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Substituted imides as tnf inhibitors

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Publication number
WO1996020926A1
WO1996020926A1 PCT/US1995/015384 US9515384W WO1996020926A1 WO 1996020926 A1 WO1996020926 A1 WO 1996020926A1 US 9515384 W US9515384 W US 9515384W WO 1996020926 A1 WO1996020926 A1 WO 1996020926A1
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WO
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Patent type
Prior art keywords
grams
milliliters
carbon
tnfα
atoms
Prior art date
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PCT/US1995/015384
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
George Muller
Mary Shire
David I. Stirling
Original Assignee
Celgene Corporation
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07DHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07D209/00Heterocyclic compounds containing five-membered rings, condensed with other rings, with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • C07D209/02Heterocyclic compounds containing five-membered rings, condensed with other rings, with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom condensed with one carbocyclic ring
    • C07D209/44Iso-indoles; Hydrogenated iso-indoles
    • C07D209/48Iso-indoles; Hydrogenated iso-indoles with oxygen atoms in positions 1 and 3, e.g. phthalimide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C07ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C07DHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
    • C07D209/00Heterocyclic compounds containing five-membered rings, condensed with other rings, with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • C07D209/02Heterocyclic compounds containing five-membered rings, condensed with other rings, with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom condensed with one carbocyclic ring
    • C07D209/44Iso-indoles; Hydrogenated iso-indoles
    • C07D209/46Iso-indoles; Hydrogenated iso-indoles with an oxygen atom in position 1

Abstract

Novel imides are inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor α and can be used to combat cachexia, endotoxic shock, and retrovirus replication. A typical embodiment is 2-Phthalimido-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)propane.

Description

SUBSTITUTED IMIDES AS TNF INHIBITORS

Background of the Invention

The present invention relates a method of reducing levels of TNFα in a mammal and to compounds and compositions useful therein. TNFα, or tumor necrosis factor α, is a cytokine which is released primarily by mononuclear phagocytes in response to various immunostimulators. When administered to animals or humans it causes inflammation, fever, cardiovascular effects, hemorrhage, coagulation and acute phase responses similar to those seen during acute infections and shock states. Excessive or unregulated TNFα production has been implicated in a number of disease conditions. These include endotoxemia and/or toxic shock syndrome {Tracey et al, Nature 330, 662-664 (1987) and Hinshaw et al, Circ. Shock 30, 279-292 (1990)}; cachexia {Dezube et al, Lancet, 335(8690), 662 (1990)}; and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome where TNFα concentration in excess of 12,000 pg/milliliters have been detected in pulmonary aspirates from ARDS patients {Millar et al, Lancet 2(8665), 712-714 (1989)}. Systemic infusion of recombinant TNFα also resulted in changes typically seen in ARDS {Ferrai-Baliviera et al, Arch. Surg. 124(12), 1400-1405 (1989)}.

TNFα appears to be involved in bone resoφtion diseases, including arthritis where it has been determined that when activated, leukocytes will produce a bone-resorbing activity, and data suggest that TNFα contributes to this activity. {Bertolini et al, Nature 319, 516-518 (1986) and Johnson et al, Endocrinology 124(3), 1424-1427 (1989).} It has been determined that TNFα stimulates bone resoφtion and inhibits bone formation in vitro and in vivo through stimulation of osteoclast formation and activation combined with inhibition of osteoblast function. Although TNFα may be involved in many bone resoφtion diseases, including arthritis, the most compelling link with disease is the association between produc¬ tion of TNFα by tumor or host tissues and malignancy associated hypercalcemia {CalcL Tissue Int. (US) 46(Suppl.), S3-10 (1990)}. In Graft versus Host Reaction, increased serum TNFα levels have been associated with major complication following acute allogenic bon marrow transplants {Holler et al., Blood, 75(4), 1011-1016 (1990)}.

Cerebral malaria is a lethal hyperacute neurological syndrome associated with hig blood levels of TNFα and the most severe complication occurring in malaria patients Levels of serum TNFα correlated directly with the severity of disease and the prognosis i patients with acute malaria attacks {Grau et al, N. Engl. J. Med 320(24), 1586-1591 (1989)} TNFα also plays a role in the area of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. Th deposition of silica particles leads to silicosis, a disease of progressive respiratory failur caused by a fibrotic reaction. Antibody to TNFα completely blocked the silica-induced lun fibrosis in mice {Pignet et al, Nature, 344:245-247 (1990)}. High levels of TNFα productio (in the serum and in isolated macrophages) have been demonstrated in animal models o silica and asbestos induced fibrosis {Bissonnette et al., Inflammation 13(3), 329-339 (1989)} Alveolar macrophages from pulmonary sarcoidosis patients have also been found t spontaneously release massive quantities of TNFα as compared with macrophages fro normal donors {Baughman et al, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 115(1), 36-42 (1990)}.

TNFα is also implicated in the inflammatory response which follows reperfusio called reperfusion injury, and is a major cause of tissue damage after loss of blood flo {Vedder et al, PNAS 87, 2643-2646 (1990)}. TNFα also alters the properties of endothelia cells and has various pro-coagulant activities, such as producing an increase in tissue facto pro-coagulant activity and suppression of the anticoagulant protein C pathway as well a down-regulating the expression of thrombomodulin {Sherry et al, J. CellBiol 107, 1269-127 (1988)}. TNFα has pro-inflammatory activities which together with its early productio (during the initial stage of an inflammatory event) make it a likely mediator of tissue injur in several important disorders including but not limited to, myocardial infarction, stroke an circulatory shock. Of specific importance may be TNFα-induced expression of adhesio molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) or endothelial leukocyt adhesion molecule (ELAM) on endothelial cells {Munro et al, Am. J. Path. 135(1), 121-13 (1989)}. Moreover, it now is known that TNFα is a potent activator of retrovirus replication including activation of HIV-1. {Duh et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Scl 86, 5974-5978 (1989); Poll et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Scl 87, 782-785 (1990); Monto et al, Blood 79, 2670 (1990); Clouse et al., J. Immunol. 142, 431-438 (1989); Poll et al, AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovirus, 191-197 (1992)}. AIDS results from the infection of T lymphocytes with Human Immunodeficiency

Virus (HTV). At least three types or strains of HIV have been identified, le., HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-3. As a consequence of HIV infection, T-cell mediated immunity is impaired and infected individuals manifest severe opportunistic infections and/or unusual neoplasms. HTV entry into the T lymphocyte requires T lymphocyte activation. Other viruses, such as HIV-1, HTV-2 infect T lymphocytes after T cell activation and such virus protein expression and/or replication is mediated or maintained by such T cell activation. Once an activated T lymphocyte is infected with HIV, the T lymphocyte must continue to be maintained in an activated state to permit HIV gene expression and/or HIV replication. Cytokines, specifically TNFα, are implicated in activated T-cell mediated HIV protein expression and/or virus replication by playing a role in maintaining T lymphocyte activation. Therefore, interference with cytokine activity such as by prevention or inhibition of cytokine production, notably TNFα, in an HIV-infected individual aids in limiting the maintenance of T lymphocyte caused by HIV infection.

Monocytes, macrophages, and related cells, such as kupffer and glial cells, have also been implicated in maintenance of the HIV infection. These cells, like T cells, are targets for viral replication and the level of viral replication is dependent upon the activation state of the cells. {Rosenberg et al, The Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infection, Advances in Immunology, 57 (1989)}. Cytokines, such as TNFα, have been shown to activate HIV replication in monocytes and/or macrophages {Poli et al Proc Natl Acad. Scl, 87, 782-784 (1990)}, therefore, prevention or inhibition of cytokine production or activity aids in limiting

HIV progression as stated above for T cells. Additional studies have identified TNFα as a common factor in the activation of HIV in vitro and has provided a clear mechanism of action via a nuclear regulatory protein found in the cytoplasm of cells (Osborn, et al, PNAS 86, 2336-2340). This evidence suggests that a reduction of TNFα synthesis may have antiviral effect in HIV infections, by reducing the transcription and thus virus productio AIDS viral replication of latent HIV in T cell and macrophage lines can be induc by TNFα {Folks et al, PNAS 86, 2365-2368 (1989)}. A molecular mechanism for the vir inducing activity is suggested by TNFα's ability to activate a gene regulatory protein (NFK found in the cytoplasm of cells, which promotes HIV replication through binding to a vir regulatory gene sequence (LTR) {Osborn et al, PNAS 86, 2336-2340 (1989)}. TNFα AIDS and cancer associated cachexia is suggested by elevated serum TNFα and high leve of spontaneous TNFα production in peripheral blood monocytes from patients {Wright al J. Immunol. 141(1), 99-104 (1988)}. Eur J. Gastroen Hepat 6(9), 821-829, 1994.

TNFα has been implicated in various roles with other viral infections, such as t cytomegalia virus (CMV), influenza virus, adenovirus, and the heφes family of viruses f similar reasons as those noted.

Preventing or inhibiting the production or action of TNFα is, therefore, predicted be a potent therapeutic strategy for many inflammatory, infectious, immunological malignant diseases. These include but are not restricted to septic shock, sepsis, endotox shock, hemodynamic shock and sepsis syndrome, post ischemic reperfusion injury, malari mycobacterial infection, meningitis, psoriasis, congestive heart failure, fibrotic diseas cachexia, graft rejection, cancer, autoimmune disease, opportunistic infections in AID rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid spondylitis, osteoarthritis, other arthritic conditio Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythrematosis, ENL leprosy, radiation damage, and hyperoxic alveolar injury. Efforts directed to the suppressi of the effects of TNFα have ranged from the utilization of steroids such as dexamethaso and prednisolone to the use of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies {Beutler et a Science 234, 470-474 (1985); WO 92/11383}. (Clinical and Experimental Rheumatolo 1993, U (Suppl. 8), 5173-5175). (PNAS 1992, 89, 9784-88). (Annals of the Rheuma Diseases 1990, 49, 480-486).

The nuclear factor KB (NF B) is a pleiotropic transcriptional activator (Lenardo, al Cell 1989, 58, 227-29). NFKB has been implicated as a transcriptional activator in a variety of disease and inflammatory states and is thought to regulate cytokine levels including but not limited to TNFα and also to be an activator of HIV transcription (Dbaibo, et al J. Biol. Chem. 1993, 17762-66; Duh et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1989, 86, 5974-78; Bachelerie et al Nature 1991, 350, 709-12; Boswas et al J.. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1993, 6, 778-786; Suzuki et al Biochem. And Biophys. Res. Comm. 1993, 193, 277- 83; Suzuki et al Biochem. And Biophys. Res Comm. 1992, 189, 1709-15; Suzuki et al Biochem. Mol. Bio. Int. 1993, 31(4), 693-700; Shakhov et al 1990, 171, 35-47; and Staal et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1990, 87, 9943-47). Thus, inhibition of NFKB binding can regulate transcription of cytokine gene(s) and through this modulation and other mechanisms be useful in the inhibition of a multitude of disease states. The compounds claimed in this patent can inhibit the action of NFKB in the nucleus and thus are useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases including but not limited to rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid spondylitis, osteoarthritis, other arthritic conditions, septic shock, septis, endotoxic shock, graft versus host disease, wasting, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythrematosis, ENL in leprosy, HTV, AIDS, and oppor¬ tunistic infections in AIDS.

TNFα and NFKB levels are influenced by a reciprocal feedback loop. As noted above, the compounds of the present invention affect the levels of both TNFα and NFKB. It is not known at this time, however, how the compounds of the present invention regulate the levels of TNFα, NFKB, or both.

Detailed Description The present invention is based on the discovery that a class of non-polypeptide imides more fully described herein appear to inhibit the action of TNFα. The to compounds of the formula:

(I)

in which:

R1 is (0 straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, (/ ) phenyl phenyl substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently of the oth from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acet carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, straight or branched alkyl of 1 to 10 carb atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or halo, (iii) benzyl or benzyl substituted with o or more substituents each selected independently of the other from nitro, cyan trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetox carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, halo, or (iv) -Y-Ph where Y is a straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon ato and Ph is phenyl or phenyl substituted with one or more substituents each select independently of the other from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbometho carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carb atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or halo;

R2 is -H, a branched or unbranched alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl, pyrid heterocycle, -CH2-Aryl, or -CH2-heterocycle;

R3 is i) ethylene, ii) vinylene, iii) a branched alkylene of 3 to 10 carbon atoms, i a branched alkenylene of 3 to 10 carbon atoms, v) cycloalkylene of 4 to 9 carbon ato unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nit cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo, vi) cycloalkenylene of 4 to 9 carbon atoms unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, car¬ boxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo, or vii) o-phenylene unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo; and,

R4 is -CX, or -CH2-. X is O or S.

The term alkyl as used herein denotes a univalent saturated branched or straight hydrocarbon chain. Unless otherwise stated, such chains can contain from 1 to 18 carbon atoms. Representative of such alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, tert-pentyl, hexyl, isohexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, pentadecyl, hexadecyl, heptadecyl, octadecyl, and the like. When qualified by "lower", the alkyl group will contain from 1 to 6 carbon atoms. The same carbon content applies to the parent term "alkane" and to derivative terms such as "alkoxy".

The compounds can be prepared using methods which are known in general for the preparation of imides. General reaction schemes include the reaction of the substituted amine with either phthalic anhydride, N-carbethoxyphthalimide, 1,2-benzenedicarbaldehyde or various substituted anhydrides as illustrated by the formulas: i-r—

Ϋ O Ϋ o

R is -CH-R 2 R1

R6 and R7 are hydrogen, nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethox carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alk of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, halo or R6 and R7 together with t carbons to which they are attached represent a cycloalkylene ring of 4 to 9 carbon ato unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently fro nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamo acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo.

A first preferred subclass of Formula I pertains to compounds in which: R1 is 3,4-diethoxyphenyl and 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl R3 is o-phenylene substituted with amino; and,

R4 is -CO- or -CH2-:

The compounds can be used, under the supervision of qualified professionals, to inhibit the undesirable effects of TNFα. The compounds can be administered orally, rec- tally, or parenterally, alone or in combination with other therapeutic agents including antibiotics, steroids, etc., to a mammal in need of treatment. Oral dosage forms include tablets, capsules, dragees, and similar shaped, compressed pharmaceutical forms. Isotonic saline solutions containing 20-100 milligrams/milliliter can be used for parenteral administration which includes intramuscular, intrathecal, intravenous and intra-arterial routes of administration. Rectal administration can be effected through the use of suppositories formulated from conventional carriers such as cocoa butter.

Dosage regimens must be titrated to the particular indication, the age, weight, and general physical condition of the patient, and the response desired but generally doses will be from about 1 to about 500 milligrams/day as needed in single or multiple daily administration. In general, an initial treatment regimen can be copied from that known to be effective in interfering with TNFα activity for other TNFα mediated disease states by the compounds of the present invention. Treated individuals will be regularly checked for T cell numbers and T4/T8 ratios and/or measures of viremia such as levels of reverse transcriptase or viral proteins, and/or for progression of cytokine-mediated disease associated problems such as cachexia or muscle degeneration. If no effect is found following the normal treatment regimen, then the amount of cytokine activity interfering agent administered is increased, e.g., by fifty percent a week. The compounds of the present invention also can be used topically in the treatme or prophylaxis of topical disease states mediated or exacerbated by excessive TN production, respectively, such as viral infections, such as those caused by the heφes virus or viral conjunctivitis, etc. The compounds also can be used in the veterinary treatment of mammals other th humans in need of prevention or inhibition of TNFα production. TNFα mediated diseas for treatment, therapeutically or prophylactically, in animals include disease states such those noted above, but in particular viral infections. Examples include feline immun deficiency virus, equine infectious anaemia virus, caprine arthritis virus, visna virus, a maedi virus, as well as other lentiviruses.

Certain of these compounds possess centers of chirality and can exist as optic isomers. Both the racemates of these isomers and the individual isomers themselves, as w as diastereomers when there are two chiral centers, are within the scope of the prese invention. The racemates can be used as such or can be separated into their individu isomers mechanically as by chromatography using a chiral absorbent. Alternatively, t individual isomers can be prepared in chiral form or separated chemically from a mixtu by forming salts with a chiral acid, such as the individual enantiomers of 10-camphorsulfon acid, camphoric acid, alpha-bromocamphoric acid, methoxyacetic acid, tartaric aci diacetyltartaric acid, malic acid, pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, and the like, and then freei one or both of the resolved bases, optionally repeating the process, so as to obtain eith or both substantially free of the other; i.e., in a form having an optical purity of > 95%.

Prevention or inhibition of production of TNFα by these compounds can conveniently assayed using anti-TNFα antibodies. For example, plates (Nunc Immunoplat Roskilde, DK) are treated with 5 μg/milliliter of purified rabbit anti-TNFα antibodies at 4 for 12 to 14 hours. The plates then are blocked for 2 hours at 25CC with PBS/0.05% Twe containing 5 milligrams/milliliter BSA. After washing, 100 μ of unknowns as well controls are applied and the plates incubated at 4°C for 12 to 14 hours. The plates washed and assayed with a conjugate of peroxidase (horseradish) and mouse anti-TN monoclonal antibodies, and the color developed with o-phenylenediamine in phosphate- citrate buffer containing 0.012% hydrogen peroxide and read at 492 nm. Typical compounds of this invention include: l-phthalimido-l-(3,,4'-diethoxyphenyl)ethane, l-(r-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)ethane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)propane, l-(l,-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4,-diethoxyphenyl)propane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)butane, l-(r-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3\4'-diethoxyphenyl)butane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethane, l-( -oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-pyridylpropane, l-(r-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-pyridlpropane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropane, l-(l'-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropane, l-phthalimido-l-(3,,4,-diethoxyphenyl)-2-pyridylethane, l-( -oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-2-pyridylethane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)butane, l-( -oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)butane, l-phthalimido-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-2-imidazolylethane, l-(l'-oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-2-imidazolylethane, l-phthalimido-l-(3\4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutane, l-( -oxoisoindolinyl)-l-(3',4'-diethoxyphenyl)-3-methylbutane.

The following examples will serve to further typify the nature of this invention but should not be construed as a limitation in the scope thereof, which scope is defined solely by the appended claims. Example 1 2-Phthalimido-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyI)propane. To a stirred solution of 3-(3, dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (1.95 grams, 10.0 mmol) and sodium carbonate (1. grams, 10.0 mmol) in 50 milliliters of water was added N-carbethoxyphthalimide (2.19 gra 10.0 mmol). After 10 minutes the reaction mixture was diluted with 40 milliliters acetonitrile and the mixture stirred for 40 minutes The reaction solution was partial concentrated in vacuo to remove the acetonitrile. The resulting mixture of an oil a aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride (25 milliliters). The organic extra was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford a crude product whi was purified by flash chromatography to afford 1.73 grams (53%) of product as a thick which slowly solidified to a white wax: *H NMR (dmso-d6, 250 MHz) 6 7.7 (m, 4 H, Ar), 6 (m, 3 H, Ar), 4.63 (m, 1 H, CH), 3.79 (s, 3 H, OMe), 3.73 (s, 3 H, OMe), 3.28 (dd, 1 H, = 13.8, 9.8 Hz), 3.03 (dd, J = 13.8, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 1.54 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3 H); 13C NM (dmso-d6) δ 168.4, 148.6, 147.4, 133.7, 131.8, 130.9, 122.9, 120.9, 111.1, 55.7, 55.6, 48.6, 39. 18.3. Anal. Calcd for C19H19N02. Theoretical C, 70.14; H, 5.89; N, 4.30. Found C, 70.08;

5.83; N, 4.30.

Example 2 l-Phthalimido-l-(3', 4'-dimethoxyphenyl)ethane. a) 3',4'-Dimethoxyacetophenone oxime. A solution of hydroxylamine hydrochlori (3.33 grams, 48 mmol) and sodium acetate (4.92 grams, 60 mmol) in 20 milliliters of wat was added to a stirring solution of 3',4'-dimethoxyacetophenone (5.41 grams, 30.0 mmol) a mixture of water (30 milliliters) and ethanol (30 milliliters), the solution was stirr overnight. The resulting mixture was filtered and the solid was dried in vacuo (60 °C , lmm) to afford 4.68 grams (80%) of product as a yellow solid: mp 137-138 °C ; lH N (CDC13) δ 7.34-7.08 (m , 2H), 6.94-6 80 (m , IH), 3.92 (s , 3H), 3.90 (s , 3H), 2.28 (s , 3

; 13C NMR (CDCI3) <S 155.6, 150.1, 148.8, 129.2, 119.2, 110.6, 108.6, 55.8. b) l-(3',4'-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine. 3',4'-Dimethoxyacetophenone oxime (1 gram, 5.1 mmol) was dissolved in 10 milliliters of glacial acetic acid, the solution was flushed with N2 and the palladium on carbon (0.2 grams, 5%) was added. The mixture was treated with 60 psi of H2 in a Parr Type Shaker for 24 hours. The catalyst was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated to afford a yellow oil which was taken up in water, basified to pH 12 with a saturated solution of sodium carbonate and extracted with methylene chloride. The combined extracts were dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to afford 1.97 grams (82%) of product as a yellow oil: lH NMR (CDC13) δ 7.02-6.75 (m , 3H), 4.08 (q , J, = 6.6Hz , J2 = 13.1Hz , IH), 3.89 (s , 3H), 3.87 (s , 3H), 1.37 (d , J = 6.6Hz , 3H).

c) l-Phthalimido-l-(3', 4'-dimethoxyphenyI)ethane. To a stirred solution of l-(3\4'- dimethoxyphenyl)ethylamine (1.81 grams, 10.0 mmol) and sodium carbonate (1.14 grams, 10.8 mmol) in a mixture of water (80 milliliters) and acetonitrile (50 milliliters) was added N-carbethoxyphthalimide (2.19 grams, 10 mmol). The resulting suspension was stirred for 3.5 hours at room temperature and then filtered to afford 1.24 grams (40%) of crude product as a white powder. The crude product was recrystallized from hexane/ethyl acetate and dried in vacuo (60 °C , < 1mm) to afford 0.85 grams (27%) of the product as white crystals: mp 124 - 125 °C ; Η NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 7.96-7.78 (m , 4H), 7.09-6.81 (m , 3H), 5.40 (q , J = 7.2Hz , IH), 3.73 (s , 3H), 3.72 (s , 3H), 1.81 (d , J = 7.2Hz , 3H) ; 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 167.6, 148.4, 148.0, 134.4, 132.9, 131.3, 122.9, 118.8, 111.5, 110.8, 55.4, 48.6, 17.7. Anal. Calculated for C18H17N04. Theoretical : C , 69.44 ; H , 5.50 ; N , 4.50. Found : C, 69.63 ; H , 5.45 ; N , 4.42. HPLC 100%.

Example 3 l-Phthalimido-l-(4'-methoxyphenyI)propane. a) 4'-Methoxypropiophenone oxime; A solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3.33 grams, 48 mmol) and sodium acetate (4.92 grams, 60 mmol) in 20 milliliters of water was added to a stirred solution of 4-methoxypropiophenone (5.26 grams, 30.0 mmol) in a mixture of water (30 milliliters) and ethanol (30 milliliters), a further 20 milliliters ethanol was added to get a homogenous solution, which was stirred overnight. The resulti slurry was filtered, the filtrate was partially concentrated, to remove the ethanol and a whi solid precipitated. The slurry was filtered and the solid was washed with water, and drie in vacuo (25 °C , < 1 mm) to afford 5.26 grams (98%) of product as a white solid : NMR (CDC13) δ 7.64-7.42 (m , 2H), 7.04-6.81(m , 2H), 3.82(s , 3H), 2.81(q , J = 7.6Hz 2H), 1.17(t , J = 7.6Hz, 3H).

b) l-(4'-Methoxyphenyl)propylamine. To a N, flushed solution of 4 methoxypropiophenone oxime (4 grams, 22.3 mmol) in glacial acetic acid (40 milliliters) w added 0.8 grams of 5% Pd/C. The mixture was treated with 60 psi of H, in a Parr Ty Shaker for 23 hours. The catalyst was filtered off through celite and the filtrate w concentrated to afford a yellow oil. The oil was taken up in water, the pH was adjusted 12 using a saturated solution of sodium carbonate, and extracted with methylene chlorid The organic extract was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to afford 3.04 gra (83%) of product as a yellow oil: *H NMR (CDC13) δ 7.32-7.20(m , 2H), 6.94-6.82(m , 2H

3.79(s , 3H), 1.88-1.54(m , 4H), 0.87(t , J = 7.4Hz , 3H).

c) l-Phthalimido-l-(4'-methoxyphenyl)propane. To a stirred solution of l-( methoxyphenyl)propylamine (2.5 grams, 15.2 mmol) and sodium carbonate (1.74 grams, 16 mmol) in a mixture of water (50 milliliters) and acetonitrile (50 milliliters) was added carbethoxyphthalimide (3.34 grams, 15.2 mmol). The resulting suspension was stirred for 4 hours at room temperature, the acetonitrile was removed in vacuo and a solid formed. T slurry was filtered and the solid was washed with water and air dried to afford 1.73 gra (39%) of crude product as a white powder. The crude product was recrystallized fro hexane/ethyl acetate and dried in vacuo (60 °C, < 1 mm) to afford 1.71 grams (38%) of t product as white crystals: mp 85-86 °C ; *H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 7.92-7.79(m , 4H), 7.4 7.28(m , 2 H), 6.97-6.83(m , 2 H), 5.19-5.06(m , 1 H), 3.72(s , 3H), 2.56-2.13(m , 2 H), 0.8 , J = 7.3Hz , 3 H) ; 13 C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 167.8, 1 .5, 134.6, 131.7, 131.0, 128.6, 123.1, 113.7, 55.2, 54.9, 23.8, 11.3. Anal. Calculated for C18H173. Theoretical : C ,73.20; H , 5.80 ; N , 4.74. Found : C.73.24; H , 5.74 ; N , 4.86. HPLC 100%.

Example 4 l-Phthalimido-l-(3,,4'-dimethoxyphenyl)methane. To a stirred solution of 3,4- dimethoxybenzylamine (0.836 grams, 5.00 mmol) and N-carbethoxyphthalimide (1.10 grams, 5.00 mmol) in 20 milliliters of tetrahydrofuran was added 1 drop of triethylamine and the mixture stirred overnight. After 24 hours at room temperature, the mixture was refluxed for 16 hours, then allowed to cool to room temperature without stirring. Crystals formed on cooling. The mixture was filtered, the solid dried in vacuo to afford 0.89 grams (60%) of l-phtlιalimido-l-(3,,4,-dimethoxyphenyl)methane as small white needles: mp 160-161 °C; Η NMR (CDC13/TMS) δ 7.8 (m, 2 H), 7.7 (m, 2 H), 7.03 (m, 2 H), 6.8 (m, 1 H), 4.78 (s, 2 H), 3.88 (s, 3 H, OCH3), 3.84 (s, 3 H, OCH3); 13C NMR (CDC13/TMS) δ 168.0, 148.9, 148.7, 133.9, 132.1, 129.0, 123.3, 121.3, 112.1, 111.1, 55.9, 41.4. Anal. Calcd for C17H15N04. Theory C, 68.68; H, 5.09; N, 4.71. Found C, 68.49; H, 4.99; N, 4.67.

Example 5 l-Phthalimido-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)toluene. a) l-Phenyl-l-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylamine. To a stirring solution of 3,4- dimethoxybenzonitrile (1.63 grams, 10.0 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (25 milliliters) was added phenyl magnesium bromide (3.7 milliliters , 3M , 11.0 mmol) and the resulting solution was refluxed for 40 minutes. The progress of the reaction was monitored by TLC (30% ethyl acetate/methylene chloride, UV), after 40 minutes the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool and methanol (25 milliliters) was added slowly. When the effervescence had ceased sodium borohydride (0.40 grams, 10.5 mmol) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The resulting dark puφl mixture was extracted with ether (3 times with 50 milliliters) and the combined eth extracts back extracted into aqueous 3N hydrochloric acid (150 milliliters). The pH of th aqueous layer was then adjusted to 14 using sodium hydroxide (5 Molar) and the mixtur was extracted with methylene chloride (2 times with 50 milliliters). The combined organi layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 1.76 gra (72%) of product as an orange oil ; Η NMR (CDC13) δ 7.43-7.16(m , 5H), 6.95-6.74(m 3H), 5.17(s , IH), 3.85(s , 3H), 3.84(s , 3H), 1.78(s , 2H).

b) A mixture of l-phenyl-l-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylamine (0.73 grams, 3 mmo and phthalic anhydride (0.44 grams, 3 mmol) were melted together and stirred for minutes. After cooling, 1 gram of crude product formed as a yellow/orange glassy solid. Th crude product was recrystallized from toluene and dried in vacuo (60°C , < 1 mm) to affor 0.36g (33%) of product as a white solid ; Η NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 12.96(s , IH), 9.31-9.17( , IH), 7.85-6.73(m , 12H), 6.42-6.22(m , IH), 3.72(s , 6H) ; 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 167. 167.6, 148.5, 147.6, 142.7, 138.5, 134.8, 131.2, 130.5, 129.1, 128.9, 128.1, 127.8, 127.3, 126.

119.6, 111.5, 111.4, 55.7, 55.4, 55.4.

c) l-Phthalimido-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)toluene. A solution of the product of st b) above (0.25 grams, 0.68 mmol) and sodium acetate (0.03 grams, 0.34 mmol) in acet anhydride (6 milliliters) was refluxed for 30 minutes. The progress of the reaction w monitored by TLC (2 % ethyl acetate/methylene chloride , UV) and reached completi after 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into ic water (20 milliliters) and stirred for 15 minutes. The mixture was extracted into methyle chloride (25 milliliters) and was washed successively with a saturated aqueous solution sodium bicarbonate (15 milliliters), brine (10 milliliters), sodium bicarbonate (15 milliliter and brine (10 milliliters). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate a concentrated in vacuo to afford 0.19 grams of crude product as a orange oil. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel , 10% ethyl acetate/methylene chloride) and dried in vacuo (25°C , < 1 mm) to afford 0.15 grams (63%) of product as a slightly green colored solid: Η NMR (CDC13) δ 7.90-7.64(m , 4 H), 7.39-7.22(m , 5H), 7.07- 6.91(m , 2 H), 6.88-6.76(m , 1 H), 6.66(s , 1 H), 3.87(s , 3 H), 3.80(s , 3 H) ; l3C NMR

(CDC13) δ 167.9, 148.8, 148.6, 138.3, 134.1, 131.9, 130.8, 128.3, 128.1, 127.5, 123.4, 121.6, 112.5, 110.7, 57.6, 55.9, 55.8.

Example 6 l-Phthalimido-l-(3\4'-dimethoxyphenyI)peπtane a) S'^'-Dimethoxyvalerophenone. 3\4'-Dimethoxyacetophenone (9.91 grams, 55 mmol) was added over 20 minutes to a cooled (0°C) stirred solution of lithium dϋsopropylamide (28.9 milliliters, 2M, 57.8 mmol). After an additional 5 minutes the solution was cooled to -78°C and 1-iodopropane (10.73 milliliters, 110 mmol) was rapidly added. The solution was allowed to slowly warm to room temperature and stirring was continued for 3 days. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC (30%, ethyl acetate/ hexane, UV) and an equilibrium had been reached after three days between starting material (Rf = 0.15), monoalkylated product (Rf = 0.32) and dialkylated product (Rf = 0.42). The reaction was treated with water (60 milliliters), ethyl acetate (100 milliliters) and a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate (100 milliliters). The organic layer was separated and washed successively with 5% hydrochloric acid (100 milliliters) and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (100 milliliters). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to afford 15.17 grams of crude product as an orange oily liquid. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel , 20% ethyl acetate/hexane) to afford 3.68 (25%) of the dialkylated product '^'-dimethoxy^-propylvalerophenone) as a yellow solid and 1.01 grams (8%) of the monoalkylated product (3\4*- dimethoxyvalerophenone) as a yellow oily liquid: *H NMR (CDC13) δ 7.65-7.50(m , 2H), 6.95-6.85(m , IH), 3.95(s , 3 H), 3.94(s , 3 H), 2.99-2.88(m , 2 H), 1.81-1.64(m , 2 H), 1.52- 1.34(m , 2 H), 1.04-0.91(m , 3 H). " C NMR (CDC13) δ 199.1, 152.9, 148.8, 130.2, 122 110.0, 109.8, 55.9, 55.8, 37.7, 26.7, 22.4, 13.8.

b) 3',4*-Dimethoxyvalerophenone oxime.

To a stirred solution of 3',4'-dimethoxyvalerophenone (0.08 grams, 3.60 mmol) in a mixt of ethanol (25 milliliters) and water (5 milliliters) was added hydroxyamine hydrochlori

(0.40 grams, 5.76 mmol) and sodium acetate (0.59 grams, 7.20 mmol) in water milliliters). The solution was refluxed for two days. Reaction progress was monitored TLC (20%, ethyl acetate/hexane, UV) and was complete after 2 days. The reaction allowed to cool to ambient temperature and the ethanol was removed in vacuo to afford oil/aqueous mixture. The mixture was extracted with methylene chloride. The dried extra were concentrated in vacuo to afford 0.93 grams of crude product as a yellow oil. The cru product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 20%, ethyl acetate/hexane) afford 0.56 grams of product as a yellow oil: H NMR (CDC13) <S 8.23-8.01(br s , IH), 7 7.05(m , 2H), 6.93-6.81(m , IH), 3.91(s , 3H), 3.90(s , 3H), 2.84-2.70(m , 2H), 1.74-1 l , 4H), 0.93(t , J = 7.2 Hz , 3H); 13 C NMR (CDC13) δ 159.6, 150.1, 148.9, 128.5, 119.3, 11 108.9, 55.9, 28.7, 25.6, 22.9, 13.8.

c) l-(3',4,-Dimethoxyphenyl)penrylamine

To an N2 flushed solution of S'^'-dimethoxyvalerophenone oxime (0.5 grams, 2.1 mm in glacial acetic acid (10 milliliters) was added 0.1 grams of 5% Pd/C. The mixture treated with 60 psi of H2 in a Parr Type Shaker for 24 hours. The catalyst was filtered through celite and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to afford a yellow oil. The oil taken up in water, the pH was adjusted to 12 using a saturated solution of sodi carbonate, and extracted with methylene chloride. The organic extract was dried o magnesium sulfate and concentrated to afford 0.41 grams (87%) of product as a yellow : *H NMR (CDC13) δ 6.91-6.76(m , 3H), 3.98-3.78(m , IH), 3.89(s , 3H), 3.87(s , 3H), 1. 0.78(m , 11H).

d) l-Phthalimido-l-(3,,4'-dimethoxyphenyl)pentane

To a stirred solution of l-(3\4'-dimethoxyphenyl)pentylamine (0.3 grams, 1.34 mmol) and sodium carbonate (0.15 grams, 1.45 mmol) in a mixture of water (10 milliliters) and acetonitrile (10 milliliters) was added N-carbethoxyphthalimide (0.29 grams, 1.34 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred for 3 hours at room temperature, the acetonitrile was evaporated and a two phase mixture resulted. The organic phase was extracted into methylene chloride, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to afford 0.41 grams of crude product as an oil. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 30% ethyl acetate/hexane) to afford 0.18 grams (38%) of the product as an oil : XH NMR (CDC13) δ 7.88-7.63(m , 4H), 7.20-7.07(m , 2H), 6.82-6.76(m , IH), 534-5.18(m , IH), 3.89(s , 3H), 3.85(s , 3H), 2.66-2.43(m , IH), 2.40-2.17(m , IH), 1.50-1.20(m , 2H), 0.96- 0.81(m , 3H). 13 C NMR (CDC13) δ 1.68.5, 148.8, 148.5, 133.8, 132.5, 131.9, 123.1, 120.6, 111.6, 110.8, 55.9, 55.8, 55.0, 30.9, 29.2, 22.3, 13.9.

Example 7 l-Phthalimido-l-(3*,4*-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propylpentane. a) 3\4^Dimethoxy-2-prt>pylvalerophenone. 3*,4*-Dimethoxyacetophenone (9.91 grams, 55 mmol) was added over 20 minutes to a cooled (0°C) stirred solution of lithium dϋsopropylamide (28.9 milliliters, 2M, 57.8 mmol). After an additional 5 minutes the solution was cooled to -78°C and 1-iodopropane (10.73 milliliters, 110 mmol) was rapidly added. The solution was allowed to slowly warm to room temperature and stirring was continued for 3 days. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC (30%, ethyl acetate/ hexane, UV) and an equilibrium had been reached after three days between starting material (Rf = 0.15), monoalkylated product (Rf = 0.32) and dialkylated product (Rf

0.42). The reaction was treated with water (60 milliliters), ethyl acetate (100 milliliters) a a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate (100 milliliters). The organic layer was separat and washed successively with 5% HCl (100 milliliters) and saturated aqueous sodiu bicarbonate (100 milliliters). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate a concentrated to afford 15.17 grams of crude product as an orange oily liquid. The cru product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 20% ethyl acetate/hexane) afford 3.68 (25%) of the dialkylated product (3\4'-dimethoxy-2-propylvalerophenone) a yellow solid and 1.01 grams (8%) of the monoalkylated product (3\ dimethoxyvalerophenone) as a yellow oily liquid: mp 55.5-56.5°C, H NMR (CDC13) δ 7.6

7.54(m , 2 H), 6.96 - 6.86(m , 1 H), 3.95(s, 3 H), 3.93(s , 3 H), 3.52 - 3.36(m , 1 H), 1.8

1.17(m , 8 H), 0.96 - 0.80(m , 6 H). 13 C NMR (CDC13) δ 203.4, 143.1, 149.1, 131.0, 122

110.3, 109.9, 56.0, 55.9, 45.1, 35.1, 20.9, 14.3.

b) 3',4'-Dimethoxy-2-propyl-valerophenone oxime. To a stirred solution of 3',4'-dimethoxy-2-propylvalerophenone (2.64 grams, 10 mmol) a mixture of ethanol (45 milliliters) and water (10 milliliters) was added hydroxyami hydrochloride (1.11 grams, 16 mmol) and sodium acetate (1.64 grams, 20 mmol) in wa (10 milliliters). The solution was refluxed for 1 week. Reaction progress was monitored TLC (30%, ethyl acetate/hexane, UV) and had reached an equilibrium after 1 week. T reaction was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and the ethanol was removed in vac to afford an oil/aqueous mixture which was extracted with methylene chloride, dried o magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 2.93 grams of crude product a yellow oil. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 30%, et acetate/ hexane) to afford 1.28 grams (46%) of product as a yellow oil. lH NMR (CD δ 7.10-6.75(m , 3H), 3.78-3.96(m , 6H), 3.49-3.31(m , 0.5H), 2.65-2.50(m , 0.5H), 1.91-1.19 , 8H), 1.01-0.81(m , 6H). 13 C NMR (CDC13) δ 162.5, 161.5, 149.5, 149.0, 148.6, 129.4, 12 120.2, 111.2, 110.6, 110.5, 55.9, 55.8, 45.1, 38.9, 34.8, 21.3, 20.5, 14.2. c) l-(3',4'-Dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propyIpentylamine

To an N2 flushed solution of 3\4*-dimethoxy-2-propyl-valerophenone (1.0 grams, 3.6 mmol) in glacial acetic acid (20 milliliters) was added 0.2 grams of 5% Pd/C. The mixture was treated with 60 psi of H2 in a Parr Type Shaker for 24 hours. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC (30% ethyl acetate / hexane, UV) some starting material remained after 24 hours. A further 0.4 grams of 10% Pd/C was added and the mixture was treated with 60 psi of H, in a Parr Type Shaker for 24 hours. The catalyst was filtered off through celite and the filtrate was concentrated to afford a yellow oil. The oil was taken up in water, the pH was adjusted to 12 using a saturated solution of sodium carbonate, and extracted with methylene chloride. The organic extract was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 0.51 grams (57%) of product as a yellow oil : *H NMR (CDC13) δ 6.91- 6.74(m , 3H), 3.95-3.78(m , IH), 3.89(s , 3H), 3.87(s , 3H), 1.67-0.75(m , 17H).

d) l-Phthalimido-l-(3',4'-dimethoxvphenyl)-2-propylpentane.

To a stirred solution of l-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propylpentylamine (0.40 grams, 1.60 mmol) and sodium carbonate (0.18 grams, 1.72 mmol) in a mixture of water (5 milliliters) and acetonitrile (10 milliliters) was added N-carbethoxyphthalimide (0.35 grams, 1.60 mmol).

The resulting solution was stirred for 2.5 hours at room temperature, the acetonitrile was evaporated and a two phase mixture resulted. The organic phase was extracted into methylene chloride, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 0.6 grams of crude product as an oil. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography

(silica gel, 25% ethyl acetate/hexane) to afford 0.25 grams of the product as an oil which after a few days solidified. The white solid was dried in vacuo (60 °C , < 1 mm) to afford

0.24 grams of pure product as a white solid: mp 100-101°C; *H NMR (CDC13) <S 7.84-7.59(m

, 4H), 7.27-7.02(m , 2H), 6.81-6.68(m , IH), 5.01(d , J = 12 Hz , IH), 3.89(s , 3H), 3.84(s , 3H), 3.17-2.98(m , IH), 1.49-0.66(m , 14H). 13C NMR (CDC13) δ 168.5, 148.7, 148.4, 133.8,

131.9, 131.8, 123.1, 121.6, 112.0, 110.7, 58.9, 55.9, 55.7, 36.2, 31.9, 31.8, 18.7, 18.1, 14.6, 14.3. Anal. Calcd. for

Theoretical : C ,72.87; H , 7.40 ; N , 3.54. Found : C.72.70; ,7.40; N ,3.51.

Example 8 Tablets, each containing 50 milligrams of active ingredient, can be prepared in t following manner:

Constituents (for 1000 tablets) active ingredient 50.0 grams lactose 50.7 grams wheat starch 7.5 grams polyethylene glycol 6000 5.0 grams talc 5.0 grams magnesium stearate 1.8 grams demineralized water q.s.

The solid ingredients are first forced through a sieve of 0.6 mm mesh width. T active ingredient, the lactose, the talc, the magnesium stearate and half of the starch th are mixed. The other half of the starch is suspended in 40 milliliters of water and t suspension is added to a boiling solution of the polyethylene glycol in 100 milliliters water. The resulting paste is added to the pulverulent substances and the mixture granulated, if necessary with the addition of water. The granulate is dried overnight 35°C, forced through a sieve of 1.2 mm mesh width and compressed to form tablets approximately 6 mm diameter which are concave on both sides.

Example 9 Tablets, each containing 100 milligrams of active ingredient, can be prepared in t following manner:

Constituents (for 1000 tablets) active ingredient 100.0 grams lactose 100.0 grams wheat starch 47.0 grams magnesium stearate 3.0 grams

All the solid ingredients are first forced through a sieve of 0.6 mm mesh width. The active ingredient, the lactose, the magnesium stearate and half of the starch then are mixed. The other half of the starch is suspended in 40 milliliters of water and this suspension is added to 100 milliliters of boiling water. The resulting paste is added to the pulverulent substances and the mixture is granulated, if necessary with the addition of water. The granulate is dried overnight at 35°C, forced through a sieve of 1.2 mm mesh width and compressed to form tablets of approximately 6 mm diameter which are concave on both sides.

Example 10 Tablets for chewing, each contai-ning 75 milligrams of active ingredient, can be prepared in the following manner:

Composition (for 1000 tablets) active ingredient 75.0 grams mannitol 230.0 grams lactose 150.0 grams talc 21.0 grams glycine 12.5 grams stearic acid 10.0 grams saccharin 1.5 grams

5% gelatin solution q.s.

All the solid ingredients are first forced through a sieve of 0.25 mm mesh width. The mannitol and the lactose are mixed, granulated with the addition of gelatin solution, forced through a sieve of 2 mm mesh width, dried at 50°C and again forced through a sieve of 1.7 mm mesh width. The active ingredient, the glycine and the saccharin are carefully mixed, the mannitol, the lactose granulate, the stearic acid and the talc are added and the whole is mixed thoroughly and compressed to form tablets of approximately 10 mm diameter w are concave on both sides and have a breaking groove on the upper side.

Example 11 Tablets, each containing 10 milligrams of active ingredient, can be prepared in following manner:

Composition (for 1000 tablets) active ingredient 10.0 grams lactose 328.5 grams corn starch 17.5 grams polyethylene glycol 6000 5.0 grams talc 25.0 grams magnesium stearate 4.0 grams demineralized water q.s.

The solid ingredients are first forced through a sieve of 0.6 mm mesh width. T the active ingredient, lactose, talc, magnesium stearate and half of the starch are intima mixed. The other half of the starch is suspended in 65 milliliters of water and suspension is added to a boiling solution of the polyethylene glycol in 260 milliliter water. The resulting paste is added to the pulverulent substances, and the whole is mi and granulated, if necessary with the addition of water. The granulate is dried overnigh 35°C, forced through a sieve of 1.2 mm mesh width and compressed to form tablet approximately 10 mm diameter which are concave on both sides and have a breaking n on the upper side.

Example 12 Gelatin dry-filled capsules, each containing 100 milligrams of active ingredient, be prepared in the following manner: Composition (for 1000 capsules) active ingredient 100.0 grams microcrystalline cellulose 30.0 grams sodium lauryl sulphate 2.0 grams magnesium stearate 8.0 grams

The sodium lauryl sulphate is sieved into the active ingredient through a sieve of 0.2 mm mesh width and the two components are intimately mixed for 10 minutes. The microcrystalline cellulose is then added through a sieve of 0.9 mm mesh width and the whole is again intimately mixed for 10 minutes. Finally, the magnesium stearate is added through a sieve of 0.8 mm width and, after mixing for a further 3 minutes, the mixture is introduced in portions of 140 milligrams each into size 0 (elongated) gelatin dry-fill capsules.

Example 13

A 0.2% injection or infusion solution can be prepared, for example, in the following manner: active ingredient 5.0 grams sodium chloride 22.5 grams phosphate buffer pH 7.4 300.0 grams demineralized water to 2500.0 milliliters

The active ingredient is dissolved in 1000 milliliters of water and filtered through a microfilter. The buffer solution is added and the whole is made up to 2500 milliliters with water. To prepare dosage unit forms, portions of 1.0 or 2.5 milliliters each are introduced into glass ampoules (each containing respectively 2.0 or 5.0 milligrams of active ingredient).

Claims

What is claimed is:
Claim 1. A formula:
wherein, R1 is ( ) straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, (ii) phenyl phenyl substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently of the oth from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acet carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 10 carbon atoms, or halo, (iii) benzyl or benzyl substituted with one or more substitue each selected independently of the other from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbetho carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or halo, or (iv) -Y-Ph where Y is straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms and Ph is phenyl or phe substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently of the other fro nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamo acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carb atoms, or halo;
R2 is -H, a branched or unbranched alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl, pyrid heterocycle, -CH,-Aryl, or -CH2-heterocycle.
R3 is i) ethylene, ii) vinylene, iii) a branched alkylene of 3 to 10 carbon atoms, a branched alkenylene of 3 to 10 carbon atoms, v) cycloalkylene of 4 to 9 carbon ato unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nit cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, aceto carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo, vi) cycloalkenylene of 4 to 9 carbon atoms unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, car- boxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo, or vii) o-phenylene unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo;
R4 is -CX, or -CH2-; and, X is O or S.
Claim 2. The composition of claim 1 wherein R4 is -CO-.
Claim 3. The composition of claim 2 wherein R1 is 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl.
Claim 4. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is methyl.
Claim 5. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is ethyl.
Claim 6. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is hydrogen.
Claim 7. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is phenyl.
Claim 8. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is methyl.
Claim 9. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is 1-propyl-butane
Claim 10. The composition of claim 2 wherein R2 is methoxyphenyl.
Claim 11. The composition of claim 2 wherein R3 is o-phenyl.
Claim 12. The method of reducing levels of TNFα in a mammal which compri administering thereto an effective amount of a compound of claim 1.
Claim 13. The method of reducing levels of TNFα in a mammal which compri administering theretoQn effective amount of a compound of the formula:
wherein, R1 is (/) straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms, (ii) phenyl phenyl substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently of the ot from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, ace carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 10 carbon atoms, or halo, (iii) benzyl or benzyl substituted with one or more substitue each selected independently of the other from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbetho carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or halo, or (iv) -Y-Ph where Y i straight, branched, or cyclic alkyl of 1 to 12 carbon atoms and Ph is phenyl or phe substituted with one or more substituents each selected independently of the other fr nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, or halo;
R2 is -H, a branched or unbranched alkyl of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, phenyl, pyridyl, heterocycle, -CH2-Aryl, or -CH2-heterocycle.
R3 is o-phenylene unsubstituted or substituted with 1 to 2 substituents each selected independently from nitro, cyano, trifluoromethyl, carbethoxy, carbomethoxy, carbopropoxy, acetyl, carbamoyl, acetoxy, carboxy, hydroxy, amino, substituted amino, alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkoxy of 1 to 4 carbon atoms, or halo; and,
R4 is -CO- or -CH2-.
Claim 14. The method of inhibiting TNFα-activated retrovirus replication in a mammal which comprises administering thereto an effective amount of a compound according to claim 1.
Claim 15. The method of inhibiting TNFα-activated retrovirus replication in a mammal which comprises administering thereto an effective amount of a compound according to claim 2.
Claim 16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an amount of a compound according to claim 1 effective upon single or multiple dosage to inhibit TNFα.
Claim 17. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an amount of a compound according to claim 2 effective upon single or multiple dosage to inhibit TNFα.
PCT/US1995/015384 1994-12-30 1995-11-20 Substituted imides as tnf inhibitors WO1996020926A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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