WO1990013966A1 - Partial information transmission for data base inquiry - Google Patents

Partial information transmission for data base inquiry

Info

Publication number
WO1990013966A1
WO1990013966A1 PCT/US1990/002379 US9002379W WO1990013966A1 WO 1990013966 A1 WO1990013966 A1 WO 1990013966A1 US 9002379 W US9002379 W US 9002379W WO 1990013966 A1 WO1990013966 A1 WO 1990013966A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
information
site
abridged
transmitted
version
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1990/002379
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Paul Fielding Smith
Kamyar Rohani
Original Assignee
Motorola, Inc.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N1/00Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
    • H04N1/41Bandwidth or redundancy reduction
    • H04N1/411Bandwidth or redundancy reduction for the transmission or storage or reproduction of two-tone pictures, e.g. black and white pictures
    • H04N1/413Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information
    • H04N1/417Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information using predictive or differential encoding
    • H04N1/4172Progressive encoding, i.e. by decomposition into high and low resolution components
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L19/00Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G10MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS; ACOUSTICS
    • G10LSPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
    • G10L19/00Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis
    • G10L19/04Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis using predictive techniques
    • G10L19/16Vocoder architecture
    • G10L19/18Vocoders using multiple modes
    • G10L19/24Variable rate codecs, e.g. for generating different qualities using a scalable representation such as hierarchical encoding or layered encoding

Abstract

A method of transmitting information from a first site (501) to a second site (502), in which an abridged version (400) of the information is initially transmitted. In response to a predetermined signal (504) from the second site (502), a less abridged version (200) of the information previously communicated is transmitted.

Description

PARTIAL INFORMATION TRANSMISSION FOR DATA BASE INQUIRY

Technical Field

This invention relates generally to information transmission in RF communication systems, and in particular to partial information transmission during initial data base inquiry in order to maximize system throughput.

Background Art

Information data bases are well known. Among the types of information often stored in such data bases are city maps, police records, and picture ID'S. In order to ensure high-quality transmission of graphic information, the image is first digitized into an array containing a relatively large number of pixels (the smallest units of image data). For example, the array containing the digitized image may have 256 rows and 256 columns of pixels for a total of 65,536 (64K) pixels.

At a data rate of 4.8 kilobits per second, a common rate for use over the relatively narrow bandwidth channels employed in RF communication systems, transmission of all 64K pixels would require almost two minutes. In the case where a user finds it necessary to search a data base for a particular picture ID or police record, this response time is unacceptable.

Accordingly, a need arises for a method of increasing system throughput during data base inquiry. Summary of the Invention

According to the invention, a method of transmitting information from a first site to a second site is provided. First, an abridged version of the desired information is transmitted. Then, in response to a signal from the second site, a less abridged version of the information is transmitted.

In one embodiment, information from the data base, such as the text of police records, is digitized for transmission. In order to increase system throughput during initial data base inquiry, a rule is applied to the data to be transmitted so that less than all of the digitized information is actually sent. Although this abridged data transmission would result in text or image information that lacks perfect clarity and sharpness, it would nonetheless be readable to the user at the second site. When the desired text or graphic information is presented to the second site, a signal is transmitted back to the first site requesting that a less abridged version of the desired information be transmitted.

In another embodiment, rather than transmitting the data directly in the spatial domain, the image may be transformed and sent in the frequency domain. This may be accomplished through a two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) as is well known in the art. In transmitting an abridged version of the information, only the low-order coefficients are transmitted, resulting in a fuzzy image since the edge information (corresponding to the high frequency coefficients) is not transmitted. When the user identifies the desired information, a less abridged version containing all of the coefficients is then transmitted, producing a sharper picture.

In yet another embodiment, rather than transmitting a less abridged version containing all of the coefficients, an incremental amount of information is sent, representing the difference between information already transmitted as an abridged version and information required to form a sharper image. This technique of filling in the gaps increases system throughput by eliminating redundancy in the transmission of the less abridged version.

This technique of abridged transmission is also useful for forwarding stored voice messages. Using a voice coding method such as Residual-Excited Linear Prediction (RELP), as is known in the art, high throughput during initial data base inquiry can be achieved by limiting the amount of residual information. The voice quality would be unnatural but intelligible. Transmission of a less abridged version of the stored voice message, by including more residual information, would result in much better speech quality through which, for instance, the identity of the speaker can be determined.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Fig. 1 shows a character superimposed over a digitizing grid; Fig. 2 is a view of the character digitized for transmission ; Fig. 3 shows a character reconstructed from an abridged version of the digitized information;

Fig. 4 shows a character reconstructed from a further abridged version of the digitized information; Fig. 5 illustrates the transmission of information from one communications unit to another;

Fig. 6 is a representation of the format for data transmission from the first site to the second site;

Figs. 7A, 7B, and 7C show data words for a 1-to-1 rule, a 2-to-1 rule, and a 4-to-1 rule, respectively.

Detailed Description of the Invention

Referring now to Fig. 1 , a character (100), in this example the letter A, is depicted superimposed upon a digitizing grid (101). The grid (101) is shown comprised of 28 rows and 32 columns of pixels (102), which are the smallest units of image data for a given digitizing format. For the sake of simplicity, the digitizing grid (101 ) or array is limited to a 28 by 32 array, although it could be any size deemed appropriate for a particular application. In general, the more pixels (102) in the array for a given size, the greater the resolution of image reproduction. Turning to Fig. 2, a representation of a character

(200) reproduced from digital information transmitted under a 1-to-1 rule can be seen. Under a 1-to-1 rule of mapping, every data bit comprising the array is transmitted. For the character (200) depicted, 28 data words, each 32 bits in length, must be sent. Fig. 7A shows what the data word (701) corresponding to the first row in Fig. 2 would look like. Every bit position corresponding to a spot occupied by a portion of the digitized character (200) contains a logic 1 , while every bit position that is not occupied by a portion of the character (200) contains a logic 0.

Fig. 3 depicts a character (300) as it would appear if reproduced from information transmitted under a 2- to-1 rule. A 2-to-1 rule requires that only one-half of the data bits within each row be transmitted. In the example shown, only the odd numbered bits (i.e., bits 1 ,

3, 5 31) are transmitted for an odd numbered row, while only even numbered bits (i.e., bits 2, 4, 6 32) are transmitted for an even numbered row. Fig. 7B shows the data word (702) corresponding to the first row of the character (300) depicted in Fig. 3 under a 2- to-1 rule.

Turning now to Fig. 4, a character (400) is shown as it would appear when reconstructed from a 4-to-1 rule transmission. Only every fourth bit from each row is transmitted. In this example, bits 1 , 5, 9, . . ., 29 are transmitted for every odd numbered row, while bits 3, 7,

11 31 are transmitted for every even numbered row.

The data word (703) depicted in Fig. 7C represents the first row of the character (400) transmitted in a 4-to-1 rule.

Fig. 6 illustrates the format used for transmission of the data words (602). A sync word (601) precedes data transmission to permit a receiver to identify character starting point. Then the 28 data words (602) required to represent the character being transmitted according to the applicable rule are sent. The character (400) depicted in Fig. 4 represents reconstruction of information from an abridged version of the available image data, while the character (200) depicted in Fig. 2 represents reconstruction based upon a less abridged version. The character (400) in Fig. 4 is still readily recognized as the letter A despite loss of resolution induced by the 4-to-1 abridgement of the information. Most characters and other information are similarly recognizable when transmitted in abridged versions.

Turning now to Fig. 5, a communication system in which the present invention may be utilized is depicted. Transmission of information takes place utilizing an RF communication resource, which may be a single RF channel or a pair of RF channels in the case of full duplex communication. A signal (503) being transmitted from a first site having stored information, labeled Communications Unit #1 (501) to a second site (Communications Unit #2) (502) initially comprises an abridged version of the information. In response to a signal (504) from the second site (502), a less abridged version of the information is transmitted to the second site (502). In another embodiment, a first predetermined signal transmitted from the second site (502) initiates transmission of abridged information from the first site (501), while transmission of a second predetermined signal from the second site (502) initiates the transmission of a less abridged version of the information previously transmitted. Of course, this less abridged version may also be an incremental transmission of information, in which gaps in the previously transmitted information are filled. Elimination of the need to retransmit information already sent minimizes redundancy of transmission and acts to maximize system throughput. Pursuant to this invention, a data base can be remotely reviewed at a relatively rapid pace, since only abridged information is initially provided. Then, if and when the operator identifies a particular record of interest, the appropriate signal can be transmitted to cause transmission of a non-abridged (or less abridged) record.

Claims

Claims:
1. A method for transmitting information from a first site to a second site comprising the steps of: (a) transmitting an abridged version of the information from the first site to the second site; and
(b) upon receiving at least one predetermined signal from the second site, transmitting a less abridged version of at least part of the information previously transmitted in step (a).
2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the less abridged version transmitted in step (b) comprises an incremental transmission which forms a less abridged version of the information sent in step (a) without requiring retransmission of information previously sent.
3. A method for transmitting at least some information from a first site having stored information to a second site, comprising the steps of: at the first site: (a) transmitting an abridged version of at least some of the information to the second site; at the second site:
(b) receiving the abridged version;
(c) selectively transmitting at least one predetermined signal to the first site; and at the first site:
(d) receiving said at least one predetermined signal, and in response thereto, transmitting a less abridged version of at least a portion of the information previously transmitted in step (a).
4. A method for transmitting information from a first site to a second site, comprising the steps of:
(a) transmitting, using an RF communication resource, an abridged version of the information from the first site to the second site; and
(b) upon receiving, using an RF communication resource, at least one predetermined signal from the second site, transmitting a less abridged version of at least part of the information.
5. In an RF communication system, a method for fast data base inquiry by a second site to obtain information from a first site having stored information, comprising the steps of: at the second site:
(a) selectively transmitting a first predetermined signal to the first site; at the first site:
(b) receiving the first predetermined signal; (c) in response thereto, transmitting an abridged version of at least a portion of the information to facilitate a relatively rapid search through the information at the second site; at the second site: (d) selectively transmitting a second predetermined signal to the first site; at the first site:
(e) receiving the second predetermined signal; (f) in response thereto, transmitting a substantially unabridged version of said at least a portion of the information transmitted in step (c) to facilitate a relatively detailed examination of information selected at the second site.
PCT/US1990/002379 1989-05-05 1990-05-01 Partial information transmission for data base inquiry WO1990013966A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US34765089 true 1989-05-05 1989-05-05
US347,650 1989-05-05

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1990013966A1 true true WO1990013966A1 (en) 1990-11-15

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/US1990/002379 WO1990013966A1 (en) 1989-05-05 1990-05-01 Partial information transmission for data base inquiry

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO1990013966A1 (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0651928A1 (en) * 1992-07-20 1995-05-10 Automated Medical Access Corporation Automated high definition/resolution image storage retrieval and transmission system
WO1998003008A1 (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-01-22 Ericsson, Inc. Method for transmitting multiresolution image data in a radio frequency communications system
WO1998003009A1 (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-01-22 Ericsson, Inc. Method for transmitting superimposed image data in a radio frequency communication system
US7116833B2 (en) 2002-12-23 2006-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Method of transmitting selected regions of interest of digital video data at selected resolutions
CN103414742A (en) * 2013-07-03 2013-11-27 百度在线网络技术(北京)有限公司 Image transmission method and system

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2581462A (en) * 1947-04-29 1952-01-08 Int Standard Electric Corp Multipulse voice-frequency code signaling circuit
US3340504A (en) * 1964-01-27 1967-09-05 Teletype Corp Error detection and correction system with block synchronization
US3824547A (en) * 1972-11-29 1974-07-16 Sigma Syst Inc Communications system with error detection and retransmission
US4261018A (en) * 1979-06-18 1981-04-07 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Progressive image transmission

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2581462A (en) * 1947-04-29 1952-01-08 Int Standard Electric Corp Multipulse voice-frequency code signaling circuit
US3340504A (en) * 1964-01-27 1967-09-05 Teletype Corp Error detection and correction system with block synchronization
US3824547A (en) * 1972-11-29 1974-07-16 Sigma Syst Inc Communications system with error detection and retransmission
US4261018A (en) * 1979-06-18 1981-04-07 Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated Progressive image transmission

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0651928A1 (en) * 1992-07-20 1995-05-10 Automated Medical Access Corporation Automated high definition/resolution image storage retrieval and transmission system
EP0651928A4 (en) * 1992-07-20 1995-11-15 Automated Medical Access Corp Automated high definition/resolution image storage retrieval and transmission system.
WO1998003008A1 (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-01-22 Ericsson, Inc. Method for transmitting multiresolution image data in a radio frequency communications system
WO1998003009A1 (en) * 1996-07-16 1998-01-22 Ericsson, Inc. Method for transmitting superimposed image data in a radio frequency communication system
GB2331654A (en) * 1996-07-16 1999-05-26 Ericsson Ge Mobile Inc Method for transmitting multiresolution image data in a radio frequency communications system
US5940117A (en) * 1996-07-16 1999-08-17 Ericsson, Inc. Method for transmitting multiresolution image data in a radio frequency communication system
GB2331654B (en) * 1996-07-16 2000-07-12 Ericsson Inc Method for transmitting multiresolution image data in a radio frequency communications system
US7116833B2 (en) 2002-12-23 2006-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Method of transmitting selected regions of interest of digital video data at selected resolutions
US7512283B2 (en) 2002-12-23 2009-03-31 Eastman Kodak Company Method of transmitting selected regions of interest of digital video data at selected resolutions
CN103414742A (en) * 2013-07-03 2013-11-27 百度在线网络技术(北京)有限公司 Image transmission method and system
CN103414742B (en) * 2013-07-03 2016-12-28 百度在线网络技术(北京)有限公司 An image-transmission method and system

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