WO1989000672A1 - Process for detecting a nearly pinpoint, essentially force-free contact of small area between a probe and a solid object, and contact detector - Google Patents

Process for detecting a nearly pinpoint, essentially force-free contact of small area between a probe and a solid object, and contact detector

Info

Publication number
WO1989000672A1
WO1989000672A1 PCT/DE1988/000388 DE8800388W WO8900672A1 WO 1989000672 A1 WO1989000672 A1 WO 1989000672A1 DE 8800388 W DE8800388 W DE 8800388W WO 8900672 A1 WO8900672 A1 WO 8900672A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
resonator
probe
surface
contact
connected
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DE1988/000388
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Dirk-Michael Rupp
Jürgen KISING
Original Assignee
Krautkrämer Gmbh & Co.
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B3/00Instruments as specified in the subgroups and characterised by the use of mechanical measuring means
    • G01B3/002Details
    • G01B3/008Arrangements for controlling the measuring force
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01HMEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OR ULTRASONIC, SONIC OR INFRASONIC WAVES
    • G01H13/00Measuring resonant frequency
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/40Investigating hardness or rebound hardness
    • G01N3/405Investigating hardness or rebound hardness by determining the vibration frequency of a sensing element in contact with the specimen

Abstract

In a process for detecting a virtually pinpoint, essentially force-free contact of small area between a probe (28) and a solid object (70), a rod-shaped resonator (22) having a probe (28) at its free end is excited at its natural oscillation frequency in its longitudinal direction by an electrical frequency generator (30). The resonator (22) is connected to a receiver (32) which monitors the amplitude of these oscillations in order to detect changes in amplitude. A contact signal is emitted if the amplitude drops by a predetermined value, for example 1 decibel, when the probe (28) approaches the object (70).

Description

Title: A method for detecting a small area, almost punktfö gen and largely force-free contact between a Sun and a solid object, and touch detector

The invention relates to a method for detecting a gene kleinfläch, almost point-like and largely force-free contact clipboard a probe and a solid object, and an apparatus for carrying out this process (touch detector).

In a variety of measurement method, the detection of a possible gentle contact between a probe and an object is erwünsch as an example may be mentioned with a mechan rule dipstick hardness testing and the length measurement.

In the Vickers hardness test, the upper surface of the permanent pyramid impression is determined for a given test force. The surface can be calculated, the depth of the indentation concert, when the length difference betwee nearly force-free touch contact and penetration depth after removal of the test load is known. There must be distinguished between the purely elastic component un the remaining portion of the deformation under test load. This distinction is to other hardness testing methods beneficial.

In the length measurement, especially a measurement automatically carried out length, a defined contact force of the mechanical Längenmeßstab is a prerequisite for an accurate measurement. At different Anlagekräft different elastic and also among other permanent deformation may occur at individual measuring points, thereby falsifying the measurement result is ver¬.

Under a small surface area, almost point-like contact a Berüh tion is understood in the z. B. rich is the diagonal of a Vickers pyramid in Be¬ to one micron and even less. So is contacting surfaces, which are mostly not in a light microscope, at best - if at all - in a scanning electron microscope, can be detected. Unt a largely force-free contact contact forces are in the area

-4 (milli newton), and including, for example, 10 N, understood.

In the previously known from DE-OS 3424514 hardness tester, the difference between the impression depth with respect to the (undisturbed) surface of the object is determined directly by contact of the probe with the surface of the object. Rather, at least two feet releasing Auf¬ are provided adjacent the probe against which the probe across the surface verscho¬ can ben. The starting point for the measurement of the penetration depth is the state of the probe, wherein the probe tip on a continuous dots by landing of these feet is straight. but the processing performed in this way, measurement of the (undisturbed) surface is only accurate when the auszumessende surface between the two straight runs Aufsetzpunkten ver¬. All deviations from a straight-line connection between de two lead Aufsetzpunkten to errors in the measurement of the indentation depth. In addition, the amount of traction force to the aufgest- the Aufsetzfüße on the surface of the object zt are not constant, so that further measurement errors result from the fact that the Aufsetzfuße be more or less strongly pushed into the auszumessende surface. Which one can zwa counteract characterized in that relatively large-area Aufsetzfüße, example, a Tastfußrohr used, thereby but a zero line or zero plane is defined, the auszumessender with rough surfaces counter-sized companies in general, not with the actual point of impact (initial contact) de onto the surface coincides to moving the probe with the surface.

Starting from the method of the type and mentioned the working according to this process devices of the present invention is to abandon the invention to provide a method and a device with which di detection of the first contact is a possible to the surface of a solid item of the zoom out probe. In other words, such a small area as possible and as possible SUC at such low contact forces gender touching contact of the probe with the surface to be measured is to be sensing.

This object is verfahrenεmäßig achieved in that the probe is designed as a diamond tip prior preferably is arranged at the free end portion of a rod-shaped resonator which is excited by a connected thereto electrical frequency generator to natural oscillations in its Längsrichtun and is connected to a receiver, monitoring the amplitude of these oscillations on amplitude changes and a touch signal is displayed when the amplitude on the approach of the probe to the subject-matter falls to a predetermined value, for example, a value of a decibel.

According to the invention therefore directly the contact of the probe itself detected with de surface to be measured and displayed, with an indirect measurement, such as is known for example from DE-OS 34 24 514 verbun which errors are avoided and do not occur. At the same time can auc small surface areas such as edges of gears in dene the space is too small for the placement of two Aufsetzfüßen be ausgemes sen. In connection with a hardness test, for example, at low loads or during the micro-hardness testing, in the present invention method enables the initial contact and therefore the level of the (undisturbed) upper surface is just detected with the probe, which is also used later testing for hardness ( for example, Vickers diamond). At length Messunge the ability to obtain reproducible contact forces results in un this way smallest differences in length, such as steps for For measure. The method can be thereby also used to scan a surface precisely registered and reproduced. In this case, the process of the invention is particularly suitable for an automatic sensing, for example an automatic or an automatic hardness testing Ausmes¬ sen an object. Thus, any shaped surface spielsweise a workpiece, on the one hand is scanned point by point, but it is possible in the inventive method also possible to move the probe in the surface itself, so to constantly keep the surface in contact, the contact force is kept constant, that the

Amplitude of vibration of the rod-shaped resonator is maintained within a range vorgegebe¬ NEN.

Device, the object is achieved by a contact detector having a housing in which a rod-shaped resonator is mounted for oscillation. At its free end it has a probe which is carried out separately or integral part of the Resonatorstabes. The resonator rod is connected to a frequency generator, through which he is excited to Längseigenschwingun¬ gen. It is further connected to a receiver tude a circuit for detecting amplitude variations or for displaying the Ampli¬ the rod has natural oscillations.

Although such rod-shaped resonators are in principle from US-3,153,388 Patent¬ writing known. in the described there resonators but the frequency shift of the oscillation frequency of the rod in contact with the rod tip is determined with a solid object. With elastic coupling of the probe with a mass of the rod a displacement of the rod-shaped resonator Resonanz¬ frequency to higher values ​​occurs because a zu¬ additional restoring force acts on the oscillating system. The size of this restoring force and thus the said frequency shift depends on the area of ​​contact between the probe and auszumessender surface and its elasti¬ schem behavior. An amplitude change or measurement of the amplitude is not clear from this prior art process. The previously known method is suitable to be kαtibiniert with the inventive method. quenzverschiebung in measurement of both an amplitude change, and therefore a frequency is a very universal hardness measurement, insbeson particular a hardness measurement by Vickers after the Tiefenmeßverfahren (HVT), also possible. In addition to the experience obtained with the known stabför-shaped resonators largely go to the inventive Ver¬ or transferred the contact detector. Insofar as the disclosure of the said US patent and also the content of a Offenbarungs¬ is further described in the DE-OS 37 20 625 the disclosure of the present application involved.

In a further development of the touch detector is proposed to manufacture the rod-like resonator made of a piezoelectric material and attach electrodes connected to the frequency generator and the receiver. Alternatively, the rod-shaped resonator can also be made of a magnetostrictive material, wherein the excitation then takes place via the coil, which in turn ver¬ to the frequency generator and the receiver are connected. Such a design allows bars inexpensive resonator, the skewers can even form the probe so that a separa probe is not necessary.

In another embodiment, however, the resonator can be taken from metal Gefe, it is then connected to the ultrasonic transducers ihrerseit connected to the frequency generator or to the receiver. To Kontruktion reference is made to the above-mentioned Offenlegungsschrift 37 20 62, in which is also stated that a preferably slender be convicted resonator shows greater Frenquenzänderungen upon contact with a subject-matter as thick resonators (seen in relation to the length). Be Experiments have shown that this relationship also applies to di amplitude change. Lean resonators show greater Amplitudenände conclusions on contact with an object than thicker resonators. Aufgrun this circumstance is an amplitude detection and a Frequenzmes be sung kαnbinieren low on the same resonator.

The circuit for detecting an amplitude change or display de amplitudes of the vibrations in the rod own receiver is in itself any un can be performed according to the prior art. The amplitude can digi tal or measured analog and, optionally, an averaging practice some or more amplitudes are performed. Instead of a cash immediacy amplitude measurement and detection of the VO signal with the zero line enclosed area (an integration) is possible. Similarly, a point-scanning elongation is conceivable. For detecting an amplification tudenänderung to bridge circuits, discriminators, Komparatore and the like are suitable.

For a length measurement, it is advantageous when either the probe of the rod-shaped resonator in the region of a Schwingungskno with a length meter, for example, a micrometer screw, de mirror of the interferometer, an inductive displacement sensor, ter a Strichgit or the like is selbs or preferably tens connected. In particular, the arrangement of the lengths diameter in the range of a vibration node of the resonator is advantageous because the dimensions of the touch detector remain extremely small in the Sond and smallest areas can be fair as before. The amplitude of the longitudinal vibrations of the resonator are in the range nm, so that it would in any case practically does not affect the length measurement. but the advantage is supply node by coupling of the length in a diameter Schwin¬ obtained that is not intervened in the vibration characteristics of the resonator. The resonator must s are preferably clamped mechanically in s / 4 in a portion of its total length anyway. This clamping can also serve the connection with the length gauge.

Further advantages and features of the invention emerge from the remaining subclaims and the following description is not limiting to understanding embodiments of the invention which will be explained in more detail with reference to the drawings. In which:

Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the contact detector according to the invention, the housing is indicated by the dashed rectangle, for touch contact presence detection device has a separate display device that is connected to the housing via a connecting line,

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal section through a touch detector, which is also formed as low-load hardness tester,

Fig. 3 is a side view of a rod-like resonator, which is connected to a length measuring apparatus, the schaulichung here for better Veran¬ is designed as Mikrcmeteruhr, and

Fig .. 4 is a schematic representation in side view of an apparatus for measurement of a surface (a relief).

The touch detector of Figure 1 has a housing indicated by dashed lines 20 that leads as a handheld device with ausge¬ substantially pen shape as shown in FIG. 2 In this housing 20, a slender, rod-shaped resonator 22 is swingably mounted. It is a total of about sixty millimeters long and consists of two cylindrical parts which are interconnected by a frustoconical part. In an upper, approximately thirty millimeters long section has a diameter of three millimeters, which even just sufficiently large area for the application of ultrasonic transducers 24, 26 is present on the metallic rod. In the lower part it has a diameter of two millimeters, this area is about twenty millimeters long. Due to this slim design of the resonator 22 little space and only limited access is required for the measuring process. Thus, E can also inaccessible parts, for example flanks of gears inside walls of the like can be measured pipes, blind holes and.

End portion located at its free, according to FIG 2 is outside of the housing 20 is attached to a probe 28 on the resonator 22, which is formed generally al diamond tip, in a simplified embodiment, but also a metal tip or integrally connected with αem resonator tip may be. For the formation of the rod-shaped resonator 22, its ultrasonic transducers 24, 26 and the probe 28 is made to the literature on the UCI (Ultrasonic Contact I pedance) process.

The upper end of the resonator 22 oppositely arranged ultrasonic transducer 24 are connected to a frequency generator 30 which i figure 1 is designated as a transmitter. The two arranged approximately in the longitudinal center of the resonator 22 other ultrasonic transducer 26 are connected to a receiver 32nd The metallic resonator 22, and transmitter 30 and receiver 32 are connected to ground. The resonator 22 has a total length of s, and is clamped at s / 4 (arrow 34 in Figure 1) and sαnit connected to the housing 20 at this location. Because of the described clamping only the first harmonic of a proper oscillation in longitudina- ler direction can be formed, it will be excited by the transmitter 30th About de receiver, the resulting vibration is requested, the receiver 32 has in the embodiment shown a - not shown here - circuit for detecting the vibration amplitude or a change in the oscillation amplitude for adoption. In the simplest case, an oscilloscope is connected to the output Empfänger¬ with which the oscillation amplitude can be monitored. In an alternative, which is suitable for an automatic measurement, the receiver 32 has a memory which is stored in the each of the amplitude of the last vibratory (or an average of the amplitudes of a number of past oscillations). This ge stored value, the current value of the amplitude is compared, may occur averaging here. Soft the compared Sig¬ dimensional by a predetermined threshold value, for example, a dB, from one another, so the Recipient 32 a located in the housing 20 Steuerschal¬ tung 36, a touch signal submitted that in a base unit 38 that is separate from housing 20 and is processed further is connected to the latter via a line 40.

For detecting the amplitude of the vibrations detected by receiver 32, the known processes for that purpose can be used, spielsweise, a peak detector may be provided, but it is also possible to integrate the area enclosed with the zero line area of ​​the signal curve. In the control circuit 36, individual parameters of the rod-shaped resonator can be stored in a preferably non-volatile spoke 22nd In this way, the characteristic for a particular resonator 22 values ​​within the designed as a hand-held device Ge häuses 20 are available, so that the basic unit 38 boards with different Handge¬ can be connected. Among the parameters of the rod-shaped resonator 22 include the parameters of its associated ultrasonic transducer 24, 26, the individual training on the vibration behavior of the Resona¬ door 22 itself has an influence. Also, the concrete conditions of the holding tion in the area of ​​clamping 34 are taken into account.

Figure 2 shows sectional images of a hand held device for Mikroharteprufung unte load, on the basis of such a combined device, the advantage of a known per se UCI measurement by detecting the frequency shift and de monitoring the amplitude of the invention will be shown:

The resonator 22 protrudes about ten percent of its total length s of the housing 20 freely formed from the lower end of a tubular body with al its lower end connected to the probe 28. The resonator 22 is innerhal this tubular body surrounded by a guide tube 42nd It forms in the lower region of several transverse to its axial thread, the fixing screws 44 are screwed i, which fix the resonator 22 on the adjusting 34th In a corresponding distance of the resonator gate 22 from the other end portion of an O-ring 46 is disposed between the guide tube 42 and the resonator. 2 On both sides of it there are two Ultraschallwandle 24, 26, which are incorporated translated into corresponding recesses of the metallic rod and permanently connected with this.

The guide tube 42 is engaged around by two cylindrical ring-shaped bearings 48, one of which is located in the lower end region and the other about the center of the i Rohrkδrpers. disposed between the threaded connector for di fixing screws 44 and the lower annular surface of the upper slide bearing 48 is a compression coil spring 50, the guide tube 42 and the resonator 22 Dami presses against the lower end of the pen-like housing. 2 There, a step is provided inside the housing 20, which forms a stop.

During a measurement, the housing is in a lowerable stand (not Darge asserted) clamped and motor ren against a surface auszumessende gefah. The movement towards this surface is detected by a Längenmes SERS (not shown). Kαnmt during the advance the probe 28 in Kontakt with the surface of the object, an amplitude drop in the receptions 32 is registered. The achieved at this time indicating the length meter is detected and stored. Now, if the housing 20 is increasingly pressed in continuation de movement against the surface, the resonator 2 and so that its guide tube 42 deflects against the action of the spring 50 to hold.

The upper end portion of the guide tube 42 is finished, it is associated with egg switch 52, the switching member is operated at a certain Relativbewegun between guide tube 42 and housing 20th This Relativpositio is adjusted so that in it the desired test pressure is present. De switch 52 is connected to electronics 54, which is located in the upper inner space of the housing 20 and the un the control circuit 36 ​​includes the receiver 32, the transmitter 30th It is in turn connected to a connector 56, which is arranged in the upper end region of the housing twentieth

If the predetermined test force is reached, the frequency shift de resonator frequency is detected and from this the size of the contact area between the probe 28 and the impression given by it determined on the surface of the object to be measured. The advance of the housing 20 opposite to the surface will not be continued to exceed not über¬ the test load. The measurement of the frequency shift is done in a very short period of time, for example, twenty milliseconds, reference is made to this in the disclosure of the abovementioned DE-OS 37 20 625th Un it- ly after reaching the test load of the motor feeding the Gehäu¬ ses is reversed 20, the housing 20 thus moved away from the surface again. It will now be taken back to a change in amplitude: Loses the probe 28 to their contact with the surface to be measured of the object, the amplitude increases again. The present at this time indicating the length of the blade is detected and compared with that which was found when Erstkon¬ clock. The difference between the two displays is the depth of the constant impression that the probe has caused in the surface 28th

The principle of length measurement is to be in the following with reference to FIG 3 verdeut¬ light: In figure 3, a resonator 22 is shown as it is used in the device according to FIG. 2 It has at its lower, free end an axial blind bore 58 can be inserted into the removable and interchangeable, the probe 28, which is not shown in FIG. 3 In contrast to the illustration according to FIG 2 the resonator 22 has and according to figure 3 in its Einspannungsbe- _ a collar 60 having the same diameter as the upper cylindrical end portion of the resonator 22 in the embodiment shown (three millimeter). In the area of ​​serving the clamping collar 60, the resonator 22 has a Schwingungεknoten. The collar 60 is a Meßstδßel 62 at a Mikrometeruhr 64th It is mounted so that the Relativbewegun¬ gene of the resonator 22 with respect to a reference, for example with respect to a carriage of a tripod guidance can be detected.

In a pure length measurement, for example, as shown in more detail in Figure 4, the resonator 22 with a raisable and lowerable slide (arrow 67) is connected to a tripod 68 which Mikrcmeteruhr 64 itself is connected to the carriage 76 of the stand 68, so that the displacement of Schlit¬ may be least 66 detects the direction of arrow 67 and measured.

In the illustration according to Figure 4, an object 70, whose upwardly facing surface is to be measured, mounted on a plate 72nd Above the object 70 is a tripod 68, the two lateral support and a held by this guide rail 74 has, on which a carriage 76 is slidably guided in the sense of the double arrow 78th the carriage 66 is at it at right angles to the guide rail 74 are arranged, which can be moto¬ process step within the meaning of the double arrow 67th By means of the device according to Figure 4, the profile of the surface of the object 70 can be detected either by point-scanning or by kontinuier¬ pending scanning. In punktweisem scanning the housing 20, which is clamped on the carriage 66 is lifted each object from the surface of the Gegen¬ 70, 78 (for example, one millimeter) further pushed a certain degree in the sense of the double arrow, then the carriage 66 is lowered again and determined the route, until the probe 28 of the housing 20 is again in contact with the surface of the object 70th Gradually will do so.

In the continuous scan, the motors of the carriage 76 to be on the one hand and carriage 66 on the other hand, is controlled so that the probe 28 always remains in contact with the contact surface of the object 70th This control is performed by monitoring the power consumed by receiver 32 oscillation amplitude of the resonator 22. The base unit 38 has its output connected it to the drive motors (line 80). The drive motors are operated so that the power consumed by receiver 32 oscillation amplitude remains within a predetermined bandwidth.

Claims

Title: A method for detecting a small area, called almost punktförmi and largely force-free contact between a Sond and a solid object, and BerührungsdetektorA nspr ü che
1. A method for detecting a small area, point-like as possible and largely force-free contact between a probe (28) un a solid object (70), characterized in that the preferably as a diamond tip being formed probe (28) at the free end portion of a bar-shaped resonator (22 is arranged), the (by a connected to it, electrical frequency generator 30) is excited into natural vibrations in its Längsrichtun and (to a receiver 32) is connected, the un monitored for changes in amplitude di amplitudes of these oscillations, a touch signal is displayed when the amplitude at approach de probe (28) to the object (70) by a predetermined value, for example, a decibel drop.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that at the same time changes the frequency of the vibrations are detected at the receptions.
3. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that for Ausmessun a surface of the object (70), the probe (28) over de surface is moved by motor and used therefor motors are controlled by the detected by the receiver amplitude signal so that the amplitude of the detected oscillation in a, its height remains nac a first contact corresponding height.
4. An apparatus for performing the method = according to claim 1 or 2 characterized by a housing (20) in which the rod-shaped Resonato (22) is mounted capable of oscillating, by a probe (28) at the free Endbe area of ​​the resonator (22) through one of the rod-shaped Resonato (22) connected and it exciting to the longitudinal natural oscillations F frequency generator (30) and is castle a to the resonator (22) receiver (32), the gene comprises a circuit for detecting Amplitudenänder or to display the amplitudes of the rod natural oscillations demonstration
5. Device according to claim 4, characterized in that the Resonat
(22) has a length s and s / 4 with the housing (20) (associated with the third
6. Device according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that d resonator (22) is made of a piezoelectric material having u electrodes which are connected to the frequency generator (30) and d receiver (32), or that it consists of a magnetostrictive material is manufactured and to the frequency generator (30) or d receiver (32) is connected via coils.
7. Device according to claim 4 or 5, characterized in that d resonator (22) made of metal and with ultrasonic transducers (2 26) is connected, in turn, to the frequency generator (30) bz to the receiver (32) are connected.
8. Device according to one of claims 4 to 7, characterized gekennzeichne that the probe (28) is integrally or releasably connected with the resonator is ve (22) connected.
9. Device according to one of claims 4 to 8, characterized gekennzeichne that the receiver (32) comprises an amplitude discriminator.
10. Device according to one of claims 4 to 9, characterized gekennzeichne that the resonator (22) in the region of an oscillation node to a length meter, for example Mikrometeruhr (64), a mirror an interferometer, an inductive displacement sensor or the like is laminated.
11. Device according to one of claims 4 to 10, characterized gekennzeichne that the resonator (22) slidably gel Gert in the housing in the longitudinal direction and relative to the housing via a spring (50) is supported, un that in the receiver (32) comprises a frequency meter, or a timepiece is pre-see for di duration of the oscillation frequency of the Resonatorstabes.
PCT/DE1988/000388 1987-07-20 1988-06-28 Process for detecting a nearly pinpoint, essentially force-free contact of small area between a probe and a solid object, and contact detector WO1989000672A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DEP3723933.3 1987-07-20
DE19873723933 DE3723933A1 (en) 1987-07-20 1987-07-20 A method for detecting a kleinflaechigen almost punktfoermigen and largely kraeftefreien contact between a probe and a fixed object, and beruehrungsdetektor

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1989000672A1 true true WO1989000672A1 (en) 1989-01-26

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DE4035076A1 (en) * 1990-11-05 1992-05-07 Jenoptik Jena Gmbh Arrangement for measuring linear dimensions on a structured surface of a measurement object
DE4035084A1 (en) * 1990-11-05 1992-05-07 Jenoptik Jena Gmbh Arrangement for measuring linear dimensions on a structured surface of a measurement object
WO1995008093A1 (en) * 1993-09-13 1995-03-23 Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung Handelnd Als Carl Zeiss Co-ordinate measuring instrument with a feeler in the form of a solid body oscillator
US5679945A (en) * 1995-03-31 1997-10-21 Cybermark, L.L.C. Intelligent card reader having emulation features
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DE102005054551B3 (en) * 2005-11-14 2006-12-28 Carl Von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg Terminal effecter e.g. micro manipulator, deflecting device for use at measuring or handling device, has electrical drives that are coupled with signal analyzer, which analyzes change of resonance signal in contact with object
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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4035076A1 (en) * 1990-11-05 1992-05-07 Jenoptik Jena Gmbh Arrangement for measuring linear dimensions on a structured surface of a measurement object
DE4035084A1 (en) * 1990-11-05 1992-05-07 Jenoptik Jena Gmbh Arrangement for measuring linear dimensions on a structured surface of a measurement object
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WO1995008093A1 (en) * 1993-09-13 1995-03-23 Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung Handelnd Als Carl Zeiss Co-ordinate measuring instrument with a feeler in the form of a solid body oscillator
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