WO1995000677A1 - Sputtering device - Google Patents

Sputtering device Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1995000677A1
WO1995000677A1 PCT/US1994/006908 US9406908W WO9500677A1 WO 1995000677 A1 WO1995000677 A1 WO 1995000677A1 US 9406908 W US9406908 W US 9406908W WO 9500677 A1 WO9500677 A1 WO 9500677A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
device
system
magnetron
sputter
selected
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1994/006908
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Leroy Albert Bartolomei
Thomas Read
Original Assignee
Deposition Sciences, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US7876693A priority Critical
Priority to US08/078,766 priority
Application filed by Deposition Sciences, Inc. filed Critical Deposition Sciences, Inc.
Publication of WO1995000677A1 publication Critical patent/WO1995000677A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/32798Further details of plasma apparatus not provided for in groups H01J37/3244 - H01J37/32788; special provisions for cleaning or maintenance of the apparatus
    • H01J37/32853Hygiene
    • H01J37/32862In situ cleaning of vessels and/or internal parts
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/0021Reactive sputtering or evaporation
    • C23C14/0036Reactive sputtering
    • C23C14/0047Activation or excitation of reactive gases outside the coating chamber
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/0021Reactive sputtering or evaporation
    • C23C14/0036Reactive sputtering
    • C23C14/0073Reactive sputtering by exposing the substrates to reactive gases intermittently
    • C23C14/0078Reactive sputtering by exposing the substrates to reactive gases intermittently by moving the substrates between spatially separate sputtering and reaction stations
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32192Microwave generated discharge
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32009Arrangements for generation of plasma specially adapted for examination or treatment of objects, e.g. plasma sources
    • H01J37/32321Discharge generated by other radiation
    • H01J37/3233Discharge generated by other radiation using charged particles
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/32431Constructional details of the reactor
    • H01J37/3266Magnetic control means
    • H01J37/32678Electron cyclotron resonance
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01JELECTRIC DISCHARGE TUBES OR DISCHARGE LAMPS
    • H01J37/00Discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge, e.g. for the purpose of examination or processing thereof
    • H01J37/32Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions
    • H01J37/34Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering
    • H01J37/3402Gas-filled discharge tubes, e.g. for surface treatment of objects such as coating, plating, etching, sterilising or bringing about chemical reactions operating with cathodic sputtering using supplementary magnetic fields
    • H01J37/3405Magnetron sputtering

Abstract

A sputter coating system (10) employing a vacuum chamber (1). A movable surface (2) is provided within the chamber which is adapted for mounting substrates (3) and moving them thereon. At least one magnetron sputtering device (5) is positioned at a work station adjacent to the substrate holder and adapted for sputtering at least a selected material onto the substrate. At least a second device (6) is positioned adjacent the first device for providing a plasma (11) for enhancing the plasma formed by the first device.

Description

SPUTTERING DEVICE

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Application Serial No. 07/709,035 filed on May 31, 1991, now abandoned.

TECHNICAL FIELD OF INVENTION

The present invention deals with a device and process for enhancing the plasma at a sputter target and the use of this enhanced plasma to react a selected material deposited on a substrate.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The use of reactive DC magnetron sputtering to deposit thin films of metallic compounds has been known for quite some time. Most such reactive sputtering has been accomplished in configurations in which the substrate is fixed over the metallic target and compounding of the deposited metallic film occurs at the same time and place as deposition of the metal atoms. The achievement of stoichiometric films at reasonable deposition rates then requires a careful balancing of conditions such that the film on the substrate is fully compounded but the sputter target surface is not, since such "poisoning" of the target leads to much lower sputter rates and, often, arcing at the target surface.

In U.S. Patent No. 4,420,385 Hartsough claims a technique in which the substrate on which the metallic compound is to be deposited is alternately passed over the sputter target and through a reactive atmosphere. In this manner deposition of the metal atoms is at least partially separated in time and space from the compounding of the film. The degree of separation depends on the degree of atmospheric isolation between the sputtering and compounding zones. Hartsough also teaches the use of a plasma in the compounding zone for speeding the rate of reaction. Thus, for example, deposition of an oxide film is enhanced if oxygen in the compounding (oxidizing) zone is activated by a plasma, since excited oxygen species react much more readily with the metallic film than do ground state 02 molecules.

Scobey et al., in U.S. Patent No. 4,851,095 claim a specific embodiment of the general device claimed by Hartsough. While Hartsough claims broadly the separation of the deposition and reaction zones, with no specification or restriction as to the degree of separation, and teaches the advantage of using an activating plasma in the reaction zone, Scobey et al. claim a localized plasma as the reaction zone, and emphasize the need for this plasma to be physically and atmospherically separated from the deposition zone. In fact, Scobey et al. differentiate from Hartsough's teaching by emphasizing the physical and atmospheric separation of reaction and deposition zones. There are several shortcomings which are unavoidable consequences of practicing the art as described above. Many of these shortcomings flow directly from the need to physically and atmospherically separate the reaction and deposition zones. For example, this separation obviously limits the number of targets and reaction zones that can be placed in a given vacuum chamber, and the total rate of film deposition is thereby limited. As another example, exposure of the unreacted film between the two noncontiguous zones of Scobey et al. can lead inadvertently to contamination of the growing film by background gases. As yet another example, there are certain synergistic advantages to be gained by continuity and coupling of the activating plasma and the plasma from the sputtering target, which advantages can obviously not be realized if these two plasma zones are physically separated.

The present invention avoids these shortcomings by bringing the sputter and activation zones atmospherically and physically together while eliminating any baffles or differential pumping, thereby effectively blending the plasmas of these two zones into a single, continuous plasma which serves to both sputter material from the target and react it at the substrate.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is a device and process for enhancing and spatially broadening the plasma at a sputter target and the use of this enhanced, broadened plasma to sputter a selected material onto a substrate and to react the material deposited on the substrate. Although the device can be incorporated into various vacuum chamber configurations, such as those suggested by U.S. Patent No. 4,851,095, it is readily incorporated into a system comprising a vacuum chamber and a drum rotatably mounted within the chamber, the drum supporting a substrate which is moved past the device located on the circumference of the chamber.

The invention comprises a magnetron sputter device capable of depositing the selected material onto the substrate and a plasma generating device positioned immediately adjacent to the magnetron device. Both the plasma generating device and the magnetron are capable of creating a plasma, but in practice the plasmas generated by these two components interdiffuse to become one continuous, activating and sputtering plasma. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other aspects of the invention are described with respect to the drawings in which:

Fig. 1 is a simplified schematic cross sectional view-of a drum vacuum coater incorporating the present invention.

Fig. 2 is a simplified cross sectional view of a conventional, balanced magnetron sputter device showing the balancing of center and edge magnets. Fig. 3 is a simplified cross sectional view of an unbalanced magnetron sputter device showing the lack of balance between the edge magnets and center magnet and the resulting diverging magnetic field above the target. Fig. 4 is a conceptual drawing of the enhanced broadened plasma generated by the present invention, showing the current paths through the plasma and associated generating system.

Fig. 5 is a graph showing a current-voltage characteristic of a magnetron sputter device without an adjacent auxiliary plasma and a current voltage characteristic of a magnetron sputter device operating in one embodiment of the invention.

Fig. 6 is a simplified schematic view of a preferred embodiment of the invention, showing details of the microwave injection system and electron cyclotron resonance field coils.

Fig. 7 is a simplified cross sectional view of another embodiment of the present invention, showing a microwave form designed to broaden the auxiliary plasma to better match a linear target plasma.

Fig. 8 is a table showing the relation between sputtering yield and voltage for a silicon target.

Fig. 9 is a simplified cross sectional view showing a magnetron sputter device and an adjacent. coupled plasma generating device positioned inside a substrate supporting drum.

Fig. 10 is a simplified cross sectional view showing magnetron sputter devices and associated adjacent, coupled plasma generating devices inside and outside a substrate supporting drum.

Fig. 11 is a simplified cross sectional view of a vacuum chamber with cylindrical inner and outer walls both of which house magnetron sputter devices and associated, coupled auxiliary plasma devices for coating from both sides of a rotating substrate bearing drum.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Generally, the process of the present invention is carried out in a vacuum chamber, housing a rotary drum much like the device disclosed in Scobey et al. U.S.Patent 4,851,095, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. However, in practicing the present invention, the Scobey et al.-like vacuum drum is modified pursuant to Fig. 1.

Turning to Fig. 1, sputtering system 10 comprises housing 1 whose circumference defines a vacuum or low pressure environment. As such, housing 1 can be connected to a suitable vacuum pumping system (not shown) . Under normal operation, the pressure within housing 1 is generally in the range of 10"4 to 10"2 Torr. Magnetron sputtering device 5 is positioned on the circumference of vacuum housing of chamber 1 located in close proximity to plasma generating device 6.

In operation, an inert sputtering gas, such as argon, is injected into the chamber through an input 4. In addition, a compounding gas, such as oxygen, is injected, again through 4. As the substrates 3 supported by rotary drum 2 are rotated into the region 9 of the larger plasma 11, a metal film sputtered from target 5 is deposited. Reaction of this film with the compounding gas begins immediately as the film is deposited in region 9 under the target 5. As the substrate is carried into region 8 of the plasma, under the plasma generating device 6, this reaction continues, completing conversion of the film to a dielectric with the desired stoichiometry. In fact, a distinguishing characteristic in practicing the present invention is that more than 50% of the conversion of target material to the different chemical species (dielectric) occurs in the region where the metal film is sputtered from target 5. This is in sharp contrast to Scobey et al where formation of the dielectric occurs virtually entirely in a zone isolated from the magnetron/target assembly.

Obviously, the sequence described above and shown in Fig. 1 can be repeated through rotation of the drum to build a dielectric film of a desired thickness. By providing additional sputter target-plasma generating devices, multilayer films of various materials can be applied to substrates 3.

As noted previously, the present invention differs significantly from prior devices of this type in that plasma 11 is spatially continuous over target 5 and plasma generation device 6 and compounding of the film is accomplished continuously in plasma 11. Yet another distinguishing feature of the invention is that the plasmas over target 5 and device 6 form a single continuum 11 in which the free electron density of plasma 11 is at least 108/cm3 throughout the continuum. In fact, plasma 11 electrically couples the target and plasma generation device. Again, this is in marked contrast to Scobey et al. which specifically teaches the physical and atmospheric separation of the sputtering target and reaction zones.

In a preferred embodiment, plasma generating device 6 (Fig. 1) is a microwave device operating at 2.54 gigahertz. The plasma 11 is then created by the microwaves and the sputter target operating in concert. If the free electron density of the plasma in region 8 is higher than the critical density for microwaves of 2.54 gigahertz, the frequency ordinarily used, then the plasma is substantially opaque to the microwaves and interdiffusion of the plasma in region 8 with the plasma in region 9 renders the plasma continuous. If the plasma is sufficiently transparent to the microwaves, either through an electron density below the critical density or through operating the microwave in a circularly polarized mode so that the so called whistler mode is operative, then the plasma 11 is rendered continuous through both interdiffusion and absorption of microwaves throughout the plasma. The electrical coupling between the target and plasma generator mentioned above, although always present, can be enhanced, if desired, through design of the magnetic field at the sputter target. In conventional magnetron sputtering targets (Fig. 2) , the magnetic field lines 18 are substantially confined to the region just above the target 19. This is accomplished by making the center magnet 20 twice the width of the outside magnet 21, so that all flux from the outside magnets flows through the center magnet. In a newer device (Fig. 3) , the so-called "unbalanced magnetron," the center magnet 24 is made smaller or replaced by a magnetically permeable material, so that a part of the flux 22 is "pushed" away from the target 23. This fringing magnetic field carries part of the plasma away from the target and toward substrate 3 (Fig. 1) and contiguous plasma generating device 6 (Fig. 1) . In addition to increasing the electrical continuity of the sputter-activation plasma, operation in this unbalanced mode can have other beneficial effects, as discussed below.

Because the plasma 11 is spatially continuous, it is electrically continuous and regions 8 and 9 of the larger plasma 11 are electrically coupled; that is, there exists, through this plasma coupling, an electrical coupling of the sputter target and microwave device, in marked contrast to Scobey et al. To show this, plasma 11 of Fig. 1 is shown in detail in Fig. 4 as plasma 16. The current in plasma 16 is complex, consisting of both ion and electron components. However, the external current, through ground 17 to the power supply 15 and through the power supply to sputter target 13, is all electronic. Thus, through the plasma 16 there is a net electron current flow equal to that which passes through the power supply 15. The plasma thus acts as a resistive current-carrying element. As Fig. 4 demonstrates, the electron current can go to ground from the plasma at any number of points 12, depending on machine configuration, tooling and other considerations. But in any instance, an electron current is pulled from the plasma as voltage is applied to the target 13.

For given operating conditions, the plasma-ground-power supply-target circuit will exhibit a particular voltage at which the target strikes a plasma. Below this voltage, there will be no current. But as soon as the plasma is struck, the power supply begins to pull current from the plasma, the current increasing with increasing target voltage.

A typical current(I) -voltage(V) curve for a 5" x 15" silicon target is shown as curve A of Fig. 5 where the microwave device does not contribute to plasma generation. That is, the microwave is not used in generating Curve A. The curve, as developed from experimental data, shows that below a particular voltage (410 volts in this case) at which the target struck a plasma, there was no current, but as the plasma was struck, the power supply began to pull current from the plasma.

By contrast, reference is made to curve B of Fig. 5 which was based upon data generated by initially setting the sputter target voltage to 0 while striking a plasma using only the microwave device. Visually, it was observed that this plasma extended to envelop the sputter target. When voltage to the sputter target power supply was increased from 0, the power supply began immediately to pull current from the microwave generated plasma. As the voltage was increased further still, so that positive ions accelerated to the target caused secondary electron emission from the target surface, the sputter power supply began to contribute to the plasma. By measuring I as V was increased under these conditions, curve B was generated.

In comparing curves A and B, two points are noted. First, it is quite obvious that significant current is drawn from the microwave plasma, even before the target plasma strikes. Secondly, the target plasma strikes at a lower voltage if the microwave plasma has been struck prior to applying voltage to the target. In fact, on curve B it is sometimes not clear at what point the target plasma is struck, in marked contrast to the situation of curve A.

From these two observations, it is clear that the sputter magnetron and microwave device operate as an integral unit in the generation of a plasma and that changing one influences the operation of the other. This is made clearer still by noting, for example, that as the microwave power increases, the voltage required to maintain a given current through the magnetron sputter supply decreases. This is explained by noting that the increased microwave power lowers the resistance of the plasma.

The device and process of the present invention are capable of achieving higher sputter rates when compared to prior devices. Higher sputter rates follow from the ability of the sputter cathode to draw current from the microwave-induced part of the plasma. This increase in rate is obvious at voltages less than the sputter target striking voltage without the microwave plasma. In reference once again to Fig. 5, at 370 volts, which is below the 410 volts required to strike a plasma with the target power supply alone, the sputter rate is zero without a plasma being created by the microwave device (Curve A) . At 370 volts, however, there is a significant sputter rate when operating pursuant to the present invention. (Curve B)

This ability of the present invention to draw ion current from the plasma at low voltages allows sputtering at voltages lower than those of corresponding prior art devices. Since the energy distribution of sputtered atoms shifts toward higher values with increased sputter ion energy, this ability is particularly advantageous in reducing the number of atoms sputtered with higher energies to minimize damage to the growing film. It was also observed that the sputter rate is increased at voltages higher than the striking voltage. This can be appreciated by considering the yield curve for the sputtered material and the dependence of sputter rate on yield and current; "yield" simply meaning the number of target atoms sputtered for each ion striking the target.

When operating the target in the unpoisoned mode the sputter rate in atoms per second is essentially given by the relationship.

R=C..Y (1) where: C, is a constant dependent upon target geometry;

I is the target ion current in amperes; and Y is the yield in number of atoms sputtered for each ion incident on the target. The yield Y is a function of the target voltage V. This function can be measured and is indicated in Fig. 8 for silicon sputtered in argon. Examination shows that the function is well approximated by

Y = 1.85 x 10"2 V12 (2) substituting (1) into (2) gives

R = C2 I V1/2

- £?P (3) V,7Z where P=IV is the power and C2 = 1.85 x 10"2C,, a constant.

Now, in a practical system, the maximum sputter rate is limited by the power that can be applied to the target without damage by debonding from the backplate or warping through over heating. Thus, to obtain the maximum sputtering rate, the power is increased to the maximum possible. In order to appreciate that the present invention yields higher sputter rates at this maximum power, if R' and I' are the rate and current without the microwave device contributing to plasma generation, then from equation (3)

R = C2P v'1/2 R ' C2P • V Λti R_ = V 1'2 R ' V 1 * (4 ) since P=P' the maximum power feasible. Since V, the voltage required at maximum power without the microwave device is greater than V, the voltage required with the microwave device, the sputter rate R is greater than the rate R• .

When this greater sputtering ability is combined with use of an efficient oxidizing device, such as the microwave generated plasma in one of the preferred embodiments, the rate of oxide deposition can be much higher than has been therefore achieved. For example, use of the present device has resulted in deposited clear Si02 at over-the-target rates exceeding 180 A/sec, nearly double those reported in U.S. Patent No. 4,420,385. This is also true for other materials as well, as the following discussion reveals.

It has also been observed that the present invention increases the oxygen, or other reactive gas, that can be introduced into the vacuum chamber before the target surface becomes completely covered by an oxide layer; that is, before the target is "poisoned." This results from the ability of the enhanced plasma to create active oxygen species which readily react with the growing film. This film is in effect a second pump for the reactive gas, the vacuum system pump being the first. The pumping speed of the second pump is greater as the oxygen, or other reactive gas, is made more reactive. In one embodiment, the device operates with 2 to 3 KW of microwave power distributed over a plasma 8 to 10 inches in length. This is in marked contrast to the few hundred watts over 20-25 inches cited in U.S. Patent No. 4,420,385, for example. This high input power into the broadened enhanced plasma of the present invention is especially effective in exciting the reactive gas and therefore in increasing the pumping speed of the growing film. While it is often desirable to operate the system with the maximum reactive gas possible before target poisoning, it is sometimes not desirable. Because of its effectiveness in generating active species, the enhanced plasma device of the present invention often provides complete oxidizing, or nitriding, etc, at reactive gas flows well below the target poisoning level. This mode of operation is often convenient when very stable operation is desired; that is, when operation away from the poisoning knee of the system curve is desired.

It has further been observed that in some embodiments the present invention is capable of striking a plasma at much lower pressures than those normally used in magnetron sputtering. Typically, a DC magnetron requires pressure higher than 10"3 Torr, while the present invention is capable of striking a plasma at pressures well below 10"4 Torr. Thus, the present invention is capable of drawing sputtering current at pressures for which the mean collision path is greater than 50 cm. This can be advantageous when line-of-sight deposition is required; that is, when scattering of the sputtered atoms is detrimental to the growing film. This can, for example, prevent high angles of incidence deposition which can lead to porous or stressed films.

Low pressure operation is achieved by using a microwave generator as the plasma enhancing device. Referring to Fig. 1, the microwaves into the system through 6 reflect from the metal drum 2, causing an intense standing wave in the region above the drum 2, the region in which the plasma is desired. Thus the drum 2 becomes part of a high Q microwave cavity in which intense fields capable of plasma generations at pressures down to approximately 5 x 10"4 Torr can be struck and maintained.

To operate the invention at pressures below 10"4 Torr, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) operation is required. ECR is a well known phenomenon. It occurs when the electron rotation frequency about an imposed constant magnetic field B matches the frequency of a superimposed electromagnetic field. This electron cyclotron frequency is given by f ^eB (5) m where e and m are the electron charge and mass. For a microwave frequency f of 2.54 gigahertz, a frequency in common use because of the ready availability of microwave oven magnetrons, B in equation (5) is 875 Gauss.

In the present invention the magnetic field B for ECR operation can be generated in any number of ways. For example, a current carrying coil can be wrapped around the microwave waveguide as it enters the vacuum chamber. Alternatively one can simply place a permanent magnet in the region of the microwave windows on the chamber. When this done, an ECR induced plasma will strike in those regions around the magnet where the magnetic field is 875 gauss.

The present invention is also capable of depositing some non-oxide dieletrics more effectively than is possible using prior art. For example, titanium nitride, TiN, is a well known coating, often used as an antiwear coating. In its optimum antiwear form it is conductive and golden yellow in color. Titanium dioxide, on the other hand, is a clear coating often used in optical filters. Titanium metal reacts readily with oxygen but is essentially nonreactive with nitrogen. To obtain a good TiN film one thus needs a plasma to excite the nitrogen and render it more reactive, and one needs to exclude oxygen from the deposition system to the maximum degree possible.

When the present invention is used to deposit thin films of TiN, a titanium target is employed and nitrogen gas bled into the system after an initial pumpdown. The pumpdown removes oxygen from the system, with temperature and vacuum chamber history being important variables in determining the time required. For example, if the chamber has a thick, porous coating on its walls from previous runs, then a long time may be required for water vapor to be desorbed from the walls. As such, there will always be some residual oxygen in the system and this oxygen will compete with nitrogen in reacting with the sputtered Ti film.

Because oxygen is so much more reactive than nitrogen, even a small amount can be detrimental.

In operating the present invention to deposit TiN, substrates are placed upon the drum which is, for example, rotated at 30 rpm. Assuming that the microwave source is positioned on the counterclockwise side of the magnetron sputter target as shown in Fig. 1, the Ti metal is sputtered only in the vicinity of the magnetron whereupon the substrates pass directly into the zone dominated by the microwave device. As such, exposure to background oxygen is minimal, since the reaction started at the site of the target is completed at the site of the microwave device and no free Ti is available for reaction after passing through the microwave input zone.

When the drum is rotated clockwise, the Ti is partially reacted below the sputter target and this partially reacted film is exposed to oxygen background for a period of somewhat less than two seconds in duration, which is the amount of time required for rotating the drum until the substrates reach the microwave device. This can result in potential oxidation of the film.

It can be seen from the above discussion that when operating in a scheme as suggested by U.S. Patent No. 4,851,095, where the sputter target and microwave reaction zones are physically separated, greater care must be exercised to eliminate residual oxygen from the system when depositing non-oxide/metal films in which the metal reacts relatively readily with oxygen. The time spent in the free space between active zones cannot be minimized by the prior art approach as it can in practicing the present invention where there is a single, continuous activating zone. The practical result of this is that the present invention provides for shorter pumpdown times and less attention to machine cleanliness than does the prior art, resulting in an economic advantage.

Other advantages of the present invention arise from an embodiment in which the sputter target is configured in the unbalanced mode as briefly described earlier in reference to Fig. 3. It is well known that the quality of a thin film can be influenced through bombardment of the film by energetic atoms during deposition. The energy of these atoms is preferably great enough to move atoms around on the growing film and small enough to avoid significant sputtering of the film. To restate, it is desirable to increase the mobility of the atoms while avoiding their resputtering. This is best accomplished when the energy of the bombarding species is between about ten and one hundred electron volts. The unbalanced magnetron of Fig. 3 provides ions at the substrate in this energy range. This occurs because the free electrons in that part of the plasma in the diverging magnetic field above the target are guided by that field toward the substrate. These electrons gain energy in moving toward weaker field regions through the magnetic mirror effect. Although the positive ions, the species to which it is desired to impart the preferred substrate bombardment energy, are too heavy to be guided significantly by the diverging magnetic field, they will be accelerated toward the substrate by ambipolar-diffusion; that is, the negatively charged electrons will "drag" the ions along with them. The unbalanced magnetron can be used as the sputter target in the present invention with plasma enhancement and broadening being provided by, for example, the microwave system discussed above as part of a preferred embodiment. It can also be used as the auxiliary plasma generator in conjunction with a contiguous sputter target which itself may or may not be unbalanced. In this mode the unbalanced auxiliary would operate in the poisoned mode to provide an intense plasma while sputtering at a low rate and the sputter target per se would operate in the unpoisoned mode to provide the desired metal atoms at a high rate. This dual operation of two targets, one poisoned and one unpoisoned, is easily achieved even though the reactive gas pressure is the same over both by simply running the sputter target at a power high enough to insure that it does not poison while running the auxiliary at a power low enough to insure that it does poison. In using a sputter target, either balanced or unbalanced, as the auxiliary device to enhance and broaden the sputter plasma, a problem arises as to what material the auxiliary target is to be made. In the discussion above it was implicitly assumed that the auxiliary target was of the same material as the main sputter target, so that any material sputtered from it would simply add to the growing film and not contaminate it. This can sometimes be inconvenient and/or less efficient than desired in enhancing the plasma, the latter when insufficient power is applied without cleaning the auxiliary target of it's poisoned surface layer. Another approach that can often be used is to make the auxiliary target of another material that has a low sputter yield or the incorporation of small amounts of which into the growing film is of no practical consequence. Thus, for example, to deposit A1203 one can use a poisoned Si target as an auxiliary and an unpoisoned aluminum target as the main. Since even in the unpoisoned state silicon has a sputtering yield less than one half that of the aluminum, very little silicon would be incorporated into the film, and this as Si02. For most applications this small amount of Si02 in A1203 would be insignificant. A preferred embodiment of the present invention utilizes a microwave generator as the plasma enhancement device 6 of Fig. 1. One embodiment is shown in Fig. 6 as a side view of the vacuum chamber 25 and rotable drum 26 on which substrates 27 are mounted. A microwave transparent window 30 made of, for example, fused quartz, is mounted on the wall of the chamber. A waveguide 28 directs microwaves "through the window 3 enhancing the plasma 31.

The microwave frequency is 2.54 GHz and the waveguide and window are suitably sized for this frequency. Thus the waveguide is WR284, which is rectangular and measures 3 inches x 1.5 inches. The window is circular and approximately 3 inches in diameter. The microwave power supply is capable of generating 3 KW of microwave power. This is tuned to the plasma 30 using a stub tuner 29 in the waveguide 28.

The sputter target (not shown in Fig. 6) in one embodiment is 5" x 15" and is positioned on the outside circumference of the vacuum chamber 25 adjacent to the microwave window 30. The separation of the target and window is typically less than about ten inches, allowing the plasma 31 to diffuse readily between the microwave window 30 region and the target region so that the advantages of the invention as discussed previously can be realized. When the vacuum chamber is examined after operation, a rainbow-like coating is observed at the microwave window. This is a metal oxide coating formed by metal atoms from the sputter target and oxygen, and it evidences a coupling of the plasmas generated at the target and the microwave generating device as well as a significant excitation of metal and oxygen atoms in the entire region of the continuous plasma.. When operation at pressures lower than about 0.5 millitorr is desired, a magnetic field 32 is generated in the plasma 31 by a current carrying coil 33 wrapped around the waveguide 28. The ampere turns in this coil are sufficient to create a field strength of 875 G over some surface in the plasma 31, thereby causing ECR operation at that surface. It has been found that 400 amperes through* 75 turns is sufficient to "accomplish this.

In addition to providing ECR operation, the magnetic field 32 can also act as a magnetic mirror to keep the hot plasma 31 away from the window 30, thereby allowing higher power without damaging the window or vacuum seals. In fact, the magnetic mirror effect occurs at field levels below those needed for ECR operation and the invention can be so operated if desired.

With a single microwave input such as shown in Fig. 6, a film deposited on substrates 27 spaced over 8-12 inches, the exact width depending on plasma power, can be reacted. This is because reactive species of the plasma 31 readily diffuse to regions, beyond the 3 inch microwave window 30. When activation over a wider region is desired to achieve, for example, greater load sizes, the number of microwave inputs, each the same as shown in Fig. 6, can be used. For example, three such sources readily suffice for use with a 25" target, the three plasma zones diffusing into each other and into the region under the target. In lieu of such separate inputs, the invention can also utilize a microwave horn as shown in Fig. 7. In this embodiment microwaves are injected through a WR284 waveguide 35 into a microwave horn 36. The length of this horn along the drum is approximately 15 inches when used with a 25" target. The microwave window 37 mounted in the chamber wall 38 is rectangular, measuring fifteen inches by 5 inches. In this arrangement a long plasma 39 is created allowing activation of film on substrates 40 and coupled operation with the sputter target (not shown) .

Other arrangements for introducing the microwaves into the chamber, such as the use of the fringing field applicators sold by Gerling Laboratories of Modesto, California, will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

Example 1

To produce a TiN film on substrates 3 the device as depicted in cross-section in Fig. 1 was configured with a titanium metal target and the deposition conditions listed in table 1 were established. Table 1

Target Material Titanium

Argon Flow 60 seem

Nitrogen Flow 30 seem Total Pressure 3.0 Millitorr

Target Power 2 Kw

Microwave Power 1.5 Kw Drum Rotation Rate 30 rpm Drum 2 was first rotated counterclockwise to produce Sample A and the direction of rotation reversed to a clockwise direction to create Sample B. The resulting films were partially transparent but Sample B more so than Sample A. The conductivity of Sample A was measured at 10 ohms/square while that of Sample B was 25 ohms/square. These measurements clearly indicate that Sample A was better nitrided than Sample B. Stated differently. Sample B was partially oxidized by its longer exposure to the oxygen background. Example 2

To produce a film of Si02 on substrates 3 the device as depicted in Fig. 1 was configured with a silicon target and a microwave plasma generator with deposition conditions listed in Table 2. Under these conditions a clear, fully oxidized film of Si02 was obtained at an over the target deposition rate of 180 A/sec. This is much greater than the 100 A/sec achieved by U.S. Patent No. 4,851,095 using separate sputter and deposition zones. Table 2

Target Material Silicon

Argon Flow 60 seem

Nitrogen Flow 35 seem

Total Pressure 2.5 Millitorr Target Power 4 Kw

Microwave Power 2 Kw Drum Rotation Rate 50 rpm

Deposition Rate 180 A/sec Example 3

To deposit tantalum pentoxide the device as depicted in Fig. 1 was configured with a tantalum metal target and the deposition conditions listed in Table 3 were established. Under these conditions a clear film of Ta205 was deposited at an over the target rate of 120 A/sec which was obtained without baking the part after deposition; a process commonly used to complete oxidation of thin films as taught in U.S. Patent No. 4,851,051.

Table 3

Target Material Tantalum

Argon Flow 60 seem Nitrogen Flow 40 seem

Total Pressure 2.5 Millitorr

Target Power 2.7 Kw

Microwave Power 2.2 Kw

Drum Rotation Rate 50 rpm Deposition Rate 120 A/sec

Example 4

For many materials, such as Ta205 and Nb205, deposition rates can be increased if a post deposition bake can be used to complete reaction of the film; that is, to remove residual absorption from the film. This is true for the present invention. To deposit Ta2o5 the device was configured as depicted in Fig. l and the deposition conditions listed in Table 4 were established and a one.micron,film-was-deposited~at a rate of 210 A/sec. The film was absorbing upon removal from the coating chamber but cleared after baking for 30 minutes at 600° C. This is in contrast to the 150 A/sec achieved in U.S. Patent 4,851,095. Table 4

Target Material Tantalum

Argon Flow 60 seem

Nitrogen Flow 35 seem Total Pressure 2.5 Millitorr

Target Power 4.0 Kw

Microwave Power 2.2 Kw Drum Rotation Rate 40 rpm

Deposition Rate 210 A/sec Post Bake 30 min. at 600°c

Example 5

To produce a film of AIN the device as depicted in Fig 1 was fitted with an aluminum target and the deposition conditions of Table 5 were established.

Under these conditions a hard, clear film of AIN of 3.5 microns thickness was produced at an over the target deposition rate of 6θA/sec. This film was very suitable as a transparent wear resistant coating. Table 5

Target Material Aluminum

Argon Flow 60 seem

Nitrogen Flow 30 seem

Total Pressure 2.5 Millitorr Target Power 3 Kw

Microwave Power 2 Kw Drum Rotation Rate 40 rpm

Deposition Rate 60 A/sec The present invention has a wide variety of appli¬ cations, including multilayer interference filters, opaque wear resistant coatings, transparent wear re¬ sistant coatings-, layered ultrathin coherent, structures (LUCS) , transparent conductive coatings, and others. Some of these applications are briefly described below. The invention was employed to deposit a conductive tin oxide using a tin target and a microwave generated auxiliary plasma. The resulting coating was clear with conductivity 10*4 ohm-cm. The invention is also suitable for depositing filters on lamps. For example, a filter transmitting in the visible and reflecting in the infrared, out to about 2 microns, has been used as an energy device for incandescent lamps, especially tungsten halogen lamps. The reflected infrared energy maintains the filament temperature at a given level with less electrical input, thereby yielding visible light at lower cost. Such filters and lamps are well known. They are produced in volume by The General Electric Co. , and are described in U.S. Patent 4,851,095. These IR reflecting filters on lamps can be deposited using the present invention by providing tooling to rotate the lamps as they pass through the sputtering - activating plasma. Nb205/Si02 and Ti02/Si02 have been used as material pairs to make the filters.

Many products require high reflection in the visible and transmission in the infrared, so that the light reflected is "cold." Examples are dental mirrors and smaller parabolic reflectors in which a lamp is positioned at the focal point. So-called MR 16's form an example of the latter. These are half paraboloids measuring 16 eighths of an inch across. They are used, for example, in overhead projectors. The present invention is particularly suitable for coating these MR 16's. It's high deposition rates allow very stable oxides to be deposited economically in this commodity product.

By using two or more targets coupled to auxiliary plasma generators it is easy to deposit alternating ultrathin layers of different materials by controlling the drum rotation rate and the sputter rate. For example, a structure consisting of 6 A layers of Si02 interleaved with loA layers of Ti02 to a total film thickness of 1 micron is readily made at a drum rotation rate of lOrpm, and three and five kilowatts of power respectively to the silicon and titanium target. While the drum configuration of Fig. 1 is a convenient arrangement for use of the present inventions, it is by no means the only one possible. Any of the configurations of U.S. Patent 4,851,095 would benefit from the use of the invention.

For example. Fig. 9 shows an auxiliary plasma generating device 6 coupled to a sputter target 5 on the inside of a rotating, substrate bearing drum 2. As another example. Fig. 10 shows coupled auxiliary devices 6 and sputter targets 5 on both the inside and outside of a substrate bearing drum 2.

Fig. 11 shows a novel "donut" configuration in which the vacuum chamber 1 has cylindrical inner and outer vacuum walls 1 with coupled auxiliary devices 6 and sputter targets 5 mounted in the walls 1. It is obvious that such a configuration allows coating of substrates facing either in or out on the drum and therefore effectively doubles the load size.

Claims

1. A sputter coating system comprising a vacuum chamber, a means within said chamber adapted for mounting substrates and moving them thereon, at least one magnetron sputter device positioned at a work station adjacent to the means for mounting substrates and adapted for sputtering at least a selected material onto said substrate, and at least a second device positioned adjacent said first device for providing a plasma for enhancing the plasma formed by said first device wherein the second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere wherein the plasmas of said first and second devices form a single continuum of plasma in which the free electron density is at least 108/cm3 throughout the continuum to convert said selected material to a different chemical species such that more than 50% of the conversion to said different chemical species occurs at said magnetron sputter device.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to at least partially convert said selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound.
3. The system of claim 1, wherein' he second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to complete conversion of the selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound, said conversion being initiated by said first device.
4. The system of claim 1, wherein the magnetron sputter and second device are atmospherically and physically adjacent.
5. The system of claim 1, wherein the second device is adapted for in situ cleaning of the substrates.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the second device is adapted for bombardment of the selected material by energetic atoms during deposition.
7. The system of claim 1, wherein the second device is a microwave generator device.
8. The system of claim 7, wherein the second device is microwave generator device operating in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) mode.
9. The system of claim 7 wherein the second device provides heating to the substrate.
10. The system of claim 1, wherein said second device is an ion gun device.
11. The system of claim 1, wherein said second device is a linear magnetron device operated in a balanced magnetic mode.
12. The system of claim 1, wherein said second device is a linear magnetron device operate in an unbalanced magnetic mode.
13. The system of claim 11 wherein said linear magnetron device is comprised of a target material that is the same material as the" selected material arid is" operated in a poisoned mode.
14. The system of claim 11 wherein said linear magnetron device is comprised of a target material that is a lower sputter yield material than the selected material.
15. The system of claim 1, wherein said magnetron sputter device is a cylindrical magnetron device.
16. The system of claim 1, wherein said magnetron sputter device is a planar magnetron device.
17. The system of claim 16, wherein said planar magnetron device is operated in an unbalanced magnetic mode.
18. The system of claim 17, wherein the first device in combination with the second device is adapted for sputter coating of the selected materials at pressures below 10"3 Torr.
19. The system of claim 17, wherein the first device in combination with the second device is adapted for conversion of said selected material to that of a member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon- containing alloy or compound at pressures below 10"3 Torr.
20. The sputter coating system of claim 1, wherein the substrates are held and moved on a drum.
21. The sputter coating system of claim 20, wherein the magnetron sputter device and the second device are positioned outside the drum.
22. The sputter coating system of claim 20, wherein the magnetron sputter device and the second device are positioned inside the drum.
23. The sputter coating system of claim 20, wherein at least one magnetron sputter device and at least one second device Tare positioned outside the drum" and at least one magnetron sputter device and at least one second device are positioned inside the drum.
24. The sputter coating system of claim 20, further comprising substrate support means rotatably mounted at the circumference of said drum for rotatably presenting selected substrates or surface segments thereof to the work station.
25. The sputter coating system of claim 24, wherein the rotatable mounting means comprises a planetary gear arrangement which is rotatable in conjunction with rotation of the drum.
26. The sputter coating system of claim 1, further comprising at least a second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices adapted for depositing at least a second material onto substrates at a second work station or group of work stations adjacent said substrate holder.
27. The sputter coating system of claim 26, further comprising at least a second device or group of second devices positioned adjacent said second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices and adapted for providing a plasma for enhancing the plasma formed by the second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices.
28. A magnetron sputtering system for sputter depositing at least one selected material on a substrate and effecting reaction of said material, comprising a vacuum chamber, a means within said chamber adapted for mounting substrates and rotating them thereon past associated selected work stations, said means for mounting substrates and said vacuum chamber defining there between a relatively narrow elongated reaction volume, at least one magnetron sputter device positioned at a first work "station adjacent said means for mounting substrates and comprising a target of selected material adapted for generating a first plasma throughout the reaction volume for sputter depositing at least one selected material onto said substrates, and at least one secondary plasma device positioned adjacent said first work station location and adjacent said means for mounting substrates and adapted for enhancing the plasma of said sputter device wherein the plasmas of magnetron sputter device and secondary plasma device form a single continuum of plasma in which the free elecron density is at least 108/cm3 throughout the continuum to effect reaction of ions of a reactive gas with said sputter deposited material at a relatively low ambient partial pressures of said reactive gas wherein the second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere to convert said selected material to a different chemical species and wherein more than 50% of the conversion to said different chemical species occurs at said magnetron sputter device.
29. The system of claim 28, wherein the magnetron sputter device and the secondary plasma device are adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to at least partially convert said selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound.
30. The system of claim 28, wherein the second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to complete conversion of the selected material to at lest one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon- containing alloy or compound, said conversion""being initiated by said first device.
31. The system of claim 28, wherein the magnetron sputter device and secondary plasma device are atmospherically and physically adjacent.
32. The system of claim 28, wherein the secondary plasma device is adapted for in situ cleaning to the substrate.
33. The system of claim 28, wherein the secondary plasma device is adapted for bombardment of the selected material by energetic atoms during deposition.
34. The system of claim 28, wherein the secondary plasma device is a microwave generator device.
35. The system of claim 34, wherein the secondary plasma device is a microwave generator device operating in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) mode.
36. The system of claim 34 wherein the secondary plasma device provides heating to the substrate.
37. The system of claim 28, wherein said secondary plasma device is an ion gun device.
38. The system of claim 28, wherein said secondary plasma device is a linear magnetron device operated in a balanced magnetic mode.
39. The system of claim 28, wherein said secondary plasma device is a linear magnetron device operated in an unbalanced magnetic mode.
40. The system of claim 38 wherein said linear magnetron device is comprised of a target material that is the same material as the selected material and is operated in a poisoned mode.
41. The system of claims 38 or 39, wherein said linear magnetron device is comprised of a target material that is a lower sputter yield material than the selected material.
42. The system of claim"28, wherein" said magnetron sputter device is a cylindrical magnetron device.
43. The system of claim 28, wherein said magnetron sputter device is a planar magnetron device.
44. The system of claim 43, wherein said planar magnetron device is operated in an unbalanced magnetic mode.
45. The system of claim 44, wherein the first device in combination with the second device is adapted for sputter coating of the selected materials at pressures below 10"3 Torr.
46. The system of claim 44, wherein the first device in combination with the second device is adapted for conversion of said selected material to a member selected from the group of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound at pressures below 10"3 Torr.
47. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 28, wherein the substrate holder is a drum.
48. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 47, wherein the enhanced plasma device is positioned outside the drum.
49. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 47, wherein the enhanced plasma device is positioned inside the drum.
50. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 47, wherein at least one enhanced plasma device is positioned inside the drum and at least one enhanced plasma device is positioned outside the drum.
51. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 47, further comprising substrate support means rotatably mounted adjacent the circumference of the drum for rotatably presenting selected substrates or surface segments thereof"to"the"work* "station".
52. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 51, wherein the rotatable mounting means comprises a planetary gear arrangement which is rotatable in conjunction with rotation of the drum.
53. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 28, further comprising at least a second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices adapted for depositing at least a second material onto substrates at a second work station or group of work stations adjacent said substrate holder.
54. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 53, further comprising at least a second secondary plasma device or group of secondary plasma devices positioned adjacent said second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices and adapted for providing a plasma for enhancing the plasma formed by the second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices.
55. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 54, further comprising selectively and sequentially operating the first device and the first and second devices in combination to form composite coating comprising at least a plurality of layers, the composition of each said layer being selected from at least one member selected from the group consisting of a first metal, a second metal, an oxide of the first metal, an oxide of the second metal, mixtures of the first and second metals, and an oxide of mixtures of the first and second metals.
56. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 55, further comprising sequentially operating selected ones of the sputter cathode devices to sputter deposit layers of selected materials on said substrate and selectively and sequentially operating selected ones of the second devices in'conjunction with supplying a selected reactant gas or combination of selected reactant gases thereto for effecting the selected reaction with at least selected ones of the layers prior to sputter deposition of the next successive layer.
57. The magnetron sputtering system of claims 55 or 56, wherein the selected reaction involves converting the selected layers to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, nitride, hydride, sulfide, oxynitride, or carbon- containing compound or mixture.
58. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 55 or 56, wherein the selected reaction is oxidation.
59. The system of claim 55 or 56, wherein mixtures of materials are deposited that provide alternating layers of composite materials with high and low effective refractive index and approximately equal optical thickness, said alternating layers being repeated one or more times to produce a multilayer coating that provides a high reflectance peak of electromagnetic radiation at the effective quarter wave optical thickness of the multilayer stack and a broad band of high transmission at both longer and shorter wavelengths outside of the layer's peak reflectance band.
60. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 59, wherein each coating layer represents a continuously variable mixture of selected materials or reacted selected materials to provide a continuously variable index of refraction from that of a material having a high index of refraction in the mixture to that of a material having a low index of refraction in the mixture, said index variation being reversed for each successive layer.
61. The magnetron sputtering system of"claim 60, wherein coating layers are provided for the suppression of the higher order reflection bands in multilayer coatings.
62. A sputter coating system comprising a vacuum chamber, a means within said chamber adapted for mounting substrates and rotating them thereon, at least one magnetron sputter device positioned at a first work station adjacent to the means for mounting substrates and adapted for sputtering at least a selected material onto said substrate, and at least one microwave generating device positioned adjacent to the means for mounting substrates and adapted for providing a plasma for effecting chemical reaction with said selected material to convert said selected material to a different chemical species wherein the plasmas of said magnetron sputter device and microwave generating device form a single continuum plasma in which the free electron density is a least 108/cm3 throughout the continuum and such that more than 50% of the conversion to said different chemical species occurs at said magnetron sputter device.
63. The system of claim 62, wherein the microwave generating device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to at least partially convert said selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound.
64. The system of claim 62, wherein the microwave plasma device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to complete conversion of the selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound, said conversion being initiated by said first device.
65. The system of claim '62, herein the microwave generating device is adapted for in situ cleaning of the substrates.
66. The system of claim 62, wherein the microwave generating device is adapted for bombardment of the selected material by energetic atoms during deposition.
67. The system of claim 62, wherein the microwave generating device provides heating to the substrate.
68. The system of claim 62, wherein the microwave generating device which operates in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) mode.
69. The system of claim 62, wherein said magnetron generator device is a planar magnetron device operated in an unbalanced magnetic mode.
70. The system of claim 69, wherein the magnetron sputter device in combination with the microwave generator device is adapted for sputter coating of the selected materials at pressures below 10'3 Torr.
71. The system of claim 69, wherein the magnetron sputter device in combination with the microwave plasma device is adapted for conversion of said selected material to that of a member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound at pressures below 10"3 Torr.
72. The system of claim 62 wherein the means for holding and moving the substrate is a drum.
73. The system of claim 72, wherein the magnetron sputter device and the microwave plasma device are positioned outside the drum.
74. The system of claim 72, wherein the magnetron sputter device and the microwave plasma device are positioned inside the drum.
75. The system of claim 72, wherein at least one magnetron sputter"device *and~~at least" one microwave plasma device are positioned outside the drum and at least one magnetron sputter device and at least one microwave plasma device are positioned inside the drum.
76. The system of claim 72, further comprising substrate support means rotatably mounted at the circumference of said drum for rotatably presenting selected substrates or surface segments thereof to the work station.
77. The system of claim 76, wherein the rotatable mounting means comprises a planetary gear arrangement which is rotatable in conjunction with rotation of the drum.
78. The system of claim 62, further comprising at least a second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices adapted for depositing at least a second material onto substrates at a second work station or group of work stations adjacent said substrate holder.
79. The system of claim 78, further comprising at least a microwave plasma device or group of microwave plasma devices positioned adjacent said second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices and adapted for providing a plasma for effecting chemical reaction with said selected material sputtered by the second magnetron sputter device or group of magnetron sputter devices.
80. A low temperature, high formation rate device for forming single layer films and multi-layer composites on substrates, comprising a vacuum chamber, a means within said chamber adapted for mounting substrates and rotating them thereon, at least one magnetron sputter device positioned at a work station adjacent to the means for mounting substrates and adapted for sputtering at least a selected material onto said substrate, and at least a secon -device positioned adjacent said magnetron sputter device adapted for enhancing the plasma of said magnetron sputter device to effect reaction of ions of a reactive gas with said sputter deposited material at relatively low ambient partial pressures of said gas such that the second device in combination with the first device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere to convert said selected material to a different chemical species and wherein the magnetron sputter device and second device form a single continuum of plasma in which the free electron density is at least 108/cm3 throughout the continuum creating a reactive atmosphere to convert said selected material to a different chemical species, at least 50% of said conversion occurring at said magnetron sputter device.
81. The sputtering device of claim 80, further comprising means for sequentially sputter depositing a stack of materials on said substrate and selectively operating said second device to oxidize at least selected ones of said layers prior to sputter deposition of the next successive layer.
82. The sputtering device of claim 81, wherein said second device is adapted for providing a reactive atmosphere selected to convert the selected material to at least one member selected from the group consisting of an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, an oxynitride or a carbon-containing alloy or compound, said conversion being initiated by said first device.
83. The sputter coating system of claim l, wherein the means for holding and moving the substrate is a web in a web-to-web roll coater.
84. The magnetron sputtering process of claim 28, wherein the means for holding and moving the substrate is a web in a web-to-web roll coater.
85. The sputter coating system of claim 1, wherein the means for holding and moving the substrate is a disk.
86. The magnetron sputtering system of claim 28, wherein the means for holding and moving the substrate is a disk.
PCT/US1994/006908 1993-06-17 1994-06-17 Sputtering device WO1995000677A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US7876693A true 1993-06-17 1993-06-17
US08/078,766 1993-06-17

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
EP94921324A EP0707663A4 (en) 1993-06-17 1994-06-17 Sputtering device
JP50299794A JPH08511830A (en) 1993-06-17 1994-06-17 Sputtering apparatus

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1995000677A1 true WO1995000677A1 (en) 1995-01-05

Family

ID=22146092

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1994/006908 WO1995000677A1 (en) 1993-06-17 1994-06-17 Sputtering device

Country Status (3)

Country Link
EP (1) EP0707663A4 (en)
JP (1) JPH08511830A (en)
WO (1) WO1995000677A1 (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0809719A1 (en) * 1995-02-13 1997-12-03 Deposition Sciences, Inc. Apparatus and method for a reliable return current path for sputtering processes
EP0823944A1 (en) * 1995-04-24 1998-02-18 Deposition Sciences, Inc. Sputtering device
EP0838535A1 (en) * 1996-10-28 1998-04-29 Leybold Systems GmbH Interference layer system
WO1999049097A1 (en) * 1998-03-26 1999-09-30 Essilor International Organic substrate having optical layers deposited by magnetron sputtering and method for preparing it
EP1171645A1 (en) * 1999-03-04 2002-01-16 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Apparatus for the simultaneous deposition by physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition and method therefor
DE10031280A1 (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-24 Roth & Rauh Oberflaechentechni Multifunctional multi-ply layer on transparent plastic materials and methods for their preparation
WO2002084702A2 (en) * 2001-01-16 2002-10-24 Lampkin Curtis M Sputtering deposition apparatus and method for depositing surface films
US6635155B2 (en) 2000-10-20 2003-10-21 Asahi Glass Company, Limited Method for preparing an optical thin film
WO2009027905A3 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-04-30 Thomas Diederich Sputtering system
DE10196278B3 (en) * 2000-05-31 2015-04-09 Isoflux Inc. Unbalanced plasma generator with cylindrical symmetry

Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4466877A (en) * 1983-10-11 1984-08-21 Shatterproof Glass Corporation Magnetron cathode sputtering apparatus
US4492620A (en) * 1982-09-10 1985-01-08 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Public Corporation Plasma deposition method and apparatus
US4560462A (en) * 1984-06-22 1985-12-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Apparatus for coating nuclear fuel pellets with a burnable absorber
US4721553A (en) * 1984-08-31 1988-01-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for microwave assisting sputtering
US4798663A (en) * 1985-02-01 1989-01-17 Leybold-Heraeus Gmbh Sputtering installation for the reactive coating of a substrate with hard materials
US4851095A (en) * 1988-02-08 1989-07-25 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process
US4885070A (en) * 1988-02-12 1989-12-05 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for the application of materials
US4911814A (en) * 1988-02-08 1990-03-27 Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation Thin film forming apparatus and ion source utilizing sputtering with microwave plasma
US4990229A (en) * 1989-06-13 1991-02-05 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5122252A (en) * 1989-06-24 1992-06-16 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for the coating of substrates

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT147890T (en) * 1991-05-31 1997-02-15 Deposition Sciences Inc Sputter

Patent Citations (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4492620A (en) * 1982-09-10 1985-01-08 Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Public Corporation Plasma deposition method and apparatus
US4466877A (en) * 1983-10-11 1984-08-21 Shatterproof Glass Corporation Magnetron cathode sputtering apparatus
US4560462A (en) * 1984-06-22 1985-12-24 Westinghouse Electric Corp. Apparatus for coating nuclear fuel pellets with a burnable absorber
US4721553A (en) * 1984-08-31 1988-01-26 Hitachi, Ltd. Method and apparatus for microwave assisting sputtering
US4798663A (en) * 1985-02-01 1989-01-17 Leybold-Heraeus Gmbh Sputtering installation for the reactive coating of a substrate with hard materials
US4851095A (en) * 1988-02-08 1989-07-25 Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process
US4911814A (en) * 1988-02-08 1990-03-27 Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation Thin film forming apparatus and ion source utilizing sputtering with microwave plasma
US4885070A (en) * 1988-02-12 1989-12-05 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for the application of materials
US4990229A (en) * 1989-06-13 1991-02-05 Plasma & Materials Technologies, Inc. High density plasma deposition and etching apparatus
US5122252A (en) * 1989-06-24 1992-06-16 Leybold Aktiengesellschaft Arrangement for the coating of substrates

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of EP0707663A4 *

Cited By (15)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0809719A1 (en) * 1995-02-13 1997-12-03 Deposition Sciences, Inc. Apparatus and method for a reliable return current path for sputtering processes
EP0823944A1 (en) * 1995-04-24 1998-02-18 Deposition Sciences, Inc. Sputtering device
EP0823944A4 (en) * 1995-04-25 2000-09-20 Deposition Sciences Inc Sputtering device
EP0838535A1 (en) * 1996-10-28 1998-04-29 Leybold Systems GmbH Interference layer system
US6596368B1 (en) 1998-03-26 2003-07-22 Essilor International Organic substrate having optical layers deposited by magnetron sputtering and method for preparing it
WO1999049097A1 (en) * 1998-03-26 1999-09-30 Essilor International Organic substrate having optical layers deposited by magnetron sputtering and method for preparing it
EP0947601A1 (en) * 1998-03-26 1999-10-06 ESSILOR INTERNATIONAL Compagnie Générale d'Optique Organic substrate having optical layers deposited by magnetron sputtering and method for preparing it
EP1171645A1 (en) * 1999-03-04 2002-01-16 Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. Apparatus for the simultaneous deposition by physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition and method therefor
EP1171645A4 (en) * 1999-03-04 2003-08-27 Energy Conversion Devices Inc Apparatus for the simultaneous deposition by physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition and method therefor
DE10196278B3 (en) * 2000-05-31 2015-04-09 Isoflux Inc. Unbalanced plasma generator with cylindrical symmetry
DE10031280A1 (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-24 Roth & Rauh Oberflaechentechni Multifunctional multi-ply layer on transparent plastic materials and methods for their preparation
US6635155B2 (en) 2000-10-20 2003-10-21 Asahi Glass Company, Limited Method for preparing an optical thin film
WO2002084702A3 (en) * 2001-01-16 2003-08-21 Curtis M Lampkin Sputtering deposition apparatus and method for depositing surface films
WO2002084702A2 (en) * 2001-01-16 2002-10-24 Lampkin Curtis M Sputtering deposition apparatus and method for depositing surface films
WO2009027905A3 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-04-30 Thomas Diederich Sputtering system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0707663A1 (en) 1996-04-24
JPH08511830A (en) 1996-12-10
EP0707663A4 (en) 1998-01-14

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Waits Planar magnetron sputtering
US5800619A (en) Vacuum plasma processor having coil with minimum magnetic field in its center
KR100349426B1 (en) Inductively Coupled Plasma Sputter Chamber with Conductive Material Sputtering Capabilities
JP4709376B2 (en) Method of processing a plasma apparatus and a workpiece comprising a non-magnetic metal member is powered during plasma frequency excitation source and the plasma
US6297595B1 (en) Method and apparatus for generating a plasma
US6610184B2 (en) Magnet array in conjunction with rotating magnetron for plasma sputtering
US5458754A (en) Plasma enhancement apparatus and method for physical vapor deposition
US5814195A (en) Sputtering system using cylindrical rotating magnetron electrically powered using alternating current
Conrads et al. Plasma generation and plasma sources
US6899054B1 (en) Device for hybrid plasma processing
JP3378248B2 (en) Method of handling a plasma device and an object having a dielectric window for inducing a uniform electric field to the plasma chamber in the plasma apparatus
KR100234509B1 (en) Microwave plasma processing apparatus and method therefor
US6458253B2 (en) Thin film production process and optical device
US6679981B1 (en) Inductive plasma loop enhancing magnetron sputtering
CN100565775C (en) Inductive plasma processor having coil with plural windings and method of controlling plasma density
JP3775689B2 (en) Method and apparatus for ionizing sputtered material
KR100225567B1 (en) Method for titanic electric conduction coating
US4420385A (en) Apparatus and process for sputter deposition of reacted thin films
JP3190690B2 (en) Method and apparatus for generating a large induced plasma for plasma treatment
US5108574A (en) Cylindrical magnetron shield structure
US5279669A (en) Plasma reactor for processing substrates comprising means for inducing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) conditions
US5759280A (en) Inductively coupled source for deriving substantially uniform plasma flux
KR920004846B1 (en) Magnetron sputtering apparatus and process
US4444635A (en) Film forming method
US5234529A (en) Plasma generating apparatus employing capacitive shielding and process for using such apparatus

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE CH DE DK ES FR GB GR IE IT LU MC NL PT SE

AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): JP

DFPE Request for preliminary examination filed prior to expiration of 19th month from priority date (pct application filed before 20040101)
121 Ep: the epo has been informed by wipo that ep was designated in this application
WWE Wipo information: entry into national phase

Ref document number: 1994921324

Country of ref document: EP

WWP Wipo information: published in national office

Ref document number: 1994921324

Country of ref document: EP

WWW Wipo information: withdrawn in national office

Ref document number: 1994921324

Country of ref document: EP