WO1991015256A1 - Exciting current device for very low currents and electrodes with sensor switching - Google Patents

Exciting current device for very low currents and electrodes with sensor switching


Publication number
WO1991015256A1 PCT/DE1991/000285 DE9100285W WO9115256A1 WO 1991015256 A1 WO1991015256 A1 WO 1991015256A1 DE 9100285 W DE9100285 W DE 9100285W WO 9115256 A1 WO9115256 A1 WO 9115256A1
Grant status
Patent type
Prior art keywords
Prior art date
Application number
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Johann Zimmermann
Isabella KÖSTER
Silvia Zimmermann
Original Assignee
Johann Zimmermann
Koester Isabella
Silvia Zimmermann
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    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/18Applying electric currents by contact electrodes
    • A61N1/00Electrotherapy; Circuits therefor
    • A61N1/10Applying static electricity


Exciting current device for very low currents and fields, preferably below one milliampere, and for superimposed currents which have a higher-frequency component preferably of some 30,000 Hz and a proportional d.c. component of preferably below 50 % with a maximum voltage of some 100 V, which, together with the derivation electrodes and the envelope curve of the higher-frequency current which can be controlled by hand by touching the sensor electrode, can be controlled in oscillation period and amplitude (with a potentiometer set to the gas field effect transistor of the invention). This also applies to the plaster electrode of the invention which preferably has its own power supply and control - facilitated by the control of the invention and the components of the invention used therein - and, with its pharmaceutical agent(s) stored in the electrode material, makes possible a medically prescribed iontophoresis to insert active agents into the skin of a human being or animal in uniform and repeatable doses, duration, nature of the active material and its penetration.


Description ~

Reizstromαeräc for fine streams and electrodes with sensor circuit

Technical Field:

The invention relates to an electrical stimulation device for fine streams and fine fields with sensor circuit that allows fine flows, preferably under a milliamp current, Elektrofeider preferably under one ampere flux strength and applicated potentials of vorzugswei¬ se voltages less than 24 volts, preferably by varying the Impulstär- ke and length by influencing of non-contact or touching sensor electrodes according to the principle in electrotherapeutic books by Dr. med.RAMayer- Furtwangen wur¬ written before 1928., weak, short, often at the site of physical disorder that apply to preferentially with the DC component of the applied current, a galvanization of the human or animal body tissue, further if necessary, a iontophoresis at, for example the targeted and of pain zensfreien incorporating a drug in the organism possible to er¬. Also, with this device a, modern in the sense of irritation strcmtherapie, a so-called high-voltage stimulation in ultrashort Im¬ pulses of about 30 microseconds duration and at a peak voltage of up to about 100 volts with a maximum current strength up to about one milliamp ,. possible.

Further, it is dung by the impetus by the user, urch actuation of the sensor electrodes of the device, möglich.im meaning of Reizstromanwen¬, medium-frequency currents (here currents having a frequency are meant over a kilohertz) to apply curve as alternating currents of low frequency Hüll¬.

This is one way to reduce the sensory load on the skin in the therapeutic current density at the same time increasing depth, (see brochure of Robert Bosch GmbH, Medical, D-1000 Berlin 33, called MC2 WFJB 8699992

(0395) F).

The electrodes used are novel in some cases, such Bei¬ the syringe electrode patch electrode comb electrode Abb.5- play on the container (100) for drugs in the iontophoresis thought the magnetic electrode aerosol electrode for iontophoresis and the tightening clothes electrode preferably for applying potentials to the body is used. State of the art:

Devices for Reizstrcmtherapie in large numbers worldwide are offered at reasonable un¬ terschiedlichen structures from a variety of manufacturers, including such important companies like Robert Bosch QnbH, the Ge neral Elektric Company. Siemens AG and a variety of Spezial¬ company belong to Frei¬ castle the company Carle, Berthold and Sutter for example. Worldwide there probably about 100 manufacturers of such Gerät¬ s giving rising rapidly, which makes its number and its turnover loading; it must be stated that the interest of physicians increasingly to Reizstrcmtherapie turns after this Teil¬ area of ​​Physical Therapy despite its long history, that is, until our era traceable, has been neglected in favor of pharmacy from about 1930th That the Reizstrcmtherapie gaining importance again is due to the fact that today a variety of electronic Schaltelemen¬ th as Diodes &. are transistors available with which the Strö¬ me and regulated Current forms for the various therapies safely wer¬ to. Amazingly in the development, however, is that the fine streams rich paid in Be¬ to one milliampere little attention. In the electrical galvanic Medicine of Wohlmuth A.-G. 1928 maximum currents between o.5 and 1.5 milliamps at 15 min application are specified period even at as diseases of the human brain.

Here, the Wohlmuthsche apparatus described in this medical work is constructed such that einelektrogalvanischer of dry cells weak current is generated and a commutator. a Rheostat¬ s (flow regulator) is supplied to the electrodes, a very fei ne current gradation between 0 and 6 milliamps is possible, however, i ranges from 0 to 1 milliamp adjustable only about. but that the lower range (0 to 1 milliamp) electric power to this equipment can be set only about is disadvantageous, since this area is an important therapeutic area by the authors of this work dizinischen me.

With modern equipment, namely, currents upgraded from 0.1 Milli¬ amps on the display is set to be, but shows the range specification for the patient current of, for example, 0 to 70 milliamps, that even with these devices, the use of high currents to thickness of about 1 milliamp for the design of these devices was not decisive, not least zumin¬ prevalent. The various current types and strengths are noted einge¬ by for example pressing dialing keys to such devices prior to therapy and can not be adjusted without the therapist performs a Neueietellung to such devices währenäjder therapy. But such an inflexible current setting should often do not correspond with the arrival turn to an organism the biological processes and the rule Wanting ¬ of the patient so much better than one can be fixed, control the stimulation current pro¬ grammed circuit.

Such vornehmbare the patient control of the exciting current to pulse train of pulse and current is giving overall, none of these devices; probably not advisable because strengthen at the rather high Stom- that come with such devices are used, or can be set, there is a danger of a shock effect in Pati¬ ducks. Regrettably, however, the possibilities of the weak are thus current therapy did not use it because there are no devices for on the market at the moment.

This is unfortunately also requires that the electrotherapy has not yet reached the area of ​​application, as was the case 60 years ago. he did a little reading in these medical works of that time like settings available this because of the wealth of the described therein Behand¬ and the described rapid success "also, for example in the treatment of hair loss, go to Ermattungser¬ phenomena by severe physical or mental efforts, even in pain relief and healing of wounds as well as tumors, bedauern.Auch a wealth of electrotherapeutic treatment options for Rheu¬ maerkrankungen is specified in these medical works. but this knowledge can largely does not use ge be because the required, for example to Selbsbehandlung device is no longer together are mixed with the electrodes for Ver¬ addition. Here the invention shown to provide a remedy. Next the invention is flows with the new Reizstrcmgerät for Fein¬, together with the associated electrode with sensor circuit erst¬ Malig possible with vergleichsbaren devices that stimulation currents with a current of 1 milliamp and completely harmless, fine stufbar- off to about a still visible and palpable current of less than 0.1 milliamps - by the patient and / or therapist steuer¬ bar, can be applied and this also means a very cost sensor circuit for dissipating electrodes and ein¬ he new very cheap DiσmerSchaltung using a newly - if new gas field effect transistor, which was wrapped ent for this device, so the cost of the device at a fraction of the Ko¬ an application of electrotherapy most comparable devices to lower and prices by the low Kauf¬ even in the home, allowing> as needed. In addition, it will be the first time possible for this device to achieve due to the electronic circuit used in this case new type a previously unknown in such devices high efficiency in power conversion, the dimming of the current and the sensor circuit of the electrodes. With a battery ..- set of batteries 6, for example, a medium-Kapazi¬ ty of 6 ampere-hours (Ah) and a rated voltage of 9 volts, the device is suitable for delivery of a therapeutic purposes, especially for current at maximum load, about 300 hours operable be such that a replacement or recharging the batteries' over the years is likely ER- other.

This is possible because a return to the ancient principle: "WEAK, Kürz, OFTEN IN THE PLACE OF PHYSICAL FAILURE" during the development of this device at the beginning. Similar devices are not in the market, like a search revealed. ". Tab circuit, power engineering" comparable dimming see, Frankfurter Fachverlag, Haeberle, Gregory D. ISBN: 3-87234-083-2, and 3- 88173-037-0, page 176 and 178 and in the same table, page 179 for sensors , but the circuits shown therein require a very significant higher costs of electronic components and are to be operated only in part to-sam s with a base load, with correspondingly low efficiency and high power consumption.

It is also clearly in mind the technological edge of the presented retrospectively erfindugsgemäßen novel electrical stimulation device to detect. Summary of the Invention:

In view of the current state of the art, the invention aims at simplification and cost reduction of the circuit of an electrical stimulation device, or its embodiments, with simultaneous use neuartigerElektrode / s erfindungsgemäß- and gas field-effect transistor / s. Furthermore, the current shaping of the applied stimulating current Inventions ge AESS by the I pulsing, -by-den. user / patient ^ is. And / or R-ühera- apist by, for example, touching a sensor electrode, or in another embodiment by approximating the body field of the patient and / or therapist to the electrodes of a gas discharge lamp.'Neuartiger¬ be achieved.

In further embodiments of the electrical stimulation device, it is fold increase by the Verein¬ and thereby downsizing of the circuit is now according to the invention possible to place the control to a drug container that is not greater with the control part and its Strcmversorgung as ver¬ parable cosmetics packages for, for example, shower gel ( fig. 6) or even to accommodate to pavement, according to the invention the active ingredient already included, which is inserted through the sensor electrode of a touch sensor or Feldnäherungs- to be controlled iontophoresis into the skin of the user / patient and such intensive as required and indicated by the doctor without that pharmaceutical reinforcing agents, the yes strain on the body, are still necessary in order to obtain an optimal effect of the active compounds (Fig.9). With the sensor electrodes, or a sensor electrode on the syringe according to the invention novel electrode / the novel Spritzen¬ electrodes (Fig.7 and Fig. 8) of the doctor od.er also controls the patient at a weggebauten from the device or the syringe and associated contact / field proximity electrode / s during the operation of the syringe-Ein¬ the electrode / s stand in for example the hip joint capsule of-the flow of ions in the iontophoresis itself.

This results in a variety of new treatment options insbeson particular in joint arthroses, in which the degradation of articular cartilage ge stops or the same, the construction is to be initiated, characterized in that the articular cartilage is fed enhanced by iontophoresis. The administration of the syringe with optionally active substance and the Steu¬ augmentation of the ion flux is necessary only for about 3 minutes, ver¬ thereafter iontophoresis runs over a multiple thereof puncture time selbst¬ further worked, that is, the cannula of the syringe electrode remains only about 3 minutes in the tissue of the patient.

Because of the low current strength of the exciting current in which the present invention novel device (Fig.2 and Fig.3) and the only DC current proportional to the higher frequency other current share a chemical burn of the tissue surrounding the cannula is not to be feared. Moreover, it is very low in the corresponding iontophoresis by the heat generated by the Iπpulsgebung by the patient and / or doctor low-frequency envelope of the higher frequency current, the biological characteristics of the patient, achieves a particularly great depth.

Such a device is inventively novel and makes new Thera¬ pien to.

The high frequency current has about a vibration number of 30000 heart, the low-frequency current as an envelope for the higher-frequency current, has according to the setting of the switched with the sensor contact electrode in series potentiometer an approximately between 1.5 times and 10 times, preferably selected, larger amplitude than the one supplied basic value on the potentiometer ^, of the superimposed by a DC component of higher frequency stream before touching the sensor electrode (1) relationship facing (l 1) or the approaching of a field - for example of the body panel of the patient / Arztes- the electrode of the gas discharge lamp (for example, a glow la pe) (1: 9) in Fig. 3, due to biological factors, an oscillation number from among a heart and about 10 Hz, for example, if me two fingers "staccato" at the sensor contact electrode "getrom- melt" is by the index and middle finger of one hand be moved up to un-turn. be achieved with the simultaneous use, for example, of two sensor electrodes by contact patien and / or Arzt.kann a vibration frequency above 10 Hertz, but this would then be curved on the biologically and therapeutically desirable frequencies for the envelope.

conditionally at the applied high-voltage stimulation in to about 100 volt and maximum currents of 1 milliampere, in the above-described ultra¬ short Einzelimpulsen- by the "hack comminuted" the electrical stimulation device for the direct current of preferably 9 volts at the input for encryption addition standing stream of dry batteries, preferably, the frequency generator used (parts vozugsweise as astable circuit with a transistor and a capacitor as Elko and the corresponding ander¬ en commonly used for such circuits electronic components) -can therapeutically valuable effect possibilities for good ver¬ träglich the patients are and sensors are below the response of the skin to be applied for the first time a device in this price range, because th through the use of new Schaltelemen- invention, such as the gas field effect transistor and the Feldnäher- ungs-touch switch, but by simplified new like Schalt¬ Ungen how the new Di inventive merschaltung discharge lamp for gas / s and the new sensor circuit / s invention of the touch sensor electrode / s and Feldnäherungssensorelektrod.e / s.

These improvements in circuit simplification and for ver¬ used circuit components, making the construction of a fuel tank to a Wirk¬ mountable electrical stimulation device (according to Fig.6), in small Bau¬ with foldout comb electrode (4 '') r-mounted control (45) of the aerosol electrode (4 "" "), integrated Stromversorgung¬ sufficient for the charging of the atomized drug content and Ein¬ iontophoresis circuit in the skin surface after application of the active stoffes-, application of galvanization and the stimulation after the high-voltage method possible. the control of the Reizstromεs occurs, as in the previously presented embodiment by means of a sensor contact electrode (l) and the Steuer¬ ung the ion flow in the gas discharge lamp (9) by influencing the channel resistance of the gas passage between the electrodes in this device type, preferably a light emitting diode of conventional design (low - Current-Ausf EADERSHIP) arranged in series with the frequency generator, the formator Trans¬, the electrode (4) - resistive layer on the active substance container

- the human or animal body, a variable resistor of preferably about 400 kilohms reaching and of fixed resistors having about 2000 ohms together and a second electrode (4) having approximately 900 ohm on the top surface of the patch to the active ingredient container electrical stimulation device

- is probably often switched the user erscheinend- as a cap of the drug container. The Elektrcdenwiderstand (4) of section 100 is about 6oo Ohm between the resistors (13) and (14) is the Sensorberührungselek¬ trode in series with a preferably adjustable resistance of up to about 400 kilohms, preferably in addition a bipolar Trockenkonden¬ sator with about 1 microfarad, the human or animal body and the said contact sensor electrode, which for example, has a resistance of 600 ohms., switched. The electrode (4) by the retention of the active ingredient container and touching the human or animal skin (here the Thera¬ must peut touching the animal and hold the container (100)) to the Kamm¬ electrode (4 "") or electrode ( 4) on the upper side of the "cap" of the drug container (20) carrying a resistance layer of about 900 ohms, or via an aerosol layer which was about 2 kilohms Wider¬ at low training and about 1 kilo-ohms at high Ausbil¬ dung-full open nozzle aperture and a dense fog cloud of drug and preferably in the conductivity modified water by rotating the actuating wheel (45) causes (principle of Na¬ deldüse) - has.

From the battery (6), a current flows to a frequency generator (7), which feeds a transformer (8), from which a gas discharge lamp, preferably a low-current- light emitting diode is supplied with 05 millimeters. The series-connected potentiometer (5) permits a Grundein¬ position of the exciting current. In this embodiment is preferably applied to the installation of a field effect transistor (10) as prepared in Abb.l darge omitted. Next will be omitted on the polarity reversal switch (12) according to Fig. 1, preferably in this embodiment. Between the Widerstän¬ (13) and (14) 1, a resistor as shown in Fig. Fitted be¬ written above, and may additionally contain a capacitor (MKH) with its connected in series. The touch electrode (l) of the guide Aus¬ shown (Fig. 6) and the block diagram (Abb.l) consists of a resistive layer, preferably to the drug container (100) is glued.

By applying a voltage / a field or a current flow to the touch sensor electrode (1), the gas passage in the gas discharge lamp (here, preferably a light emitting diode) or more less-ionized depending on Polung-. Since the gas discharge lamp acts rectifying and stabilizing effect on the ion flux, the voltage / field or the current flow is as long as applied / acts, the ion flux / current flow corresponding to the applied voltage / ange¬ laid field, respectively of acting current at the Sensor¬ touch electrode ( 1) which is seen afterwards as gate and be¬ distinguished, very stable fixed in a repeatable manner. It is as in the known field effect transistors in Festkör edifying, a channel change causes. In retrospect, this erfind- ungsgemäße novel component is referred to as gas field effect transistor, and as such connected to the terminals S (source), designated D (drain) and G (gate).

As an advantage over the known field effect transistors of this transistor has rectifying characteristics and is not sensitive to external interference in unincorporated state without any special precautions for this über¬ all. The known field-effect transistors da¬ against sensitive and must be provided with short-circuit rings that must be days away after Mon¬, so immediate destruction disturb them at the action of such, even weak fields, such as through they caused touching people avoid.

Furthermore, the new gas field effect transistor according to the invention has the advantage over the known field effect transistors that he displays his power-and thus saves a special display on the vorge presented Nervstimulator (fig.6) and beyond throttled by the Ver¬ change its light intensity in indicating state, the intensity of ionization of the gas passage. In the described irritation (Fig. 6) strcmgerät can to a particular display device (milli-ampere meter) can be omitted, since the display by changing the light intensity of the gas field effect transistor at the low an¬ flipped current intensities (up to 1 milliamp) as Indikations¬ display preferably is sufficient. Equipment for medical treatmen - payments may be provided with analogue or digital indicating measuring instruments.

It may be of interest for many applications to use the Veränder¬ clothes the light intensity at the gas field effect transistor via a opto¬ electronic circuit for controlling or limiting the correspondingly changing ion flux / current flow in the gas field effect transistor ■ even with other than electrical stimulation devices.

Since the direct current (preferably 30%) t the higher-frequency current component that is required for operating the gas field effect transistor but (dimmer circuit with simple sensor contact electrode) is superimposed, wherein the electrical stimulation device according to Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Fig.3 , figures 4 and 5 and figures 6, Fig.7 and Fig.8 Inventions according to the scope of the electrical stimulation device or its execution types of advantage, but makes bei.'anderen applications optionally a filter out certain current components necessary. Of interest here is that, although only the Gleichstrαmanteil in the gas-field-effect transistor and here the same in the gas channel by the applied, the applied voltage / the current is controlled the same at the gate of field /, at the drain, however, because here to the higher-frequency current of the DC - is superimposed an analogous change in the higher-frequency current is analogous to the change in the channel current detected simply the - half because at the source, from the transformer, which is preferably constructed as a field transformer Streu¬; a current is removed, the linear affects the total current directly removed. One can explain this behavior of the new gas field effect Transistores as if a controller would control a power unit linear. This behavior may result in addition to the other described properties of the new gas field effect transistor according to the invention to a width application devices in other fields than the physical stimulation current.

A further embodiment of the electrical stimulation device according to Fig. 2, Fig.3 u.Abb.6 is suitable for connecting the fine-magnetic electrode (4 "") according to Fig.4 and the clothes electrode (4 " ') according to Fig.5, but also for connecting the potential electrode (4 1) and (4 ") according to Fig. 4 and the patch electrode (4" "" ') according to Fig.9, when a terminal see vorge (16) to these electrodes.

In the syringe electrodes (200) of Fig.7 and Fig.8 is the preferred wise the case that a connection (16) equipment for above listed Reizstrom¬ is provided. The electrical stimulation device according to Fig.6 is particularly suitable for the clothes electrode is preferably made of silk fabric with woven-in resistance paths and such a sari or Doti (in¬ sized clothes) is supported when it is in a further embodiment a connection (16) at the stimulation equipment part (20) and then still has a retaining clip it, which is mounted in the clothes electrode, and can erlaubt.Dabei as a permissive of the user / patient's agitation at diiser embodiment of the drug container movement by a Verdrehbe- thereof can be decreased compared to the stimulation current device part; characterized the electrical stimulation device is small and light, and now allows the wearing deaelben in, for example, a clothes pocket.

For the plaster electrode (4 ' "" ") according to Fig.9 preferably an appropriate application / use is considered.

The patch electrode consists of preferably natural rubber, added with beeswax, larch Balsam and 8% aqueous solution of basic Aluminiumazetat (aluminum acetate), with introduced into the cathode and depending on the drug and / or after Fig.9 in the anode active substance, which is by subtracting a cover layer for the Ionthophorese to 5 available; the edge of the Pflasterrs used with the likewise frei¬ down adhesive layer for attaching to the skin of the human or animal body.

A further embodiment of such a patch electrode (4, I "") according to Fig.9, the in different sizes - for example, 50 mm X 100mm to 10100mm X 250 mm - is supplied and depending on the physical disorder treated with the corresponding / den corresponding composition of active ingredient / s and provided by Zu¬ quantity and assigns ver¬ by the doctor on the application, according to the invention for the first time an accurate dosing of the / Wir¬ the substance / active ingredients in the iontophoresis possible. 15 with a battery capacity corresponding to the time of exposure can be further limited. From the experience value of 0.05 milliamps per square centimeter of effective electrode area and an application time of 3X3 = 9 minutes, a capacity of about 25 milli-mpere-hour results, for example at an effective electrode area (calculated with upstream 20zugsweise the cathode) of 250 square centimeters, at gleich¬ while power supply of a frequency generator, preferably a miniature transformer, a Gasentladungslampe- a light emitting diode nied¬ membered power consumption - and the sensor contact electrode for controlling the exciting current, which is directly attached to the patch electrode (1) 5 to Fig.9 or her via a control line (15) is connected in a further embodiment.

A further embodiment contributes to control of the exciting current, a Feld¬ approximately electrode erfindungsmgemäßer alternative design, the way bequemer¬ is actuated through clothing. 0 A patch electrode having built-in battery and circuit parts as described, represents a safe and cost moderately acceptable solution of the up to now not been dissolved in conventional dosage problems during iontophoresis. According to the invention for the first time by the Ver¬ application of low cost, according to the invention novel components and 5 circuits as already depicted a repeatable application to active compound / s, the quantity of active ingredients and exposure time in the lonto¬ electrophoresis possible, which the application is likely to give the same a strong boost, but is for example a suitable therefor button cell (alkaline battery) with 1 , 5 volt and 25 milliampere-hour capacity at a height of 2.1 millimeters and a diameter of 11.8 Milli¬ meter at a price of only 0.95 DM available on the market; the an¬ the necessary components can be bought very inexpensively on the market as well, so that reuse of parts as vorzugs¬ need not be taken into account what the Anwenderfreunlich- resistance and the application uniformity is very accommodating. The patch electrodes used only once are likely to pose a problem not Umwelt¬ because they preferably consist of easily decomposable material.

It is anticipated that this type of application of iontophoresis is found in, for example, rheumatism soon a large spread. This application of the invention will probably be one of the best ways to Aus¬ implementing the invention.

Industrial Applicability:

The utility model uu-c αer roll number G 90 03 913.0

Main class A61N 1/36 A61N 1/08 coset additional information: // A61N 1/04

Filing registration date 04/04/90 10/11/90 11/22/90 notice in the Patent Gazette name of the object:

Reizstrcmgerät touch electrode / -en to the St. rtsteuerung / potential control name and address of the owner

explains Ziπmermann, Silvia, 7981 Schlier, DE LBE interest in licensing obligation, shows a Reizstrcmgerät that is fully functional and mature tion in the Produk¬ has already developed quite far.

Even in trials, it has been tested extensively for more than 1 year. The Technical Control Board, it will be handed over shortly for approval.

More than one year test period of time, the device has he mentioned in the preceding text novel components and circuits of the invention, a consistent performance without failure showed. Description of the Drawings:

Show it

Journal 1/6, Abb.l the circuit of the electrical stimulation device with the therein an¬ shown component of the field effect transistor (9), its gate G, respectively (1), (1 ') and connected in series with resistors (13), ( 15) and which also acts as a resistance at the connection capacitor (15 ') .- further, the source S and its drain D. Furthermore, the current source (6), the on and off switch (17), the frequency generator (7), the transformer (8), the reversing switch (12), the potentiometer (5), the series resistor (14) and the dissipating electrodes

are (4), which are with the patient / user in contact with and from Widersta ^ rubber (preferably Black Rubber) made and with mobile lines (so¬ said cords) over a plug connection (16), not shown here, connected to the electrical stimulation device , Journal 2/6, Fig.2 and Fig. 3 show Stimulation equipment in "desk model", which have the components according to Journal of 1/6. Fig.3 represents a version with a rechargeable battery pack and a battery charger.

Further, these Fig.3 shows a field proximity electrode via the line together with the sensor contact electrode (1 ') (15) connected to the plug-in connection device (16). The mechanical fuse with the lid (18) for covering the Umpolschalters (12) and the mains connection socket (23) in the housing (20) is also shown. Sheet3 / 6, Fig.4 and Fig. 5 show the application of the devices and in Fig.4 shows the schematic structure of Magnetfeinfeldelek- trode (4 "" ') is shown and their application.

Journal 4/6, fig.4 / 6, the hand electrode with aerosol, which is ionized by the device and the active substance container (100) together with the nozzle and the nozzle adjustment by means of a in the upper part (20) mounted adjusting wheel, the said nozzle (left turn in plan view) closes more and for clockwise rotation while leaving the setting of the nozzle orifice, the device turns on (17) and

Next, turn the power regulated (5). Next the folded comb electrode (4 "") ge is shown. Also, the circuit according to claim 1 and the environmentally polable Doppelsteckdose- is provided with two series lie end contact rings (not shown) as a connection for dissipating electrodes in ein¬ pushed position (4) and pulled out (in phantom) and the code for the pole-changing switch (12) provided, is shown.

Sheet 5/6, Fig. 7 and Fig.8 The syringe electrodes serving for iontophoresis of tissue that can be reached through the skin of a human or animal not by applying the electrodes (4). With (201), the cannula is designated with 200, the

Syringe barrel 199 198 refers to the piston, the piston rod 16 with the lines are referred to a stimulus current apparatus according to claim. 1 5, the potentiometer 9, and the gas discharge lamp. 1 with the sensor contact electrode is indicated, which is connected via the line with the Reizstrcmgerät. Journal 6/6, Fig.9: patch electrode to the circuit according to Abb.l, jedoc without potentiometer (5) and pole-changing switch (12). The dissipating electrodes are here with 4 "" " 'be¬ distinguished because they have pockets / perforations for receiving the active ingredient, as such, they are like Be¬ container at the stimulation current devices designated 100. With 302 is the covering textile cover over the electrode material. as a core layer covered by peelable Fo .lie with the Description of product 302 and 300 in the tear-out on the left at the top. the pair of contacts which is separated by a plastic film in yet benütztem state is provided only with the label (17) but not shown . Contrary to otherwise selected in the drawings, illustrations of views is selected here and explained by a cone on the journal of the so-called American representation.








1.Reizstrcmgerät for fine streams and electrodes with Sensorschaltunα for fine streams and fine fields, preferably less than one milliampere current and for superimposed streams, some of a higher frequency An¬, preferably 30000 heart and a DC component of preferably less than 50% have a part with a voltage of each vor¬ preferably to about 100 volts, wherein the voltage of the DC current is generally limited to 24 volts when galvanization is applied as therapy, and by the user in such a way in the current intensity of the urinary electrodes and in the current waveform at any time during the therapy can be controlled / of use to the wishes concerning the intensity of compatibility of the exciting current, the duration of application of the Sichwohlfühlens in the treatment, by vor¬ preferably the treated immediately and without any adverse effect on it, and without the necessity of the inquiry at, for example, the therapist nachk to ommen, characterized in that the
Reizstrcmgerät and associated donor electrode / abgeb¬ electrode by the present invention novel components and Schalt¬ Ungen preferably by their interaction in accordance with the invention neu¬-like embodiments of this electrical stimulation device, which inihrer exemplary / s, the operating r form / forms presents itself / pose as new by the variety of possible application / s, insbesond¬ ere in the field of electrical stimulation therapy and cosmetics. The patch electrode of the current control due to their integrated Reiz¬ and the possibility they touch electrode with a wegebautεn sensor (1 '), the position depending on the length requirements of the application of the patch for iontophoresis / galvanization on the skin of the human or connected animal body for location of the control with that of the surface of the patch (302) as required detachable Leit¬ ung (16) "makes it possible according to the invention, that now the values ​​for the dosage of an active ingredient, the current values ​​and exposure time in the iontophoresis , the polarity are adhered to in a repeatable way can what the iontophoresis for Ein¬ brin supply is expected to give a big boost of drugs pharmacy as bring under Itogehung the gastrointestinal DarmtraktesWirkstoff directly on the site to be treated in the skin or at least near same, without burdening the entire organism -er¬ inventively you rch the novel Reizstrcmgerät is possible now, what has been so according to predetermined values ​​not possible because the Ein¬ directions were missing it. In contrast now the doctor can arrange ver¬ with a battery of a given capacity a particular Band Aid, ensuring that its formulation can be maintained, and this with a low-cost paving which inventive just been through the er¬ novel components and their interaction with proven components, preferably very cheap film resistors, in erfind¬ ungsgemäßen novel circuits were made possible by the use of höher¬ frequency currents.
Higher-frequency currents but compels be¬ for effective stimulation current therapies. There were sorschaltung, made the same for its control, by this circumstance specific use in the development of all these inventive novel versions of the electrical stimulation device with electrodes and with Sen¬.
In the patch electrode (fig.9) a direct current flows with 1.5 volt nominal voltage of the battery (6) to the frequency generator (7) "after the present invention a pair of contacts (17) after detachment of the top layer (301) and so when pulling a strip of insulation between the contacts is closed (17). From the frequency generator (8), the higher-frequency current now (preferably about 30000 heart) to a gas discharge lamp (9), which by this frequency caused without further circuit parts which otherwise at longer gas discharge paths, as (in the inventive Nervstimulator larger construction Fig.2 , Figure 3) would otherwise be a vorgebaut he is also dispensable what the cost price influenced gün¬ stig "delivers.
As the gas discharge lamp a very inexpensive low-cost light-emitting diode preferably 03 millimeters is used, the similar values ​​as a likewise be used in low-current light-emitting diode or a Quecksil¬ via gas discharge lamp having a length of about 150 millimeter and a 0 of about 20 millimeters is in the electrical stimulation device (Figure 2, Figure 3) Ver¬ application. This is explained by the fact that compared well to the measured only by tenths of a millimeter electrode spacing in the Leucht¬ the size difference of the gas atoms or Gasmole¬ cules even with such a small gas discharge lamps diode very significant in Verg¬ is facilitated. This was submitted to the invention into account and da¬ up especially designed miniaturization of the electrical stimulation device. Such use of light-emitting diodes can now be according to the invention the application of the same set as part of a gas field effect transistor with the source connected to the transformer (8) and ( "" 4 "") (connected to the drain with the dissipating electrodes (4) and in the patch electrode through resistors 13) and (14) connected in series.
The gate thereof is connected in series with the resistor (15) tor the Kondensa¬ (15 ') - metal layer capacitor preferably having about 1 microfarad and the sensor contact electrode (1'). A potentiometer as with other types of electrical stimulation device is in Pflasterelek¬ not trode necessary not at all desirable to Grund¬ but the attitude of the current changed by the user of the patch werd¬ s can not to gefährdten therapeutic success. That the user but with the help of the sensor contact electrode (1 ') the flow of current to a predetermined multiple of the basic current value by applying his body field / body voltage / body current beziehungs¬ as deriving the gate of the now in the following gas field effect transistor novel component of the invention referred to is favorable for the therapy, because a fixed value is reached when touching (for example, 0.3 milliamperes) and after releasing the sensor contact electrode of the current returns abruptly to, for example, 0.1 milliamperes, the An¬ pancake can thus immediately duce the current re¬ at emotional to high stress. This is with this invention novel dimmer circuit erst¬ Malig become possible with the use of preferably Schicht¬ resistors and a preferably sensor electrode resistance gu mi (Black Rubber) with high series resistance at low cost on the market mass parts. In a further embodiment, for example for Piasterelektroden for long-term use in, for example, clinics r such an electrode / electrode pair with plug connections for the Strcmzuführung Reizstrcmgerät from a larger structure and thus a larger Batterie¬ capacity can be provided. The patch electrode is according to the invention from a mixture of preferably natural rubber, beeswax, larch needle balm, aqueous solution (about 8 -% - ig) basic Aluminiumazetats and Er¬ submission of about 900 ohms, contains flour from preferably animal hides as an additive [n this material mounts (100) are worked: in which / die / e are the active ingredient. Top and bottom of Pflast¬ ers are provided with covering layers (302) and (301), wherein (302) analogous to the other electrical stimulation devices, a conductive resistance layer (1) carries, which occupies a portion of the intermediate layer covering fabric (302). Next transmits (302) in about Mäandermusterdie line (16) for (1 easy "unwound" glued / welded / vulcanized. The cover (301), which preferably consists of an approximately o.2 mm thick polyethylene film (PE), is prior to use deducted of the patch. the interlayer material, addressed to the electrodes (4 < '' '') is a skin-friendly adhesive layer is self-adhesive on the Widerstands¬ material as well as to the user's skin and is easily removed with soap, since alcohol in any case the larger stimulation equipment according to the invention must be avoided in de iontophoresis. have substantially the same circuit configuration, with the additional use of a / multi of exemplary potentiometer (5) ~ in series with the / the urinary electric to / electrode, the resistors (13) , (14) and a pole-changing switch (12) are connected / ist.Weiter these embodiments preferably have a potentiometer for adjusting the multip likationsfaktors, the Ström ER according to the invention in the application of a field, or a voltage with a current flow to the gate of gas Feldefekttransistors for the drain thereby effectively wird.Erfindungsgemäß also the proportion of the higher-frequency current in its current level to the same extent - with the same gain multiplied-although only the direct current component - flowing in the gas field effect transistor because of the gleichrich¬ Tenden property of the gas discharge path, DC via the field / controlled a by altering stable the voltage / the current at the gate.U is n, according to the invention very sensitive, indicated by the Leuchtintensitätsänder- ung the gas field effect transistor, thereby preferably omitted in addition to at the Aus¬ guides of the electrical stimulation device for analogue or digital indicating measuring instruments, which further Kost¬ eneinsparung and simplification of the apparatus circuit result has (Abb.l). The electrical stimulation device, possibly in a version with a larger Batteriekapazi ¬ ty than the patch electrode, here the remarks as a tabletop unit (Figure 2 and Figure 3) and also the one Haβ <jgerätes fog electrode with active ingredient (4 "" ") and agent container (100) (Fig.6), in addition to the similar circuit, and the use of preferably DC-like / similar components, such as the gas field effect transistor and the dimmer circuit (Abb.l, Fig.6 -in part (20); and the components used for this purpose (15), (15 '), (1) and, optionally, (l') gerätweggebauten at a vo stimulation current and but verbundenenen sensor touch electrode / s * have the inventive features as the patch electrode in the main, in addition, can cables to them and electrodes Steuer¬ as the clothes electrode (4 " '), the potential electrode (4 1) and (4"), which Galvanoelektrode / General electrode / s (4) together with the inventive novel fine magnetic are electrode (4 '' ') joined ange¬ which is constructed very simply, by wire to a Eisen¬ preferably having from about 3 mm diameter is preferably about 1000 turns of a copper wire is wound with approximately 00.1 millimeters and with the potentiometer (. 5 ) of the (from terminal 16) of the electrical stimulation device via a potentiometer £ Ü) is preferably a field effect transistor (10) is fed as a current limiter (Fig.4) is connected in parallel to the lines of the urinary electrodes (4) in series. The ends of the iron wire to be bent according to easily set the to behandelden structure-borne and transmitted with their ends ei¬ nen verhälnismäßig dense Magnetlinienfluß to body tissue, via the sensor contacting electrode (1) its intensity and frequency according to the present invention the user according to his feeling that is mediated by the analog-controlled electrodes (4), indicated. Despite the low for this expended electrical power to Er¬ the fine magnetic field production (less than 0.1 watts), in this therapy beneficial effects on the human and animal body fest¬ made because it is in the magnetic field, according to the manually controlled Sensorbεrührungselektrode, frequency is a magnetic field having a Fre¬ between about 5 and 10 Hertz.
This magnetic fur electrode is in the same way to the Hangerät (fig.6), to the outlets (4/12) is connected, wherein it is a dual-port, in this outlet, the neuartigerweise space-saving thereof by pulling out from the upper part (20) for only a few millimeters is reversed in the then position reached since the last polarity. The control line of the sensor touch electrode is inserted at a Be¬ nützung weggebauten from the device electrode (1 ') in the socket with the label L1. Via the connecting line and in series-connected resistors (15) and preferably a capacitor (15 *) is applied a box / voltage / current to flow to the gate of in the device gas field effect transistor according to the invention, and the rating of its strength and shape changed after.
Similarly, novel Spritzen¬ to the invention are electrodes via the lines (16) with the various stimulation current devices larger battery capacity than in the Piasterelektrode, ver¬ prevented and controlled (Fig.7 and Fig.8), whereby the first time of the active ingredient in the syringe (200) through the port (196), piston rod (198), the piston (199) is poled of the syringe in the sense of iontophoresis, via the further current electrodes on the base of the syringe (200) (through the ports 16 ) "are supplied and projecting with its free end into the interior of syringe connection (16) can neuartigerweise the ion flux in the Zylinder¬ space ahead of the piston (199) when using geeig¬ Neten contrast agent are made visible.
may in an analogous polarity of the counter electrode on the body of the patient so not eingestochener before administration of the Spritzeninhaltes.bei cannula (201) are checked in the Gewebe.vorsorglich the necessary active compound in the ion flux to its correctness. This is an essential consideration in the application of the invention even neu¬ like syringe prefilled electrode in or wiederaufgefüllten-. Zu¬ stood.
trodes Another feature of the invention of this novel Spritzenelek¬ that enable a novel treatment of damaged cartilage, among other things, that the patient during the procedure, the wise üblich¬ is performed under anesthesia surrounding tissue, but so¬ much at the injection site feels that he the sensor electrode (1) which is connected to the electrical stimulation device is preferably in Pultausfuhrug, a say the intensity of the iontophoresis significantly, as well as the physician who performs the operation.
Another significant, inventive novel electrode for erst¬-time detection of body panels with simple means at a cost, which accounts for only a fraction of the necessary effort so far and human to diagnose the state of charge u. animal body, but also as a convenient switching element under, for example clothing, ver¬ turns may be, as occurs trodes in carriers of, for example Pflasterelek¬, the field proximity electrode formed in parallel from one of the electrodes (4) gas discharge lamp or a glow lamp, as it is used in, for example, a phase tester, but there aufglimmt only used for voltages exceeding 60 volts voltage when touching the ieitenden end, indicating a voltage difference between, for example, phase and auditors.
The characteristic of the field proximity electrode (9 1), (Fig.5), which advises to display the state of charge before and after applying a clothes electrode or in conjunction with a touch sensor electrode (1 ') in which stimulation current in panel form (Fig.) Is used and there is connected to the control line (15) with an electronic operational amplifier comparable, the voltage change at the electrode of the field proximity electrode 5 strengthens u. for example, turns on a transistor or thyristor or that the field proximity electrode, the light intensity change that results from this novel display device for use together with the gas field-effect transistor when approaching the electrodes ein¬ notifies em optoelectronic switch with the Feldnäherungselek- 0 trode is assembled.
In Uimpolung of such a switched field proximity electrode deletes ge. The Empfinlichkeit the field proximity electrode, inner switched together with the gas field effect transistor, is so large that a ein¬ side terminal of the field proximity electrode to a dissipative electron 5 trode (4) from the electrical stimulation device already suffices in always gleichbleib¬ forming manner at an in tolerance sized to millimeter waste matter, for example, the fingers of a human hand from the vitreous derFeldeffektelektrode away, start to ver¬ these to react. 0 This display capability is important in the detection of play for Bei¬ fields in treatments with potentials (Fig.4) and the Behand¬ lung with the clothes electrode, and here place for setting the use of potentiometers (5 ") and the effective application of the Elek ¬ trodes (4 " ') and the check of the field effect transistors (10) when 5 actuating the touch sensor electrode (1) and the regulatory response of the gas discharge lamp (9) by light intensity change. las¬ also has to prove that there are such fields, they u.wie with the inventive novel electrical stimulation devices affect sen. In addition, this inventive new field Closer - are 0 used ungsschalter for many other tasks, zBindustriell - ".
2. Reizstrcmgerät according to claim 1 as a handheld device with active substance container (100) and retractable comb electrode (4 "") (Fig.6), characterized gekenn¬ characterized in that according to the invention neuartigerweise a Wirkstoffnebel- electrode (4 "" ") for iontophoresis as electrode use finds, 5 passing guided over the as a tube through the upper part (20) Innen¬ electrode during the passage of drug in the quantity of the active substance flow through the intensity on compression of the Behält¬ ers (100) mitder hand and the opening width of the nozzle determined by Nachlinksdrehen (seen in plan view) of the Düsenverstel- lung and thereby narrowing of the continuous elastic tube and therefore the nozzle opening by eccentric movement of the Verstell¬ rades- with the specified according to claim 1 circuit "equivalent to 5 of a cited therein dissipating electrode ( 4).
While turning to the left skips the dial and the nozzle that is completely closed to the end of the movement, opens during rotation re- corresponding to the eccentric shape-A right turning be¬ acts to turn on the electrical stimulation device through the switch (17) 0, and upon further rotation of a changing the default setting of the Reizstrom¬ it on the potentiometer (5) to a larger current. Such a space-saving u. ergonomically durchentwickelteε switching element for an electrical stimulation device is novel. 3. Reizstrcmgerät according to claim 1 as a handheld device with active ingredient container and 5 and retractable comb electrode characterized in that the active compound-ray unfolding of the comb electrode (4 "" ") in a gegen¬ sealed over the top of the upper part (20) hole / a Ka is redirected ¬ nal "of the active ingredient nebulised between the tines and / or in the hollow prongs which conductive as dissipating electrode (4) are 0th
Further characterized in that the upper part (20) preferably folded comb electrode as dissipating electrode (4) and the Be¬ container (100) both in the ascending and in the folded state of the comb electrode as a counter electrode on the body / hand (4) the surface used as 5 Masεierelektrode / Glättelektrode (4) of the Ober¬ part (20).
Further characterized in that the container (100) can be replaced only by a sealed container (100) as an exchange container, which is effected by cam on Aufεteckanschluß of the container (100), 0 crashing during rotation of the container for the purpose of opening and prevent in that the container wer¬ mounted again on the upper part (20) of the can.
A further embodiment is characterized in that the container (100) is detachable from the upper part not (20). A stimulus current apparatus according to claim 1 as a tabletop unit (Fig.3) is carried out by da¬ in that it holds a rechargeable battery pack ent, which in the electrical stimulation device integrated battery charger, the one of the known upon reaching the full charge
SUBSTITUTE SHEET circuits on the other hand ensures twice electronically that the apparatus can be used with an inserted cable to the network and it further is mechanically impossible to operate the potentiometer (5) when a plug is inserted, because the potentiometer is provided with a key that the only in zero position of the rotary knob potentiometer in the counterpart, a safety lock cylinder can be inserted, and after the insoluble attached to the knob Sicherheitschlussel¬ approach by a small rotational movement (about 3 degrees) is integral cylindrical become positively to the Sicher¬, the implement coupled to the rotatable lock cylinder of the security lock ( with sleeve coupling) potentiometer then via an attached gleich¬ ermaßen rotating - preferably bedingt- mitVoreilung by a translation of the cam ring cam ring microswitch (doubly connected in series) is actuated, the first current to the electrodes efferent 5After about 3 degrees angle of rotation of the rotary knob with the attached safety-circuit Elan set of the electrical stimulation device is installed in the counterpart, the lock which fixed in the housing (20) acts as a quarter turn, and after turning the dial (with the non-detachably secured thereto cover the same 18) in cooperation with dan unreleasably fastened to the housing hinge, characterized in that the security key approach only slightly axially (preferably is mounted about a few millimeters) is slidably but rotatably in the cover (18).
It is also mechanically ensured that only in circuit from the An¬ (23) solid plug of the cable to the power-dissipating trodes the electron (4) and the sensor electrodes (1) and (l 1) with the Feldnäherungs- sensor (9 ') are connected to the battery in the electrical stimulation device, which strike-through of the supply voltage / current to the electrodes of the power un¬ makes possible. Further, the reversing switch (12) of the cover (18) is covered and so this device with higher battery capacity and stimulating currents also 1 milliamp, as they are needed clinics, a shock avoided by reverse the polarity when connected to the patient electrodes. _ Reizstrcmgerät with clothes electrode according to claim 1, characterized characterized gekenn¬ that other tissue as silk fabrics and other fiber 5 such gold thread as electrode material for the clothes electrode provided on the electrodes made of metal with a coating as a resistance material (Black Rubber) (as 4 " ') is connected, is used. Next characterized in that the position of the potentiometer, the description rührungsstellen the body surface with the clothes electrode after a ärzlichen Regulation firmly in the clothes electrode, so the electrode as" taylor made "/ for a specific is patient and made to cure a specific physical disorder. 5 Next these clothes electrode also is due to the attached connectors for creating potentials, as for the galvanization and the use of fine magnetic fields.
5. Reizstrcmgerät for fine streams and electrodes with sensor circuit for fine streams and fine fields, preferably for a power supply of the 0-dissipating electrodes under 1 milliampere, characterized in that it comprises a circuit for the sensor contact electrodes (1) and (l ') and the dissipative electrodes (4 ), (4 '), (4'), (4 ''), (4 ''), (4 '' •) ($ "" "), (4 '' ''), then for the field proximity electrode / s (9 ') has a terminal / terminals and operational amplifiers and electronic switches, which at 5 a 9-volt block battery (replaceable / rechargeable) corresponding to the circuit / s according to claim 1 with the local switching elements, such as the gas field effect transistor dimmer circuit with Sensorberührungselek- trode / s, field proximity electrode / s and the ver¬ to your setting used variable resistors, fixed resistors and capacitors as universally usable rope Reizstrcmgerät with a carrying handle (21) from smaller in yet, preferably narrower construction than the handset with Wirk¬ mist nozzle and drug container.
Such an embodiment has the dimension nurmehr preferably less than 20 millimeters to 50 millimeters to 70 millimeters, and is universal for single candidate stimulation current therapies according to the description of the An¬ message and the claims and also according to the same rele¬ vanter drawings to be used.
PCT/DE1991/000285 1990-04-04 1991-04-04 Exciting current device for very low currents and electrodes with sensor switching WO1991015256A1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DEG9003913.0U 1990-04-04
DE19909003912 DE9003912U1 (en) 1990-04-04 1990-04-04
DEG9003912.2U 1990-04-04
DE19909003913 DE9003913U1 (en) 1990-04-04 1990-04-04
DE19909007277 DE9007277U1 (en) 1990-04-04 1990-07-12
DEG9007277.4U 1990-07-12

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2323791A (en) * 1997-04-01 1998-10-07 Johann Zimmermann Electromagnetic pen for skin treatment
US6496728B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2002-12-17 University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods for extracting substances using alternating current
US6512950B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2003-01-28 University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods for delivering agents using alternating current
US7137975B2 (en) 2001-02-13 2006-11-21 Aciont, Inc. Method for increasing the battery life of an alternating current iontophoresis device using a barrier-modifying agent

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US4456012A (en) * 1982-02-22 1984-06-26 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoretic and electrical tissue stimulation device
EP0254965A1 (en) * 1986-07-31 1988-02-03 Alza Corporation Programmable constant current source transdermal drug delivery system
EP0269246A2 (en) * 1986-10-20 1988-06-01 Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Novel plaster structure for iontophoresis
WO1988008729A1 (en) * 1987-05-15 1988-11-17 Newman Martin H Iontophoresis drug delivery system
WO1989006555A1 (en) * 1988-01-21 1989-07-27 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Transport of molecules across tissue using electroporation

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE2316326A1 (en) * 1972-05-08 1973-11-29 Siepem Fa Combined geraet the hygiene of hair and facial care
US4456012A (en) * 1982-02-22 1984-06-26 Medtronic, Inc. Iontophoretic and electrical tissue stimulation device
EP0254965A1 (en) * 1986-07-31 1988-02-03 Alza Corporation Programmable constant current source transdermal drug delivery system
EP0269246A2 (en) * 1986-10-20 1988-06-01 Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Novel plaster structure for iontophoresis
WO1988008729A1 (en) * 1987-05-15 1988-11-17 Newman Martin H Iontophoresis drug delivery system
WO1989006555A1 (en) * 1988-01-21 1989-07-27 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Transport of molecules across tissue using electroporation

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2323791A (en) * 1997-04-01 1998-10-07 Johann Zimmermann Electromagnetic pen for skin treatment
GB2323791B (en) * 1997-04-01 1999-09-01 Johann Zimmermann Electromagnetic pen
US6496728B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2002-12-17 University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods for extracting substances using alternating current
US6512950B2 (en) 2000-02-18 2003-01-28 University Of Utah Research Foundation Methods for delivering agents using alternating current
US7137975B2 (en) 2001-02-13 2006-11-21 Aciont, Inc. Method for increasing the battery life of an alternating current iontophoresis device using a barrier-modifying agent

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