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Terfenadine metabolites and their optically pure isomers for treating allergic disorders

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Publication number
WO1994003170A1
WO1994003170A1 PCT/US1993/007260 US9307260W WO1994003170A1 WO 1994003170 A1 WO1994003170 A1 WO 1994003170A1 US 9307260 W US9307260 W US 9307260W WO 1994003170 A1 WO1994003170 A1 WO 1994003170A1
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WO
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Prior art keywords
α
terfenadine
composition
hydroxy
metabolic
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1993/007260
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French (fr)
Inventor
James W. Young
Nancy M. Gray
Raymond L. Woosley
Yiwang Chen
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Sepracor Inc.
Georgetown University
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Publication date
Family has litigation

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K45/00Medicinal preparations containing active ingredients not provided for in groups A61K31/00 - A61K41/00
    • A61K45/06Mixtures of active ingredients without chemical characterisation, e.g. antiphlogistics and cardiaca
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61KPREPARATIONS FOR MEDICAL, DENTAL, OR TOILET PURPOSES
    • A61K31/00Medicinal preparations containing organic active ingredients
    • A61K31/33Heterocyclic compounds
    • A61K31/395Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins
    • A61K31/435Heterocyclic compounds having nitrogen as a ring hetero atom, e.g. guanethidine, rifamycins having six-membered rings with one nitrogen as the only ring hetero atom
    • A61K31/44Non condensed pyridines; Hydrogenated derivatives thereof
    • A61K31/445Non condensed piperidines, e.g. piperocaine

Abstract

A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula (I): wherein Z is COOH, COOCH3 or CH2OH, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula (I) to a human patient.

Description

TERFENADINE METABOLITIESAND THEIR OPTICALLY PURE IOSMERS FOR TREATING ALLERGIC DISORDERS

DESCRIPTON

This invention relates to novel pharmaceutical compositions containing 4- [ 1-hydroxy-4- ( 4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl )butyl ] -α, - dimethylbenzeneacetates and l-[p-(2-hydroxymethylprop-2- yl)-phenyl]-4-[4-(α-hydroxy- -phenylbenzyl) piperidin-1- yljbutanol and their optically pure derivatives. These compositions possess potent antihistaminic activity and are useful in treating allergic rhinitis, asthma and other allergic disorders while avoiding adverse effects associated with the administration of other o.-aryl-4- substituted piperidinoalkanol derivatives, such as terfenadine, including but not limited to cardiac arrhythmias, drowsiness, nausea, fatigue, weakness and headache. Also, these compositions, in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or other non- narcotic analgesics, are useful for the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like, and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, headache, pain, fever, and general malaise associated therewith. The aforementioned combinations may optionally include one or more other active components including a decongestant, cough suppressant/antitussive, or expectorant. Additionally, these novel pharmaceutical compositions containing 4 - [ 1 - hydr oxy- 4 - ( 4 - hydroxydiphenylmethy 1 -1-piperidinyl )butyl ] -o.,α- dimethylbenzeneacetates and l-[ p-( 2-hydroxymethylprop-2- yl ) phenyl] -4- [ 4-(α-hydroxy- -phenylbenzyl )-l-piperidin-l- yljbutanol and their optically pure derivatives are useful in treating motion sickness, vertigo, diabetic retinopathy, small vessel complications due to diabetes and such other conditions as may be related to the activity of these derivatives as antagonists of the H-1 histamine receptor while avoiding the adverse effects associated with the administration of other -aryl-4-substituted piperidinoalkanol derivatives, such as terf enadine.

Also disclosed are methods for treating the above-described conditions in a human while avoiding the adverse effects that are associated with the administration of other -aryl-4-substituted piperidinoalkanol derivatives, such as terf enadine, by administering the aforementioned pharmaceutical compositions containing 4-[l- hydroxy-4 - ( 4 -hydroxydiphenylmethy 1 - 1 -piper idinyl ) butyl ] - , -dimethylbenzeneacetates and l-[p-( 2-hydroxymethylprop-

2-yl ) phenyl ] -4- [ 4- (α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- 1- yl]butanol or their optically pure isomer s to said human.

The active compounds of these compositions and methods are metabolic derivatives of terf enadine.

Chemically, these derivatives are methyl 4-[ l-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl )butyl ] - ,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate , 4- [ 1 -hydroxy-4 -

( 4 -hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl )butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and l-[p-( 2-hydroxymethylprop- 2 -yl ) phenyl ] -4- [ 4- (α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- 1- yl]butanol and the optical isomers of the compounds. These compounds are described in Garteiz et al., Arzneimittel- Forschunσ/Druσ Research, 32: 1185-1190 (1982). Chemically, the optical isomers of the compounds are methyl R-(+)-4-[l- hydroxy-4- ( 4 -hydroxydiphenylmethyl -1 -piper idiny 1 ) butyl ] - , α-dimethylbenzeneacetate , methyl S- ( - ) -4 - [ 1 -hydroxy-4 - ( 4 - hydroxydiphenylme hyl-1-piperidinyl )butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate , R- ( + ) -4- [ 1 -hydroxy-4- ( 4- hydroxydi phenyl methyl- 1-piperidinyl )butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, S-(-)-4-[ l-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl )butyl ] -α , α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, R-(+)-l-[p-( 2-hydroxymethyl-2- prop- 2 -y 1 ) phenyl ] -4 - [ 4 - ( -hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- l-yl]butanol and S-(- )-l-[p-( 2-hydroxymethylprop- 2- yl ) phenyl ]-4-[ 4- (α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- 1- yl]butanol.

- 6- against histamine induced lethality in the guinea pig.

Through H-2 receptor-mediated responses, histamine stimulates gastric acid secretion in the guinea pig and the chronotropic effect in isolated guinea pig atria. Terfenadine has no effect on histamine-induced gastric acid secretion, nor does it alter the chronotropic effect of histamine on atria. Thus, terfenadine has no apparent effect on the H-2 histamine receptor. See Cheng et al., Drug Development Research, 2: 181-196 (1982). Terfenadine is well absorbed but is extensively metabolized. See Okerholm et al., Biophar aceutics and Drug Distribution, 2: 185-190 (1981). Two main metabolites have been identified and it has been suggested that one of the metabolites, 4-fl-hydroxy-4-[4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, may show antihistaminic activity, in vitro, but no actual data have been published. See Garteiz et al., Arzneimittel- Forschung/Drug Research, 32: 1185-1190 (1982).

On the basis of its antihistaminic activity, researchers evaluated the effect of terfenadine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis . Clinical trials of efficacy indicated that terfenadine is slightly less effective than chlorpheniramine, another H-1 antagonist. See Connell, Pharmacotherapy, 5: 201-208 (1985). It has also been suggested that terfenadine would be useful for the treatment of asthma. In guinea pigs, the increase in airway resistance caused by LTD4 (leukotriene the D-enantiomer of thalidomide was a safe and effective sedative when prescribed for the control of morning sickness during pregnancy, while the corresponding L- enantiomer has been believed to be a potent teratogen. The enantiomers of 4-[ l-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl )butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid are disclosed in Zamani et al., Chiralitv 3: 467-470 (1991). This reference states that the (R)-enantiomer of an orally administered racemic terfenadine was preferentially oxidized in rats to form a carboxylic acid metabolite enriched in the (R)-enantiomer. The enantiomers of 4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl- l-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid are also disclosed in Chan et al., J. Chromatog. 571: 291-297 (1991). This reference states that terfenadine does not undergo any stereoselective isomeric interconversion in man.

Terfenadine is an antagonist of the H-1 histamine receptor protein. Histamine receptor proteins occur in two well-identified forms in tissues as H-1 and H-2 receptors. The H-1 receptors are those that mediate the response antagonized by conventional antihistamines. H-1 receptors are present in the guinea pig ileum, the skin of Rhesus monkeys, and the bronchial smooth muscle of guinea pig. Terfenadine antagonizes the effect of histamine in the guinea pig isolated ileum, suppresses histamine-induced whealing in the skin of Rhesus monkeys, and protects against histamine induced lethality in the guinea pig.

Through H-2 receptor-mediated responses, histamine stimulates gastric acid secretion in the guinea pig and the chronotropic effect in isolated guinea pig atria. Terfenadine has no effect on histamine-induced gastric acid secretion, nor does it alter the chronotropic effect of histamine on atria. Thus, terfenadine has no apparent effect on the H-2 histamine receptor. See Cheng et al., Drug Development Research, 2: 181-196 (1982). Terfenadine is well absorbed but is extensively metabolized. See Okerholm et al., Biopharmaceutics and Drug Distribution, 2: 185-190 (1981). Two main metabolites have been identified and it has been suggested that one of the metabolites, 4-[l-hydroxy-4-[4-(hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, may show antihistaminic activity, in vitro, but no actual data have been published. See Garteiz et al., Arzneimittel- Forschung/Drug Research. 32: 1185-1190 (1982).

On the basis of its antihistaminic activity, researchers evaluated the effect of terfenadine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis . Clinical trials of efficacy indicated that terfenadine is slightly less effective than chlorpheniramine, another H-1 antagonist. See Connell, Pharmacotherapy, 5: 201-208 (1985). It has also been suggested that terfenadine would be useful for the treatment of asthma. In guinea pigs, the increase in airway resistance caused by LTD4 (leukotriene D4) was suppressed by terfenadine. See Akagi et al . , Oyo Yakuri, 35: 361-371 (1988).

Terfenadine may also be useful for the treatment of motion sickness and vertigo. Some antihistamines have been found to be effective for the prophylaxis and treatment of motion sickness. See Wood, Drugs , 17: 471-479 (1979). Some antihistamines have also proven useful for treating vestibular disturbances, such as Meniere's disease, and in other types of vertigo. See Cohen et al., Archives of Neurology, 27: 129-135 (1972).

In addition, terfenadine may be useful in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy and other small vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. In tests on rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes, treatment by antihistamines prevented the activation of retinal histamine receptors which have been implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy. The use of antihistamines to treat retinopathy and small vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus is disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,019,591.

It has also been suggested that terfenadine, in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or other non-narcotic analgesics, would be useful for the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, headache, fever, and general malaise associated therewith. The use of pharmaceutical compositions containing terfenadine and non-narcotic - 10 - s all vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. The present invention also includes methods for treating the above-described conditions in a human, while avoiding the adverse effects that are associated with terfenadine, including but not limited to cardiac arrhythmias, sedation, gastrointestinal distress, dry mouth, and constipation or diarrhea, by administering the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers to said human.

It has also been discovered that the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine and their optically pure isomers, in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or other non-narcotic analgesics, are useful for the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, headache, fever, and general malaise associated therewith. The use of pharmaceutical compositions of the invention, containing (1) metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers and (2) non-narcotic analgesics or non-steroidal anti-in lammatory agents such aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may optionally include one or more other active components including a decongestant (such as pseudoephedrine) , a cough suppressant/antitussive (such as dextromethorphan) or an expectorant (such as guaifenesin) .

The present invention encompasses a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to an allergic disorder while avoiding the concomitant liability of adverse effects associated with the administration of terfenadine, lst Feb 1992, p. 33.

Thus, it would be particularly desirable to find a compound with the advantages of terfenadine which would not have the aforementioned disadvantages.

It has now been discovered that methyl 4-[1-hydroxy- 4- ( 4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl )butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate, 4-[ l-hydroxy-4- ( 4 - hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl ) butyl ] -α , α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and l-[p-(2-hydroxymethylprop-2- yl )phenyl]-4-[4-(α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl )piperidin-l- yl]butanol and their optically pure isomers (hereinafter referred to as "the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" and "optically pure isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine") are effective antihistamines. It has also been discovered that pharmaceutical compositions containing metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers are useful in treating allergic disorders and such other conditions as may be related to the composition's activity as an antihistamine, including but not limited to allergic rhinitis, solar urticaria, and symptomatic dermographism.

Furthermore, it has now also been discovered that the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers are useful in treating asthma. Also, these compounds are useful for the treatment of motion sickness and vertigo and in treating such disorders as retinopathy and small vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus. The present invention also includes methods for treating the above-described conditions in a human, while avoiding the adverse effects that are associated with terfenadine, including but not limited to cardiac arrhythmias, sedation, gastrointestinal distress, dry mouth, and constipation or diarrhea, by administering the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers to said human.

It has also been discovered that the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine and their optically pure isomers, in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or other non-narcotic analgesics, are useful for the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, headache, fever, and general malaise associated therewith. The use of pharmaceutical compositions of the invention, containing (1) metabolic derivatives of terfenadine or their optically pure isomers and (2) non-narcotic analgesics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such aspirin, acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may optionally include one or more other active components including a decongestant (such as pseudoephedrine) , a cough suppressant/antitussive (such as dextromethorphan) or an expectorant (such as guaifenesin) .

The present invention encompasses a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to an allergic disorder while avoiding the concomitant liability of adverse effects associated with the administration of terfenadine, which comprises administering to said human afflicted by or susceptible to an allergic disorder an amount of one or more compounds selected from the group of metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, optically pure isomers of metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, said amount being sufficient to treat said allergic disorder, but insufficient to cause the adverse effects associated with terfenadine.

Accordingly and in a first aspect, the present invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I:

wherein Z is COOH, C00CH3 or CH2OH, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a human patient. The compounds of formula I include the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine and the optically pure isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine as aforesaid.

Prior to the present invention, those skilled in the - 14 - therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant, such as pseudoephedrine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, the inventive composition comprises from 20mg to 200mg of a compound of formula I and from 25mg to 600mg of an anti-inflammatory agent or an analgesic. When the inventive composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant, it, preferably, comprises from 20mg to 200mg of a compound of formula I and from 5mg to 150mg of the decongestant.

In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the compound of formula I is in the form of a single optical isomer and the inventive composition is substantially free of the other such isomer. In such an embodiment, the compound of formula I, preferably, is selected from the group consisting of: methyl R-(+)-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-l- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate, R-(+)-4-[1- hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and R-(+ )-1-[p- ( 2- hydroxymethylprop-2-yl )phenyl ] -4- [ 4- ( α-hydroxy-α- phenylbenzyl)piperidin-l-yl]butanol and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and the composition is substantially free of the S stereoisomer of the selected compound; or, is selected from the group consisting of methyl S-(-)-4-[l- hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidiny1)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate, S-(-)-4-[l-hydroxy-4- ( 4- Preferably, the invention relates to the treatment of an allergic disorder which, preferably, is asthma or allergic rhinitis.

In preferred embodiments, the anti-histaminic treatment comprises the administration of a compound of formula I, in an amount of l-500mg/day and, preferably, in an amount of 20-200mg/day. When the inventive composition is for use in a method of treating asthma, or retinopathy or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mellitus, sufficient of the inventive composition should be administered such that the compound of formula I is provided to the patient in an amount of 0.01-500mg/day and, preferably, in an amount of 0.1-200mg/day.

In preferred embodiments, the inventive composition further comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient.

Particularly when the anti-histaminic treatment is that of cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith, in a human, the composition can further comprise a therapeutically effective amount of a non-steroidal anti- inflammatory agent or a non-narcotic analgesic, such as acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, or naproxen, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Alternatively, or additionally, a composition in accordance with the present invention can further comprise a therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant, such as pseudoephedrine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof .

In a preferred embodiment, the inventive composition comprises from 20mg to 200mg of a compound of formula I and from 25mg to 600mg of an anti-inflammatory agent or an analgesic. When the inventive composition comprises a therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant, it, preferably, comprises from 20mg to 200mg of a compound of formula I and from 5mg to 150mg of the decongestant.

In preferred embodiments of the present invention, the compound of formula I is in the form of a single optical isomer and the inventive composition is substantially free of the other such isomer. In such an embodiment, the compound of formula I, preferably, is selected from the group consisting of: methyl R-(+)-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate, R-(+)-4-[ 1- hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidiny1)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and R- ( + ) -1- [p- ( 2- hydroxymethylprop- 2-yl )phenyl ] -4- [ 4- (α-hydroxy-α- phenylbenzyl)piperidin-l-yl]butanol and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and the composition is substantially free of the S stereoisomer of the selected compound; or, is selected from the group consisting of methyl S-(-)-4-[l- hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate, S-(-)-4-[ 1-hydroxy-4 - ( 4 - hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl ) butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and S-(- )-1-[p- ( 2- hydroxymethylprop-2-yl ) phenyl ] -4- (α-hydroxy-α- phenylbenzyl)piperidin-l-yl]butanol and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and the composition is substantially free of the R stereoisomer of the selected compound.

Preferably, the compound of formula I comprises 90% or more of the selected R- or S-stereoisomer.

In a most preferred embodiment Z, in formula I, is COOH and the compound of formula I is terfenadine carboxylate.

In a second aspect, the invention relates to a method of providing an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, to a human patient, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition in accordance with the first aspect of the invention, preferably, in one of its preferred embodiments, to said human patient. Preferably, the inventive method is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mellitus; cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith. Preferably, the method is a method for treating a human afflicated by or susceptible to an allergic disorder and, more preferably, the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis. - 18- isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" are also encompassed by the above-described definitions.

The term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" as used herein means that the composition contains at least 90% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, and 10% by weight or less of the R derivatives. In a preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" means that the composition contains at least 99% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, and 1% or less of the R isomer. In another preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" as used herein means that the composition contains greater than 99% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine and less than 1% by weight of the R derivatives. These percentages are based upon the total amount of metabolic derivatives of terfenadine in the composition. The terms "substantially optically pure S isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" and "optically pure S isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" are also encompassed by the above-described definitions.

The phrase "therapeutically effective amount" means that amount of one or more of the compounds of the invention which provides a therapeutic benefit in an anti-histaminic treatment, including the treatment or management of allergic disorders, asthma, retinopathy or other small vessel disorders index. It is, therefore, more desirable to use a metabolic derivative of terfenadine or an optically pure isomer thereof, than to use terfenadine itself.

The term "adverse effects" includes, but is not limited to cardiac arrhythmias, sedation, gastrointestinal distress, dry mouth, constipation, and diarrhea. The term "cardiac arrhythmias" includes, but is not limited to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation. The term "substantially free of the S stereoisomer" as used herein means that the metabolic derivative of terfenadine in a composition contains at least 90% by weight of the R isomer of the metabolic derivative of terfenadine, and 10% by weight or less of the S derivative. In a preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the S stereoisomer" means that the metabolic derivative of terfenadine in a composition contains at least 99% by weight of the R isomer of the metabolic derivative of terfenadine, and 1% or less of the S isomer. In another preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the S stereoisomer" as used herein means that the metabolic derivative of terfenadine in a composition contains greater than 99% by weight of the R isomer of the metabolic derivative of terfenadine and less than 1% by weight of the S derivative. The terms "substantially optically pure R isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" and "optically pure R isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" are also encompassed by the above-described definitions.

The term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" as used herein means that the composition contains at least 90% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, and 10% by weight or less of the R derivatives. In a preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" means that the composition contains at least 99% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine, and 1% or less of the R isomer. In another preferred embodiment, the term "substantially free of the R stereoisomer" as used herein means that the composition contains greater than 99% by weight of the S isomer of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine and less than 1% by weight of the R derivatives. These percentages are based upon the total amount of metabolic derivatives of terfenadine in the composition. The terms "substantially optically pure S isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" and "optically pure S isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine" are also encompassed by the above-described definitions.

The phrase "therapeutically effective amount" means that amount of one or more of the compounds of the invention which provides a therapeutic benefit in an anti-histaminic treatment, including the treatment or management of allergic disorders, asthma, retinopathy or other small vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus, motion sickness, vertigo, or cough, cold, cold-like, and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, fever, and general malaise associated therewith. Examples of allergic disorders include, but are not limited to, allergic rhinitis, solar urticaria, and symptomatic dermographism. The symptoms associated with these allergic disorders and the cough, cold, cold-like, and/or flu symptoms include, but are not limited to, sneezing, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, and dermal irritation. The term "asthma" is defined as a disorder characterized by increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi to various stimuli which results in symptoms which include wheezing, cough, and dyspnea. The term "vertigo" as used herein means the dizziness associated with, but not limited to motion, height, and changes in body position. The term "diabetic retinopathy" or "retinopathy associated with diabetes mellitus" is that disorder caused by increased permeability of the capillaries in the eye which leads to hemorrhages and edema in the eye and can lead to blindness. The term "small vessel disorders associated with diabetes mellitus" includes, but is not limited to diabetic retinopathy and peripheral vascular disease.

The separation of the optically pure isomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine may be effected by resolution of the racemic mixture of enantiomers of the metabolic derivatives of terfenadine using conventional means -22- derivative of terfenadine, or an optically pure isomer, with (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant," as well as the term "therapeutically effective amount of at least one α-aryl-4-substituted piperidinoalkanol derivative" are also encompassed by the above-described dosage amounts and dose frequency schedule.

Any suitable route of administration may be employed for providing the patient with an effective dosage of the inventive composition. For example, oral, rectal, parenteral, transdermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and like forms of administration may be employed. Dosage forms include tablets, troches, dispersions, suspensions, solutions, capsules, patches, and the like.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise a metabolic derivative of terfenadine, or an optically pure isomer thereof as active ingredient, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and may also contain a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and optionally, other therapeutic ingredients . The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" includes within its ambit salts prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic acids or bases including inorganic acids or bases or organic acids or bases. Examples of such inorganic acids are hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, sulfuric, and phosphoric. Appropriate organic acids may be selected, for example, from aliphatic, aromatic, carboxylic physician will know how and when to interrupt, adjust, or terminate therapy in conjunction with individual patient response.

The various terms "an amount sufficient to alleviate said allergic disorder but insufficient to cause said adverse effects," "an amount sufficient to alleviate said asthma but insufficient to cause said adverse effects," "an amount sufficient to alleviate said motion sickness but insufficient to cause said adverse effects," and "an amount sufficient to alleviate said retinopathy or other small vessel diseases associated with diabetes mellitus but insufficient to cause said adverse effects" are encompassed by the above-described dosage amounts and dose frequency schedule. In addition, the terms "a pharmaceutical composition for use in the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, fever and general malaise associated therewith, in a human, said composition comprising (i) a therapeutically effective amount of at least one metabolic derivative of terfenadine, or an optically pure isomer thereof, with (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of at least one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent or non- narcotic analgesic," and "a pharmaceutical composition for use in the treatment of cough, cold, cold-like and/or flu symptoms and the discomfort, pain, fever and general malaise associated therewith, in a human, said composition comprising (i) a therapeutically effective amount of at least one metabolic derivative of terfenadine, or an optically pure isomer, with (ii) a therapeutically effective amount of a decongestant," as well as the term "therapeutically effective amount of at least one α-aryl-4-substituted piperidinoalkanol derivative" are also encompassed by the above-described dosage amounts and dose frequency schedule.

Any suitable route of administration may be employed for providing the patient with an effective dosage of the inventive composition. For example, oral, rectal, parenteral, transdermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, and like forms of administration may be employed. Dosage forms include tablets, troches, dispersions, suspensions, solutions, capsules, patches, and the like.

The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise a metabolic derivative of terfenadine, or an optically pure isomer thereof as active ingredient, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and may also contain a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and optionally, other therapeutic ingredients . The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" includes within its ambit salts prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic acids or bases including inorganic acids or bases or organic acids or bases. Examples of such inorganic acids are hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, sulfuric, and phosphoric. Appropriate organic acids may be selected, for example, from aliphatic, aromatic, carboxylic and sulfonic classes of organic acids, examples of which are formic, acetic, propionic, succinic, glycolic, glucoronic, maleic, furoic, glutamic, benzoic, anthranilic, salicylic, phenylacetic, mandelic, e bonic (pamoic), methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, pantothenic, benzenesulfonic, stearic, sulfanilic, algenic, and galacturonic. Examples of such inorganic bases include metallic salts made from aluminum, calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Appropriate organic bases may be selected, for example, from N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, choline, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, meglumaine (N- methylglucamine) , lysine and procaine.

The compositions of the present invention include compositions such as suspensions, solutions and elixirs; aerosols; or carriers such as starches, sugars, microcrystalline cellulose, diluents, granulating agents, lubricants, binders, disintegrating agents, and the like, in the case of oral solid preparations (such as powders, capsules, and tablets) , with the oral solid preparations being preferred over the oral liquid preparations. The most preferred oral solid preparations are tablets.

Because of their ease of administration, tablets and capsules represent the most advantageous oral dosage unit form, in which case solid pharmaceutical carriers are employed. If desired, tablets may be coated by standard aqueous or nonaqueous techniques.

In addition to the common dosage forms set out -26-

4 . EXAMPLES

4 . 1 . Example 1

A. Preparation of methyl R-4-rl-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl1-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate.

4-(α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl)piperidine (4.3 gm) was combined with methyl p-(4-chloro-l-oxobutyl)-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate (4.5 gm), potassium bicarbonate (2.9 gm) , potassium iodide (ca. 50 mg), and methyl isobutyl ketone (50 ml) and heated to reflux for 48 hours. Additional 4-(α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl)piperidine (1.1 gm) was added, and heating was continued for an additional 48 hours. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, water was added and the pH of the solution was adjusted to ca. 12 by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate solution was washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and brine and dried over sodium sulfate. The ethyl acetate was removed on a rotary evaporator and the residue was treated with 25% ethyl acetate in hexane. The resulting precipitate was filtered and air dried to give methyl 4-[l-oxo-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate. This intermediate precipitate (2.4 moistened with an inert liquid diluent. Desirably, each tablet contains from about 10 mg to about 150 mg of the active ingredient, and each cachet or capsule contains from about 10 mg to about 150 mg of the active ingredient, i.e., a metabolic derivative of terfenadine. Most preferably, the tablet, cachet or capsule contains either one of three dosages, 30 mg, 60 mg or 90 mg of the active ingredient.

The invention is further defined by reference to the following examples describing in detail the preparation of the compound and the compositions of the present invention, as well as their utility. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many modifications, both to materials and methods, may be practiced which are within the scope of this invention.

4 . EXAMPLES

4 . 1 . Example 1

A. Preparation of methyl R-4-rl-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl1-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate.

4-(α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl)piperidine (4.3 gm) was combined with methyl p-(4-chloro-l-oxobutyl)-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate (4.5 gm), potassium bicarbonate (2.9 gm), potassium iodide (ca. 50 mg), and methyl isobutyl ketone (50 ml) and heated to reflux for 48 hours. Additional 4-(α-hydroxy-α-phenylbenzyl)piperidine (1.1 gm) was added, and heating was continued for an additional 48 hours. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, water was added and the pH of the solution was adjusted to ca. 12 by addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate solution was washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and brine and dried over sodium sulfate. The ethyl acetate was removed on a rotary evaporator and the residue was treated with 25% ethyl acetate in hexane. The resulting precipitate was filtered and air dried to give methyl 4-[l-oxo-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate. This intermediate precipitate (2.4 gm) was combined with tetrahydrofuran (10 ml) and (+)-β- chlorodiisopinocamphenylborane (4.5 gm) and stirred for 48 hours. Methanol (10 ml) and sodium bicarbonate (1.5 gm) were added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was stirred for 12 hours. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (200 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate to give methyl R-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidiny1)butyl]-α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate.

B. R-(+)-4-fl-hydroxy-4-(4-hvdroxydiphenylmethyl-l- piperidinyl)butyl1-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid rR-(+ - terfenadine carboxylate1.

Methyl R-4-[l-hydrσxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-

1-piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate (1.2 gm) was combined with potassium hydroxide (0.4 gm) and ethanol (5 ml), and the mixture was heated to reflux for 7 hours. The ethanol was removed on a rotary evaporator and the residue was dissolved in water (2 ml). The aqueous solution was acidifed with glacial acetic acid to provide a solid which was recrystallized from 1:1 methanol/ethyl acetate to give R-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid (R- terfenadine carboxylate) (mp=213-215°C) . -30-

4 . 2 . Example 2

Activities of the compounds of the invention at the histamine ^-receptor were assessed using the [3H]pyrilamine binding assay as described in Chang et al., J. Neurochem. 32: 1653-1663 (1979). Briefly, membranes from bovine cerebellum were incubated with [3H]pyrilamine and varying concentrations of test compound. The reactions were carried out in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) at 25° C for 30 minutes. The reaction was terminated by rapid vacuum filtration onto glass fiber filters. Radioactivity trapped on the filters was determined and compared to control values to acertain the interaction of the test compound with the Hj-receptor. Results were as follows:

Compound Percent Inhibition (at various concentrations)

10"9 M 10"7 M 10"5 M

28.7 86.9 19.4 90.3 45.2 87.3

24.4 92.8 54.1 88.7

and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate to give methyl S-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-l- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate. If the aforementioned intermediate precipitate were to be reacted with racemic β-chlorodiisopinocamphenylborane, then a racemic mixture of methyl 4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylme hy1-1- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate would be produced.

D. S-(-)-4-fl-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-l- piperidinyl)butyll-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid FS-(-)- terfenadine carboxylate1.

Methyl S-4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-l- piperidinyl)butyl]-α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetate (1.2 gm) was combined with potassium hydroxide (0.4 gm) and ethanol (5 ml) and the mixture was heated to reflux for 7 hours. The ethanol was removed on a rotary evaporator and the residue was dissolved in water (2 ml). The aqueous solution was acidifed with glacial acetic acid to provide a solid which was recrystallized from 1:1 methanol/ethyl acetate to give S-(-)- 4-[l-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxydiphenylmethyl-1-piperidinyl)butyl]- α,α-dimethylbenzeneacetic acid (S-terfenadine carboxylate) (mp=215-218°C). 4 . 2 . Example 2

Activities of the compounds of the invention at the histamine Hj-receptor were assessed using the [3H]pyrilamine binding assay as described in Chang et al., J. Neurochem. 32: 1653-1663 (1979). Briefly, membranes from bovine cerebellum were incubated with [3H]pyrilamine and varying concentrations of test compound. The reactions were carried out in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) at 25° C for 30 minutes. The reaction was terminated by rapid vacuum filtration onto glass fiber filters. Radioactivity trapped on the filters was determined and compared to control values to acertain the interaction of the test compound with the Hj-receptor. Results were as follows:

Compound Percent Inhibition (at various concentrations)

10"9 M 10"7 M 10"5 M

28.7 86.9 19.4 90.3 45.2 87.3

24.4 92.8 54.1 88.7

4 . 3 . Example 3

Single ventricular myocytes were obtained from isolated cat hearts by conventional techniques. The rod- shaped single cells were maintained in a HEPES buffer and they were "patch clamped" using suction pipettes. A Patch- Clamp L/M-PEC 7 amplifier was used to record current tracings and the recording electrodes were filled with a solution of potassium aspartate. Voltage clamp pulses and data acquisition were controlled by a Sperry PC/IT Computer running P Clamp software. A minimum of 4 cells were studied at each test concentration of the following drugs: racemic terfenadine, racemic terfenadine carboxylate, and quinidine (as a reference compound). Results were as follows:

Cone (μM) Block of the delayed rectifier potassium current (%)

Terfenadine 0.01 12 ± 9.3 0.10 39.5 ± 9.8 1.00 92.6 (92.5; 92.8) Terfenadine 0.01 0 + 0 carboxylate 0.10 0 + 0 1.00 0 + 0

These results show that terfenadine carboxylate, surprisingly, is not liable to cause cardiac arrhythmia, at dose levels at which there is a distinct risk of such a side effect being caused by terfenadine itself. - 34 - CLAIMS

1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I:

wherein Z is COOH, COOCH3 or CH?OH, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a human patient.

2. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 1, wherein the anti-histaminic treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mellitus; cough, cold, cold¬ like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith. 4 .5 . Example 5

Oral Formulation - Tablets :

The active ingredient, which can instead be

(S)terfenadine carboxylate or racemic terfenadine carboxylate, is sieved through a suitable sieve and blended with the lactose until a uniform blend is formed. Suitable volumes of water are added and the powders are granulated. After drying, the granules are then screened and blended with the magnesium stearate. The resulting granules are then compressed into tablets of desired shape. Tablets of other strengths may be prepared by altering the ratio of active ingredient to the excipient(s) or the compression weight.

Claims

1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of formula I:
wherein Z is COOH, COOCH3 or CH?OH, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a human patient.
2. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 1, wherein the anti-histaminic treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mellitus; cough, cold, cold¬ like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith. 3. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 2, wherein the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis.
4. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of the preceding claims, wherein the anti-histaminic treatment comprises the administration of a compound of formula I in an amount of l-500mg/day and, preferably, in an amount of 20- 200mg/day.
5. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 2, wherein the treatment is a method of treating asthma, or retinopathy or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mellitus, and the compound of formula I is administered, in said treatment, in an amount of 0.01- 500mg/day and, preferably, in an amount of 0.01-200mg/day.
6. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of the preceding claims, further comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient.
7. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of the preceding claims, further comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent or a non-narcotic analgesic. - 38-
15. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 13, wherein the compound of formula I comprises 90% or more, by weight, S-stereoisomer.
16. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of the proceeding claims, wherein Z is COOH and the compound of formula I is terfenadine carboxylate.
17. A method of providing an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, to a human patient, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of claims 1-16, to said human patient.
18. A method as claimed in claim 17, wherein the treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mallitus; cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith. hydroxydiphenyl ethyl- 1-piperidinyl ) butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and R- ( + ) -1- [ p- ( 2- hydroxymethylprop- 2-yl )phenyl ] -4- [ 4- (α-hydroxy-α- phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- 1-yl jbutanol and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and the composition is substantially free of the S stereoisomer of the selected compound.
13. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim
11, wherein the compound of formula I is selected from the group consisting of methyl S-(-)-4-[ l-hydroxy-4- ( 4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl ) butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetate, S-(-)-4-[ l-hydroxy-4- ( 4- hydroxydiphenylmethyl- 1-piperidinyl ) butyl ] -α,α- dimethylbenzeneacetic acid, and S- ( - ) -1- [ p- ( 2- hydroxymethyl prop- 2-yl ) phenyl ] -4- (α-hydroxy-α- phenylbenzyl ) piperidin- l-yl]butanol and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and the composition is substantially free of the R stereoisomer of the selected compound .
14. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim
12, wherein the compound of formula I comprises 90% or more, by weight, R-stereoisomer . 15. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in claim 13, wherein the compound of formula I comprises 90% or more, by weight, S-stereoisomer.
16. A pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of the proceeding claims, wherein Z is COOH and the compound of formula I is terfenadine carboxylate.
17. A method of providing an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, to a human patient, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition, as claimed in any of claims 1-16, to said human patient.
18. A method as claimed in claim 17, wherein the treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mallitus; cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith. 19. A method, as claimed in claim 18, wherein the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis.
20. Use of a composition, as claimed in any of claims 1- 16, for the manufacture of a medicament for use in an anti¬ histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a human patient.
21. A use, as claimed in claim 20, wherein the treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mallitus; cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms; or the discomfort, pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith.
22. A use, as claimed in claim 24, wherein the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis. AMENDED CLAIMS
[received by the International Bureau on 16 December 1993 (16.12.93); original claim 22 amended; remaining claims unchanged (1 page)]
19. A method, as claimed in claim 18, wherein the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis.
20. Use of a composition, as claimed in any of claims 1-16, for the manufacture of a medicament for use in an anti-histaminic treatment which does not induce any significant cardiac arrhythmia, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of formula I to a human patient.
21. A use, as claimed in claim 20, wherein the treatment is a method of treating a human afflicted by or susceptible to: an allergic disorder; motion sickness; vertigo; retinopathy, or another small vessel disease associated with diabetes mallitus; cough, cold, cold-like or flu symptoms; or the discomfortr pain, fever or general malaise associated therewith.
22. A use, as claimed in claim 20, wherein the allergic disorder is asthma or allergic rhinitis.
PCT/US1993/007260 1992-08-03 1993-08-03 Terfenadine metabolites and their optically pure isomers for treating allergic disorders WO1994003170A1 (en)

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