WO1988002074A1 - Bolted coupling - Google Patents

Bolted coupling Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1988002074A1
WO1988002074A1 PCT/GB1986/000533 GB8600533W WO8802074A1 WO 1988002074 A1 WO1988002074 A1 WO 1988002074A1 GB 8600533 W GB8600533 W GB 8600533W WO 8802074 A1 WO8802074 A1 WO 8802074A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
bolt
sleeve
coupling
bolts
flats
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/GB1986/000533
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Thomas Walter Bunyan
Original Assignee
Pilgrim Engineering Developments Limited
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to GB08621300A priority Critical patent/GB2181511A/en
Application filed by Pilgrim Engineering Developments Limited filed Critical Pilgrim Engineering Developments Limited
Priority to PCT/GB1986/000533 priority patent/WO1988002074A1/en
Publication of WO1988002074A1 publication Critical patent/WO1988002074A1/en

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16DCOUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION; CLUTCHES; BRAKES
    • F16D1/00Couplings for rigidly connecting two coaxial shafts or other movable machine elements
    • F16D1/02Couplings for rigidly connecting two coaxial shafts or other movable machine elements for connecting two abutting shafts or the like
    • F16D1/033Couplings for rigidly connecting two coaxial shafts or other movable machine elements for connecting two abutting shafts or the like by clamping together two faces perpendicular to the axis of rotation, e.g. with bolted flanges
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16BDEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
    • F16B3/00Key-type connections; Keys
    • F16B3/06Key-type connections; Keys using taper sleeves
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16BDEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
    • F16B31/00Screwed connections specially modified in view of tensile load; Break-bolts
    • F16B31/04Screwed connections specially modified in view of tensile load; Break-bolts for maintaining a tensile load
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16BDEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
    • F16B31/00Screwed connections specially modified in view of tensile load; Break-bolts
    • F16B31/04Screwed connections specially modified in view of tensile load; Break-bolts for maintaining a tensile load
    • F16B31/043Prestressed connections tensioned by means of liquid, grease, rubber, explosive charge, or the like

Abstract

An expansion bolt especially for use in flanged couplings in drive shafting comprises a bolt having a tapered shank (7) and a cylindrical sleeve (10) having a complementary internal taper, the sleeve (10) being provided with a pair of diametrically opposed flats (11) in its cylindrical outer surface.

Description

Bolted coupling.
Field of the Invention
The invention is concerned with flanged connections of the kind used in joining together lengths of power transmission drive shafts. A specific example of such a drive shaft is the propeller shaft of a ship, where very large bending and torsional forces are also accompanied by severe vibration.
The Prior art
The traditional method of dealing with power transmission shaft joints is to use a flanged coupling with a number of equally-spaced stud bolts, each of which is heavily stressed to- prevent relative axial movement and to ensure maximum friction between the opposed faces of the flanges. To prevent relative radial movement under shear at least some of the bolts are of necessity "fitted"; they are precisely machined to be a tight force-fit into correspondingly machined holes in the flanges. If there is any relative radial movement, the resultant "fretting" will rapidly cause extensive damage which is both difficult and expensive to repair.
Fitted bolts are difficult to remove; it is often necessary to bore them out, re-machine the bolt holes and then make completely new, oversize bolts, in order to re-connect the coupling. In fact, it is normal to alternate fitted bolts (for shear forces) with plain bolts (for maximum axial force between the flange faces. ) In an attempt to eliminate fitted bolt couplings, it has been proposed to use expanding bolts. These bolts have a slightly tapered shank and fit inside tapered metal sleeves having a complementary internal taper. On tightening the bolt, the respective tapers parts co-operate so that the sleeve is expanded radially with respect to the axis of the bolt to fill the bolt hole through the flanged coupling. An example of such use of an expanding bolt is disclosed in GB-A-1510077.
Discussion of the problem
Marine propeller shaft couplings have by law to be dismantled periodically so that checks for damage can be made. The cost of this work is extremely high because of the time taken to do it. Even with the expansion bolts just mentioned it is not always possible to remove the bolts without damaging the bolt holes and in particular the inner surfaces of the holes. If there is damage and the holes need to be re-machined in situ in the ship, there will be a significant time delay in the dry dock. Such delays can cost over £50,000 a day for a large ship. There will also be the cost of making new, oversize expansion bolts and shells for the re-machined holes in the flanges. The reason for the difficulty of removing expansion bolts is believed to be that the distribution of metal around the holes in a flanged coupling is not symmetrical. Radially-outwards, there is relatively thin metal. Radially-inwards there is the central mass of the coupling. The conventional expansion bolt expands to apply a substantially uniform radially -directed force to the inner surface of the bolt hole, despite the fact that the surrounding material is not equally uniformly distributed. The result is to cause some radially-outwardly directed distortion of the flange material. This generates a bending force in the bolt itself, in addition to the shear forces applied when the coupling is in use. Plastic flow of the metal causes a slightly distorted hole and a bent new line bolt/expansion sleeve. The result is that the bolt and/or sleeve - 3 -
become jammed in place, or even if they do not jam, the hole may be non-circular and its bore may be damaged by removal of the bolt/sleeve, to the point where a new bolt/sleeve cannot be properly fitted without re-machining the hole and of course, manufacturing a new, oversize bolt/sleeve.
Discussion of the Invention
According to the present invention, an expansion bolt of the kind comprising a tapered bolt and a correspondingly tapered metal sleeve is characterised by the provision of a pair of diametrically-opposed flats on the outer surface of the sleeve. According to a further aspect of the invention, a flanged coupling includes at least two such expansion bolts, the sleeves of each bolt being installed so that the flats thereof are each intersected at right angles by a radius through the axis of the coupling. It will be understood that a "flat" in this present context is a planar surface formed by a machining operation carried out on the previously curved surface of the sleeve.
By installing the sleeve of this invention with the two flats facing respectively radially-inwardly and radially-outwardly of the coupling, the forces generated by tightening the bolt to expand the sleeve are directed substantially circumferentially, along the general line of the bolt (or pitch) circle. This minimizes the risk of jamming, bore damage and bending of the bolt. The force-fit developed (after tightening the bolts) is primarily circumferentially with respect to the flange and this is ideal for resisting the pure shearing load encountered when the coupling is in use to transmit power.
Advantageously, to ensure correct alignment of the sleeves, keying means are provided on each sleeve to correspond with a matching key formed in the flange at or adjacent to each hole into which a sleeve is to be fitted. In order that the invention be better understood preferred embodiments of it will now be described in greater detail.
Description of preferred embodiments:
The accompanying drawings are as follows:
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional side view through part of an assembled flanged coupling,
Figure 2 is an axial view partly in section through part of the assembled coupling of Figure 1 , Figure 3 is a side view of a stud bolt, Figure 4 is a cross-sectional side view of an expansion sleeve in accordance with the invention.
Figure 5 is an end view of the sleeve of Figure 4, as seen in direction A, and Figure 6 is an end view, partly in section of the assembled coupling.
For convenience, like parts in all six figures bear like reference numerals.
Referring firstly to Figure 3, the stud bolt is conventional in that is has a central, slightly tapered shank 7 and screw-threaded end portions 8, 9 respectively. The sleeve 10 best seen in Figures 4 and 5 has an internal taper complementary to that of the stud shank 7. Externally, its cylindrical surface includes two parallel flats 11 , one of which terminates in a locating lip 12 formed by bending up a portion of the sleeve towards one end of one of the flats.
Referring now to Figure 1 , a flanged coupling in a power transmission shaft comprises a pair of confronting circular flanges 1 and 2 respectively, with a co-operating central alignment recess/projection 3, 4 respectively. The periphery of the flanges includes eight bolt holes, only one of which is shown in Figure 1, and only three of which are shown in Figure 2 but all of which are indicated in Figure 6.
Figure 1 shows the sleeve 10 inserted into one of the flange holes, with the lip 12 engaged in a .matching recess 6 in the flange 1. The bolt is then inserted, from the opposite side, through flange 2, with the shank 3 taper engaged with the matching taper of the sleeve 10. The flats 11 of the sleeve lie in planes perpendicular to the plane of Figures 1 , 4 and 5; in Figure 1 they are also intersected at right angles by a radius of the coupling in the plane of the paper.
However, this feature is best seen in Figure 2 where the central bolt of the three is shown partly in section to illustrate this point.
In figure 1, the bolt is provided at one end 8 with a circular nut 14 having a number of radial bores 15. These are used to receive the end of a tool such as the cylindrical bar which is commonly used to turn such nuts by hand. The opposite end 9 of the stud bolt is provided with a circular nut 16 of a different kind, although radial bores 22 are still provided for hand tightening. The nut 16 is a hydraulic nut; it comprises an annular cylinder defined in the nut body 16 itself, containing an an annular piston 18 an incompressible fluid mass 19 (typically of rubber) and a piston disc 20. Four equally spaced set screws 21 are provided to apply pressure to the disc 20 and thereby to the fluid mass 19. The construction just described is essentially conventional.
In use, the nut 14 is turned towards the flange 2 until there is a pre-chosen gap between it and the flange. Typicallly the gap will be that equivalent to backing of the nut 14 one complete turn away from the face of the flange. The nut 15 is hand tightened against the flange 1 with the four εet screws 21 slackened as far as practicable (as shown in Figure 1). The nut 14 is hand-tightened against the flange 2 and then backed-off through half a turn (180 degrees). The four set screws 21 are then fully tightened causing the piston 18 to advance against the flange 1 , thereby drawing the stud bolt shank further into the taper of the sleeve 10, expanding the latter to firmly grip the inner surface of the bolt hole through both flanges and at the same time to draw the nut 14 hard against flange 2.
t will be appreciated that because of the flats 11 the forces developed against the inner surface of the bolt hole are predominantly directed along the bolt circle (pitch circle) and not radially inwardly/outwardly.
To complete the coupling, every other bolt hole is treated as just described. The intermediate holes are provided with plain shank bolts, to resist axial forces as opposed to torsional (shear) forces, as will now be briefly described.
It. will be appreciated that the installation of the intermediate plain shank stud bolts intended to develop axial tension in the coupling is conventional and not quite- the same as for the expansion bolts just described. The tension stud bolts are accurately ground to the same .'ength; they are initially firmly tightened by hand after installation. The hydraulic jack nut of each bolt is then used to stress the bolt axially until there is an actual clearance between the nut body and the flange. Shims are inserted and the tensioning set screws are released. The shims prevent the bolt returning to its unstressed length; the actual length under the retained loading is determined by measurement and the stress in each bolt is calculated. If necessary, the shim thickness can be used to alter the retained stress to achieve a calculated, or design value, due allowance being made for losses due to thread deflection/loading.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. An expansion bolt of the kind comprising a bolt having a tapered shank and a cylindrical sleeve having a complementary internal taper characterised in that the cylindrical outer surface of the sleeve is provided with a pair of diametrically-opposed flats.
2. A bolt according to claim 1 further characterised in that the sleeve incorporates keying means whereby the sleeve can be installed with its flats in accurate aligned relation to a particular bolt hole having corresponding, complementary keying means to facilitate such alignment.
3. A flanged coupling for use in between lengths of power transmission drive shafting characterised by the use of at least two of the expansion bolts of claim 1 or claim 2 in said coupling with the flats on the sleeves thereof aligned so as to He in two parallel planes perpendicular to a radius of the coupling.
4. A flanged coupling according to claim 3 characterised by the use of the expansion bolts of claim 1 or claim 2 in alternate holes of the coupling, the other holes being fitted with plain bolts.
5- A flanged coupling according to claim 4 characterised in that the expansion bolts and/or the plain bolts are provided with hydraulic nuts whereby the bolts may be stressed to a desired extent.
PCT/GB1986/000533 1985-09-06 1986-09-09 Bolted coupling WO1988002074A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB08621300A GB2181511A (en) 1985-09-06 1986-09-04 Expansion bolt for bolted couplings
PCT/GB1986/000533 WO1988002074A1 (en) 1986-09-09 1986-09-09 Bolted coupling

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/GB1986/000533 WO1988002074A1 (en) 1986-09-09 1986-09-09 Bolted coupling

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1988002074A1 true WO1988002074A1 (en) 1988-03-24

Family

ID=10591163

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/GB1986/000533 WO1988002074A1 (en) 1985-09-06 1986-09-09 Bolted coupling

Country Status (1)

Country Link
WO (1) WO1988002074A1 (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2224099A (en) * 1988-10-24 1990-04-25 Ovako Steel Couplings Ab Alignment of shaft flanges
US6039497A (en) * 1996-08-13 2000-03-21 Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy Method for coupling and a coupling device
EP1936210A1 (en) * 2006-12-19 2008-06-25 BAE Systems PLC Locking Expanding Diameter Fasteners
FR2931911A1 (en) * 2008-05-29 2009-12-04 Snecma SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BRIDGE ASSEMBLY BETWEEN TWO ROTATING PARTS
KR20140131588A (en) * 2012-03-06 2014-11-13 테크노패스트 인더스트리즈 피티와이 리미티드 High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
EP2933513A1 (en) * 2014-04-15 2015-10-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coupling device for connecting a coupling to a turbine line
JP2018080829A (en) * 2016-10-26 2018-05-24 アクティエボラゲット・エスコーエッフ Bolt device, connection device, and method of mounting connection device

Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1510077A (en) * 1975-08-27 1978-05-10 Eriksbergs Mek Verk Flange coupling

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1510077A (en) * 1975-08-27 1978-05-10 Eriksbergs Mek Verk Flange coupling

Cited By (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB2224099A (en) * 1988-10-24 1990-04-25 Ovako Steel Couplings Ab Alignment of shaft flanges
GB2224099B (en) * 1988-10-24 1992-10-14 Ovako Steel Couplings Ab Alignment of shaft flanges
US6039497A (en) * 1996-08-13 2000-03-21 Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy Method for coupling and a coupling device
EP1936210A1 (en) * 2006-12-19 2008-06-25 BAE Systems PLC Locking Expanding Diameter Fasteners
FR2931911A1 (en) * 2008-05-29 2009-12-04 Snecma SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR BRIDGE ASSEMBLY BETWEEN TWO ROTATING PARTS
EP2823186A4 (en) * 2012-03-06 2015-10-28 Technofast Ind Pty Ltd High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
AU2013230681B2 (en) * 2012-03-06 2017-06-15 Technofast Industries Pty Ltd High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
JP2015515583A (en) * 2012-03-06 2015-05-28 テクノファースト インダストリーズ プロプライエタリー リミテッドTechnofast Industries Pty Ltd Large capacity radial fit coupling bolt assembly, large capacity expansion sleeve bolt assembly or method of securing at least two parts
US10662989B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2020-05-26 Technofast Industries Pty Ltd High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
US9879706B2 (en) 2012-03-06 2018-01-30 Technofast Industries Pty Ltd High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
KR20140131588A (en) * 2012-03-06 2014-11-13 테크노패스트 인더스트리즈 피티와이 리미티드 High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
CN104471256A (en) * 2012-03-06 2015-03-25 泰克努法斯特工业有限公司 High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
KR101718134B1 (en) 2012-03-06 2017-04-04 테크노패스트 인더스트리즈 피티와이 리미티드 High-capacity radial fit coupling bolts
JP2017514061A (en) * 2014-04-15 2017-06-01 シーメンス アクティエンゲゼルシャフト Coupling device for connecting the clutch to the turbine train
CN106233013A (en) * 2014-04-15 2016-12-14 西门子公司 For clutch being connected to the connecting device that turbine is fastened
WO2015158511A1 (en) * 2014-04-15 2015-10-22 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coupling device for connecting a clutch to a turbine train
RU2646774C1 (en) * 2014-04-15 2018-03-07 Сименс Акциенгезелльшафт Connecting device for connecting shift sleeve to turbo-unit
KR101913022B1 (en) * 2014-04-15 2019-01-14 지멘스 악티엔게젤샤프트 Coupling device for connecting a clutch to a turbine train
US10316894B2 (en) 2014-04-15 2019-06-11 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coupling device for connecting a clutch to a turbine train
CN106233013B (en) * 2014-04-15 2019-07-05 西门子公司 For clutch to be connected to the connecting device that turbine is fastened
EP2933513A1 (en) * 2014-04-15 2015-10-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Coupling device for connecting a coupling to a turbine line
JP2018080829A (en) * 2016-10-26 2018-05-24 アクティエボラゲット・エスコーエッフ Bolt device, connection device, and method of mounting connection device

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4781486A (en) Shaft coupling
US5123772A (en) Threaded assembly with locking capability
EP1761708B1 (en) Device and method for detachably connecting an impeller to a shaft
US4186570A (en) Shear pin coupling
EP0906518B1 (en) Power transmission coupling
EP0316417B1 (en) A fastening device
US4626114A (en) Single tapered bushing for shaft mount
US4525916A (en) Method of coupling coaxial shafts
US5216941A (en) Tool for securing a fastening device
US5232249A (en) Fastening device
US6663313B2 (en) Mounting system for speed reducers
EP0824202B1 (en) A method for coupling and a device
US6309136B1 (en) Device for locking a mechanical member onto a shaft
US7309187B2 (en) Releasable keyless bushing assembly
US20220080538A1 (en) High torque friction fit low moment hub joint assembly for a shaft
US3947948A (en) Method of assembling and disassembling a pre-tensioned screwed joint and a device for carrying out the method
WO1988002074A1 (en) Bolted coupling
GB2181511A (en) Expansion bolt for bolted couplings
US20030063949A1 (en) Expandable key for interconnecting a shaft and hub
US3972635A (en) Double conical hub-to-shaft connection
US6527233B2 (en) Device for clamping a shaft
WO2004108399A1 (en) Connection device for tire-forming drum
WO1990002272A2 (en) Shaft positioning and coupling device
US2487128A (en) Adapter hub
US5048998A (en) Compression-locking clamping bush system

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated states

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): JP KR NO US

AL Designated countries for regional patents

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): DE FR IT NL SE