WO1991005326A1 - Orientational mouse computer input system - Google Patents

Orientational mouse computer input system

Info

Publication number
WO1991005326A1
WO1991005326A1 PCT/US1990/005214 US9005214W WO1991005326A1 WO 1991005326 A1 WO1991005326 A1 WO 1991005326A1 US 9005214 W US9005214 W US 9005214W WO 1991005326 A1 WO1991005326 A1 WO 1991005326A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
device
system
mouse
cursor
orientation
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1990/005214
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Vivien J. Cambridge
Original Assignee
Automatic Decisions, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/033Pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks; Accessories therefor
    • G06F3/038Control and interface arrangements therefor, e.g. drivers or device-embedded control circuitry
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F3/00Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements
    • G06F3/01Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer
    • G06F3/03Arrangements for converting the position or the displacement of a member into a coded form
    • G06F3/0304Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means
    • G06F3/0317Detection arrangements using opto-electronic means in co-operation with a patterned surface, e.g. absolute position or relative movement detection for an optical mouse or pen positioned with respect to a coded surface

Abstract

A system (40) for computer cursor control, interactive draw graphic, and interactive data entry in which changes in the angular orientation of a computer mouse device (44) as well as changes in its location on a flat surface (46) are used to control the angular orientation of a cursor or pointer (56) on a computer display screen (58), the angular orientation of objects and text on a computer screen (58), and/or values or variables in computer applications programs.

Description

ORIENTATIONAL MOUSE COMPUTER INPUT SYSTEM

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to interactive information handling systems, and, more particularly, to a system for controlling computer display information, such as cursors, pointers, and graphics objects, by rotation and lateral movement of a hand-held data input device to control the angular orientation of such display information.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION A mouse data entry system is generally illustrated in Figure 1 and allows a user to interactively enter data into a computer in an easy, natural manner. Such a system typically comprises a hand-held, movement sensitive device 20, a mouse interface 22, cursor driver circuitry 24 for controlling the cursors, pointers, and/ or graphics objects 26 on a display screen 28, and software for transmitting moupe parameters such as device location to application programs 30. The functional distinction between the mouse interface 22 and the cursor driver 24 is often omitted. Movement of the device 20 across a flat surface causes cursor 26 on display screen 28 to move or variables in a computer application program to change as illustrated in Figure 2. This data entry system allows a user to "point" on the display screen or to affect the execution of application programs. Examples of the use of such data entry systems include: 1) cursor control in which the system is used to move a cursor or pointer across a computer screen for the purpose of quickly identifying objects or text appearing on the screen; 2) painting and drawing in which the mouse system is often used to control pens and paintbrushes to "draw" and "paint" on the screen in graphics application programs; 3) creation and metamorphosis of graphics objects where the mouse system can also be used to control the creation of graphics primitives such as circles, rectangles, polygons, etc. and to build and change the shape of 2-dimensional and 3- dimensional objects in the computer and 4) manipulation of text and graphics where the mouse system can be used to interactively move, delete, scale, flip, and rotate text and graphics objects on the computer screen.

Currently mouse input systems, as defined above, allow the user to directly control only variables that are related to changes in the x and y coordinates of the device as it is moved across a flat surface. Hence the user can currently only change information on the computer screen or in application programs by changing the location of the device.

Current mouse interactive data entry systems further do not allow users to rotationally control a cursor, pointer, or the orientation of a graphic object or enter data into an application program by rotating the movement sensitive device. Rather, as stated above, current systems allow the user to control the position of the cursor on a screen and to enter data in application programs that is related to the position (x and y coordinates) of the movement sensitive device.

Interactive graphics systems exist where graphics objects and text can be rotated indirectly by moving a movement sensitive device in a circular motion so that the cursor on the display screen describes an arc around the center of the object. In those systems the change in the orientation of the object is related to the change in the slope of a line connecting the cursor and the center of the rotating object, where the position of the cursor is related to the position of the movement sensitive device. The operation of such a system is illustrated in Figure 3 and is described in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,661,810 and 4,745,405. Since these methods operate in an indirect fashion their effectiveness is sub-optimal. For example, these existing systems do not allow changes in the lateral movement of the graphics objects to take place simultaneously with rotating action. Indirect operation may also increase tediousness, and the current systems do not accommodate rotating cursors and paintbrushes.

A movement sensitive device of the mouse data entry system may operate mechanically or electronically. In the case of a mechanical device, movement across a planar surface is detected with one or more balls or wheels and is translated into measures of the distance traveled in the x and y directions.

The hand-held movement sensitive device of the mouse data entry system may also detect changes in position electronically. Such electronic devices include active or passive tablets which are imprinted with regular or irregular grids. The device electrically couples with the grid of the tablet or transmits and detects waves reflected by the grid of the tablet. This interaction with the tablet is used to determine the lateral position of the movement sensitive device on the tablet. Mouse movement and button states are transmitted to the mouse interface and are used to control the cursor, pointer, and/or graphics objects. The current art includes several hand-held devices with physical configurations such that their output can be used to sense changes in their orientation (IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletinf Vol. 27 No. 6, November, 1984 by Nomura and Saitoh, Japanese Patent No. 60-193032 issued to Mitsubishi, and U.S. Patent No. 4,814,553 to Advanced Robotics Technology, Inc.). Current systems using the abovementioned devices generate orientation information in the process of determining a more precise estimate of the absolute position of the hand-held device. For example, in the case of the mechanical device comprising two balls (Numora, 1984 and Mitsubishi, 1985) , the x and y coordinates measured by the hand-held device are in a coordinate system which is defined by the angular orientation of the mouse and which therefore changes with device orientation. The systems proposed by Nomura and by Mitsubishi attempt to use orientation of the mouse to continuously correct the x and y coordinates to correspond to a constant coordinate system.

The mouse interface of a data input system typically comprises an electronic device, hardware or software, for converting movement data which it receives from the movement sensitive device, into display screen distance units. In addition to this task, the mouse interface keeps track of mouse interrupts. These interrupts, which are requested by an application program, are used by the mouse interface to interrupt the application program or its subroutines when a specific set of mouse events occurs, such as when a button is pressed. Besides servicing the moving device and communicating with application programs, the mouse interface must maintain a pointer or a cursor on the display screen. This function can be performed directly by the mouse interface or it can be accomplished by a display screen hardware dependent cursor driver. Where a cursor driver is used, the mouse interface passes the coordinates of the cursor to the cursor driver which places a cursor on the display screen at the requested coordinates.

A need has thus arisen for a mouse data entry system which permits the user to rotate a cursor, pointer, or graphics object and interactively enter data into the computer by rotating a hand-held, movement sensitive device on a flat surface area. Such a system must also provide for lateral movement of cursor, pointer, or graphics objects (either simultaneously or non-simultaneously with rotating motion) by moving the device laterally. A need has further arisen for an improved cursor or pointer control to thereby allow better cursor and pointer use for user/program interaction in interactive application programs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention, the angular orientation of the cursor or pointer on a display screen can be changed by turning a data input mouse.

Therefore, the angular orientation of a cursor, pointer, or some other form of graphics can conveniently be used as an additional variable in interactive editing and data entry. The present invention provides for an interactive data entry into graphics programs, paint "programs, games, and other application programs by rotating a mouse device as well as moving the mouse laterally, rendering programs more powerful and easier to use.

In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, painting and drawing programs can be used with the present system to control the angular orientation of a paintbrush or a pen by rotating a hand-held device, giving the user an option which is available in the "real world" situation for creating effects. This aspect of the present invention can significantly improve the quality and ease of use of these programs, as well as the output which they create.

In accordance with other aspects of the present invention, application programs can use the orientation of the cursor as an additional, easily controlled variable for user input; 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional graphics programs which create, move, and/or alter objects can allow the user to build graphics primitives such as circles, ellipses, curves, and surface patches by rotating the mouse as well as moving it; and graphics programs which allow movement and rotation of graphics objects and blocks of text can allow users to perform this operation, move and rotate, in one step since the system of the present invention provides for the rotating action of manipulated objects by turning the mouse.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the present invention and for further advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following Description of the Preferred Embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying Drawings in which:

Figure 1 is a block diagram of a mouse data entry system as is known in the current art; Figure 2 illustrates the operation of a typical mouse data entry system shown in Figure 1;

Figure 3 illustrates a system for interactively rotating objects on a computer screen in interactive draw graphics systems; Figure 4 illustrates the operation of the present orientational interactive input system;

Figure 5 is a block diagram of the present orientational interactive input system;

Figure 6 is a flowchart of the present orientational interactive input system; Figure 7 is a flowchart of an example of a draw graphics system which incorporates the present system;

Figure 8 is a flowchart of an example of a paint graphics system which incorporates the present system; Figure 9 illustrates a non-mechanical movement sensitive device which senses changes in the orientation of the device;

Figure 10 illustrates an example of non-mechanical detectors; Figure 11 illustrates the printing of the tablet for use with present orientational movement sensitive device; and

Figure 12 shows a schematic diagram of the orientation change for the present orientational movement sensitive device.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring simultaneously to Figures 4 and 5, the present interactive mouse system is illustrated and is generally identified by the numeral 40. Mouse system 40 includes a movement sensitive device 42 which is sensitive to changes in its angular orientation as wel as changes in its lateral position. Device 42 may comprise, for example, a hand-held mouse 44 which is moved over a tablet 46 and may also include an orientation sensitive stylus and tablet system, a hand- cursor and tablet, or any hand-held interactive input device provided that it is sensitive to changes in orientation as well as lateral position. Mouse system 40 further includes a mouse interface 50 which may be hardware or software implemented, and functions to determine the angular orientation or changes therein of mouse 44 based upon the output generated by mouse 44.

Determination of the angular orientation of the mouse 44 is preferably done through a search in a look- up-table 52 which contains precalculated values of change in angle vs. device output parameters, but it may be achieved by computations which involve geometrical transformations. Mouse interface 50 further functions to keep track of the angular orientation of mouse 44 as well as the lateral position of mouse 44; determine and keep track of the angular orientation of a cursor 56 on a computer display screen 58 associated with a computer 60 as well as the lateral position of the cursor 56 on the computer display screen 58; transmit to a cursor driver 64 the coordinates of the cursor 56 as well as its orientation on the computer display screen 58; and transmit to graphics, paint, and other computer application programs 66 the orientation of the mouse 44 and of the cursor 56 in addition to other mouse 44 parameters such as position and button states. As used herein the term "image" or "cursor" displayed on display screen 58 will include, but is not be limited to, cursor 56, pointers, graphic objects, and text.

Cursor driver 64 is capable of displaying an image on display screen 58 at variable orientations, which cursor driver 64 uses a cursor bit map look-up-table 70 to relate cursor 56 orientation to appearance of the cursor 56 on the display screen 58. For example, if a desired cursor angle is determined to be 1 radian, the cursor driver 64 obtains a bit map from the cursor bit map look-up-table 70 which corresponds to this angle (1 radian) and uses this bit map to place a visual representation of a cursor 56 on the display screen 58 which is oriented according to that angle. A keyboard and other peripherals which are part of the typical arrangement of interactive information handling systems are included within computer 60.

A flowchart of the system 40 of the present invention is presented in Figure 6. In this description it is assumed that the system 40 uses an orientationally sensitive hand-held device to drive a rotating cursor, but the flowchart also applies to rotating pointers and other forms of rotating bit mapped graphics. The system 40 accepts input from the movement sensitive device such as mouse 44 in block 80 and determines in block 82 from the input if the state of the device 44 has changed, that is, if the device 44 has moved or turned, or if buttons have been pressed or released.

If the system 40 determines a change in device state, and it finds that no buttons were pressed, block 84, the system 40 checks in block 86 to see if there has been a change in the angular orientation of mouse 44. If a change in the orientation of the mouse 44 is detected, the system 40 computes the change in the angular orientation at block 88 and updates the angle of the device at block 90 as well as the angle of the cursor 56, block 92. In block 94, the bit map (image) corresponding to the current cursor orientation is stored in a temporary buffer for the purpose of later erasing the current bit map image.

The system 40 searches a look-up-table for the bit map of the cursor which corresponds to its current orientation at block 96. The operations performed at blocks 92, 94, and 96 may be omitted if a cursor is not displayed. In block 98 the system uses the mouse 44 input to determine any change in the lateral position of mouse 44, and the system updates the cursor coordinates using the computed change in the lateral position of the mouse 44. The system 40 erases the old cursor in block 100 and then places a new cursor 56 on the display screen 58 which corresponds to the new cursor location and angular orientation at block 102. At node A, the system may surrender control to another system operating on the computer 60, or it may return to block 80 for subsequent mouse 44 input. Blocks 88 and 96, computation of cursor angle and bit map, preferentially use look-up- tables as previously explained.

Forms of the present system 40 may be advantageously incorporated in particular application programs such as draw graphics systems. Figure 7 is a flowchart of an example of a draw system where the orientational mouse input system is used to move and rotate graphics objects. A second example of an application program incorporating the system is shown in Figure 8 where the system is used to control the angle of a paintbrush in a paint program.

System 40 includes, for example, a non-mechanical movement sensitive device, an interface for this device implemented in the form of a microprocessor, and a driver capable of displaying a cursor or pointer with variable angular orientation. Referring now to Figure 9 an embodiment of the present system 40 includes a non- mechanical movement sensitive device 120 and a pad 122 which has been imprinted with a regular grid of conductive and/or reflective stripes, where horizontal stripes 124 printed on the pad 122 consist of material with different conductive or reflective properties than the vertical strips 126. The movement sensitive device 120 includes two detectors 128 and 130 which are capable of sensing the horizontal stripes 124 and which are spaced a specific distance D apart. Additionally, the device 120 includes two detectors 132 and 134 capable of sensing the vertical stripes 126, which detectors are also spaced distance D apart.

Figure 10A illustrates the use of a photosensitive device 140 in which reflective stripes 142 are sensed by light sources 144 and photosensitive sensors 146. The light source 144 emits light with a specific wavelength which is reflected by the stripes 142 if the source moves across them and subsequently sensed by the sensor 146. Figure 10B illustrates the use of an electromagnetic device 150 in which conductive stripes 152 are sensed through conductive coils 154 which are electrically coupled to the stripes 152 when the coils 154 move across them.

The detectors capable of sensing horizontal stripes do not sense vertical stripes, and the detectors capable of sensing vertical stripes do not sense horizontal stripes. In the case of electromagnetic detectors, sensing can be achieved by printing stripes in the horizontal direction which have different conductives than stripes in the vertical direction and designing the sensors to respond to stripes with specific corresponding conductivities. When photosensitive sensors are used, the stripes in the horizontal direction may have different reflective properties than thqse in the vertical direction. In an alternative configuration the horizontal stripes may be sensed by conductivity while the vertical stripes are sensed by reflectivity or Vice versa.

As shown in Figure 11, the vertical stripers 126a, 126b, and 126c and horizontal stripes 124a, 124b, and 124c are printed in a regular pattern of at least three alternating materials with different properties such as, for example, non-conductive, conductivity Cl, and conductivity C2. The use of more than two different materials ensures that the direction of movement can be determined, when the detector moves from one stripe to another, from the change in the sensed property of the stripe.

The device counts the number of vertical lines crossed by each vertical line sensor and the number of horizontal lines crossed by each horizontal line sensor and reports these counts to the mouse interface periodically. The device also includes buttons for additional user input.

System 40 may also include a mouse interface 50 which is capable of determining changes in the orientation of the mouse 44 from the counts which it transmits to the interface. In the case of the device 120 described above, and referring to Figure 12, the changes in the orientation of device 120 (dO) and location can be determined with the procedure outlined below. In this method, a look-up-table is used to relate device output to angular orientation changes. do = [ (mickeyl-mickey2)2 + (mickey3-mickey4)2]1/2 2*SIGN*ARCSIN{ } (1) where dO is the change in the orientation of the device mickeyl is the count (positive or negative) at sensor 132 (Figure 9) mickey2 is the count (positive or negative) at sensor 134 (Figure 9) mickey3 is the count (positive or negative) at sensor 128 (Figure 9) mickey4 is the count (positive or negative) at sensor 130 (Figure 9)

D is the distance between sensors 134 and 134 and between sensors 128 and 130

SIGN is an integer which has a value -1 or +1 and which is dependent on the mickey counts and the device orientation. This integer represents the direction in which the device rotates and it is determined as follows: let ml = mickeyl - mickey2 (2) m2 = mickey3 - mickey4 (3) Q = quadrant of device orientation, then

SIGN is given by the following table: ml m2 SIGN

A look-up table is created in the memory of interface 50 where absolute values of changes in device orientation (ABS(dO)) are computed and tabulated for a range of values of (mickeyl-mickey2) and (mickey3- mickey4) .

When the mouse interface 50 receives a report of the counts mickeyl, mickey2, mickey3, and mickey4, the interface computes mickeyl-mickey2 mickey3-mickey4 these values are used to obtain ABS(dO) from the look-up- table. The system 40 then determines the quadrant Q from present device orientation and finds the "v&lue of the integer SIGN. Finally, orientation change is then given by: dO = SIGN * ABS(dO) (4)

The interface 50 also computes the changes in the location of the device. These changes in the x and y coordinates (dx and dy resp.) are computed as follows: dx = sx * (mickeyl + mickey2) / 2 (5) dy = sy * (mickey3 + mickey4) / 2 (6) where: sx is a scaling factor in the x direction sy is a scaling factor in the y direction

The mouse interface 50 stores the device 120 (Figure 9) angular orientation and lateral position in memory, and continuously updates these positions after computing do, dx, and dy. Λ *_-

Finally, the mouse interface 50 communicates with application programs, transmitting, upon request by the application programs, the position and angular orientation of the cursor and the movement sensitive 5 device as well as button states and other mouse parameters. In the preferred embodiment the mouse interface 50 is a computer chip in the computer 60 or in the mouse 44, but it may also be installed as a software sub-system in the computer 60.

10 System 40 uses a cursor driver 64 to translate the mouse interface 50 determination of cursor rotation into the appearance of a rotating cursor or pointer on the display screen 58. The cursor driver 64 performs this task by referring to a bit map look-up-table 70 which

15 contains a series of images (bit maps) of the cursor in orientations ranging from 0 to 360 degrees from the vertical. In the preferred embodiment of the present system 40, forty images are stored where the angle between cursors in consecutive images is 9 degrees. The

20 cursor driver 64 rounds each reported cursor angle to the nearest multiple of 9, obtains the corresponding cursor image from the look-up-table 70, and displays it on the screen at the position indicated by the mouse interface 50.

25 Like the mouse interface 50, the cursor driver 64 of the preferred embodiment is hardware implemented, but it may also be installed in software.

It therefore can be seen that the present system provides for a display of a cursor, pointer, or graphics 30 object which rotates as the hand-held device rotates, or which achieves graphics data entry and manipulation by turning the hand-held device. 15

It will be understood that any hand-held device which can sense changes in orientation and location may be used as the movement sensitive component of the present system. In such cases, the data generated by the mouse is used in the mouse interface to search a ltiok-u]- table for the corresponding angle, and the angle is used by the cursor driver to find and display a properly oriented cursor as the device is turned. The angle and cursor orientation are further used in application programs.

Whereas the present invention has been described with respect to specific embodiments thereof, it will be appreciated that various changes and modifications will* be suggested to one skilled in the art, and it is intended to encompass such changes and modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims

WHAT IS CLAIMED:
*1. 1. A mouse interactive data entry system for displaying an image on a display screen comprising: a hand-held movement sensitive device; means for sensing a variable angular orientation of said device; and means responsive to said sensing means for changing the angular orientation of the image on the display screen corresponding to changes in the angular orientation of said device.
2. The system of Claim 1 wherein said sensing means includes: means interconnected to said device for determining and storing the angle of orientation of said device and angular changes thereto; and means for determining the angle of orientation of the image displayed on the display screen.
3. The system of Claim 2 wherein said means responsive to said sensing means includes: means for displaying the image on the display screen; and means for selecting a desired image from an image look-up-table corresponding to the orientation of the object sensed by said means for sensing and displaying on the display screen the selected image, thereby simulating rotation of the image on the display screen.
4. The system of Claim 1 wherein said device includes: a first set of detectors for sensing movement of said device in a first direction over a first plurality of reference lines; a second set of detectors for sensing movement of said device in a second direction over a second plurality of reference lines; and where said first plurality of lines is disposed non-parallel to said second plurality of lines.
5. The system of Claim 4 wherein said first and second plurality of lines each includes at least three different lines of different inherent properties.
6. The system of Claim 5 wherein said lines are of different reflectivity.
7. The system of Claim 5 wherein said lines are of different magnetization.
8. A mouse interactive data entry system for displaying an image on a display screen comprising: a hand-held device sensitive to movement across a surface; means for sensing changes in variable angular orientation and lateral position of said hand-held device; and means responsive to said sensing means for changing the angular orientation and location of the image on the display screen corresponding to changes in the angular orientation and location of said hand-held device.
9. A system for manipulating an image on a display screen wherein the system includes a mouse interactive data entry sub-system, the sub-system comprising: a hand-held movement sensitive device sensitive to changes in angular orientation and lateral position on a surface; means for sensing changes in angular orientation and lateral position of said hand-held movement sensitive device; and means responsive to said sensing means for changing the angular orientation and location of the image on the display screen corresponding to changes in the angular orientation and lateral position of said hand-held movement sensitive device.
PCT/US1990/005214 1989-10-02 1990-09-19 Orientational mouse computer input system WO1991005326A1 (en)

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US41614289 true 1989-10-02 1989-10-02
US416,142 1989-10-02

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Cited By (2)

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US5398044A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-03-14 Icl Personal Systems Oy Method of and an arrangement for controlling the cursor movement on a graphical display
WO1999047995A1 (en) * 1998-03-14 1999-09-23 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Pointing device for use in a computer system

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US4887230A (en) * 1987-02-18 1989-12-12 Hitachi, Ltd. Cursor display apparatus

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US4797544A (en) * 1986-07-23 1989-01-10 Montgomery James R Optical scanner including position sensors
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US4686329A (en) * 1985-06-21 1987-08-11 Advanced Robotic Technology, Inc. Absolute position mouse
US4887230A (en) * 1987-02-18 1989-12-12 Hitachi, Ltd. Cursor display apparatus

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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5398044A (en) * 1992-12-11 1995-03-14 Icl Personal Systems Oy Method of and an arrangement for controlling the cursor movement on a graphical display
WO1999047995A1 (en) * 1998-03-14 1999-09-23 Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. Pointing device for use in a computer system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP0451220A1 (en) 1991-10-16 application
EP0451220A4 (en) 1993-01-07 application

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