WO1994001812A1 - Method for controlling machining units - Google Patents

Method for controlling machining units Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1994001812A1
WO1994001812A1 PCT/SE1993/000617 SE9300617W WO9401812A1 WO 1994001812 A1 WO1994001812 A1 WO 1994001812A1 SE 9300617 W SE9300617 W SE 9300617W WO 9401812 A1 WO9401812 A1 WO 9401812A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
working
control computer
machine
position
homing
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/SE1993/000617
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Carel Jibben
Kurt Jonsson
Original Assignee
Contractor Tools Ab
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0276Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using signals provided by a source external to the vehicle
    • G05D1/028Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using signals provided by a source external to the vehicle using a RF signal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01CCONSTRUCTION OF, OR SURFACES FOR, ROADS, SPORTS GROUNDS, OR THE LIKE; MACHINES OR AUXILIARY TOOLS FOR CONSTRUCTION OR REPAIR
    • E01C19/00Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving
    • E01C19/004Devices for guiding or controlling the machines along a predetermined path
    • E01C19/006Devices for guiding or controlling the machines along a predetermined path by laser or ultrasound
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02FDREDGING; SOIL-SHIFTING
    • E02F3/00Dredgers; Soil-shifting machines
    • E02F3/04Dredgers; Soil-shifting machines mechanically-driven
    • E02F3/76Graders, bulldozers, or the like with scraper plates or ploughshare-like elements; Levelling scarifying devices
    • E02F3/80Component parts
    • E02F3/84Drives or control devices therefor, e.g. hydraulic drive systems
    • E02F3/841Devices for controlling and guiding the whole machine, e.g. by feeler elements and reference lines placed exteriorly of the machine
    • E02F3/842Devices for controlling and guiding the whole machine, e.g. by feeler elements and reference lines placed exteriorly of the machine using electromagnetic, optical or photoelectric beams, e.g. laser beams
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0231Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means
    • G05D1/0238Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means using obstacle or wall sensors
    • G05D1/024Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using optical position detecting means using obstacle or wall sensors in combination with a laser
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D1/00Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot
    • G05D1/02Control of position or course in two dimensions
    • G05D1/021Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles
    • G05D1/0276Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using signals provided by a source external to the vehicle
    • G05D1/0278Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to land vehicles using signals provided by a source external to the vehicle using satellite positioning signals, e.g. GPS
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D2201/00Application
    • G05D2201/02Control of position of land vehicles
    • G05D2201/0202Building or civil engineering machine

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for steering the working units (2) of working machines (1) in a horizontal plane (x, Y) and in an inclined plane. The invention is characterized by storing in a control computer (4) carried by the machine (1) values which determine the position, slope and configuration in space of the target surface (12) to be produced; feeding the control computer (4), via radio link (8), with information from at least one homing total station (3) whose spatial coordinates are known to the control computer (4) relating to the position of a reflector (5) carried by the working machine (1) in relation to the homing total station (3) as the machine (1) works, wherein the position of the reflector (5) in relation to the working unit (2) is determined; and controlling the working position of the working unit (2) in space with the aid of the control computer (4) on the basis of the values stored in the control computer and on the basis of the information supplied by the homing total station (3).

Description

Method for Controlling Machining Units

The present invention relates to a method according to the preamble of Claim 1, for automatically controlling earth or soil working machines so as to facilitate levelling of the ground and increase the efficiency and precision of the machine concerned. Automatic control systems which include a rotary laser beam as a reference plane or datum level for earth or soil working machines which require a reference plane in the form of a flat surface are known to the art. This plane or surface may slope around one or two axes, but may in no way be curved. Reference is made by way of example to Swedish Patent Specification 334,76 and to U.S. Patent Specification 4,677,555 in this regard.

Thus, control systems for machining units of working machines, such as road planers, bulldozers, graders, asphalting machines and like machines are commercially available, said systems enabling the operative or working units to be steered automatically to conform to any geometric shape of the surface to be produced by the machine. This surface - the target surface - may be the surface of a road, an aircraft runway, a foundation site, a plot of ground, etc., to be ma¬ chined.

The surface that is to be machined - the target sur¬ face - is normally not flat, but has a three-dimen- sional shape in space. The inventive method does not restrict the control system to work carried out in solely one plane, i.e. two-dimensional work, but enables the machine to be guided in any desired direc¬ tion and the operative units to be guided in vertical directions without the operator-driver needing to change settings. The operator may have only a guiding or steering function in the horizontal plane, although this function may, of course, be managed by the con¬ trol system. This is possible owing to the fact that the invention is characterized by the characteristic features set forth in the following Claim.

The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to an exemplifying embodiment thereof and also with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 is an overview of the method according to the invention, with the working machine shown from above and from one side for the sake of illustration; Fig. 2 illustrates a surface to be produced; Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of the machine at work; and Fig. 4 is a view of the machine at work, although on a larger scale.

Briefly, the components concerned include a working machine 1, which in the illustrated embodiment is a road planer which carries and drives operative units 2, in the illustrated case a road planing blade. The machine 1 is equipped with a control computer 4 and a reflector 5, whose position in relation to the working unit 2 is known by the control computer 4. The refer¬ ence numeral 6 identifies the operator or driver of the machine, while the reference numeral 7 indicates reference points placed on the target surface.

It will be understood that the working units, in this case the road planing blade 2, is anchored in the machine by means of power sources - either electrical or hydraulic power sources - which move and set the blade so that it will conform to the requirements of the target surface. The target surface can be des¬ cribed in the terms of a three-dimensional model which is stored in a personal computer, either by manually keying-in the values or via a connected CAD system. The machine 1 is also equipped with a control box/- mobile industry computer, and the working units that are to work the area concerned to achieve conformity with the target surface are provided with means which continuously feed to the control box values relating to position (absolute coordinates in three axes), slope (inclination) and direction.

The control box is provided with the following func- tions:

Storage of machine parameters (relative measure¬ ments) . Loading of the relevant values from the 3D model. - Initiating positional calculations.

Storage of parameters that describe the nature of the initial surface, from very irregular to very smooth. Input of desired height differences in relation to the target surface.

Continued positional calculations of the working units in comparison with the target surface. Control signals to the working units. Graphic position indication to the operator.

The three-dimensional model thus describes the surface to be worked and implemented in the PC-program. The values of the surface to be worked can be inserted in different ways:

By manual keying of the values (road axis coordi¬ nates - x, y, z , straight sections, transition curves, curves, the width of road halves, grad¬ ing). - By connecting-up to a CAD system which manages the planning of the target area concerned.

The input values are stored in a database in a coded form. Some of the values stored in the database are transferred to the control box 4 in the machine 1.

This is a one-time procedure effected with the aid of a data cable, modem or like means. The homing or target-seeking total station 3 has the function of an automatic geodimeter which is anchored on a fixed point adjacent the area to be worked. The homing total station 2 continuously tracks the re¬ flector 5 mounted on the machine 1. As before men¬ tioned, the position of the reflector 5 is fixed in relation to the operative units 2 and is known to the control computer 4, which also knows the position of the operative units.

The total station 3 measures the position of the reflector 5 in space (in the terrain) at regular intervals as the machine works. The position is given by the three values - horizontal angle, height angle and distance. These values are sent to the control box 4 in the machine 1, via a radio link 8. The position x, y, z of the operative unit is ascertained in the control box. It will be understood that the position of the operative unit 2 must be calculated immediately and continuously. Furthermore, this positional calcu¬ lation must be absolute, which in turn requires the calculations to commence from a fixed point, namely said total station 3. The position of the reflector 5, and thus also the position of the operative unit 2, is calculated continuously on the basis of this fixed point.

The direction of movement of the machine is calculated by interpolating the present or instantaneous x, y position with preceding positions with the aid of a simple indicator which indicates driving in a forward or backward direction. It can be mentioned in this regard that satellite positioning techniques will probably be developed so as to enable the work of the total station (the geodimeter) to be handled by a GPS, Global Positioning System, and consequently reference to a total station in this document shall also be considered to include a global positioning system within the scope of the present invention. The values relating to the target surface 12 are fed into the control computer 4, as are also the positions of the reference points 7. The homing total station 3 is levelled vertically, but can be given any desired horizontal orientation. The homing total station 3 fixes a bearing on one of the reference points 7 and sends to the control computer 4 in the machine 1, via said radio link 8, the values of horizontal angles, vertical angles and distance of the homing total station 3. The homing total station 3 then fixes a bearing on the next reference point 7 and sends infor¬ mation to the control computer 4 corresponding to the preceding reference point. The operator 6 feeds those reference points 7 that have been fixed into the control computer 4.

The control computer mounted in the machine 1 has the following functions:

- Storage of machine parameters, such as the posi¬ tion of the reflector 5 in relation to the opera¬ tive units 2, the working field of the operative units, and the movement plan of the machine; loading of the measurement values from the target surface 12 in the control computer, these values needing to be loaded only once with each project; initiating positional calculations, i.e. each time the homing total station 3 is moved and placed on another fixed point, it is necessary that the control system - the control computer

4 - is aware of the position and orientation of the homing total station. This is effected by sighting the total station 3 onto a reflector which is located on two or three known measuring points - reference points 7. When the total sta¬ tion 3 fixes a bearing on these points, the con¬ trol system in said machine - the control comput¬ er 4 - shall be informed of the measuring point or measuring points whose bearing/bearings has/have been fixed at that moment, so that the control computer is able to calculate the new position and orientation of the total station 3; also storing in the control computer parameters which describe the nature of the initial starting surface. This parameter is put into use when the operative units 2 shall be steered; input of desired height difference in relation to the target service 12; - continued calculation of position and orientation of the operative unit; target slope, slope of the operative unit, target height of the unit in comparison with the true height of the working unit 2, control of the height changes of the working unit; and includes a graphic terminal on which the position and orientation of the machine can be shown to facil¬ itate handling of the machine 1 by the operator 6.

The control computer 4 has thus established the x, y, z coordinates of the homing station 3 and also the orientation of the station. As the machine 1 works, the homing total station 3 fixes a bearing on the reflector 5 and is instructed to track the reflector 5 as it moves within the target area 12 - Figs. 2 and 3. The control computer 4 is constantly aware of the x, y, z position of the reflector 5 in the target area, via the homing total station 3, and calculates contin- uously and compares continuously the true height of the reflector 5 with the theoretical height of the x and y coordinates of the reflector, because it may be necessary for the working unit 2 to adopt a position which lies at a specific distance above or beneath the target surface during the actual construction work.

The control computer 4 thus controls the working unit 2 vertically, so as to take a given distance above (10-positive) or beneath (11-negative) the target surface 12. The control computer 4 also calculates continuously the slope or inclination 13 of the work¬ ing unit 2, determined by target surface input data.

It will be understood that the machine includes a forward/rearward indicator means and a horizontal angle indicator means. Forward/rearward indications are effected with the aid of a signal coupled to the gearbox of the vehicle. The horizontal angle indicator gives the angle between the working unit 2 and the machine 1. This can form part of an existing system in the machine 1, when the machine is intended for laser control.

The working range of the machine can be increased by using several homing total stations simultaneously, each having its own radio link 8 and being positioned at appropriate sites. The position of each such total station shall, of course, be known to the control computer 4. The precision of the system can also be enhanced by using several homing total stations simul¬ taneously.

Claims

Claim
1. A method for controlling the working units (2) of working machines (1) in a horizontal plane (x, Y) , in a vertical plane (Z) and in an inclined plane, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by storing in a control computer (4) carried by the machine (1) values which determine the position, slope and configuration in space of the target surface (12) to be produced; feeding the control computer (4), via radio link (8), with information from at least one homing or target- seeking total station (3) , whose spatial coordinates are known to the control computer (4), relating to the position of a reflector (5) carried by the working machine (1) in relation to the homing total station (3) as the machine (1) works, the position of the reflector (5) in relation to the working unit (2) being determined; controlling the working position of the working unit (2) in space with the aid of the control computer (4) on the basis of the values stored in the control computer and on the basis of the infor¬ mation supplied by the homing total station (3) .
PCT/SE1993/000617 1992-07-13 1993-07-09 Method for controlling machining units WO1994001812A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE9202160A SE9202160L (en) 1992-07-13 1992-07-13 Device for controlling the operating units in work
SE9202160-9 1992-07-13

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU4594193A AU4594193A (en) 1992-07-13 1993-07-09 Method for controlling machining units

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1994001812A1 true true WO1994001812A1 (en) 1994-01-20

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ID=20386779

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/SE1993/000617 WO1994001812A1 (en) 1992-07-13 1993-07-09 Method for controlling machining units

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO1994001812A1 (en)

Cited By (10)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1995028524A1 (en) * 1994-04-18 1995-10-26 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring and coordination of multiple geography-altering machines on a work site
WO1995034849A1 (en) * 1994-06-13 1995-12-21 Contractor Tools Ab A method and a device for remote controlling of one or more working machines
NL1004450C2 (en) * 1996-11-06 1998-05-08 Maasland Nv Device for working soil.
WO1999028566A1 (en) * 1997-11-28 1999-06-10 Spectra Precision Ab Device and method for determining the position of a working part
EP0997579A3 (en) * 1998-10-27 2002-04-03 Delaware Capital Formation Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
EP1418273A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-05-12 Tso Method of tamping railway tracks
US7399139B2 (en) 1998-10-27 2008-07-15 Somero Enterprises, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
WO2008145157A1 (en) * 2007-05-30 2008-12-04 Trimble Ab Radio network list for vehicle control and real time position data
EP2039971A2 (en) * 2007-09-13 2009-03-25 IFK Gesellschaft m.b.H. Method and device for monitored laying of pipes
WO2010022113A1 (en) * 2008-08-22 2010-02-25 Caterpillar Trimble Control Technologies Llc Three dimensional scanning arrangement including dynamic updating

Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3887012A (en) * 1973-12-03 1975-06-03 Caterpillar Tractor Co Automatic levelling system for earth working blades and the like
US4162708A (en) * 1975-02-03 1979-07-31 Dakota Electron, Inc. Tool carrying vehicle with laser control apparatus
US4374420A (en) * 1979-05-14 1983-02-15 Ballast-Nedam Groep N.V. Method of accurately dredging a desired profile contour
US4677555A (en) * 1983-11-28 1987-06-30 Syndicat National Des Entreprises De Drainage Method and equipment for automatic guidance of earthmoving machines and especially machines for laying drainage elements
DE3812809A1 (en) * 1988-04-16 1989-11-02 Sauer Sundstrand Gmbh & Co Method for controlling the drive, steering and levelling control of vehicles with a surface cutter and arrangement for carrying out the method

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3887012A (en) * 1973-12-03 1975-06-03 Caterpillar Tractor Co Automatic levelling system for earth working blades and the like
US4162708A (en) * 1975-02-03 1979-07-31 Dakota Electron, Inc. Tool carrying vehicle with laser control apparatus
US4374420A (en) * 1979-05-14 1983-02-15 Ballast-Nedam Groep N.V. Method of accurately dredging a desired profile contour
US4677555A (en) * 1983-11-28 1987-06-30 Syndicat National Des Entreprises De Drainage Method and equipment for automatic guidance of earthmoving machines and especially machines for laying drainage elements
DE3812809A1 (en) * 1988-04-16 1989-11-02 Sauer Sundstrand Gmbh & Co Method for controlling the drive, steering and levelling control of vehicles with a surface cutter and arrangement for carrying out the method

Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1995028524A1 (en) * 1994-04-18 1995-10-26 Caterpillar Inc. Method and apparatus for monitoring and coordination of multiple geography-altering machines on a work site
WO1995034849A1 (en) * 1994-06-13 1995-12-21 Contractor Tools Ab A method and a device for remote controlling of one or more working machines
NL1004450C2 (en) * 1996-11-06 1998-05-08 Maasland Nv Device for working soil.
WO1998019514A1 (en) * 1996-11-06 1998-05-14 Maasland N.V. A soil working implement
US6421627B1 (en) 1997-11-28 2002-07-16 Spectra Precision Ab Device and method for determining the position of a working part
WO1999028566A1 (en) * 1997-11-28 1999-06-10 Spectra Precision Ab Device and method for determining the position of a working part
EP0997579A3 (en) * 1998-10-27 2002-04-03 Delaware Capital Formation Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
EP1707673A3 (en) * 1998-10-27 2008-04-23 Somero Enterprises, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
US7399139B2 (en) 1998-10-27 2008-07-15 Somero Enterprises, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
US6929420B2 (en) 1998-10-27 2005-08-16 Delaware Capital Formation, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
EP1707673A2 (en) * 1998-10-27 2006-10-04 Somero Enterprises, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
USRE39834E1 (en) 1998-10-27 2007-09-11 Michigan Technological University Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
US7144191B2 (en) 1998-10-27 2006-12-05 Somero Enterprises, Inc. Apparatus and method for three-dimensional contouring
EP1418273A1 (en) * 2002-11-07 2004-05-12 Tso Method of tamping railway tracks
WO2008145157A1 (en) * 2007-05-30 2008-12-04 Trimble Ab Radio network list for vehicle control and real time position data
US20100103981A1 (en) * 2007-05-30 2010-04-29 Berg Ulf Radio network list for vehicle control and real time position data
US8494561B2 (en) * 2007-05-30 2013-07-23 Trimble Ab Radio network list for vehicle control and real time position data
EP2039971A2 (en) * 2007-09-13 2009-03-25 IFK Gesellschaft m.b.H. Method and device for monitored laying of pipes
EP2039971A3 (en) * 2007-09-13 2011-10-26 IFK Gesellschaft m.b.H. Method and device for monitored laying of pipes
WO2010022113A1 (en) * 2008-08-22 2010-02-25 Caterpillar Trimble Control Technologies Llc Three dimensional scanning arrangement including dynamic updating
US8345926B2 (en) 2008-08-22 2013-01-01 Caterpillar Trimble Control Technologies Llc Three dimensional scanning arrangement including dynamic updating

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