WO1984002744A1 - Method of operating an engine with a high heat of vaporization fuel - Google Patents

Method of operating an engine with a high heat of vaporization fuel Download PDF

Info

Publication number
WO1984002744A1
WO1984002744A1 PCT/US1983/000029 US8300029W WO8402744A1 WO 1984002744 A1 WO1984002744 A1 WO 1984002744A1 US 8300029 W US8300029 W US 8300029W WO 8402744 A1 WO8402744 A1 WO 8402744A1
Authority
WO
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
fuel
portion
injected
piston
method
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/US1983/000029
Other languages
French (fr)
Inventor
Aladar Otto Simko
Peter Harvard Havstad
Joseph A Harrington
Original Assignee
Ford Werke Ag
Ford Motor Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F3/00Pistons
    • F02F3/26Pistons having combustion chamber in piston head
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B1/00Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression
    • F02B1/02Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression with positive ignition
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B17/00Engines characterised by means for effecting stratification of charge in cylinders
    • F02B17/005Engines characterised by means for effecting stratification of charge in cylinders having direct injection in the combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B23/00Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation
    • F02B23/08Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation with positive ignition
    • F02B23/10Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation with positive ignition with separate admission of air and fuel into cylinder
    • F02B23/101Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation with positive ignition with separate admission of air and fuel into cylinder the injector being placed on or close to the cylinder centre axis, e.g. with mixture formation using spray guided concepts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B23/00Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation
    • F02B23/08Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation with positive ignition
    • F02B23/10Other engines characterised by special shape or construction of combustion chambers to improve operation with positive ignition with separate admission of air and fuel into cylinder
    • F02B2023/108Swirl flow, i.e. the axis of rotation of the main charge flow motion is vertical
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/12Other methods of operation
    • F02B2075/125Direct injection in the combustion chamber for spark ignition engines, i.e. not in pre-combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B2275/00Other engines, components or details, not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F02B2275/40Squish effect
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Technologies for the improvement of indicated efficiency of a conventional ICE
    • Y02T10/123Fuel injection
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/10Internal combustion engine [ICE] based vehicles
    • Y02T10/12Technologies for the improvement of indicated efficiency of a conventional ICE
    • Y02T10/125Combustion chambers and charge mixing enhancing inside the combustion chamber

Abstract

A method of operating an internal combustion engine (10) of the spark ignition type with a fuel having a high latent heat of vaporization such as methanol by injecting the fuel in two stages, the first major portion of the fuel being injected at the start of the intake stroke into a bowl-in-piston cavity combustion chamber (22) to be vaporized and atomized, the second smaller portion being injected late in the compression stroke just prior to ignition to remain close to the injector tip (34) to richen the mixture adjacent the spark plug (36), and igniting the mixture.

Description

i

METHOD OF OPERATING AN ENGINE WITH A HIGH HEAT OF VAPORIZATION FUEL

This invention relates to a method of operating spark ignition, type internal combustion engine with a fue having a high latent heat of vaporization such as ethano and the like. More particularly, it relates to a method o operating an engine in which the fuel is introduced in first stage to evaporate and atomize the major portion o the fuel and subsequently in a second stage to provide rich air/fuel mixture in the vicinity of the spark plug fo rapid ignition. Fuels having a high latent heat of vaporizatio have been proposed for use in automotive type interna combustion engines. Methanol is a prime candidate fo alternate piston engine fuel because it has a high octan rating and is readily producible from coal. The drawback associated with methanol, however, are its high latent hea of evaporation, its low heat energy heat content, and it tendency to dilute the lubricating oil and thereby caus increased piston ring and cylinder bore wear.

Methanol can be introduced into the engine in variety of ways. With carbureted methanol introduction, the high latent heat of vaporization causes difficulties i getting the fuel evenly distributed in the intake air as i flows through the intake system to the cylinders. Th usual remedy for this is to apply a large amount of heating to the intake system to assist evaporation. However, liquid methanol droplets still enter the cylinder where they can precipitate on the cylinder walls resulting in the dilution of the lubricating oil, which leads to accelerated cylinder wall and piston ring wear. Injection of the methanol in the intake manifold with multi-point injections is another possibility for fuel introduction. This method eliminates the cylinder-to- cylinder fuel distribution problem, but it does not eliminate the probability of oil dilution on the cylinder

_ OMPI wall. In fact, it may increase the oil dilution problem relative to a carbureted methanol introduction because of the reduced time available for evaporation and because no exhaust heat is transferred to the methanol. This invention relates to a method of operating an engine that overcomes the above shortcomings by providing a two-stage introduction of methanol to the engine combustion chamber. A part of the combustion chamber in this case includes a central cavity in the face of the piston within which, the major portion of the fuel is sprayed to be contained for evaporation and ato ization to thereby minimize cylinder wall wetting .

It is an object of this invention, therefore, to provide a method of operating an engine with fuel having a high latent heat of vaporization to reduce the output of emissions while improving the volumetric efficiency of the engine by cooling the intake charge as well as associated parts of the engine.

It is a further object of the invention to operate an engine as described above in which the fuel is injected in a plurality of stages to first adequately evaporate and atomize the major portion of the fuel with a minimum of wall wetting , and secondly to subsequently provide a rich air/fuel mixture in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition to assure consistent and fast flame initiation.

The use of methanol or other fuels having a high latent heat of vaporization in automotive type vehicles is known. For example, Oswald et al, U.S. 4,123,997 and U.S. 4,216,744, both disclose the use of 100% methanol in an engine that has a bowl-in-piston type combustion chamber in Figure 2, a compression ratio of around 12:1 to the engine, and a spark plug that is located essentially near the center or axis of the combustion chamber. However, all of the fuel is injected at once and there is no description

OMPI y, WIPO how cylinder wall wetting and consequent dilution of th

^ lubricating oil is avoided.

John, U.S. 4,117,810, describes a device fo mixing both gasoline and methanol for use in an engine, an

5 no description is given of the combustion chamber or th method of operating the engine in a manner to avoid th problems described above.

Eckert et al, U.S. 4,022,165, describes a fuel injection system in which two separate fuel quantities are

10 injected into the engine with a time lag between. Two separate fuel injection nozzles are used for injecting first a large quantity of fuel and subsequently a smaller quantity into the same cylinder during one engine working cycle. The large quantity of fuel is injected in a

15. straight jet deep into the cylinder while the smaller quantity is introduced in the vicinity of the spark plug. However, no description of the combustion chamber operation is given nor any method disclosed as to the timing and motion of the air/fuel charge to avoid wall wetting and oil

20 dilution.

Araya et al, U.S. 3,722,490, also discloses a two-stage fuel injection system with, however, the injec¬ tion occuring first at a point near the end of the in.take or expansion stroke and, secondly, at a point at the

25 beginning of the compression stroke. 'This is unlike our method and would be unsatisfactory for overcoming the shortcomings mentioned above.

Eyzat, U.S. 3,216,407 and U.S. 3,439,655, both show mechanical constructions for providing a double

30 injection of fuel into an internal combustion engine. The method of operating the engine, however, is unlike that of the invention to be disclosed.

Finally, Fricker et al, U.S. 3,641,986, shows only a bowl-in-piston type combustion chamber with tangential

35 entry portions.

O PI Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become more apparent upon reference to the succeeding detailed description thereof, and to the single drawing illustrating schematically an engine construction utilizing the method of operation of the invention.

As stated above, the conventional shortcomings of using methanol or other fuels having a high latent heat of vaporization can be overcome by the application of a direct fuel injection concept utilizing a dual injection of the fuel in cooperation with a combustion chamber including' a bowl-in-piston type cavity. Such a construction is illus¬ trated schematically in the figure, which shows a portion 10 of a spark ignition type internal combustion engine. It includes the usual cylinder block 12 within which is slidably mounted a piston 14 for cooperation with the face 16 of a cylinder head 18 to define a combustion chamber 20 between the two. In this case, piston 14 has a central caviiy 22 defining a bowl-in-piston type construction. The cavity 22 would be designed to provide approximately 40-75% of the squish area, and the engine per se would operate at about a 13:1 compression. ratio to make the best use of the methanol fuel.

The cylinder head 18 contains the usual intake'and exhaust valves 24, 26. Valve 24 is supplied with air through an inlet passage 28 that would be designed for a moderate rate of swirl. The exhaust gases exit through an outlet passage 30 that could be lined with ceramic or sheet metal for better heat conservation purposes.

The fuel injector, indicated schematically at 32, is centrally located in cylinder head 18 to project its nozzle 34 essentially into the center of -combustion chamber 20 over cavity 22. The injector would be of a known type, and its details of construction and operation, therefore, are not given. Suffice it to say that in this case the pump system supplying the nozzle 34 would operate at a moderate pressure level (260 psi opening pressure for th injector), and the nozzle per se would be designed t provide a conical fuel spray with reasonably good atomiza tion and relatively low penetration characteristics, for purpose to be described.

A spark plug 36 is located as close to the cente of the combustion chamber as possible to project its elec trodes adjacent the tip of the fuel injection nozzle 34, a indicated. The piston 14 is illustrated in a position after the engine has rotated through a crank angle of approxi¬ mately 65° after top dead center position. Also illus¬ trated is a conical spray angle of approximately 80° for the fuel from injection nozzle 34, as indicated by the dot/dash lines. If fuel is injected when piston 14 is near the top dead center position, it will be clear that sub¬ stantially all of the fuel injected will pass directly into cavity 22 and not wet the cylinder walls. If only a small amount of fuel is injected, it will be contained near the tip of nozzle 34 and adjacent the spark plug electrodes to provide a rich air/fuel mixture in this area for ignition.

A key feature of the invention is the unique timing of the fuel injection to provide initially a large charge of fuel sufficiently prior to ignition so it can be evaporated and atomized, and a secondary charge at a time and location to provide a dependable ignition of the air/ fuel charge.

More particularly, the engine operates with a combustion method as follows. As the engine begins its intake stroke, the opening of intake valve 24 will provide an induction of air or gas into the combustion chamber 20 with a moderate swirling motion. As piston 14 begins its downward descent from its top dead center position, a first large (approximately 75-90% of the total) charge of fuel will be injected from nozzle 34 into combustion chamber 20. As stated previously, since piston 14 is near its top dead center position at the start of the intake stroke, this total charge, of fuel will be directed into the cavity 22 in piston 14. The incoming swirling air will pass into cavity 22 to evaporate and finely atomize the fuel. The fuel will be injected at a fast rate for a short duration to be completed approximately by the time piston 14 reaches the position indicated in the figure. That is, injection of the first portion of fuel is terminated between about 50-60° after top dead center position at the start of the intake stroke. As a result, during the remainder of the intake stroke, as piston 14 descends and additional swirl¬ ing air enters the cylinder through the open intake valve 24, the evaporated as well as finely atomized fuel mist will disperse from cavity 22 outwardly to the rest of the cylinder space 20. This arrangement makes it unlikely for large fuel droplets to contact the cylinder walls because they would be centrifuged out to the chamber wall inside the combustion cavity 22 where they will absorb heat from the chamber wall as they evaporate. The evaporation of airborne fuel during this intake stroke also cools the intake charge and thus improves the volumetric efficiency of the engine. The cooler intake temperature also results in overall lower cycle temperatures that improve the thermal efficiency and reduce the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) that would be formed during the combustion.

The evaporation and misting of the fuel by the incoming air and exhaust gases continues through the intake stroke. Thereafter, during the later part of the compres- sion stroke, at about a 30-50° location before top dead center position of the piston, a second smaller (10-25%) portion of the total fuel charge is injected through nozzle 34. The penetration of such small fuel quantity is low; therefore, most of this fuel remains in the vicinity of the tip of injector nozzle 34 to enrichen the air/fuel ratio in

OMPI the vicinity of spark plug 36 just prior to ignition. Thi assures consistent and fast flame initiation, and facili tates lean operation at part loads with high amounts of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for high efficiency coupled with NOx control. Combustion then is initiated by the spark plug.

If all of the methanol were injected late in the compression stroke, the heat required for evaporation would be extracted mostly from the heat of the compressed gas; therefor, a significant thermodynamic efficiency loss would be incurred. The latent heat of evaporation of methanol is approximately 5% of its heating value; thus extraction of this heat from the compressed gas would be equivalent to a loss of 5% of the heating value of the fuel. Direct cylinder injection" throughout the intake stroke and/or during the early part of the compression stroke avoids this loss, but it has the disadvantage of cylinder wall wetting and its associated piston ring and cylinder bore wear. This invention eliminates the above problems by a two-stage fuel injection into a bowl-in-piston type combustion chamber that atomizes and evaporates the fuel in a manner providing good volumetric efficiency. At the same time, the heat necessary for evaporation is taken from . the surrounding cylinder wall and piston surfaces, which cools the same; also from the incoming charge of air or gas, which again improves the volumetric and thermal efficien¬ cies.

From the foregoing, it will be seen that the invention provides a method of operating an automotive type internal combustion engine with a fuel having a high latent heat of vaporization so that the fuel does not wet the cylinder surfaces, and the heat required for evaporation is taken from the inducted air and the piston surfaces. Cool¬ ing of the inducted air improves the volumetric and thermal efficiencies and reduces NOx formation. Cooling of the

O PI piston improves its durability and facilitates super¬ charging of an engine without having to resort to excessive and costly piston cooling measures. Furthermore, good mechanical atomization of the fuel directly in the cylinder as provided by this invention eliminates the need to apply intake heat, yet it assures good fuel distribution. The direct fuel injection of the major portion of the fuel with the specified timing method described minimizes the proba¬ bility of methanol diluting the oil film on the cylinder wall. Also, the second stage injection of a smaller quan¬ tity of fuel just prior to ignition facilitates operation of the engine with a lean mixture and a high EGR rate with¬ out endangering ignitability.

While the invention has been shown and described in its preferred- embodiment, it will be clear to J those skilled in the arts to which it pertains that many changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the scope of the invention.

Claims

CIAIMS
1. A method of operating an internal combustio engine of the spark ignition type with a. neat fuel having high heat of vaporization, comprising: charging the combustion chamber defined betwee the cylinder head and the top of the piston having central cavity therein with a volume of air having moderate swirl rate induced by the intake system; injecting a first portion of the total fuel charge having a high heat of vaporization such as methanol and the like into the chamber shortly after top dead center (TDC) position of the piston at the start of the intake stroke so that essentially all of the first portion fuel charge is injected into the piston cavity; injecting at moderate pressure levels with a conical spray pattern producing relatively low penetration and at such a fast rate and for such a short duration that the injection of the first fuel portion is terminated shortly after injection and while still within the intake stroke; continuing the induction of air into the chamber as the piston continues to descend during the intake stroke so that additional swirling air enters the chamber and cavity to effect evaporation and misting of the fuel charge and movement of the fuel charge from the cavity to the rest of the chamber whereby the heavier fuel droplets are centrifuged to the cavity walls to be contained therein and absorb the heat from the walls and the incoming air to cool the same; injecting the remaining portion of the total fuel charge into the chamber during the later part of the compression stroke of the engine just prior to ignition with low penetration to assure a rich air/fuel mixture adjacent the spark plug; and
O igniting the mixture.
2. A method as in claim 1, wherein the first portion of the fuel charge injected constitutes approximately 75-90% of the total fuel charge, the small amount of the remaining fuel portion later injected with low penetration causing the later injected portion to remain in the vicinity of the injector tip to richen the air/fuel mixture at that" location for ignition.
3. A method as in claim 1, wherein the first and later injected fuel portions are injected through the same fuel injection nozzle.
4. A method as in claim 1, wherein the- later; injected fuel portion is injected when the piston is within approximately 30-50% before TDC position.
5. A method as in claim 1, wherein the injection of the first portion of fuel is terminated approximately within 60° crankangle after .TDC position of the piston during the intake stroke of the piston.
6. A method as in claim 1, wherein combustion is initiated by a spark plug located nea'r the center of the chamber and near the top of the injector nozzle to be adjacent to the rich mixture after injection of the remaining fuel portion.
7. A method as in claim 1, wherein the cavity has a squish area of approximately 40-75% of the total squish area of the chamber.
PCT/US1983/000029 1983-01-10 1983-01-10 Method of operating an engine with a high heat of vaporization fuel WO1984002744A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PCT/US1983/000029 WO1984002744A1 (en) 1983-01-10 1983-01-10 Method of operating an engine with a high heat of vaporization fuel

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP50068783A JPS60500341A (en) 1983-01-10 1983-01-10
PCT/US1983/000029 WO1984002744A1 (en) 1983-01-10 1983-01-10 Method of operating an engine with a high heat of vaporization fuel

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
WO1984002744A1 true true WO1984002744A1 (en) 1984-07-19

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Country Status (2)

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WO (1) WO1984002744A1 (en)

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0224879A2 (en) * 1985-11-30 1987-06-10 Isuzu Motors Limited Combustion chamber of internal combustion engine
EP0369480A2 (en) * 1988-11-18 1990-05-23 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha An internal combustion engine
EP0492055A1 (en) * 1990-12-27 1992-07-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha An internal combustion engine
US5271362A (en) * 1990-06-27 1993-12-21 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Two-stroke engine
GB2280931A (en) * 1993-08-13 1995-02-15 Edwin Seymour Marsden Four-stroke engine.
EP0831213A3 (en) * 1996-09-18 1998-06-10 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Direct injection type combustion engine
GB2321669A (en) * 1997-02-01 1998-08-05 Ford Motor Co Direct injection spark ignition engine
WO1998034024A1 (en) 1997-02-01 1998-08-06 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Direct injection spark ignition engine

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3908624A (en) * 1970-03-23 1975-09-30 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Internal combustion engine
US3999532A (en) * 1973-11-23 1976-12-28 Kornhauser Daniel W Internal combustion engine fuel system
US4022165A (en) * 1968-11-13 1977-05-10 Robert Bosch G.M.B.H. Fuel injection system for successively introducing multiple fuel quantities in an engine cylinder
US4123997A (en) * 1976-03-08 1978-11-07 Etablissement Public Die: Agence Nationale De Valorisation De La Recherche Motor adapted for fuel comprising a product different from mineral oil product

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4022165A (en) * 1968-11-13 1977-05-10 Robert Bosch G.M.B.H. Fuel injection system for successively introducing multiple fuel quantities in an engine cylinder
US3908624A (en) * 1970-03-23 1975-09-30 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Internal combustion engine
US3999532A (en) * 1973-11-23 1976-12-28 Kornhauser Daniel W Internal combustion engine fuel system
US4123997A (en) * 1976-03-08 1978-11-07 Etablissement Public Die: Agence Nationale De Valorisation De La Recherche Motor adapted for fuel comprising a product different from mineral oil product

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0224879A2 (en) * 1985-11-30 1987-06-10 Isuzu Motors Limited Combustion chamber of internal combustion engine
EP0224879A3 (en) * 1985-11-30 1988-08-24 Isuzu Motors Limited Combustion chamber of internal combustion engine
EP0369480A2 (en) * 1988-11-18 1990-05-23 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha An internal combustion engine
EP0369480A3 (en) * 1988-11-18 1991-01-02 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha An internal combustion engine
US5271362A (en) * 1990-06-27 1993-12-21 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Two-stroke engine
EP0492055A1 (en) * 1990-12-27 1992-07-01 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha An internal combustion engine
GB2280931A (en) * 1993-08-13 1995-02-15 Edwin Seymour Marsden Four-stroke engine.
EP0831213A3 (en) * 1996-09-18 1998-06-10 Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft Direct injection type combustion engine
US5992364A (en) * 1996-09-18 1999-11-30 Daimlerchrysler Ag Internal combustion engine with direct fuel injection
GB2321669A (en) * 1997-02-01 1998-08-05 Ford Motor Co Direct injection spark ignition engine
WO1998034024A1 (en) 1997-02-01 1998-08-06 Ford Global Technologies, Inc. Direct injection spark ignition engine

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