faces of the optical lens 6 may be formed square as shown in Figure 6, 6a and 7, discs, straight lines, triangles as shown in FIG 7 and 8, or other regular geometric patterns or not.

According to this sixth embodiment, the optical effect is opposite to that which was described with reference to Figures 2 to 4. Here, the apparent transparency increases as the diameter of the pupil decreases. In the viewing direction, when the pupil has a small diameter, the proportion of light rays, received, represented by the cylinder 65, is very high, and when the pupil has a large diameter, the proportion of light rays reduces the surface the bases of the cylinder surrounding the collected light rays being only a very small part of the surface of the pupil 4. This sixth embodiment is intended, for example, to athletes, focusing, need to have a reduced field of vision, such as in the field of launch on target.

In Figure 13 are shown the eye 1 having the retina 2, the lens 3 and the pupil 4. The pupil 4 comprises a central portion 37 and a side portion 38. The iris 38 is moved by the muscles 5, the lens optic 36 comprises the front face 9, the rear face 10 and has an optical axis 11.

The eye 1 is that of the user. In the case presented here, the user suffers from myopia and vision requires correction with a converging optical lens.

The optical lens 36 is a contact lens or contact lens, also known as contact lens. In particular, the lens 36 may be flexible or porous or rigid. The invention relates only to its optical characteristics and in particular the local variation of its transparency, on one side or on both sides in its thickness.

The optical lens 36 is a converging-type. The optical axis 11 of the optical lens 36 is approximately coincident with that of the eye 1 and used to correct myopia. The optical lens 36 has a front face 9 which does not touch the eye and whose radius of curvature is lower than that of its rear face 10. The rear face 10 touches the eye to the lens 3 on the cornea whose radius of curvature is substantially equal to that of the rear face 10.

The pupil has a central portion 37 which is located at the center of the iris plane around its optical axis 11 and a lateral portion 38 which surrounds the central portion 37 and extending to the circle of maximum pupil dimension . The average transparency coefficient of the optical lens 36 for the light rays passing through the central portion 37 of the pupil 4 is substantially lower than the average transparency coefficient for light rays passing through the side portion 38 of the pupil 4, for lengths wave located in the visible range.

The realization of the faces 9 and 10 of the lens 36 of zones having a lower transparency may be inspired by various techniques known to the skilled person, in particular for producing artificial iris designed to change the apparent eye color user.

Other known techniques, screen printing, painting, impregnating or doping for example, may be used with or without mechanical preparation of the lens 36, for the realization of more or less transparent areas.

Several embodiments of lens 36 are shown in Figures 13-16 with variants of the seventh embodiment shown in Figures 17 to 22.

According to the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15, the front 9 and rear 10 of the lens 36 comprise areas of low transparency and areas of high transparency. For the parallel rays to the optical axis 11, the areas of low transparency of the two faces of the lens 36 are substantially superposed. On the contrary, for converging rays toward the center of the pupil 4, areas of low transparency of the two faces are substantially juxtaposed, i.e. each area of ​​low transparency of a face is substantially superimposed on a high areas transparency of the other side.

Preferably, both sides are thus both - substantially identical to at least one ring; and - homothety negative, relative to the apparent center of the pupil, the dilation considered by matching areas of low transparency with areas of high transparency.

In addition, the front face 9 of the lens 36 carries an optical processing 52, comprising at least two surfaces forming interfaces between materials whose refractive indices are different. This optical treatment has a lower transparency for optical beams whose angle of incidence is zero, that is to say for the optical beams perpendicular to the surface of the lens 36, as for the optical rays arriving so this oblique surface. The at least two surface forming the optical processing in accordance with known techniques, optically cooperating for this purpose, according to the present invention.

The light rays that converge to the apparent center of the pupil must enter the optical lens 36 approximately perpendicular to the front surface 9. On the contrary, the light rays which converge towards the lateral regions of the pupil of larger diameter, cross the face before the lens 36 with an oblique incidence corresponding to a high transparency.

Thus, the optical transparency of treatment is low for these rays, the apparent transparency to the minimum pupil diameter is smaller than the apparent transparency to the maximum diameter pupil.

Such an optical processing is known, for example in multilayer treatment. It should be noted that in Figure 13, the optical processing realizes the function of the invention cumulatively to areas of low transparency presented below which are carried by other surfaces which cooperate optically. In a simplification, optical processing presented above is not recalled in the following figures.

Figure 14 shows in sectional view the same components as in Figure 13, the pupil diameter being however much more reduced.

The areas of lowest transparency are numbered 53. The coefficient of transparency in areas of lower transparency is preferentially less than twelve-hundred. These zones 53 are shown from the front, with examples of geometric shapes particular, with reference to Figures 17 to 22 and more particularly in Figures 21 and 22. It is seen in Figure 14 that almost all the rays reaching the pupil 4 coming from a solid angle placed before the eye preliminarily through low transparency area 53 while in Figure 13, and for the same solid angle, some of the rays reaching the pupil 4 does not cross any small area of ​​transparency 53. the transparency bulk of the lens 36 is thus lower for average pupil diameter shown in Figure 14 for the large diameter pupil shown in Figure 13.

15 shows in sectional view the same components as in Figure 13, ie diameter of the pupil is however much smaller than in Figures 13 and 14. In Figure 15, all light rays from the solid angle considered and reaching the small diameter pupil meet at least one of the areas of low transparency of one of the two faces of the lens 36.

Areas of low transparency 54 which are on the rear face 10 of the lens 36 are, for example, coaxial with axis 11. crowns areas of low transparency 55 that are on the front face 9 of the lens 36 are for example, a central disc and coaxial rings of axis 11. the rays characteristic of these rings are substantially equal in pairs and the thicknesses of crowns are in descending with their radius. In this way, for rays parallel to the optical axis 11, the transparency of the lens 36 is increasing with the radius. Converging rays to the apparent center of the pupil 4, the transparency is significantly lower in each area for rays parallel to the axis 11. In fact, for rays parallel to the optical axis 11, the areas of low transparency 54 and 55 overlap substantially completely and transparency multiply while converging rays to the apparent center of the pupil 4, areas of low transparency 54 and 55 do not overlap and their transparency is multiplied by the intercalary areas to areas of low transparency.

It should be noted that the dark areas 54 and 55 are combined and can take other geometric shapes, and graphic or photographic particularly circular shapes, polygonal shapes, in particular triangles or squares, any graphic forms, shapes or degraded forms of halftone photographs or printing.

In Figure 15 is shown as a solid angle 50 wherein the apparent transparency vary the first predetermined rules set forth in the description, rules taking into account the diameter of the pupil 4.

Figure 16 shows in a sectional view another embodiment of the present invention. Found in Figure 16 the elements of Figure 13 but with areas of low transparency 56 which are internal to the lens 36, between the front and rear faces of the lens 36.

Areas of low transparency 56 which are located in the thickness of the lens 36, form a set of coaxial cones frustum whose apex is located on the outside and towards the front of the eye and the angle of which is decreasing function of the radius of the intersection of each cone with the lens 36. in an alternative embodiment shown in Figure 16, areas of low transparency have cylinder shape whose axis is the optical axis of the lens. The roll gap between them and their transparency are easily selected based on the transparency that is desired for each direction in the solid angle. Preferably, a small additional area of ​​transparency is laterally placed on the optical axis of the lens 36 to absorb some of the light rays which converge towards the center of the pupil, while remaining substantially parallel to said optical axis. FIG 17 and FIG 18 show, on the same scale, the front and rear faces of a first variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

the optical axis is reflected in both Figures 11, areas of low transparency 55, which are on the front face 9 of the lens 36 and areas of low transparency 54 which are on the rear face 10 of the lens 36.

In these figures, the areas of low transparency 54 and 55 are squares which form a checkerboard and touch at their corners, two by two, and are intercalated with transparent squares. low transparency areas 55 are larger than areas of low transparency 54 in the proportion of the respective optical distance of the front 9 and rear 10 at the center of the pupil 4.

FIG 19 and FIG 20 show, on the same scale, the front and rear faces of a second variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

the optical axis is reflected in both Figures 11, areas of low transparency 55, which are on the front face 9 of the lens 36 and areas of low transparency 54 which are on the rear face 10 of the lens 36. in these figures, areas of low transparency 54 and 55 are equilateral triangles that touch at their corners, in pairs, and are interspersed with transparent equilateral triangles. low transparency areas 55 are larger than areas of low transparency 54 in the proportion of the respective optical distance of the front 9 and rear 10 at the center of the pupil 4.

More generally, weak areas transparencies 54 and 55 may have polygonal shapes.

FIG 21 and FIG 22 are at approximately the same scale, the front and rear faces of a third variant of the embodiment shown in Figures 13 to 15.

In these figures, the areas of low transparency 54 are coaxial with axis 11 and crown areas of low transparency 55 are identical crowns crowns 54 over a central disc, said rings and discs being coaxial to axis 11.

The characteristics of these rays crowns are substantially equal in pairs, between areas of low transparency 54 and areas of low transparency and crowns 55 thicknesses going in descending with their radius. In this way, for rays parallel to the optical axis 11, the average transparency of the lens 36 is increased with distance from the ray with the optical axis 11. For the rays parallel to the optical axis 11, the areas of low transparency 54 and 55 overlap substantially completely and transparency then multiply that converging rays to the apparent center of the pupil 4, areas of low transparency 54 and 55 do not overlap and their transparency is multiplied by the infill areas to areas of low transparency.

In addition, preferably, each lower rays characteristic of a ring 42 positioned on the front face 9 of the lens 36 is equal to a lower characteristic radius of a ring 41 placed on the rear face 10 of the lens 36, a either the product of a higher characteristic radius of a ring 41 by the ratio of the distances of said characteristic radiation in the center of the pupil 4, for equal optical indices between the cornea of ​​the eye and the lens 36, of somewhere else. It is clear that for different optical indices between the cornea and the lens 36, optical calculations must be made for a similar appearance to the eye of the user.

According to the third variant of the seventh embodiment shown in Figures 21 and 22, changes in the transparency of the front 9 and rear 10 of the lens 36 are substantially homothetic with respect to the apparent center of the pupil 4, these transparency values ​​being such their product is substantially constant for the convergent rays at the center of the pupil 4 and from a conical field of view whose axis is that of the eye and whose angle is approximately 90 degrees. These 90 degrees represent the visual field usually covered by sunglasses.

Preferably, the minimum transparency area that touches the optical axis 12 from the rear face 10 of the optical lens 36 so that a third party who observes a user of these lenses this area is visually superimposed on the pupil.

Figure 23 shows a partial front view of an optical device woven according to the second aspect of the present invention. In Figure 23, there is vertical son 64 of a fabric and horizontal son 63 of the fabric, with different distances between firstly the vertical son and the other horizontal son. Here, the form of weaving is very simple, but other frames can be used according to the invention.

Preferably, the son have, on the surface, an antireflection optical treatment which removes at least partly the reflections of bright light sources. This treatment is, for example, composed of several layers of different optical indices materials, according to known techniques.

For example, the fabric in question is known as the "jeans". The spaces between the son can be filled with material at least partially transparent to reduce glare on the surface of son. The son of the tissue can of course also be oblique than vertical or horizontal. As described with reference to Figure 10, the son can, alternatively, possess no surface for the reflection of a beam from a side of the optical device, to the other side of this device.

Finally, several cloth layers can be overlaid.

According to a variant having the latter characteristic, the fabric layers are superposed so that their transparent areas are juxtaposed as described above with reference to FIGS 2 to 5, or overlap, as described with reference to FIG 12.

Note that in all the embodiments presented in the description, areas of low transparency have a lower coefficient of transparency in half.

The present invention is not limited to the examples and embodiments described and shown but extends on the contrary to the improvements and changes to the scope of the skilled person.

In particular, the present invention fits both corrective lenses that non-corrective or afocal.

Preferably, the lenses according to the present invention are opaque to ultraviolet radiation, at least in the same proportion as their opacity in the visible range and preferably completely opaque.

The invention also applies to the production of ophthalmic articles, such as, intraocular lenses or artificial corneas.

According to a variant not shown, the side portions of the solid angle in which the optical effect of the invention is most pronounced, comprise filter means whose transparency decreases laterally away from the optical axis of the device optical.

Note that for the skilled person, it is easy to measure the sensitivity of the eye to the brightness for each corner of the solid angle considered and choose geometric patterns that, when the pupil has its minimum diameter, gives a minimum apparent transparency to directions in which the eye is most sensitive to excess brightness. In particular, for two identical geometric networks placed on two surfaces at a given distance, the ratio of the pitch of the gratings used to control the vertex angle of the cone describing the solid angle and offset networks to control the direction of the the axis of said cone. The use of two different pitches in the horizontal and vertical directions to control the small and large axes of an ellipse as a basis to said cone. It is also noted that according to the respective positions of the areas of low transparency, optical effect works in a given direction, in positive, that is to say by reducing the apparent transparency of the optical device when the diameter of the reduced pupil , or negative, that is to say by increasing the transparency of the optical device when the diameter of the reduced pupil.

According to another variant, what has been stated above for the pupil is expanded to the entire visible surface of the eye, such that this surface is more protected from the harmful light rays, such as ultraviolet , the skin surrounds the visible surface.

Claims

1. An optical brightness monitoring device perceived through a pupil of an eye characterized in that it comprises optical means which, in every point of which transparency is not zero, has an average transparency, for the spokes light reaching the pupil, which varies according to first predetermined rules taking into account the diameter of the pupil.
2. An optical device according to claim 1 characterized in that it comprises two outer sides and, on each of said outer faces, areas of low transparency whose transparency coefficient is less than one half.
3. An optical device according to any one of claims 1 or 2 characterized in that, in the convex volume which contains it, it has internal areas of low transparency.
4. An optical device according to claim 3 characterized in that said internal regions form approximately facing surfaces iris of said eye.
5. An optical device according to any one of claims 3 or 4 characterized in that said areas of low transparency are carried by planes whose distance from the center of the eye is approximately constant.
6. An optical device according to any one of claims 2 to 5 characterized in that said areas of low transparency are carried by planes whose distance from the center of the eye is between half and twice the maximum radius of said pupil .
7. An optical device according to any one of claims 2 to 6 characterized in that, for the light rays converge at a central area of ​​the pupil, said areas of low transparency are mainly juxtaposed and cover together substantially a solid angle predetermined and that for light rays passing through a side area of ​​the pupil around said central zone, areas of low transparency overlap.
8. An optical device according to any one of claims 1 to 7 characterized in that it comprises a surface treatment (52) whose transparency varies according to second predetermined rules taking into account the angle of incidence.
9. An optical device according to any one of claims 1 to 8 characterized in that it comprises a filter covering at least said predetermined solid angle, filter whose transparency varies over the surface.
10. An optical device according to any one of claims 1 to 9 characterized in that it comprises a woven surface.
11. Eyewear characterized in that it comprises an optical device according to any one of claims 1 to 10.
PCT/FR1996/000322 1995-01-25 1996-03-01 Optical devices for accelerating and amplifying eye reactions, woven optical devices, and eyewear incorporating such devices WO1996027816A1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR9502857A FR2714739B1 (en) 1995-03-06 1995-03-06
FR95/02857 1995-03-06
FR9504359A FR2719391B1 (en) 1995-01-25 1995-04-03 solar ocular optical lenses.
FR95/04359 1995-04-03

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP19960905893 EP0871919A1 (en) 1995-03-06 1996-03-01 Optical devices for accelerating and amplifying eye reactions, woven optical devices, and eyewear incorporating such devices

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1996027816A1 true WO1996027816A1 (en) 1996-09-12

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PCT/FR1996/000322 WO1996027816A1 (en) 1995-01-25 1996-03-01 Optical devices for accelerating and amplifying eye reactions, woven optical devices, and eyewear incorporating such devices

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WO (1) WO1996027816A1 (en)

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US8864306B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2014-10-21 Nexisvision, Inc. Eye covering and refractive correction methods and apparatus having improved tear flow, comfort, and/or applicability
US8926096B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2015-01-06 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US9341864B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2016-05-17 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses having a reinforcing scaffold
US9395558B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2016-07-19 Nexisvision, Inc. Methods and apparatus to identify eye coverings for vision
US9423632B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2016-08-23 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses for refractive correction
US9465233B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2016-10-11 Nexisvision, Inc. Bimodular contact lenses
US9740026B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2017-08-22 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses for refractive correction
US9943401B2 (en) 2008-04-04 2018-04-17 Eugene de Juan, Jr. Therapeutic device for pain management and vision
US10039671B2 (en) 2012-09-11 2018-08-07 Nexisvision, Inc. Eye covering and refractive correction methods for lasik and other applications
US10191303B2 (en) 2014-01-29 2019-01-29 Nexisvision, Inc. Multifocal bimodulus contact lenses

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GB2261077A (en) * 1991-09-05 1993-05-05 Gordon James Dick Optical welding filter window
US5245367A (en) * 1991-11-12 1993-09-14 David Miller Annular mask contact lenses

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FR1196569A (en) * 1958-06-03 1959-11-25 Anti-glare fitment
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US4576453A (en) * 1984-08-03 1986-03-18 Richard Borowsky Light-occluding contact lens
FR2622984A1 (en) * 1987-11-09 1989-05-12 Charles Ayache Contact lens forming a solar filter
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US5245367A (en) * 1991-11-12 1993-09-14 David Miller Annular mask contact lenses

Cited By (17)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US9943401B2 (en) 2008-04-04 2018-04-17 Eugene de Juan, Jr. Therapeutic device for pain management and vision
US9498385B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2016-11-22 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US8926096B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2015-01-06 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US9107773B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2015-08-18 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US9241837B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2016-01-26 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US9810921B2 (en) 2009-10-23 2017-11-07 Nexisvision, Inc. Conformable therapeutic shield for vision and pain
US9395558B2 (en) 2010-10-25 2016-07-19 Nexisvision, Inc. Methods and apparatus to identify eye coverings for vision
US9740025B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2017-08-22 Nexisvision, Inc. Eye covering and refractive correction methods and apparatus having improved tear flow, comfort, and/or applicability
US8864306B2 (en) 2011-04-28 2014-10-21 Nexisvision, Inc. Eye covering and refractive correction methods and apparatus having improved tear flow, comfort, and/or applicability
US9465233B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2016-10-11 Nexisvision, Inc. Bimodular contact lenses
US9423632B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2016-08-23 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses for refractive correction
US10036900B2 (en) 2012-04-20 2018-07-31 Nexisvision, Inc. Bimodular contact lenses
US10039671B2 (en) 2012-09-11 2018-08-07 Nexisvision, Inc. Eye covering and refractive correction methods for lasik and other applications
US9740026B2 (en) 2013-06-26 2017-08-22 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses for refractive correction
US9851586B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2017-12-26 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses having a reinforcing scaffold
US9341864B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2016-05-17 Nexisvision, Inc. Contact lenses having a reinforcing scaffold
US10191303B2 (en) 2014-01-29 2019-01-29 Nexisvision, Inc. Multifocal bimodulus contact lenses

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