WO1990009621A1 - Drying - Google Patents

Drying Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1990009621A1
WO1990009621A1 PCT/GB1990/000191 GB9000191W WO9009621A1 WO 1990009621 A1 WO1990009621 A1 WO 1990009621A1 GB 9000191 W GB9000191 W GB 9000191W WO 9009621 A1 WO9009621 A1 WO 9009621A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
material
sensor
paper
apparatus according
drying
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB1990/000191
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Edward Charles Timothy Samuel Glover
Martyn Stuart Glover
Original Assignee
Kodak Limited
Eastman Kodak Company
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB8903064.7 priority Critical
Priority to GB898903064A priority patent/GB8903064D0/en
Application filed by Kodak Limited, Eastman Kodak Company filed Critical Kodak Limited
Publication of WO1990009621A1 publication Critical patent/WO1990009621A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F26DRYING
    • F26BDRYING SOLID MATERIALS OR OBJECTS BY REMOVING LIQUID THEREFROM
    • F26B25/00Details of general application not covered by group F26B21/00 or F26B23/00
    • F26B25/22Controlling the drying process in dependence on liquid content of solid materials or objects
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F26DRYING
    • F26BDRYING SOLID MATERIALS OR OBJECTS BY REMOVING LIQUID THEREFROM
    • F26B3/00Drying solid materials or objects by processes involving the application of heat
    • F26B3/28Drying solid materials or objects by processes involving the application of heat by radiation, e.g. from the sun
    • F26B3/283Drying solid materials or objects by processes involving the application of heat by radiation, e.g. from the sun in combination with convection
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03DAPPARATUS FOR PROCESSING EXPOSED PHOTOGRAPHIC MATERIALS; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
    • G03D15/00Apparatus for treating processed material
    • G03D15/02Drying; Glazing
    • G03D15/022Drying of filmstrips

Abstract

It is known to dry photographic paper using radiant heat and air streams passing over the surface of the paper. However, it is important that the paper is not over- or under-dried. Described herein is a method and apparatus which dries photographic paper without the risk of over- or under-drying it. This is achieved by sensing the moisture remaining in the paper after it has passed through an initial heating stage, and using the sensed moisture content to control the power supplied to heaters and other devices in subsequent heating stages which assist in the removal of moisture from the paper.

Description

DRYING " - The present invention relates to the drying of materials, particularly, but not exclusively, sheet or web materials such as photographic paper and film. A number of methods are known for drying photographic paper, for example that shown in -British Patent Specification GB-A-1561897.' This method." involves directing radiant heat only on to the non—image—bearing side of the photographic paper as it travels through a drying chamber and simultaneously causing a stream of air to flow over the Image-bearing side of the paper.

When drying photographic paper, it' isras important to ensure that the paper is not over— ried as it is that is not under—dried. The disclosure of GB—A-1561897 does not in fact indicate that this is a factor to be taken into consideration.

It is therefore an object of the present"' invention to provide a method and apparatus for ensuring that the material being dried is not over- or under—dried.

According to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of drying a material comprising the steps of applying heat to at least one side of the material; and sensing the amount of moisture remaining in the material after it has been heated so as to determine whether any further drying is required.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is also provided apparatus for drying a material comprising heater means for applying heat to at least one side of the material, characterised in that at least one sensor is provided for measuring-the amount of moisture remaining in the material after it has received heat from the heater means so as to determine whether any further drying is required.

Advantageously, the heater means comprises at least two heating stages, at least one sensor being positioned between adjacent stages.

Each sensor may be connected to control means which controls power supplied to the heater means. The apparatus may further comprise blower means for blowing air on to at least one side of the material, and each sensor may be also connected to the control means in order to control the power supplied to the blower means. Measurement of the moisture remaining in the material can be achieved by any convenient method. In one method, at least one of the sensors may be a capacitance sensor. Alternatively, contact conductive resistance sensors may be used. For a better understanding of the present invention, reference will now be made, by way of example only, to the accompanying drawings in which:—

Figure 1 is a side elevation of drying apparatus according to the present invention; and Figure 2 is a schematic block diagram of a circuit which may be used in controlling the apparatus of Figure 1.

Although the following description is directed to the drying of photographic paper it is emphasised that it is equally applicable to the drying of any material, particularly in sheet or web form.

Figure 1 illustrates drying apparatus in which a sheet or web of photographic paper 2 is being dried. The paper 2 passes through the apparatus with its emulsion side uppermost.

Infra-red heaters 4, 4' are positioned below the path of travel of the photographic paper 2, and are arranged in two stages. These heaters 4, 4' are used to heat the wet emulsion layer of the paper, by conduction, through the base on to which the emulsion layer is coated. A reflector 18 is positioned around each heater 4, 41 so that most of the heat generated by the heater is directed upwards on to the base of the photographic paper 2.

At the same time as heat is applied to the paper 2 through its base, unheated air is blown pn to the emulsion side of the paper 2 by fans 6. This enables water vapour released from the surface of the paper 2 to be carried away.

Squeegee rollers 8 are provided at 'the" entr to the apparatus, the paper 2 entering the apparatus between these rollers. The rollers 8 remove surface water which then passes out through a drain outlet 10.

Transport rollers 12 are provided at the exit from the apparatus. These rollers 12 direct the dried paper 2 on to further processing stages, for example, to cutting apparatus which cuts the paper into individual prints.

Figure imgf000005_0001
2 i d t f h d i t A sensor 14 is positioned halfway along* he path which the paper 2 takes through the drying apparatus, that is between heater stages 4 and 4'.

The sensor 14 senses the amount of moisture left in the paper 2 as it passes that sensor (after passing through heaters 4). The sensor 14 uses a proportional

j capacitance technique to determine the amount o »f moisture remaining in the paper.

From the measurements made by the sensor 14, the power supplied to the heaters 4' which follow sensor 14 (in the direction of travel of the paper) is controlled so as to, in turn, control the amount of further drying that takes place.

Although only one sensor 14 is shown after the first two heaters 4, further sensors could be provided at that position if desired.

A fan 16 circulates air in the space 40 to provide a small quantity of cooling air for the sensor 14 and the backs of reflectors 18.

Wire guides 20 are provided to ensure that the paper 2 is transported across the heaters 4, 41 to the transport rollers 12. A sensor 22 is positioned after the transport rollers 12 so as to provide a final check on the amount of moisture in the paper 2 as it leaves the apparatus.

A circuit which may be used to control the apparatus of Figure 1 is shown in Figure 2. The circuit comprises a central logic controller 24 which has inputs 26 and 28 from the sensors 14 and 22 (not shown), and outputs 30, 32, 34 and 36 which are connected to the fans 6, fan 16, transport rollers 12 and heaters 4, 4' respectively (also not shown).

The present invention has the advantage that the power consumption is minimised and the danger of overheating the paper is avoided. Also, the amount of drying is controlled independently of the temperature or humidity of the air being used to dry the material. When the present invention is used in a dryer which operates with infra-red radiation and unheated air, it is very fast. In particular, a high level of power can be applied at the initial stage and then the need for any further drying determined as described above.

The present invention can be used in processing machines to dry coated exposed and processed material. It can also be used in drying any web or material, for example in coating operations, or in drying chemical solids out of solutions or other materials.

Although in the above described arrangement, use is made of non-contacting heaters, contact heating using a hot surface can also be employed where appropriate. For example, the wire guides 20 in contact with the base of the paper could be heated directly. Furthermore, recycled hot air can also be employed.

Capacitance sensing is- the preferred- arrangement, although contact conductive resistance sensing can also be used.

Other heating arrangements could also be employed, for example those using infra—red or microwave radiation.

Although as described above the arrangement utilises heating the material from one "side and blowing air from the other side, it is emphasised that any other suitable arrangement could be used as long as the material is heated from at least one side. For example, both the heating and the blowing of air could be on the same side of the material. The material could be heated from more than one side. Similarly, the air could be blown from more than one side»

Although as described above, the paper can pass through two heating stages, it is emphasised that any suitable number of heating stages can be employed as desired.

Furthermore, as an alternative to the heating stages being provided by physically successive heaters, they could be provided by the paper being exposed to the same heaters more than once by recycling the paper through the same heaters.

The arrangement described above has the added advantage that it can be used under any climatic conditions without requiring further adjustment. Naturally, adjustment will need to be made to accommodate materials having different physical characteristics.

Claims

1. A method of drying a material (2) comprising the steps of:— applying heat to at least one side of the material (2); and sensing the amount of moisture remaining in the material (2) after it has been heated so as to determine whether any further drying is required.
2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising the step of blowing air on to at least one side of the material (2).
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein the amount of moisture sensed is then used in controlling the air being blown.
4. A method according to claim 1, wherein the amount of moisture sensed is then used in controlling the amount of any further heat applied.
5. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the applied heat is infra—red radiation.
6. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the material (2) is in sheet or web form.
7. Apparatus for drying a material (2) comprising heater means (4, 4') for applying heat to at least one side of the material (2), characterised in that at least one sensor (14) is provided for measuring the amount of moisture remaining in the material (2) after it has received heat from the heater means (4) so as to determine whether any further drying is required.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the heater means comprises at least two heating stages (4, 4') and at least one sensor (14) positioned between adjacent stages (4, 4').
9. Apparatus according to claim 8, wherein each sensor (14, 22) is connected to control means (24) which controls power supplied to the heater means (4, 4').
10. Apparatus according to claim 7, further comprising blower means (6) for blowing air on to at least one side of the material (2).
11. Apparatus according to claim 10, wherein each sensor (14, 22) is connected to control means (24) which controls power supplied to the blower means (6).
12. Apparatus according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein at least one sensor (14, 22) is a capacitance sensor.
13. Apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 11, wherein at least one sensor (14, 22) is a contact conductive resistance sensor.
14. Apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 11, wherein the heater means (4, 4') emits infra-red radiation.
15. Apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 11, wherein the material (2) is in sheet or web form.
PCT/GB1990/000191 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 Drying WO1990009621A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB8903064.7 1989-02-10
GB898903064A GB8903064D0 (en) 1989-02-10 1989-02-10 Drying

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1990616011 DE69016011D1 (en) 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 Drying device.
DE1990616011 DE69016011T2 (en) 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 Drying device.
KR1019910700877A KR920701867A (en) 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 How to dry
EP19900903027 EP0458825B1 (en) 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 Apparatus for drying

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1990009621A1 true WO1990009621A1 (en) 1990-08-23

Family

ID=10651502

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/GB1990/000191 WO1990009621A1 (en) 1989-02-10 1990-02-08 Drying

Country Status (9)

Country Link
EP (2) EP0458825B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3107394B2 (en)
KR (1) KR920701867A (en)
AT (1) AT117102T (en)
AU (1) AU5090390A (en)
CA (1) CA2046912A1 (en)
DE (2) DE69016011T2 (en)
GB (1) GB8903064D0 (en)
WO (1) WO1990009621A1 (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5296873A (en) * 1992-05-01 1994-03-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Airflow system for thermal ink-jet printer
US5399039A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-03-21 Hewlett-Packard Company Ink-jet printer with precise print zone media control
US5406321A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-04-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Paper preconditioning heater for ink-jet printer
US5406316A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-04-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Airflow system for ink-jet printer
US5428384A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-06-27 Hewlett-Packard Company Heater blower system in a color ink-jet printer
US5461408A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-10-24 Hewlett-Packard Company Dual feed paper path for ink-jet printer
US5467119A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-11-14 Hewlett-Packard Company Ink-jet printer with print heater having variable heat energy for different media
US5479199A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-12-26 Hewlett-Packard Company Print area radiant heater for ink-jet printer
US5581289A (en) * 1993-04-30 1996-12-03 Hewlett-Packard Company Multi-purpose paper path component for ink-jet printer
US5589321A (en) * 1993-07-20 1996-12-31 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Method of and apparatus for controlling drying of photographic material
US5774141A (en) * 1995-10-26 1998-06-30 Hewlett-Packard Company Carriage-mounted inkjet aerosol reduction system

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2249619A (en) * 1990-10-11 1992-05-13 Management & Guidance Services Drying apparatus
EP0508254A1 (en) * 1991-04-12 1992-10-14 Van Brandwijk Systems Programming B.V. Process and apparatus for heat treatment of a web having a fluid or paste-like composition applied to it
DE4206048C1 (en) * 1992-02-27 1993-01-07 Agfa-Gevaert Ag, 5090 Leverkusen, De
GB9216334D0 (en) * 1992-07-31 1992-09-16 Kodak Ltd Film transport means for use in a film dryer
US7538299B2 (en) * 2006-09-27 2009-05-26 Xerox Corporation Media conditioner module
DE102014111807B4 (en) * 2014-08-19 2019-08-22 Wolfgang Balga Apparatus and method for processing film

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1023002B (en) * 1954-11-20 1958-01-23 Mahlo Heinz Dr Ing Method and apparatus for controlling drying machines, in particular fabric dryers, at constant moisture content of the outgoing dry material
US3864843A (en) * 1972-03-14 1975-02-11 Agfa Gevaert Ag Apparatus for continuously measuring the surface temperature of moving webs
US4142301A (en) * 1976-10-20 1979-03-06 Ciba-Geigy Ag Method and apparatus for drying photographic material
WO1988008949A1 (en) * 1987-05-14 1988-11-17 Imatran Voima Oy Method and apparatus for drying planar material, e.g., veneer sheet

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS5469689A (en) * 1977-11-15 1979-06-04 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Mositure rate control system

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE1023002B (en) * 1954-11-20 1958-01-23 Mahlo Heinz Dr Ing Method and apparatus for controlling drying machines, in particular fabric dryers, at constant moisture content of the outgoing dry material
US3864843A (en) * 1972-03-14 1975-02-11 Agfa Gevaert Ag Apparatus for continuously measuring the surface temperature of moving webs
US4142301A (en) * 1976-10-20 1979-03-06 Ciba-Geigy Ag Method and apparatus for drying photographic material
WO1988008949A1 (en) * 1987-05-14 1988-11-17 Imatran Voima Oy Method and apparatus for drying planar material, e.g., veneer sheet

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
PATENT ABSTRACTS OF JAPAN, Vol. 3, No. 93 (M-68), 8 August 1979; & JP-A-5469689 (Mitsubishi Denki K.K.) 4 June 1979 *

Cited By (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5479199A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-12-26 Hewlett-Packard Company Print area radiant heater for ink-jet printer
US5399039A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-03-21 Hewlett-Packard Company Ink-jet printer with precise print zone media control
US5589866A (en) * 1992-05-01 1996-12-31 Hewlett-Packard Company Air evacuation system for ink-jet printer
US5406316A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-04-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Airflow system for ink-jet printer
US5428384A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-06-27 Hewlett-Packard Company Heater blower system in a color ink-jet printer
US5446487A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-08-29 Hewlett-Packard Company Air evacuation system for ink-jet printer
US5296873A (en) * 1992-05-01 1994-03-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Airflow system for thermal ink-jet printer
US5467119A (en) * 1992-05-01 1995-11-14 Hewlett-Packard Company Ink-jet printer with print heater having variable heat energy for different media
US5461408A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-10-24 Hewlett-Packard Company Dual feed paper path for ink-jet printer
US5581289A (en) * 1993-04-30 1996-12-03 Hewlett-Packard Company Multi-purpose paper path component for ink-jet printer
US5406321A (en) * 1993-04-30 1995-04-11 Hewlett-Packard Company Paper preconditioning heater for ink-jet printer
US5589321A (en) * 1993-07-20 1996-12-31 Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. Method of and apparatus for controlling drying of photographic material
US5774141A (en) * 1995-10-26 1998-06-30 Hewlett-Packard Company Carriage-mounted inkjet aerosol reduction system

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH04503244A (en) 1992-06-11
DE69016011T2 (en) 1995-08-10
JP3107394B2 (en) 2000-11-06
AT117102T (en) 1995-01-15
EP0458825A1 (en) 1991-12-04
AU5090390A (en) 1990-09-05
DE69016011D1 (en) 1995-02-23
EP0383484A1 (en) 1990-08-22
KR920701867A (en) 1992-08-12
EP0458825B1 (en) 1995-01-11
GB8903064D0 (en) 1989-03-30
CA2046912A1 (en) 1990-08-11

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