WO1987007218A1 - Piezoelectrically operated fluid pump - Google Patents

Piezoelectrically operated fluid pump Download PDF

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Publication number
WO1987007218A1
WO1987007218A1 PCT/DE1987/000230 DE8700230W WO8707218A1 WO 1987007218 A1 WO1987007218 A1 WO 1987007218A1 DE 8700230 W DE8700230 W DE 8700230W WO 8707218 A1 WO8707218 A1 WO 8707218A1
Authority
WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
membrane
device according
layer
piezoelectrically
excitable
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/DE1987/000230
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Joachim Heinzl
Original Assignee
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19863618106 priority Critical patent/DE3618106A1/en
Priority to DEP3618106.4 priority
Application filed by Siemens Aktiengesellschaft filed Critical Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Publication of WO1987007218A1 publication Critical patent/WO1987007218A1/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R17/00Piezo-electric transducers; Electrostrictive transducers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2/14201Structure of print heads with piezoelectric elements
    • B41J2/14233Structure of print heads with piezoelectric elements of film type, deformed by bending and disposed on a diaphragm
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B43/00Machines, pumps, or pumping installations having flexible working members
    • F04B43/02Machines, pumps, or pumping installations having flexible working members having plate-like flexible members, e.g. diaphragms
    • F04B43/04Pumps having electric drive
    • F04B43/043Micropumps
    • F04B43/046Micropumps with piezo-electric drive
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L41/00Piezo-electric devices in general; Electrostrictive devices in general; Magnetostrictive devices in general; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L41/08Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices
    • H01L41/09Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with electrical input and mechanical output, e.g. actuators, vibrators
    • H01L41/0926Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with electrical input and mechanical output, e.g. actuators, vibrators using bending displacement, e.g. unimorph, bimorph or multimorph cantilever or membrane benders
    • H01L41/0973Membrane type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2002/14338Multiple pressure elements per ink chamber
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04RLOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS
    • H04R2400/00Loudspeakers

Abstract

The fluid pump described for producing pressures comprises an electrically excitable membrane made of a first piezoelectrically excitable layer and a support layer firmly bound thereto. The membrane has a peripheral piezoelectrically excitable region and a central piezoelectrically excitable region, these regions being excited in such a manner that, in order to cause a projection in the membrane, the latter is shortened by transverse contraction in its peripheral region and is lengthened in its central region.

Description

Piezoelectrically operated fluid pump

The invention relates to a device for generating pressures and volume flows according to the preamble of claim 1.

Piezoelectrically operated drive elements for generating pressures, in particular as drive elements in ink pens, are generally known. For example, DE-OS 21 64 614 describes an arrangement of writing mechanisms for writing with colored liquid on paper, in which a liquid located in an ink chamber is ejected from a writing nozzle via a piezoelectrically operated drive element. The volume change in the chamber is brought about by an electrically controlled piezoceramic which sits on a metal plate and which bulges into the chamber. The piezo drive element used consists of a continuously polarized piezoceramic layer, which is arranged on a metal plate, the metal plate serving as a counter electrode. When a suitable voltage pulse is applied, the piezoceramic contracts. Since the ceramic is attached to a metal plate, a bending moment affects this plate. As a result, the central part of the plate bulges into the liquid chamber.

The changes in length that can be generated directly piezoelectrically are negligibly small. They are also limited by the electric field strengths that can be applied to the ceramic without causing breakdowns or arcing. Furthermore, the field strengths do not lead to a polarization reversal, they must also be switchable via appropriate control circuits.

It is therefore common not to exceed a voltage of approx. 200 V. The field strength should be less than one volt per micron in the opposite direction to the polarization. The distances between electrodes in air should also not be less than 1 μm / V. The direct changes in length that can be achieved in this way are thus around 1%. or about 0.2 μm with a layer thickness of 200 μm, provided the ceramic is thoroughly active and not partially inactive due to a burning skin.

Until now, such kilns have only been able to be avoided with ceramic films sintered in the stack if the edge of the films lying inside the stack and the outside films are removed. With this method, the mechanical processing of the ceramic and thus the risk of microcracks can be limited to a minimum and to the edge. The other surfaces can be used as they come out of the kiln without reworking.

The object of the invention is to design or control a device of the type mentioned in the introduction in such a way that the greatest possible stroke results.

This object is achieved in a device of the type mentioned at the outset according to the characterizing part of the first claim.

Advantageous embodiments of the invention are characterized in the subclaims.

In that the membrane excites a piezoelectrically excitable peripheral region and a piezoelectrically has central area, which are controlled such that the membrane is shortened in its peripheral area by transverse contraction and lengthened in its central area to produce a membrane deflection, there is a particularly large stroke. This stroke is the result of the exploitation of two effects, namely the exploitation of the transverse contraction in the ceramic itself and the curvature of the bond between adjacent layers, which expand differently. The cross-contraction can increase the stroke of the membrane by reducing the layer thickness and increasing the length dimensions.

A particularly advantageous force effect is obtained if the membrane regions are arranged concentrically with one another, so that they bulge out like warts when excited. This wart-like bulge represents the smallest and most compact geometric shape, which starts from a flat layer and widens and closes a cavity. It is rotationally symmetrical about a surface normal and leaves the plane in a toroidal fillet which merges into a lenticular spherical section. The required state of curvature changes at the transition line. Accordingly, the electrodes are arranged or the corresponding membrane areas are polarized and controlled via the electrodes in such a way that the peripheral area (circular ring) is shortened, but the central area is lengthened.

The edge of the membrane does not change its position when deflected, because of which it can be firmly clamped. The bending line essentially corresponds to a deflection under internal pressure.

In a further advantageous embodiment of the invention, a plurality of membranes which can be activated independently of one another are arranged on a common substrate surface, the drive lines for the individual ones Guide membranes over unpolarized areas of the substrate surface so that no undesired piezoelectric effects occur when controlled via these control lines.

In order to increase the stroke even further, a further piezoelectric excitable layer can be arranged instead of the support layer, which is polarized in the opposite direction to the first piezoelectric excitable layer. This almost doubles the stroke.

A particularly effective and easily controllable pump device can be produced with the drive element according to the invention. For this, three are together with one another

Pump channel connected membranes arranged so that a first membrane serves as an inlet valve, a second membrane is assigned to the variable cavity and a third membrane serves as an outlet valve.

Such a static pump with two controllable gate valves and a variable cavity can, for. B. from an artificial heart or as a lubricant hydraulic pump for generating high pressures. The entire device can be controlled easily and can be made small despite the high pressures that can be achieved.

It is also possible to use the device as an acoustic transducer device in loudspeakers or as a pressure sensor.

Embodiments of the invention are shown in the drawings and are described in more detail below, for example. Show it 1 is a schematic comparison illustration between the deformation of a membrane plate under internal pressure and a membrane plate with an embossed curvature,

2 a membrane according to the invention in the deflected state,

3 shows a membrane according to the invention in the unexcited state,

4 shows a static pump from three interconnected membranes in plan view,

5 shows a static pump according to FIG. 4 in cross section,

Fig. 6 is a schematic representation of the layer structure of the device according to the invention and

7 shows a schematic illustration of a writing head for an ink writing device with a plurality of membranes arranged on a common substrate as writing nozzles.

A planar transducer made of piezoceramic as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 consists of a piezoelectrically excitable layer 1 made of piezoceramic which is polarized continuously in one direction and a support layer 2, e.g. B. made of nickel. This electrically controllable membrane formed in this way is controlled via corresponding electrodes 3, 4, the support layer 2 serving as a continuous ground electrode and the actual control electrodes consisting of a peripheral control electrode 3 and a central control electrode 4. These actual control electrodes 3 and 4 define membranes arranged concentrically to one another in the form of circular surfaces or circular ring surfaces. By appropriate control of the electrodes 3 and 4, the membrane bulges in the working direction in the form shown in FIG. 2 when the circular ring electrode 3 with its generated electric field leads to a contraction of the piezoceramic layer 1 in the area of the ring electrode 3 and in the area of the

Electrode 4 there is an expansion of the piezoceramic layer 1.

This is explained in more detail below with reference to FIG. 1.

The smallest and most compact geometric shape, which starts from a flat layer, requires only slight curvatures and widens and closes a cavity, is a wart or a dome-like bulge. Such a shape is rotationally symmetrical about a surface normal and leaves the plane in a toroidal fillet which merges into a lenticular spherical section.

Such an ideal shape can now be produced by making a flat elastic membrane uniform

Internal pressure interrupts. This results in the shape shown on the left-hand side of FIG. 1 a with the slope profile shown in FIG. 1 b and a curvature profile according to FIG. 1 c, the abscissa being assigned to the radius of the membrane surface.

In order to achieve this ideal wart shape, the drive electrodes 3 and 4 are now designed according to the invention in connection with the piezoelectrically excitable layer 1 and the support layer 2, which serves as a ground electrode, such that this ideal shape approximately results in the deflection.

For this purpose, the circular outer electrode 3 is arranged in the outer curvature region of the membrane and is subjected to an electrical field such that the piezoelectric layer is in this curvature area. draws together richly. The inner electrode 4, which is arranged concentrically thereto, is in turn subjected to a field such that the central region of the piezoceramic layer 1 expands. This exploits two effects at the same time, namely the transverse contraction of the ceramic itself and the curvature of the bond between adjacent layers, which expand differently. The radius of curvature up to which flat layers can be warped in this way is approximately 0.1 m to 0.4 m, depending on how thin the layers can be made. The ratio of the electrode areas to one another is now dimensioned such that the desired profile in FIG. This results in an inclination in accordance with FIG. 1b with the associated curvature in FIG. 1c (right side in FIG. 1).

As shown in FIGS. 2 to 5, such a planar piezo ceramic transducer can be used to form a static pump with two controllable gate valves SE and SA and a variable cavity H. For this purpose, the three membranes SE, H, SA are formed on a continuous substrate surface 1. A pump channel P is formed in a carrier layer T carrying the substrate A with its associated support layer 2. This pump channel P is connected to a fluid supply V (FIG. 4). A transverse rib Q is formed in the pump channel in the area of the inlet valve SE, against which the diaphragm made of piezoceramic 1 and support layer 2 bears in the unexcited state and thus closes the channel. In the excited state of the membrane according to FIG. 2, the membrane lifts off in a wart-like manner and thus opens the channel P.

The same structure as in the inlet valve SE with the transverse rib Q is obtained in the outlet valve SA with the transverse rib Q there. In the pump channel section with a cavity region PH widened in the middle between the inlet valve SE and the outlet valve SA is the actual membrane H serving as a pump, which is constructed in accordance with the membranes of the inlet valves SE and SA. A pump constructed in such a way as in FIGS. 4 and 5 can now be used advantageously, for. B. control via a three-phase three-phase current, namely that the inlet valve SE is first opened with a first phase in a pumping step, that fluid is then sucked from the reservoir V by the deflection of the membrane H (2nd phase) and that then after closing of the inlet valve SE and after opening the outlet valve SA (3rd phase), fluid is expelled from the outlet region A by actuation of the actual pump membrane H.

To close the gate valves SE, SA, it is also possible to control them so that their membranes close the channel P under pretension. A particularly tight seal is thus achieved. In addition, a particularly large working stroke is possible when actuating in the working direction from this pretension.

Depending on the intended use, the pump channel can also be designed in a different way. So it is also possible to arrange collar-shaped openings instead of the transverse rib Q in the inlet and outlet valves SE and SA, the collar itself forming the channel. The membrane surface then lies in the unexcited state in a manner analogous to that on the transverse rib on this collar and thus closes the outlet.

Various uses are now possible on such a static pump. So according to Fig. 7 so that an ink writing head can be built in which on a single substrate surface 1, z. B. nine writing nozzles S1 to S9 are arranged. Each of these writing nozzles consists of an inlet valve SE, a variable cavity H and an outlet valve SA. The writing nozzles S1 to S9 are connected to the storage area V. In order to be able to form a write head with a larger number of nozzles, it is also possible to pack several substrate surfaces with write nozzles arranged thereon one above the other.

In such an ink writing head, the writing nozzles S1 to S9 are functionally completely separated from the ink supply V. A mechanical closure of the nozzles between the write head and the actual paper arranged in front of the write head and the drive of this closure can thus be omitted, since the actual ink channels are closed by the outlet valves SA as long as these outlet valves SA are not activated. Crosstalk between the nozzles is eliminated since there is no flow connection during the actual spraying process. The spraying processes are not limited by the reflection in the actual spraying channel and not by the crosstalk from neighboring nozzles, but only by the intrinsic values of the individual transducer elements. Static pumping removes air bubbles from the ink channel P and empty channels can be filled in an electrically controlled manner.

The static pumps described can also be used to supply lubricants in bearings, since the pressures reached are very high. It is also possible to use such pumps in the field of medicine for the transport of blood and other tissue fluids.

The membrane in turn can be used in an acoustic transducer device such. B. use as a tweeter. Furthermore, such a device can serve as a pressure sensor, the deflection occurring as a result of the pressure causing a voltage which can be picked up at the electrodes 3 and 4. As shown in Fig. 6, a so-called controllable gate valve, for. B. an inlet valve SE, an outlet valve SA or the controllable cavity H in a simple manner. For this purpose, a thin layer of piezoceramic is used as the substrate on which the required structure z. B. the ink writing head is galvanoplastic. For this purpose, the piezoceramic layer 1 is polarized and tested before the galvanoplastic structure. Thereafter, control electrodes 3 and 4, z. B. of silver or gold is structured photolithographically and the support layer 2 is applied galvanically on its other side. Aluminum (ALU) is then vapor-deposited on this support layer, which serves as the ground electrode, which can later be etched out between the surrounding metal layers and thus enables the wart to detach from the web Q between the channels. This is followed by the galvanic structure of the channel structure in the gaps of a photoresist, the filling of the channels with a filling that can be etched against the channel wall W and the application of the carrier layer T. On the back of the ceramic, a further supporting layer SS can also be applied outside the electrodes prevents warping of the composite when the temperature changes. Structures can also be found here

Connect and accommodate to contact the electrodes as the ceramic is polarized only in the area of the warts. The approximate values for the thickness of the individual layers are as follows: piezoceramic layer (1) 200 μm; Electrodes (3, 4) 10 μm, silver or gold; Support layer (2) 100 μm, nickel; additional support layer (SS) 100 μm, nickel; Intermediate layer (ALU) aluminum 0.2 μm; Pump channel thickness (walls W) 50 μm, nickel; and carrier layer (T) 100 μm, nickel.

12 claims 7 figures

Claims

Claims
1. Device for generating pressures and volume flows with an electrically controllable membrane from a first piezoelectrically excitable layer (1) and a support layer (2) firmly connected to this excitable layer, characterized in that the membrane has a piezoelectrically excitable peripheral region (3) and has a piezoelectrically excitable central region (4) which is controlled in such a way that, in order to generate a membrane deflection, the membrane is shortened in its peripheral region (3) by transverse contraction and extended in its central region (4).
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the piezoelectrically excitable, continuously polarized in one direction layer (1) on one side a continuous ground electrode (2) and on the other side of the peripheral region associated with a first drive electrode (3) and one Has a second control electrode (4) assigned to the central area, the peripheral area and the central area being actuated with different electrical fields.
3. Device according to claim 1, d a d u r c h g e k e n n z e i c h n e t that the piezoelectrically excitable layer (1) on its one
Side has a continuous ground electrode (2) and on the other side a common drive electrode, the peripheral regions and the central region being polarized differently.
4. Device according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the the activatable areas of the membrane (3, 4) are arranged concentrically to one another so that they bulge out like domes when excited.
5. Device according to one of claims 1 to 4, that a plurality of membrane regions are arranged individually on a common substrate surface.
6. The device according to claim 5, d a d u r c h g e k e n n z e i c h n e t that the control lines for the individual membrane areas lead over unpolarized areas of the substrate surface.
7. Device according to one of claims 1 to 6, so that a further piezoelectrically excitable layer is arranged instead of the support layer (2), each of which is polarized in the opposite direction to the first piezoelectrically excitable layer, instead of the supporting layer (2).
8. Device according to one of claims 1 to 7, d a d u r c h g e k e n n z e i c h n e t that the device as a static pump with two controllable
Gate valves (SE, SA) and a variable cavity (H) is formed, with three interconnected membranes such. cooperate that a first membrane serves as an inlet valve (E), a second membrane is assigned to the variable cavity (H) and a third membrane serves as an outlet valve (SA).
9. Device according to one of claims 1 to 8, d a d u r c h g e k e n n z e i c h n e t that the device serves as an acoustic transducer device.
10. The device according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the device is designed as a pressure sensor.
11. The device according to claim 8, d a d u r c h g e k e n n z e i c h n e t that the individual membrane areas are controlled via the individual phases of a three-phase source.
12. The device according to one of claims 1 to 11, d a d u r c h g e k e n n e e c h n e t that the membrane is controlled so that it bulges against its working direction and so bears under tension.
PCT/DE1987/000230 1986-05-30 1987-05-19 Piezoelectrically operated fluid pump WO1987007218A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19863618106 DE3618106A1 (en) 1986-05-30 1986-05-30 Piezoelectric-powered fluid pump
DEP3618106.4 1986-05-30

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1987007218A1 true WO1987007218A1 (en) 1987-12-03

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
PCT/DE1987/000230 WO1987007218A1 (en) 1986-05-30 1987-05-19 Piezoelectrically operated fluid pump

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EP (1) EP0310605A1 (en)
JP (1) JPH01500892A (en)
DE (1) DE3618106A1 (en)
WO (1) WO1987007218A1 (en)

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JPH01500892A (en) 1989-03-30
EP0310605A1 (en) 1989-04-12
DE3618106A1 (en) 1987-12-03

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