USRE47837E1 - Crack and scratch resistant glass and enclosures made therefrom - Google Patents

Crack and scratch resistant glass and enclosures made therefrom Download PDF

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USRE47837E1
USRE47837E1 US15/862,353 US201815862353A USRE47837E US RE47837 E1 USRE47837 E1 US RE47837E1 US 201815862353 A US201815862353 A US 201815862353A US RE47837 E USRE47837 E US RE47837E
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glass
mol
aluminoborosilicate
modifiers
sio
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US15/862,353
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Kristen L. Barefoot
Matthew John Dejneka
Sinue Gomez
Timothy Michael Gross
Nagaraja Shashidhar
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Corning Inc
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Corning Inc
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Priority to US23576709P priority Critical
Priority to US12/858,490 priority patent/US8586492B2/en
Priority to US14/082,847 priority patent/US9290407B2/en
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Priority to US15/862,353 priority patent/USRE47837E1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/089Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing boron
    • C03C3/091Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing boron containing aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B33/00Severing cooled glass
    • C03B33/02Cutting or splitting sheet glass or ribbons; Apparatus or machines therefor
    • C03B33/0222Scoring using a focussed radiation beam, e.g. laser
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B33/00Severing cooled glass
    • C03B33/02Cutting or splitting sheet glass or ribbons; Apparatus or machines therefor
    • C03B33/04Cutting or splitting in curves, especially for making spectacle lenses
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B33/00Severing cooled glass
    • C03B33/09Severing cooled glass by thermal shock
    • C03B33/091Severing cooled glass by thermal shock using at least one focussed radiation beam, e.g. laser beam
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C21/00Treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by diffusing ions or metals in the surface
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C21/00Treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by diffusing ions or metals in the surface
    • C03C21/001Treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by diffusing ions or metals in the surface in liquid phase, e.g. molten salts, solutions
    • C03C21/002Treatment of glass, not in the form of fibres or filaments, by diffusing ions or metals in the surface in liquid phase, e.g. molten salts, solutions to perform ion-exchange between alkali ions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03CCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GLASSES, GLAZES, OR VITREOUS ENAMELS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF GLASS; SURFACE TREATMENT OF FIBRES OR FILAMENTS MADE FROM GLASS, MINERALS OR SLAGS; JOINING GLASS TO GLASS OR OTHER MATERIALS
    • C03C3/00Glass compositions
    • C03C3/04Glass compositions containing silica
    • C03C3/076Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight
    • C03C3/097Glass compositions containing silica with 40% to 90% silica, by weight containing phosphorus, niobium or tantalum
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P40/00Technologies relating to the processing of minerals
    • Y02P40/50Glass production, e.g. reusing waste heat during processing or shaping
    • Y02P40/57Improving the yield, e-g- reduction of reject rates
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T225/00Severing by tearing or breaking
    • Y10T225/10Methods
    • Y10T225/12With preliminary weakening
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/24Structurally defined web or sheet [e.g., overall dimension, etc.]
    • Y10T428/24777Edge feature
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/31Surface property or characteristic of web, sheet or block
    • Y10T428/315Surface modified glass [e.g., tempered, strengthened, etc.]

Abstract

A glass and an enclosure, including windows, cover plates, and substrates for mobile electronic devices comprising the glass. The glass has a crack initiation threshold that is sufficient to withstand direct impact, has a retained strength following abrasion that is greater than soda lime and alkali aluminosilicate glasses, and is resistant to damage when scratched. The enclosure includes cover plates, windows, screens, and casings for mobile electronic devices and information terminal devices.

Description

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is an application for reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 9,290,407, issued Mar. 22, 2016, filed as U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/082,847 on Nov. 18, 2013, which is a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/858,490, filed Aug. 18, 2010, now U.S. Pat. No. 8,586,492, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/235,767, filed Aug. 21, 2009.

BACKGROUND

The disclosure is related to glass enclosures, including windows, cover plates, and substrates for electronic devices. More particularly, the disclosure relates to crack- and scratch-resistant enclosures.

Glass is being designed into electronic devices, such as telephones, and entertainment devices, such as games, music players and the like, and information terminal (IT) devices, such as laptop computers. A predominant cause of breakage of cover glass in mobile devices is point contact or sharp impact. The solution for this problem has been to provide a bezel or similar protective structure to hold and protect the glass from such impacts. In particular, the bezel provides protection from impact on the edge of the glass. The edge of the cover glass is most vulnerable to fragmentation by direct impact. Incorporation of the bezel limits the use of glass to flat pieces in the device and prevents utilization of designs that exploit the crystal-like appearance of glass.

SUMMARY

A glass and a glass enclosure, including windows, cover plates, and substrates for mobile electronic devices comprising the glass are provided. The glass has a crack initiation threshold that is sufficient to withstand direct impact, a retained strength following abrasion that is greater than soda lime and alkali aluminosilicate glasses, and is more resistant to damage when scratched. The enclosure includes cover plates, windows, screens, touch panels, casings, and the like for electronic devices and information terminal devices. The glass can also be used in other applications, such as a vehicle windshield, where light weight, high strength, and durable glass is be desired.

Accordingly, one aspect of the disclosure is to provide an aluminoborosilicate glass comprising at least 50 mol % SiO2 in some embodiments, at least 58 mol % SiO2, in other embodiments, and at least 60 mol % SiO2 in still other embodiments, and at least one modifier selected from the group consisting of alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides. The aluminoborosilicate glass is ion exchangeable, and exhibits the ratio

Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1.

A second aspect of the disclosure is to provide an aluminoborosilicate glass. The aluminoborosilicate glass comprises: 50-72 mol % SiO2; 9-17 mol % Al2O3; 2-12 mol % B2O3; 8-16 mol % Na2O; and 0-4 mol % K2O, wherein the ratio

Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 ,
where the modifiers are selected from the group consisting of alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides. The aluminoborosilicate glass is ion exchangeable.

A third aspect of the disclosure is to provide a glass enclosure for use in an electronic device. The glass enclosure comprises a strengthened glass that, when scratched with a Knoop diamond at a load of at least 5 N to form a scratch of width w, is free of chips having a size greater than three times the width w.

These and other aspects, advantages, and salient features will become apparent from the following detailed description, the accompanying drawings, and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1a is an schematic representation of a prior art glass cover plate held in place by a bezel;

FIG. 1b is a schematic representation of glass cover plate that is proud of the bezel;

FIG. 2a is a microscopic image of an ion exchanged alkali aluminosilicate glass of the prior art having a scratch formed with a Knoop diamond at a load of 10 N;

FIG. 2b is a microscopic image of a strengthened aluminoborosilicate glass having a scratch formed with a Knoop diamond at a load of 10 N;

FIG. 3a is a top view of a 1 kilogram force (kgf) Vickers indentation 305 in a soda lime silicate glass of the prior art that had not been ion exchanged;

FIG. 3b is a side or cross-sectional view of a 1 kgf Vickers indentation in a soda lime silicate glass of the prior art that had not been ion exchanged;

FIG. 4 is a side or cross-sectional view of a 1 kgf Vickers indentation of an ion-exchanged soda lime silicate glass of the prior art;

FIG. 5a is a top view of a 1 kgf Vickers indentation in an aluminoborosilicate glass that had not been ion exchanged;

FIG. 5b is a side or cross-sectional view of a 1 kgf Vickers indentation in an aluminoborosilicate glass that had not been ion exchanged;

FIG. 6 is top view of a 30 kgf Vickers indentation of a ion exchanged aluminoborosilicate glass; and

FIG. 7 is a plot of crack initiation thresholds measured of aluminoborosilicate glasses as a function of Al2O3+B2O3—Na2O.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following description, like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout the several views shown in the figures. It is also understood that, unless otherwise specified, terms such as “top,” “bottom,” “outward,” “inward,” and the like are words of convenience and are not to be construed as limiting terms. In addition, whenever a group is described as comprising at least one of a group of elements and combinations thereof, it is understood that the group may comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of any number of those elements recited, either individually or in combination with each other. Similarly, whenever a group is described as consisting of at least one of a group of elements or combinations thereof, it is understood that the group may consist of any number of those elements recited, either individually or in combination with each other. Unless otherwise specified, a range of values, when recited, includes both the upper and lower limits of the range as well as any sub-ranges therebetween. Unless otherwise specified, all compositions and relationships that include constituents of compositions described herein are expressed in mole percent (mol %).

Referring to the drawings in general, it will be understood that the illustrations are for the purpose of describing particular embodiments and are not intended to limit the disclosure or appended claims thereto. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, and certain features and views of the drawings may be shown exaggerated in scale or in schematic in the interest of clarity and conciseness.

As used herein, the terms “enclosure,” “cover plate,” and “window” are used interchangeably and refer to glass articles, including windows, cover plates, screens, panels, and substrates, that form the outer portion of a display screen, window, or structure for mobile electronic devices.

Glass is being designed into mobile electronic devices, such as telephones, and entertainment devices, including games, music players and the like; information terminal (IT) devices, such as laptop computers; and analogous stationary versions of such devices.

In some instances, such designs are limited to a flat piece of glass that is protected by a bezel; i.e., a rim that is used to hold and protect a glass window or cover plate in a given device. An example of a glass cover plate or window that is held in place by a bezel is schematically shown in FIG. 1a. Cover plate 110 rests in rim 122 of bezel 120, which holds cover plate 110 in place on body 105 of device 100 and protects the edge 112 of cover plate 110 from sharp impacts.

In order to exploit the crystal-like appearance of glass windows, cover plates, and the like in such devices, designs are being extended to make the glass “proud” of the bezel. The term “proud of the bezel” means that the glass extends to the edge of the device and protrudes above and beyond any bezel or rim of the device. FIG. 1b schematically shows an example of a glass cover plate 110 that is proud of the bezel 120 and is affixed to body 105 of device 100. Glass cover plate 110 is mounted on the surface of bezel 120 such that edges 112 of glass cover plate 110 are exposed and otherwise not covered by bezel 120. Edges 112 of cover plate 110 extend to the edges of 107 of body 105.

The primary limitation to implementing a cover plate or window that is proud of the bezel in such designs is the inability of glass cover plate 110—particularly edges 112—to withstand direct impact, thus necessitating protection of edge 112 of glass cover plate 110 by bezel 120 (FIG. 1a). Furthermore, a glass cover plate 110 that is proud of the bezel 120 (FIG. 1b) will have a greater chance of being scratched during handling and use due to exposure of edge 112 of glass cover plate 110. In order to implement the aforementioned new designs, a glass cover plate must therefore be better able to withstand direct impacts than those glasses that are presently used in such applications. Moreover, a glass must also be resistant to scratching and should have a high retained strength after being scratched or abraded.

The predominant cause of glass breakage in applications such as windshields or cover glass in electronic devices is point contact or sharp impact. To serve as a cover glass or other enclosure in such applications, the crack initiation load of the glass has to be sufficiently high so that it can withstand direct impact. The depth of the surface layers of the glass that are under compressive stress has to be sufficient to provide a high retained strength and increased resistance to damage incurred upon being scratched or abraded.

Accordingly, a glass or glass article that is more resistant to sharp impact and is be able to withstand direct or point impacts is provided. Such glass articles include a windshield or glass enclosure such as, but not limited to, a cover plate, window, casing, screen, touch panel, or the like, for electronic devices. The glass enclosure comprises a strengthened glass which does not exhibit lateral damage such as, but not limited to, chipping when scratched at a rate of 0.4 mm/s with a Knoop diamond that is oriented so that the angle between the leading and trailing edges of the tip of the Knoop diamond is 172°30′ at a load of 5 N and, in some embodiments, at a load of 10 N. As used herein, “chipping” refers to the removal or ejection of glass fragments from a surface of a glass when the surface is scratched with an object such as a stylus. As used herein, “chip” can refer to either a glass fragment removed during scratching of the glass surface or the region on the surface from which the chip is removed. In the latter sense, a chip is typically characterized as a depression in the vicinity of the scratch. When scratched, the glass article described herein does not exhibit chipping (i.e., chips are not generated, or the glass is free of chips) beyond a region extending laterally on either side of the scratch track (i.e., the scratch formed by the Knoop diamond) formed for a distance d that is greater than twice the width w of the scratch and, in another embodiment, three times the width w of the scratch. In other words, chipping generated by scratching is limited to a region bordering either side of the scratch track, wherein the width of the region is no greater than twice (in some embodiment, no greater than three times) the width w of the scratch. In one embodiment, the glass enclosure is proud of a bezel, extending above and protruding beyond the bezel, in those instances where a bezel is present. In one embodiment, the glass enclosure has a thickness in a range from about 0.1 mm up to about 2.0 mm. In another embodiment, the glass enclosure has a thickness in a range from about 0.1 mm up to about 2.3 mm and, in other embodiments, the glass enclosure has a thickness of up to about 5.0 mm.

The scratch resistance or response of a glass enclosure to scratching is illustrated in FIG. 2a. The glass shown in FIG. 2a is an alkali aluminosilicate glass having the composition 66 mol % SiO2, 10.3 mol % Al2O3, 0.6 mol % B2O3, 14 mol % Na2O, 2.45 mol % K2O, and 0.21 mol % SnO2, wherein the ratio (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers), expressed in mol %, is 0.66. The glass was strengthened by ion exchange by immersion in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 410° C. for 8 hrs. FIG. 2a is a microscopic image of the glass having a scratch 210 of width w formed at a rate of 0.4 mm/s with a Knoop diamond at a load of 10 N. Numerous chips 220 are formed along scratch 210, with some chips extending from scratch 210 for a distance d exceeding twice the width w (2w) of scratch 210. In contrast to the behavior of the glass shown in FIG. 2a, the response of the glass enclosure and glasses described herein to scratching is illustrated in FIG. 2b. FIG. 2b is a microscopic image of an aluminoborosilicate glass (64 mol % SiO2, 14.5 mol % Al2O3, 8 mol % B2O3, 11.5 mol % Na2O, 0.1 mol % SnO2; wherein the ratio (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers), wherein Al2O3, B2O3, and Na2O modifier concentrations are expressed in mol %, is 1.96) that is representative of those aluminoborosilicate glasses described herein. The glass shown in FIG. 2b was ion exchanged by immersion in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 410° C. for 8 hrs. The glass shown in FIG. 2b has a scratch 210 of width w formed with a Knoop diamond at a load of 10 N. The chips 220 formed in the aluminoborosilicate glass shown in FIG. 2b are significantly smaller than those seen in FIG. 2a. In FIG. 2b, chip formation is limited to a zone extending from an edge 212 of scratch 210 to a distance d. The width d of the zone or region in which such chipping occurs is significantly less than 2w. In other words, most of the chips 220 seen in FIG. 2b extend for a distance d, which is less than about width w from crack 210. The glass retains at least 30% of its original load at failure and, in some embodiments, at least 50% of its original load at failure as a determined by ring on ring measurements after scratching with a 3 N Vickers load at a rate of 0.4 mm/s.

The glass enclosures described herein comprise a strengthened glass that deforms upon indentation under an indentation load of at least 500 gf primarily by densification rather than by shear faulting. The glass is free of subsurface faulting and radial and median cracks upon deformation and is consequently more resistant to damage than typical ion-exchangeable glasses. In addition, the glass is more resistant to crack initiation by shear faulting when strengthened by ion exchange. In one embodiment, the glass enclosure comprises an ion exchanged glass and has a Vickers median/radial crack initiation threshold of at least 10 kilogram force (kgf). In a second embodiment, the glass enclosure has a Vickers median/radial crack initiation threshold of at least about 20 kgf and, in a third embodiment, the glass enclosure has a Vickers median/radial crack initiation threshold of at least about 30 kgf. Unless otherwise specified, the Vickers median/radial crack threshold is determined by measuring the onset of median or radial cracks in 50% relative humidity at room temperature.

In another embodiment, the glass enclosures described herein are non-frangible. As used herein, the term “non-frangible” means that the glass enclosures and the glass comprising the glass enclosures do not exhibit forceful fragmentation upon fracture. Such forceful fragmentation is typically characterized by multiple crack branching with ejection or “tossing” of small glass pieces and/or particles from the glass enclosure in the absence of any external restraints, such as coatings, adhesive layers, or the like. More specifically frangible behavior is characterized by at least one of: breaking of the strengthened glass article (e.g., a plate or sheet) into multiple small pieces (e.g., <1 mm); the number of fragments formed per unit area of the glass article; multiple crack branching from an initial crack in the glass article; and violent ejection of at least one fragment a specified distance (e.g., about 5 cm, or about 2 inches) from its original location; and combinations of any of the foregoing breaking (size and density), cracking, and ejecting behaviors. The glass enclosure and the glass comprising the enclosure are deemed to be substantially non-frangible if they do not exhibit any of the foregoing criteria.

The strengthened glass comprising the glass enclosure can be strengthened by either thermal or chemical processes known in the art. The glass, in one embodiment, can be thermally tempered by heating the glass at a temperature that is between the strain point and the softening point of the glass, followed by cooling to room temperature. In another embodiment, the glass is chemically strengthened by ion exchange in which smaller metal ions in the glass are replaced or “exchanged” by larger metal ions of the same valence within a layer of the glass that extends from the outer surface of the glass to a depth below the surface (commonly referred to as the “depth of layer” or “DOL”). The replacement of smaller ions with larger ions creates a compressive stress within the layer. In one embodiment, the metal ions are monovalent alkali metal ions (e.g., Na+, K+, Rb+, and the like), and ion exchange is accomplished by immersing the glass in a bath comprising at least one molten salt (e.g., KNO3, K2SO4, KCl, or the like) of the larger metal ion that is to replace the smaller metal ion or ions (e.g., Na+ ions) in the glass. Alternatively, other monovalent cations such as Ag+, Tl+, Cu30 , and the like can be exchanged for the alkali metal cations in the glass. The ion exchange process or processes that are used to strengthen the glass can include, but are not limited to, immersion in a single bath or multiple baths of like or different compositions with washing and/or annealing steps between immersions.

The depth of the compressive stress layer (depth of layer) present in ion-exchanged glasses prevents the propagation of flaws at or near the surface of the glass. Glasses such as soda lime silicate and alkali aluminosilicate glasses deform with a high shear band density. Such behavior is known to lead to crack nucleation and propagation in the non-ion exchanged versions of such glasses. An example of shear fault formation and crack initiation is shown in FIGS. 3a and 3b. FIGS. 3a and 3b are top and side (i.e., cross-sectional) views, respectively, of a 1 kilogram force (kgf) Vickers indentation 305 in a soda lime silicate glass that has not been ion exchanged. Radial cracks 310 extend from the Vickers indentation 305 (FIG. 3a) and shear deformation zone A. Lateral cracks 317, median cracks 319, and subsurface shear faults 315 are seen in the side view of the glass (FIG. 3b). Shear faults 315 serve as initiation sites for lateral and median cracks 317, 319.

The compressive stress created in the surface layers of ion exchanged glasses prevents or mitigates the propagation of nucleated cracks, but does not totally eliminate shear deformation. FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a 1 kgf Vickers indentation of an ion-exchanged soda lime silicate glass having a compressive stress of 400 MPa and a depth of layer of 13 μm. Although mitigated, deformation still occurs by the shearing mechanism and leads to crack initiation, as seen in the shear deformation zone A. The compressive layer prevents radial cracks 310 from extending far away from their nucleation sites in the shear deformation zone A. Under flexural loading, subsurface cracks 415 overcome the compressive stress created by ion exchange and propagate into the central tensile region of the glass, thereby causing failure.

To improve the mechanical properties of glass enclosures beyond those of currently available ion-exchanged glasses, a glass having higher damage resistance is needed. Accordingly, the glass enclosure described herein comprises an ion-exchanged glass that does not exhibit deformation by subsurface shear faulting, but instead exhibits indentation deformation by densification when submitted to an indentation load of at least 500 gf, which makes flaw/crack initiation more difficult. An example of deformation by densification is shown in FIGS. 5a and 5b, which are top and side views, respectively, of a 1 kilogram force (kgf) Vickers indentation in an alkaline earth aluminoborosilicate (EAGLE XG™, manufactured by Corning, Inc.) glass that has not been strengthened by ion exchange. The top view (FIG. 5a) shows no radial cracks extending from the Vickers indentation 505. As seen in the cross-sectional view (FIG. 5b), the glass deforms primarily by densification (region “B” in FIG. 5b) with no shear faulting. A top view of a 30 kgf Vickers indentation of an aluminoborosilicate glass having the composition: 64 mol % SiO2, 14.5 mol % Al2O3, 8 mol % B2O3, 11.5 mol % Na2O, and 0.1 mol % SnO2; wherein the ratio (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers), with Al2O3, B2O3, and Na2O modifier concentrations expressed in mol %, is 1.96, and strengthened by ion exchange by immersion in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 410° C. for 8 hours is shown in FIG. 6. At maximum load, the indenter tip has a depth of about 48 μm. No radial cracks extend from Vickers indentation 605.

The densification mechanism described hereinabove can be attributed to the absence or lack of non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) in the glass structure, high molar volume (at least 27 cm3/mol), and low Young's modulus (less than about 69 GPa) of the glass. In the aluminoborosilicate glasses described herein, a structure having substantially no non-bridging oxygens (NBO-free) is achieved through compositions in which the relationship

Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 , ( 1 )
where Al2O3 and B2O3 are intermediate glass formers and alkali metal (e.g., Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O) and alkaline earth metal oxides (e.g., MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO) are modifiers, is satisfied. Such modifiers are intentionally or actively included in the glass composition, and do not represent impurities that are inadvertently present in the batched material used to form the glass. To obtain sufficient depth of layer and compressive stress by ion exchange, it is preferable that 0.9<R2O/Al2O3<1.3, wherein Al2O3 and R2O modifier concentrations are expressed in mol %. Given a particular compressive stress and compressive depth of layer, any ion-exchangeable silicate glass composition that obeys equation (1) and contains alkali metals (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+) should have a high resistance to both crack initiation and crack propagation following ion exchange. Prior to ion exchange, such aluminoborosilicate glasses have a Vickers median/radial crack initiation threshold of at least 500 gf and, in one embodiment, the glasses have Vickers median/radial crack initiation threshold of at least 1000 gf.

In some embodiments, the glass enclosure comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of a strengthened glass that, when ion exchanged, is resistant to damage, such as crack initiation and propagation. The glass comprises at least 50 mol % SiO2 in some embodiments, at least 58 mol % SiO2 in some embodiments, at least 60 mol % SiO2 in other embodiments, and includes at least one alkali metal modifier, wherein the ratio (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers)>1, wherein Al2O3, B2O3, and modifier concentrations are expressed in mol %, and wherein the modifiers are selected from the group consisting of alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides. In some embodiments, (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers)≥1.45. As the value of this ratio increases, the damage resistance of the glass increases. In addition, an increase in the ratio or a substitution of B2O3 for Al2O3 results in a decrease in Young's modulus. In one embodiment, the Young's modulus of the aluminoborosilicate glass is less than about 69 GPa. In one embodiment, the Young's modulus of the aluminoborosilicate glass is less than about 65 GPa. In another embodiment, the Young's modulus of the aluminoborosilicate glass is in a range from about 57 GPa up to about 69 GPa. In another embodiment, the strengthened glass of the glass enclosure has a compressive stress of at least about 400 MPa and a depth of layer of at least about 15 μm, in another embodiment, at least about 25 μm, and, in yet another embodiment, at least about 30 μm.

In one embodiment, the glass enclosure comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of an ion exchangeable aluminoborosilicate glass that has been strengthened, for example, by ion exchange. As used herein, “ion exchangeable” means that a glass is capable of exchanging cations located at or near the surface of the glass with cations of the same valence that are either larger or smaller in size. In a particular embodiment, the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of: 50-72 mol % SiO2; 9-17 mol % Al2O3; 2-12 mol % B2O3; 8-16 mol % Na2O; and 0-4 mol % K2O, wherein (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers)>1, and has a molar volume of at least 27 cm3/mol. In another embodiment, the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises, consists essentially of, or consists of: 60-72 mol % SiO2; 9-16 mol % Al2O3; 5-12 mol % B2O3; 8-16 mol % Na2O; and 0-4 mol % K2O, wherein the ratio of concentrations of Al2O3 and B2O3 to the total concentrations of modifiers, (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers), is greater than 1, and has a molar volume of at least 27 cm3/mol. In the above embodiments, the modifiers are selected from alkali metal oxides (e.g., Li2O, Na2O, K2O, Rb2O, Cs2O) and alkaline earth metal oxides (e.g., MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO). In some embodiments, the glass further includes 0-5 mol % of at least one of P2O5, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and ZrO2. In other embodiments, the glass is batched with 0-2 mol % of at least one fining agent selected from a group that includes Na2SO4, NaCl, NaF, NaBr, K2SO4, KCl, KF, KBr, and SnO2. The aluminoborosilicate glass is, in some embodiments, substantially free of lithium, whereas in other embodiments, the aluminoborosilicate glass is substantially free of at least one of arsenic, antimony, and barium. In other embodiments, the aluminoborosilicate glass is down-drawable by processes known in the art, such as slot-drawing, fusion drawing, re-drawing, and the like, and has a liquidus viscosity of at least 130 kilopoise.

Various non-limiting compositions of the aluminoborosilicate glasses described herein are listed in Table 1. Table 1 also includes properties measured for these glass compositions. Crack initiation thresholds were measured by making multiple indentations (indents) in the glass using a Vickers diamond indenter loaded onto the surface. The load was increased until formation of median or radial cracks extending out from the corners of the indent impression was observed at the surface of the glass in greater than 50% of indents. Crack initiation thresholds for the samples listed in Table 1 are plotted in FIG. 7 as a function of Al2O3+B2O3—Na2O in the glass samples.

Samples a, b, c, and d in Table 1 have compositions that are nominally free of non-bridging oxygens; i.e., Al2O3+B2O3═Na2O, or Al2O3+B2O3—Na2O=0 (i.e. (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers)=1). Regardless of whether B2O3 or Al2O3 is used to consume the NBOs created by the presence of the Na2O modifier in these sample compositions, all of the above samples exhibited low (i.e., 100-300 gf) crack initiation thresholds.

In samples e and f, however, an excess of B2O3 is created by increasing the Al2O3 content while decreasing the concentration of alkali metal oxide modifiers. For samples e and f, (Al2O3+B2O3)/Σ(modifiers)>1. In these samples, the crack initiation threshold increases dramatically, as shown in FIG. 7. Specifically, sample e exhibited a crack initiation threshold of 700 gf prior to strengthening by ion exchange, whereas sample f exhibited a crack initiated threshold of 1000 gf prior to strengthening.

Non-limiting examples of the aluminoborosilicate glasses described herein are listed Table 2, which lists various compositions and properties of glasses. Several compositions (34, 35, 36, 37, 38, and 39), when ion exchanged, have crack initiation thresholds that are less than 10 kgf. These compositions are therefore outside the scope of the disclosure and appended claims and thus serve as comparative examples. Among the properties listed in Table 2 is the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), given in units of 1×10−7/° C. CTE is one consideration that is taken into account when designing devices that develop minimal thermal stresses upon temperature changes. Glasses having lower CTEs are desirable for down-draw processes (e.g., fusion-draw and slot-draw) to minimize sheet distortion during the drawing process. The liquidus temperature and corresponding liquidus viscosity (expressed in kP (kilopoise) or MP (megapoise)) indicate the suitability of glass compositions for hot forming the glass into sheets or other shapes. For down-draw processes, it is desirable that the aluminoborosilicate glasses glass described herein have a liquidus viscosity of at least 130 kP. The 200P temperature is the temperature at which the glass has a viscosity of 200 Poise, and is the process temperature typically used in manufacturing to remove gaseous inclusions (fining) and melt any remaining batch materials. The columns labeled 8 and 15 hr DOL and CS in Table 2 are the depth of the compressive layer and the surface compressive stress resulting from ion exchange in 100% KNO3 at 410° C. in 8 and 15 hours, respectively.

To maintain desirable ion exchange properties for the glasses described herein, the total alkali metal oxide modifier concentration should equal that of Al2O3 and any excess (Al2O3+B2O3) that is needed should be made up with B2O3 alone to increase the crack initiation load. For optimum ion exchange, the aluminoborosilicate glass should the total concentration of alkali metal oxide modifiers should equal that of alumina—i.e., (Li2O+Na2O+K2O+Rb2O+Cs2O)═Al2O3— to achieve the greatest compressive stress and depth of layer, with excess B2O3 to improve damage resistance of the glass. However, excess B2O3 content should be balanced against the rate of ion exchange. For deep (e.g., >20 μm) ion exchange, the B2O3 concentration should, in some embodiments, be less than that of Al2O3. To achieve the lowest level of melting defects such as undissolved batch or gaseous inclusions, it is best to that R2O/Al2O3>1.0 and, preferably, between 1.05≥R2O/Al2O3≥1.2. Since this condition would create NBOs, given by R2O—Al2O3, enough B2O3 should, in some embodiments, be added to consume the excess modifiers (i.e., B2O3>R2O—Al2O3) to maintain damage resistance. More preferably, B2O3>2(R2O—Al2O3).

Divalent cations can be added to lower the 200 P temperature (i.e., the typical melting viscosity) of the aluminoborosilicate glass and eliminate defects such as undissolved and/or unmelted batch materials. Smaller divalent cations, such as Mg2+, Zn2+, or the like are preferable, as they have beneficial impact on the compressive stress developed during ion exchange of the glass. Larger divalent cations such as Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ decrease the ion exchange rate and the compressive stress achieved by ion exchange. Likewise, the presence of smaller monovalent cations such as Li+ in the glass can have a positive effect on the crack initiation threshold, whereas larger ions such as K+ are not as desirable. In addition, whereas small amounts of K2O can increase the depth of layer of the compressive stress region, high concentrations of larger monovalent ions such as K+ decrease compressive stress and should therefore be limited to less than 4%.

The aluminoborosilicate glass described herein comprises at least 50 mol %, 58 mol % SiO2 in some embodiments, and in other embodiments, at least 60 mol % SiO2. The SiO2 concentration plays a role in controlling the stability and viscosity of the glass. High SiO2 concentrations raise the viscosity of the glass, making melting of the glass difficult. The high viscosity of high SiO2-containing glasses frustrates mixing, dissolution of batch materials, and bubble rise during fining. High SiO2 concentrations also require very high temperatures to maintain adequate flow and glass quality. Accordingly, the SiO2 concentration in the glass should not exceed 72 mol %.

As the SiO2 concentration in the glass decreases below 60 mol %, the liquidus temperature increases. The liquidus temperature of SiO2—Al2O3—Na2O compositions rapidly increases to temperatures exceeding 1500° C. at SiO2 contents of less than 50 mol %. As the liquidus temperature increases, the liquidus viscosity (the viscosity of the molten glass at the liquidus temperature) of the glass decreases. While the presence of B2O3 suppresses the liquidus temperature, the SiO2 content should be maintained at greater than 50 mol % to prevent the glass from having excessively high liquidus temperature and low liquidus viscosity. In order to keep the liquidus viscosity from becoming too low or too high, the SiO2 concentration of the gasses described herein should therefore be within the range between 50 mol % and 72 mol %, between 58 mol % in some embodiments, and between 60 mol % and 72 mol % in other embodiments.

The SiO2 concentration also provides the glass with chemical durability with respect to mineral acids, with the exception of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Accordingly, the SiO2 concentration in the glasses described herein should be greater than 50 mol % in order to provide sufficient durability.

TABLE 1 Compositions and properties of alkali aluminoborosilicate glasses. Mol % a b c d e f SiO2 64 64 64 64 64 64 Al2O3 0 6 9 15 12 13.5 B2O3 18 12 9 3 9 9 Na2O 18 18 18 18 15 13.5 SnO2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Al2O3 + B2O3 − Na2O 0 0 0 0 6 9 Strain Point (° C.) 537 527 524 570 532 548 Anneal Point (° C.) 575 565 564 619 577 605 Softening Point (° C.) 711 713 730 856 770 878 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (×10−7/ 81.7 81.8 84.8 88.2 78 74.1 ° C.) Density (g/cm3) 2.493 2.461 2.454 2.437 2.394 2.353 Crack Initiation Load (gf) 100 200 200 300 700 1100 Vickers Hardness at 200 gf 511 519 513 489 475 Indentation Toughness (MPa m{circumflex over ( )}0.5) 0.64 0.66 0.69 0.73 0.77 Brittleness (μm{circumflex over ( )}0.5) 7.8 7.6 7.3 6.6 6 IX at 410° C. for 8 hrs in 100% KNO3 DOL (μm) 10.7 15.7 20.4 34.3 25.6 35.1 CS (MPa) 874 795 773 985 847 871

TABLE 2 Table 2. Compositions, expressed in mol %, and properties of alkali aluminoborosilicate glasses. Composition (mol %) Sample SiO2 Al2O3 B2O3 Li2O Na2O K2O MgO CaO P2O5 SnO2 ZnO ZrO2 1 64.0 13.5 8.9 13.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 2 65.7 12.3 9.0 11.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 3 65.7 12.3 9.0 9.5 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 4 65.7 12.3 9.0 12.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 5 64.0 13.0 8.9 13.9 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.00 6 64.0 13.5 8.9 13.4 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 7 64.0 14.0 8.9 12.9 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 8 64.0 14.5 7.9 13.4 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 9 64.0 12.5 9.9 13.4 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 10 64.0 13.5 8.9 11.4 2.01 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.00 11 64.0 14.5 7.0 14.4 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.00 12 64.0 13.5 7.9 13.4 0.00 1.00 0.05 0.10 0.00 13 63.3 12.3 9.8 12.3 0.99 0.00 0.02 0.15 0.02 14 64.0 13.5 8.5 14.0 0.00 0.10 15 64.0 12.5 10.0 13.0 0.50 0.10 16 64.0 13.5 9.0 12.5 1.00 0.10 17 64.0 13.5 9.0 13.5 0.00 0.10 18 65.7 11.8 9.5 11.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.00 19 64.0 12.5 10.9 12.4 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.10 0.00 20 64.0 13.5 8.0 14.5 0.00 0.10 21 64.0 13.5 8.9 13.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 22 63.9 13.0 5.0 11.0 3.0 4.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 23 65.7 11.8 10.0 11.0 1.30 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.00 24 65.7 11.3 10.0 11.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.00 25 65.7 10.7 10.6 11.5 1.30 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.00 26 64.0 13.5 6.0 13.4 0.00 3.02 0.06 0.10 0.00 27 64.0 13.5 7.0 15.5 0.00 0.10 28 65.7 12.3 10.0 10.5 1.30 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.00 29 64.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.10 0.00 30 64.0 14.0 6.0 11.4 2.50 2.02 0.05 0.10 0.00 31 64.0 13.5 7.0 13.4 0.00 2.01 0.06 0.10 0.00 32 64.0 12.0 8.9 14.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 33 62.0 14.0 6.0 12.9 3.01 2.01 0.05 0.10 0.00 34 64.1 13.2 5.6 12.2 2.83 1.89 0.05 0.09 0.00 35 64.0 12.5 6.0 12.9 2.50 2.02 0.05 0.10 0.00 36 63.1 13.6 5.8 12.6 2.92 1.95 0.05 0.10 0.00 37 64.0 12.5 5.5 14.9 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.00 38 64.0 13.0 6.0 12.4 2.50 2.01 0.05 0.10 0.00 39 65.7 10.3 11.0 11.5 1.30 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.00 40 61.8 12.9 10.3 0.0 13.9 1.03 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 41 62.6 12.6 10.1 0.0 13.6 1.01 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 42 63.3 12.4 9.9 0.0 13.4 0.99 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 43 64.0 12.1 9.7 0.0 13.1 0.97 0.00 0.0 0.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 44 63.3 11.4 9.9 0.0 13.4 0.99 0.00 0.0 1.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 45 63.3 10.4 9.9 0.0 13.4 0.99 0.00 0.0 2.0 0.12 0.00 0.0 46 62.7 12.2 9.8 0 12.2 0.98 1.96 0.00 0 0.12 0.00 0 47 61.5 12.0 9.6 0 12.0 0.96 3.84 0.00 0 0.12 0.00 0 48 62.7 12.2 9.8 0 12.2 0.98 0.00 0.00 0 0.12 2.0 0 49 61.5 12.0 9.6 0 12.0 0.96 0.00 0.00 0 0.12 3.8 0 50 62.7 12.2 9.8 0 12.2 0.98 0.98 0.00 0 0.12 0.98 0 51 63.9 12.5 10.0 0 12.5 1.00 0.00 0.00 0 0.12 0.00 0 52 64.1 16.9 2.1 15.6 1.01 0.02 0.12 0.10 53 64.0 16.4 2.1 16.3 1.01 0.02 0.13 0.10 54 59.9 16.5 6.6 16.2 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 55 50.5 20.2 9.8 19.4 0.1 56 52.3 19.4 9.3 18.9 0.1 57 55.2 20.3 9.7 14.6 0.1 (R2O + (Al2O3 + Molar RO)/(Al2O3 + B2O3)/(R2O + Density Volume Sample Total B2O3) R2O/Al2O3 RO) g/cm3 cm3/mol 1 100.0 0.602 0.997 1.661 2.353 28.44 2 100.0 0.606 1.046 1.651 2.347 28.47 3 100.0 0.606 1.046 1.651 2.345 28.77 4 100.0 0.605 1.045 1.652 2.346 28.31 5 100.0 0.639 1.074 1.564 2.363 28.23 6 100.0 0.602 0.997 1.661 2.355 28.41 7 100.0 0.567 0.926 1.764 2.335 28.74 8 100.0 0.602 0.929 1.661 2.363 28.45 9 100.0 0.602 1.076 1.662 2.354 28.29 10 100.0 0.602 0.998 1.660 2.356 28.67 11 100.0 0.676 0.997 1.480 2.376 28.27 12 100.0 0.676 0.997 1.479 2.369 28.12 13 99.00 0.601 1.077 1.665 2.346 28.41 14 100.1 0.636 1.037 1.571 15 100.1 0.600 1.080 1.667 16 100.1 0.600 1.000 1.667 17 100.1 0.600 1.000 1.667 18 100.0 0.606 1.090 1.652 2.346 28.4 19 100.0 0.533 0.996 1.877 2.353 28.34 20 100.1 0.674 1.074 1.483 21 100.0 0.602 0.997 1.661 2.354 28.43 22 100.0 1.002 1.076 0.998 2.407 27.62 23 100.0 0.569 1.048 1.759 2.336 28.54 24 100.0 0.606 1.138 1.651 2.347 28.32 25 100.0 0.606 1.203 1.651 2.349 28.21 26 100.0 0.850 0.997 1.176 2.395 27.56 27 100.1 0.756 1.148 1.323 28 100.0 0.533 0.964 1.875 2.331 28.68 29 100.0 0.502 0.997 1.994 2.326 28.62 30 100.0 0.804 0.998 1.244 2.392 28.11 31 100.0 0.758 0.996 1.319 2.385 27.81 32 100.0 0.717 1.246 1.395 2.394 27.7 33 100.0 0.903 1.141 1.108 2.418 27.89 34 100.0 0.903 1.141 1.108 2.409 27.82 35 100.0 0.949 1.237 1.053 2.414 27.61 36 100.0 0.903 1.141 1.108 2.411 27.88 37 100.0 1.002 1.438 0.998 2.444 27.5 38 100.0 0.897 1.151 1.115 2.406 27.78 39 100.0 0.606 1.249 1.651 2.431 27.21 40 100.0 0.644 1.160 1.552 2.358 41 100.0 0.644 1.160 1.552 2.355 28.48 42 100.0 0.644 1.160 1.552 2.352 28.46 43 100.0 0.644 1.160 1.552 2.350 28.42 44 100.0 0.644 1.261 1.552 2.356 45 100.0 0.644 1.381 1.552 2.358 46 100.0 0.689 1.080 1.452 2.369 28.03 47 100.0 0.778 1.080 1.286 2.386 27.62 48 100.0 0.600 1.080 1.667 2.395 28.06 49 100.0 0.600 1.080 1.667 2.432 27.75 50 100.0 0.644 1.080 1.552 2.383 28.04 51 100.0 0.600 1.080 1.667 2.354 28.04 52 100.0 0.877 0.979 1.141 2.425 28.07 53 100.0 0.940 1.052 1.064 2.433 27.89 54 100.0 0.727 1.013 1.375 2.399 28.32 55 100.0 0.647 0.960 1.546 2.412 28.97 56 100.0 0.659 0.974 1.519 2.413 28.73 57 99.9 0.487 0.719 2.055 2.399 29.09 Liquidus 200 Elastic Shear Strain Anneal Softening CTE × Liquidus Viscosity poise T modulus modulus Sample pt. (° C.) pt. (° C.) pt. (° C.) 107 K−1 T (° C.) (Mpoise) (° C.) (GPa) (GPa) 1 548 605 878 74.1 62.3 25.6 2 543 603 1694 3 524 580 4 538 593 1690 5 539 590 824 76.0 <750 >1786 1680 63.4 26.1 6 548 605 864 72.8 <750 >9706 1684 62.2 25.6 7 559 618 885 69.9 <750 62.7 25.7 8 566 625 893 72.1 63.3 26.1 9 528 577 804 74.0 <730 >474 1650 62.9 25.7 10 534 590 864 78.4 <745 62.3 25.8 11 563 620 900 80.0 <715 >132346 1732 64.0 26.3 12 546 599 864 74.8 <715 >11212 1655 64.4 26.4 13 542 597 75.4 1669 61.6 25.4 14 547 600 75.7 <720 15 523 574 <745 16 539 595 <720 17 569 628 <720 18 518 570 820 72.8 1692 63.2 26.1 19 522 578 874 70.3 <705 60.6 24.8 20 545 596 78.2 <700 21 546 604 871 72.0 <700 >100 1665 62.6 25.7 22 556 608 864 81.8 1115 23 521 575 831 73.8 62.4 25.5 24 517 568 798 75.2 1702 64.1 26.3 25 513 561 777 73.2 1663 64.6 26.6 26 564 616 872 73.0 1050 67.6 27.8 27 547 594 <745 28 528 587 883 68.9 61.8 25.3 29 509 563 826 69.9 <745 >663 1648 59.6 24.4 30 557 613 882 79.5 975 4.72 1689 67.4 27.6 31 550 603 862 75.4 945 66.2 27.2 32 532 577 770 78.0 865 67.4 27.8 33 538 587 830 87.7 <710 1614 68.8 28.3 34 540 591 839 82.1 <730 >885 1671 69.0 28.4 35 533 581 803 84.9 <710 >518 1634 69.0 28.5 36 538 588 830 85.7 <720 >1212 1663 68.4 28.1 37 522 564 754 91.2 <710 72.1 29.7 38 537 586 827 82.1 <720 >1698 1653 68.1 28.2 39 521 561 739 83.7 820 1.26 1480 72.5 29.9 40 517 567 805 79.4 <720 62.7 41 518 569 811 75.4 <710 1662 1668 62.7 42 520 572 831 74.0 <745 62.6 43 519 571 824 76.4 <700 2053 1679 62.2 44 508 556 785 76.0 <710 63.6 45 500 547 785 75.7 <745 63.5 46 524 573 809 74.5 <750 47 526 573 791 74.8 48 507 557 796 74.7 <700 49 507 554 781 74.0 955 50 513 562 795 75.4 <730 51 489 539 791 <710 52 666 726 1016 88.8 <930 >500 1743 53 620 679 969 89.3 1010 8.2 1727 54 588 643 905 87.4 1050 0.86 1628 55 559.0 609.0 849.5 74.4 56 559.0 610.0 841.0 92.4 57 577.0 631.0 877.7 68.9 Pre-IX Crack CS1 DOL1 CS2 DOL2, Poisson initiation IX 8 hrs IX 8 hrs IX 15 hrs IX 15 hrs Damage Sample ratio load (gf) (MPa) (μm) (MPa) (μm) Threshold (gf)3 1 0.219 1100  871 35.1 >30000 2 600 >30000 3 600 29000 4 800 >30000 5 0.213 500-1000 803 38.8 762 51.5 6 0.215 500-1000 816 38.8 782 51.8 7 0.219 500-1000 803 36.1 761 50.5 8 0.213 500-1000 868 40.3 840 53.6 9 0.223 752 34.8 707 47.2 10 0.209 722 47.8 687 65.1 11 0.216 924 46 877 60.9 12 0.219 839 36.2 790 48.8 13 0.214 775 43.5 732 60.8 14 850 38.5 792 50.7 15 738 33.7 686 47.2 16 763 40.7 716 55.5 17 808 40.5 757 55.4 18 0.212 25000 19 0.224 691 33.7 641 46.6 20 868 37.1 810 52.1 21 0.217 824 35.8 22 771 50.6 747 66 23 0.222 21000 24 0.218 20000 25 0.216 20000 26 0.217 887 34.8 864 46.7 27 887 34.7 835 48 28 0.221 18000 29 0.219 623 31.3 557 43 30 0.219 500-1000 791 54.1 772 67.5 31 0.217 870 35.2 833 46.9 32 0.21 600 847 25.6 33 0.216 500-1000 814 50.8 773 67 34 0.217 300-500  825 46.3 792 63.6 35 0.21 300-500  794 45.5 750 60.6 36 0.217 300-500  801 51.2 779 66.2 37 0.215 200-300  747 43.9 698 56.5 38 0.208 200-300  803 46.4 761 63.3 39 0.213 5000 40 694 38.1 668 54.2 41 707 40.1 654 50.6 42 690 39.9 643 52.6 43 689 38.6 627 55 44 611 37.5 555 51.2 45 533 37.4 502 50.4 46 806 40.1 705 71.7 47 753 27 716 36.3 48 712 29.3 670 37.2 49 720 25 688 34.8 50 716 30.4 680 39.5 51 574 32.5 540 43.1 52 53 54 1029 51.2 55 901 38.3 858 57.5 10000-15000 56 967 37.8 964 50.7 10000-15000 57 832 18.3 790 29 10000-15000 Sample Damage Threshold (gf)4 Damage Threshold (gf)5 Damage Threshold (gf) 1 30 2 30 3 29 4 30 5 >30000 30 6 >30000 30 7 >30000 30 8 >30000 30 9 >30000 30 10 >30000 30 11 >30000 30 12 >30000 30 13 >30000 30 14 >30000 30 15 >30000 30 16 >30000 30 17 >30000 30 18 25 19 25000 25 20 25000 25 21 23000 23 22 20000-25000 22 23 21 24 20 25 20 26 20000 20 27 <25000 20 28 18 29 18000 18 30 15000 15 31 13000 13 32 11000 11 33 10000 10 34 9000 9 35 8000 8 36 8000 8 37 6000 6 38 6000 6 39 5 40 19000 19 41 22000 22 42 >30000 30 43 44 20000-25000 22.5 45 46 15000-20000 17.5 47 >30000 >30 48 >30000 >30 49 >30000 >30 50 >30000 >30 51 20000-25000 22.5 52 13.5 53 11.5 54 10000-15000 12.5 55 10000-15000 12.5 56 <10000 12.5 57 10000-15000 12.5 1Compressive stress (CS) and depth of layer (DOL) after ion exchange (IX) in 100% KNO3 at 410° C. for 8 hrs. 3Compressive stress (CS) and depth of layer (DOL) after ion exchange (IX) in 100% KNO3 at 410° C. for 15 hrs. 3After ion exchange (IX) in 100% KNO3 at 410° C. for 8 hrs. 4After ion exchange (IX) in 100% KNO3 at 410° C. for 15 hrs. 5After ion exchange (IX) in 100% KNO3 at 370° C. for 64 hrs.

Example

The following example illustrates features and advantages of the glasses described herein, and is in no way intended to limit the disclosure or appended claims thereto.

The purpose of this example was to verify that pre-ion exchange crack resistance improves post-ion exchange crack resistance in a glass. Samples of crack resistant aluminoborosilicate glass having composition e in Table 1 (64 mol % SiO2, 13.5 mol % Al2O3, 9 mol % B2O3, 13.5 mol % Na2O, 0.1 mol % SnO2) and a pre-ion exchange crack initiation threshold of 1100 gram force (gf), were ion exchanged by immersion in a molten KNO3 salt bath at 410° C. for 8 hrs to achieve depths of layer DOL and compressive stresses CS. One sample had a DOL of 55.8 μm and a CS of 838 MPa, and another sample had a DOL of 35.1 μm and a CS of 871 MPa.

For purposes of comparison, samples of Corning GORILLA™ Glass (an alkali aluminosilicate glass having the composition: 66.4 mol % SiO2; 10.3 mol % Al2O3; 0.60 mol % B2O3; 4.0 mol % Na2O; 2.10 mol % K2O; 5.76 mol % MgO; 0.58 mol % CaO; 0.01 mol % ZrO2; 0.21 mol % SnO2; and 0.007 mol % Fe2O3) with a pre-ion exchange crack initiation threshold of 300 gf were then ion exchanged to closely match the compressive stress and depths of layer of the samples having composition f, listed in Table 1. One sample had a DOL of 54 μm and a CS of 751 MPa, and another sample had a DOL of 35 μm and a CS of 790 MPa. Compressive stresses and depths of layer of the ion exchanged samples of composition f and GORILLA Glass are listed in Table 3.

Following ion exchange, Vickers crack initiation loads were measured for each of composition f in Table 1 and the GORILLA Glass samples. Post-ion exchange crack initiation loads were measured using a Vickers diamond indenter as previously described herein and are listed in Table 3. The results of the crack initiation testing listed in Table 3 demonstrate that greater pre-ion exchange crack resistance improves post-ion exchange crack resistance. The GORILLA Glass samples required loads of 5,000-7,000 gf to initiate median/radial crack systems, whereas the composition f samples required loads of greater than 30,000 gf, or 4-6 times the load needed to initiate such cracks in GORILLA Glass samples, to initiate median/radial crack systems. The GORILLA Glass samples fractured into several pieces when the indentation load exceeded the measured crack initiation loads, and in all cases fracture was observed by the point at which the load exceeded 10,000 gf. In contrast, the composition f samples did not fracture at any of the indentation loads (3,000 up to 30,000 gf) studied.

TABLE 3 Crack initiation loads of ion-exchanged glasses having composition f (listed in Table 1) and Gorilla ® Glasses. Pre-Ion-Exchange Post-Ion- Crack Exchange Crack Initiation Load DOL Compressive Initiation Load Glass (gf) (microns) Stress (MPa) (gf) Comp. f 1100 55.8 838 30000+ Gorilla 300 54 751 7000 Glass Comp. f 1100 35.1 871 30000+ Gorilla 300 35 790 5000 Glass

While typical embodiments have been set forth for the purpose of illustration, the foregoing description should not be deemed to be a limitation on the scope of the disclosure or appended claims. Accordingly, various modifications, adaptations, and alternatives may occur to one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure or appended claims.

Claims (35)

The invention claimed is:
1. A glass comprising:
at least 58 mol % SiO2;
at least 8 mol % Na2O;
5.5-12 mol % B2O3; and
Al2O3;
wherein a ratio
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 ,
the modifiers are one or more alkali metal oxide (R2O) and one or more alkaline earth oxide (RO);
wherein Al2O3 (mol %)>B2O3 (mol %) and 0.9<R2O/Al2O3<1.3, wherein the glass is substantially free of Li2O, and wherein the glass has a Vickers crack initiation threshold of at least 10 kgf when ion exchange is carried out.
2. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass is ion exchanged and has a layer under a compressive stress of at least about 600 MPa, the layer extending from a surface of the glass into the glass to a depth of layer of at least about 30 μm.
3. The glass of claim 2, wherein the compressive stress is at least about 800 MPa.
4. The glass of claim 2, wherein the glass has a Vickers crack initiation threshold of at least about 30 kgf.
5. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass is defined by the equation
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) 1.45 .
6. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass comprises from about 60 to 72 mol % SiO2, about 9 mol % to about 17 mol % Al2O3, and about 8 mol % to about 20 mol % Na2O.
7. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass comprises at least one of MgO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and BaO.
8. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass comprises 5.5-10 mol % B2O3.
9. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass comprises from 0 mol % to about 4 mol % K2O.
10. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass is defined by the following equation −5.7 mol %<Σ modifiers−Al2O3<2.99 mol %.
11. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass is defined by the following equation 1.0<R2O/Al2O3<1.3.
12. The glass of claim 1, wherein the glass has a Young's modulus of less than about 69 GPa.
13. A glass comprising:
at least 58 mol % SiO2;
at least 8 mol % Na2O;
2-12 mol % B2O3; and
Al2O3;
wherein a ratio
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 ,
the modifiers are one or more alkali metal oxide (R2O) and one or more alkaline earth oxide (RO);
wherein 0.9<R2O/Al2O3<1.3, Al2O3 (mol %)>B2O3 (mol %), and wherein the glass is defined by the following equation −5.7 mol %<Σ modifiers−Al2O3<2.17 mol %.
14. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass is defined by the equation
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) 1.45 .
15. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass comprises from about 60 to 72 mol % SiO2, about 9 mol % to about 17 mol % Al2O3, and about 8 mol % to about 20 mol % Na2O.
16. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass comprises at least one of MgO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and BaO.
17. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass comprises 3-10 mol % B2O3.
18. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass is defined by the following equation 1.0<R2O/Al2O3<1.3.
19. The glass of claim 13, wherein the glass has a Young's modulus of less than about 69 GPa.
20. A glass comprising:
at least 58 mol % SiO2;
at least 8 mol % Na2O;
2-10 mol % B2O3;
Al2O3; and
wherein a ratio
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 ,
the modifiers are one or more alkali metal oxide (R2O) and one or more alkaline earth oxide (RO);
wherein 0.9<R2O/Al2O3<1.3, and wherein the glass is defined by the following equation −5.7 mol %<Σ modifiers−Al2O3<2.17 mol %.
21. The glass of claim 20, wherein the glass is defined by the equation
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) 1.45 .
22. The glass of claim 20, wherein the glass comprises from about 60 to 72 mol % SiO2, about 9 mol % to about 17 mol % Al2O3, and about 8 mol % to about 20 mol % Na2O.
23. The glass of claim 20, wherein the glass comprises at least one of MgO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and BaO.
24. The glass of claim 20, wherein the glass comprises 3-10 mol % B2O3.
25. The glass of claim 20, wherein the glass is defined by the following equation 1.0<R2O/Al2O3<1.3.
26. An aluminoborosilicate glass comprising:
at least 58 mol % SiO2;
9-17 mol % Al2O3;
2-12 mol % B2O3;
8-16 mol % Na2O; and
>0-2 mol % Sn02,
wherein
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) > 1 ,
wherein the modifiers are one or more alkali metal oxide (R2O) and one or more alkaline earth metal oxide (RO),
wherein 1<R2O (mol %)/Al2O3 (mol %)<1.3,
wherein the glass is substantially free of lithium,
wherein the glass is ion exchanged and has a layer under a compressive stress of at least 600 MPa, the layer extending from a surface of the glass into the glass to a depth of layer of at least 30 μm, and
wherein the glass has a Vickers crack initiation threshold of at least 10 kgf.
27. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the compressive stress is at least 800 MPa.
28. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass has a Vickers crack initiation threshold of at least 30 kgf.
29. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass is defined by the equation
Al 2 O 3 ( mol % ) + B 2 O 3 ( mol % ) modifiers ( mol % ) 1.45 .
30. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises from about 60 to 72 mol % SiO2.
31. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises at least one of MgO, ZnO, CaO, SrO, and BaO.
32. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises 5.5-10 mol % B2O3.
33. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass comprises from 0 mol % to about 4 mol % K2O.
34. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass is defined by the equation −5.7 mol %<Σmodifiers−Al2O3<2.99 mol %.
35. The aluminoborosilicate glass of claim 26, wherein the aluminoborosilicate glass has a Young's modulus of less than about 69 GPa.
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