USRE44931E1 - Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers - Google Patents

Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE44931E1
USRE44931E1 US13756962 US201313756962A USRE44931E US RE44931 E1 USRE44931 E1 US RE44931E1 US 13756962 US13756962 US 13756962 US 201313756962 A US201313756962 A US 201313756962A US RE44931 E USRE44931 E US RE44931E
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
resin
acrylate
methacrylate
functional
acid
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US13756962
Inventor
Jeffrey L. Anderson
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BASF Corp
Original Assignee
BASF Corp
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D133/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides, or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D133/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C09D133/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen atom being present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • C09D133/08Homopolymers or copolymers of acrylic acid esters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C08ORGANIC MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS; THEIR PREPARATION OR CHEMICAL WORKING-UP; COMPOSITIONS BASED THEREON
    • C08GMACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OBTAINED OTHERWISE THAN BY REACTIONS ONLY INVOLVING UNSATURATED CARBON-TO-CARBON BONDS
    • C08G59/00Polycondensates containing more than one epoxy group per molecule; Macromolecules obtained by polymerising compounds containing more than one epoxy group per molecule using curing agents or catalysts which react with the epoxy groups
    • C08G59/18Macromolecules obtained by polymerising compounds containing more than one epoxy group per molecule using curing agents or catalysts which react with the epoxy groups ; e.g. general methods of curing
    • C08G59/182Macromolecules obtained by polymerising compounds containing more than one epoxy group per molecule using curing agents or catalysts which react with the epoxy groups ; e.g. general methods of curing using pre-adducts of epoxy compounds with curing agents
    • C08G59/186Macromolecules obtained by polymerising compounds containing more than one epoxy group per molecule using curing agents or catalysts which react with the epoxy groups ; e.g. general methods of curing using pre-adducts of epoxy compounds with curing agents with acids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D11/00Inks
    • C09D11/02Printing inks
    • C09D11/10Printing inks based on artificial resins
    • C09D11/102Printing inks based on artificial resins containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions other than those only involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D133/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides, or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D133/04Homopolymers or copolymers of esters
    • C09D133/06Homopolymers or copolymers of esters of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the oxygen atom being present only as part of the carboxyl radical
    • C09D133/10Homopolymers or copolymers of methacrylic acid esters
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D135/00Coating compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a carboxyl radical, and containing at least another carboxyl radical in the molecule, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Coating compositions based on derivatives of such polymers
    • C09D135/06Copolymers with vinyl aromatic monomers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09DCOATING COMPOSITIONS, e.g. PAINTS, VARNISHES OR LACQUERS; FILLING PASTES; CHEMICAL PAINT OR INK REMOVERS; INKS; CORRECTING FLUIDS; WOODSTAINS; PASTES OR SOLIDS FOR COLOURING OR PRINTING; USE OF MATERIALS THEREFOR
    • C09D5/00Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, characterised by their physical nature or the effects produced; Filling pastes
    • C09D5/02Emulsion paints including aerosols

Abstract

The present invention provides aqueous dispersions of highly-branched polymers for coating applications and methods for making the polymers. The polymers may have high molecular weights and desirably take the form of microgels. The polymers and dispersions may be formulated with functionalities, viscosities, and solids contents that make them well-suited for use in a variety of coatings including, but not limited to, 2-pack coatings, ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings, inks, and air-dry coatings.

Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This U.S. patent application is a Reissue Application of U.S. Ser. No. 12/181,462, filed Jul. 29, 2008, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,887,626 granted Feb. 15, 2011, and which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional patent application 60/952,689, filed Jul. 30, 2007, the entire contents of which are herein incorporated by reference for any and all purposes.

FIELD

The technology generally relates to water-based dispersions of highly-branched, polymers and to methods for making the dispersions.

BACKGROUND

High molecular weight, highly-branched polymers, including microgels, are useful for many coating applications. Such polymers may be made by reacting a acid-functional acrylic resin with a diepoxy compound, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,034,157. However, many branched polymers are polymerized and dispersed in organic solvents and, as such, are unsuitable for low volatile organic compound coating applications. In addition, whether water-based or solvent-based, the acid values of these polymers may limit the solids content of coating compositions made therefrom.

SUMMARY

This invention generally relates to a method for forming a highly-branched polymer, the method comprising the steps of: reacting an acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin dispersed in water with a polyepoxy-functional resin having at least two epoxy groups to produce a first highly-branched polymer; and subsequently reacting the first highly-branched polymer with a monoepoxy-functional resin or compound to form an aqueous dispersion of a second highly-branched polymer and further functionalized polymer.

Aqueous dispersions of the second highly-branched polymers are well-suited for use in a variety of coating applications, including inks, 2-pack epoxy coatings, ultraviolet (UV) curable coatings and air dry coatings. Aqueous dispersions are also useful as binders for printing inks and overprint varnishes used in graphic arts applications.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention provides aqueous dispersions of highly-branched, polymers for coating applications and methods for making the polymers. The polymers may have high molecular weights and desirably take the form of microgels. The polymers and dispersions may be formulated with functionalities, viscosities, and solids contents that make them well-suited for use in a variety of coatings including, but not limited to, 2-pack epoxy coatings, UV or peroxide-curable coatings, and air-dry coatings. The polymers and dispersions are also suited for use as binders in printing inks and overprint varnishes used in graphic arts applications.

One basic method of forming the polymers includes the steps of reacting an acid-functional acrylic resin dispersed in water with a polyepoxy-functional resin having at least two epoxy functional groups to produce a first highly-branched polymer. The aqueous dispersion medium is desirably free of, or substantially free of, organic solvents. The acrylic resin has a relatively high acid value, which makes it possible to achieve a good dispersion for the formation of the first highly-branched polymer. The reaction with the polyepoxy-functional resin increases the branching and molecular weight of the polymer, in some cases resulting in the formation of a microgel. This reaction step sets the viscosity of the polymer and, in the case of microgels, sets the particle size. This first polymer is subsequently reacted with a monoepoxy-functional resin or compound to form an aqueous dispersion of a second highly-branched polymer or microgel. This second reaction further consumes sonic of the acid functionalities on the first polymer, reducing the acid value and making it possible to achieve a higher solids dispersion than would otherwise be possible. Also, the second reaction further functionalizes the polymer. The resulting polymers have good water-resistance and toughness, form films at low VOC content and have high gloss potential.

The term microgel, as used herein, refers to dispersions of polymeric particles which are internally crosslinked without any significant amount of crosslinking in the continuous phase so as to provide dispersions with lower viscosity and higher solids content. These microgels form a continuous network upon film formation.

It is important that the reactions take place in the order described above because if the acid-functional resin is first reacted with the monoepoxy-functional resin or compound, the resulting decrease in acid value and accompanying increase in pH results in a dramatic viscosity increase due to the uncoiling of the polymer. This increase in viscosity may make such dispersions unsuitable for coating applications. In contrast, reacting the acid-functional resin with the polyepoxy-functional resin first, produces a highly-branched polymer that does not uncoil and, therefore, does not produce a substantial viscosity increase upon the subsequent reaction with the monoepoxy-functional resin or compound. This is illustrated in Example 1, below.

The water-dispersible acid-functional acrylic resin used in the present invention is desirably a carboxylic-acid functional resin polymerized from one or more acrylic acid or methacrylic acid monomers and one or more additional ethylenically-unsaturated monomers. These additional monomers may include non-functional acrylates or methacylates, non-functional styrenics, or a combination thereof. Hydroxyl-functional monomers as well as other functional monomers like diacetone acrylamide (DAAM) and acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AAEMA) may also be polymerized into the acrylic resins. The inclusion of hydroxyl functionalities in the acrylic resin is desirable if the polymers are to be used as 2-pack coatings. The DAAM and AAEMA provide dispersions which can be crosslinked under ambient conditions.

The acid-functional acrylic resins typically have relatively low molecular weights, relatively high acid values, and a range of possible hydroxyl values. For example, the acrylic resins may have number average molecular weights (Mn) of about 1000 to 10,000, acid values of about 25 to 300, and/or hydroxyl values (i.e., hydroxyl equivalent weights) of about 1 to 250. However, acid-functional acrylic resins having properties outside these ranges may also be employed, provided they are water-dispersible and able to react with epoxy resins to form branched polymers.

The acid-functional resins may be made by known methods. For example, the resins may be emulsion resins formed in the presence of chain transfer agents, or may be made using a continuous, high-temperature polymerization process. Suitable methods for forming acid-functional resins are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,414,370; 4,529,787; 4,546,160; 6,552,144; 6,194,510; and 6,034,157, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Examples of hydroxyl-functional acrylic monomers which may be polymerized to provide the acid-functional resins include both acrylates and methacrylates. Examples of these monomers include, but are not limited to, those containing one or more hydroxyl groups such as 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl acrylate and 2,4-hydroxybutyl methacrylates, or a mixture of such acrylates or methacrylates.

Examples of non-functional acrylate and methacrylate monomers that may be polymerized to provide the acid-functional resins include, but are not limited to, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, n-propyl acrylate, i-propyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, s-butyl acrylate, i-butyl acrylate, t-butyl acrylate, n-amyl acrylate, i-amyl acrylate, isobornyl acrylate, n-hexyl acrylate, 2-ethylbutyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, n-octyl acrylate, n-decyl acrylate, methylcyclohexyl acrylate, cyclopentyl acrylate, cyclohexyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, n-propyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, i-propyl methacrylate, i-butyl methacrylate, n-amyl methacrylate, n-hexyl methacrylate, i-amyl methacrylate, s-butyl-methacrylate, t-butyl methacrylate, 2-ethylbutyl methacrylate, methylcyclohexyl methacrylate, cinnamyl methacrylate, crotyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, cyclopentyl methacrylate, 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate, and isobornyl methacrylate. The preferred non-functional acrylate and non-functional methacrylate monomers are butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, iso-butyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl acrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl acrylate, isobornyl methacrylate and combinations thereof. Mixtures of any two or more of the above acrylate and methacrylates monomers may also be used.

The polymeric product of the present invention also may optionally include one or more non-functional styrenic monomers. Styrenic monomers for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to, styrene, α-methylstyrene, p-methylstyrene, t-butylstyrene, o-chlorostyrene, and mixtures of these species. Preferred styrenic monomers for use in the process include styrene and α-methyl-styrene. In the present methods, the polyepoxy-functional resins having two or more epoxy functionalities may be diepoxy resins, or polyepoxy-functional resins. U.S. Pat. No. 6,194,510 describes epoxy-functional condensation polymers that may be employed as the polyepoxy-functional resins of the present invention. The polyepoxy-functional resins may have epoxy values (i.e., epoxy equivalent weights) of about 100 to 1000 (e.g., about 100 to 500 or about 100 to 350) although resins having properties outside these ranges may also be used. In some embodiments, the polyepoxy-functional resins comprise digycidyl ether resins. For example, the polyepoxy-functional resins may comprise cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether, polypropylene oxide diglycidyl ether or biphenol A diglycidyl ether.

The polyepoxy-functional resins may be reacted with the acid-functional resins using known methods, including those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,194,510 and 6,034,157. These methods typically include the steps of charging an aqueous dispersion of the acid-functional resin into a reaction chamber, adding the polyepoxy-functional resin to the chamber and allowing the reactants to interact at a temperature and for a time sufficient for highly-branched polymers or microgels to form. Such methods are exemplified and described in greater detail in the Examples section below. The mole ratio of the acid-functional resin to the polyepoxy-functional resin in the reaction may vary widely depending on the final desired properties of the polymers.

Naturally, the highly-branched polymer that is the reaction product of the acid-functional resin and the polyepoxy-functional resin will have a higher molecular weight, a lower acid value and a higher hydroxyl value than the acid-functional resin from which it is made. For example, this polymer may have an Mn of about 2200 up to the gel point, and beyond, and an acid value of about 20 to 275. Depending upon whether the acid-functional acrylic resin had hydroxyl functionalities, the resulting highly-branched polymer may have a hydroxyl value of about 10 to 260. However, highly-branched polymer having properties outside these ranges may also be produced.

The monoepoxy-functional resins or compound with which the highly-branched polymers react to form the final product may be mono-functional, wherein the epoxy group is the sole functionality on the resin or compound, or may be multi-functional, wherein the resin or compound includes at least one additional functional group, such as a hydroxyl group. In some embodiments, the monoepoxy-functional resins or compounds may be glycidyl ethers or glycidyl esters. Specific examples of suitable monoepoxy-functional resins or compounds include, but are not limited to, glycidyl methacrylate, glycidyl esters of neodecanoic acid, biphenol A monoglycidyl ether, allyl glycidyl ether and 2-ethylhexyl glycidyl ether. Glycidyl methacrylate is particularly useful in the formation of UV curable coatings. Hydrophobic monoepoxy-functional compounds such as those derived from polyunsaturated alkyl or aralkyl groups are particularly useful for the formation of air dry coatings. The mole ratio of the highly-branched polymer to the monoepoxy-functional resin in the reaction may vary widely depending on the final desired properties of the polymers.

The final, high molecular weight, highly-branched polymers, which typically take the form of microgels, will have higher molecular weights, lower acid values, and higher hydroxyl values than the highly-branched polymers from which they are made. For example, the polymers may have an Mn of about 2500 up to the gel point, and beyond, and an acid value of about 15 to 250, and a hydroxyl value of about 10 to 260. However, final products having properties outside these ranges may also be produced. Aqueous dispersions of the polymer are well-suited for use in a variety of coating applications. Because the polymers are dispersed in water, the viscosity remains low enough that high VOC content is not required. In addition, the lowered acid value of the final product makes it possible to formulate coatings with higher solids contents than could be formulated with comparable polymers made by reacting an acid-functional acrylic resin with an epoxy-functional resin having 2 or more functional groups, but omitting the final reaction with a monoepoxy-functional resin or compound. For example, in some embodiments aqueous dispersions of the high molecular weight, highly-branched polymers having a solids content of at least 35 weight percent (wt. %) may be produced. This includes dispersions having a solids content of at least about 38 wt. % and further includes dispersions having a solids content of at least about 40 wt. %. As such, the microgels of the present invention provide superior low-VOC, high-solids coatings relative to other known microgels.

Abbreviations used herein are:

AA is an abbreviation for acrylic acid;

AAEMA is an abbreviation for acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylates;

AGE is an abbreviation for allylglycidyl ether;

ARx is an abbreviation for acid-functional resin where x is a sequential number to designate the various acid-functional resins prepared or used;

AV is an abbreviation for acid value;

BA is an abbreviation for butyl acrylate;

BCM is an abbreviation for billion cubic microns per square inch of analox;

blist is an abbreviation for blisters;

brk is an abbreviation for break (slight break through);

CHDMDG is an abbreviation for cyclohexyldimethanol diglycidyl ether;

CTA is an abbreviation for chain transfer agent;

CTER is an abbreviation for a chain transfer emulsion resin;

DAAM is an abbreviation for diacetone acrylamide;

DER is an abbreviation for diepoxy-functional resin;

DN is an abbreviation for degree of neutralization;

DIW is an abbreviation for deionized water;

EHA is an abbreviation for 2-ethylhexyl acrylate;

HBNP is an abbreviation for hyperbranched nanoparticles;

HDI is an abbreviation for 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate;

HDPE is an abbreviation for high density polyethylene;

HEMA is an abbreviation for 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate;

IPDI is an abbreviation for isophorone diisocyanate;

LDPE is an abbreviation for low density polyethylene;

MAA is an abbreviation for methacrylic acid;

MEK is an abbreviation for methylethylketone;

MER is an abbreviation for monoepoxy-functional resin;

MMA is an abbreviation for methylmethacrylate;

Mn refers to number average molecular weight;

NE is an abbreviation for no effect;

OH# is an abbreviation for hydroxyl value;

OPP is an abbreviation for oriented polypropylene;

rng is an abbreviation for ring;

sl is an abbreviation for slight;

sl stn is an abbreviation for slight stain;

STY is an abbreviation for styrene;

Tg is an abbreviation for glass transition temperature;

th is an abbreviation for thru;

UV is an abbreviation for ultraviolet; and

VOC is an abbreviation for volatile organic compound;

As used herein, “about” will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art and will vary to some extent depending upon the context in which it is used. If there are uses of the term which are not clear to persons of ordinary skill in the art, given the context in which it is used, “about” will mean up to plus or minus 10% of the particular term. When “about” is applied to a range, it is to be applied to entire range and not just the first value of the range. For example, a range stating from about X to Y is to be read as from about X to about Y, unless specifically stated otherwise.

The inventions illustratively described herein may suitably be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, not specifically disclosed herein. Thus, for example, the terms “comprising,” “including,” “containing,” etc. shall be read expansively and without limitation. Additionally, the terms and expressions employed herein have been used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but it is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Additionally the phrase “consisting essentially of” will be understood to include those elements specifically recited and those additional elements that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristics of the claimed invention. The phrase “consisting of” excludes any element not specifically specified.

One skilled in the art will readily realize that all ranges discussed can and do necessarily also describe all subranges therein for all purposes and that all such subranges also form part and parcel of this invention. Any listed range can be easily recognized as sufficiently describing and enabling the same range being broken down into at least equal halves, thirds, quarters, fifths, tenths, etc. As a non-limiting example, each range discussed herein can be readily broken down into a lower third, middle third and upper third, etc.

All publications, patent applications, issued patents, and other documents referred to in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication, patent application, issued patent, or other document was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in its entirety. Definitions that are contained in text incorporated by reference are excluded to the extent that they contradict definitions in this disclosure.

The invention will be further described by reference to the following examples which are presented for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Unless otherwise indicated, all parts are by weight.

EXAMPLES Example 1 Production of Aqueous Dispersions of Microgels

This example illustrates the importance of reacting the acid-functional resin with a polyepoxy-functional resin prior to the reaction with a monoepoxy-functional compound. In this study, an acid-functional resin, referred to here as “ARx,” where x is a sequential number used as a reference for the various acid-functional resins, the formulation of which are shown in Table 1, was reacted with epoxy-functional reactants as follows: (1) AR1 was reacted with a monoepoxy-functional resin of allylglycidal ether (AGE) only; (2) AR1 was reacted with a polyepoxy-functional resin of cyclohexyldimethanol diglycidyl ether (CHDMDG) only; (3) AR1 was reacted first with AGE, followed by reaction of the product with CHDMDG; and (4) AR1 was reacted first with CHDMDA, followed by reaction of the product with AGE.

In addition to the monomeric content of the acid-functional acrylic resin, Table 1 lists its acid value (AV), Mn, glass transition temperature (Tg), percent O2, and method of production. “SGO” refers to the continuous high-temperature polymerization process described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,552,144 and “emulsion” refers to a chain transferred emulsion process.

TABLE 1
Resin MMA EHA HEMA BA CTA STY AA MAA AV Mn Tg O2 % Manufact
AR1 49 14 27 10 77 5126 78 23.5 SGO
AR2 16 22 44 10 8 130 5025 75 18 SGO
AR3 40 18.3 5 1.7 25 10 65 6000 45 21.8 emulsion

Table 2 shows the ratio of the reactions for each experiment, as well as the molecular weights, acid values (AV), solids content, pH and viscosity of the resulting products. DER is an abbreviation for diepoxy-functional resin, and MER is monoepoxy-functional resin.

TABLE 2
Wt. % Viscosity
AR DER MER Mn Mw Mz AV Solids pH (cP)
AR1 5251 16280 29070 75 40 7.27 618
AR1 AGE 5410 17890 34759 39 39.7 7.89 High
AR1 CHDMDA 6096 65673 252831 62 39.93 7.45 356
AR1 CHDMDA AGE (first) 6125 70068 292592 45 39.75 7.86 18960
(second)
AR1 CHDMDA AGE (second) 5613 90153 385359 33 40 7.96 353
(first)

As shown in Table 2, when the acid-functional resin was first reacted with a monoepoxy-functional resin, the viscosity of the resulting dispersion increased dramatically. In contrast, when the acid-functional resin is first reacted with a polyepoxy-functional resin and then a monoepoxy-functional resin no viscosity increase was observed.

Example 2 Process for the Formation of Microgels

This example illustrates the method of making microgels from various acid-functional resins, polyepoxy-functional resins, and monoepoxy-functional resins. The formulation for each of the acid-functional resins (AR1-AR3) and their acid values, Mn, Tg, percent O2, and method of production are shown in Table 1, above.

In the first three studies represented here, the highly-branched microgels were made as follows. An aqueous dispersion of the acid-functional resin in deionized water containing a small amount of NH4OH (28% solution) was charged into a reaction chamber and heated to 85° C. In the case of the fourth study, the resin (AR3), was charged into a reaction chamber and heated to 85° C., followed by the addition of ammonia at 50° C. A diepoxy-functional resin was then added to the chamber and the reaction was allowed to proceed for 60 minutes. The monoepoxy-functional resin was then added to the mixture with a first aliquot of DIW and the reaction was allowed to proceed at 87° C. for 180 minutes. The reaction mixture was then allowed to cool while a second aliquot of DIW was added to the mixture.

The diepoxy-functional resins used in the studies were cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether (epoxy equivalent weight 160) (ERISYS GE-22 or Heloxy 107), polypropylene oxide diglycidyl ether (epoxy equivalent weight 312) (ERISYS GE-24), and biphenol A diglycidyl ether (epoxy equivalent weight 178) (Epon 825). The monoepoxy-functional resins were glycidyl ester of neodecanoic acid (epoxy equivalent weight 250) (Cardura E or ERISYS GS-110), alkyl C12-C14 glycidyl ethers (epoxy equivalent weight 287) (Heloxy 8) and 2-ethylhexyl ether (epoxy equivalent weight 220) (ERISYS GE-6).

Table 3 shows the amounts of resin, DIW and NH4OH solution in each the starting acid-functional resin aqueous dispersion for each of the experiments. Table 4 shows the amount of acid-functional resin dispersion (AR), DER, MER and DIW used in the formation of each microgel, as well as the DN, acid value, Tg, OH#, wt. % solids content, pH, and viscosity for the microgels and dispersions. The mole ratios for the acid-functional resin/diepoxy-functional resin/monoepoxy-functional resin for each of the four experiments were as follows: (1) 3/2.5/6; (2) 3/2.5/7; (3) 3/2.5/14; and (4) 3/2.5/6.7

TABLE 3
(1) (2) (3) (4)
AR 40.6 40.6 40.4
DI Water 58.2 58.2 57.8
NH4OH (28%) 1.2 1.2 1.8

TABLE 4
DIW DPW Tg Wt. & η
DER MER (1) (2) DN AV (° C.) AR OH# Solids pH (cP)
3.34 3.69 5 5.35 76 28 37 (1) 82.62 33 39.5 7.2 218
1.79 3.91 5 3.52 76 28 52 (2) 85.78 38 38.7 7.3 135
1.87 6.47 5 7.5 83 39 41 (3) 79.6 49 39.9 8.4 33
1.54 3.71 5 7.52 68 25 (4) 81.75 51 38.7 8.1 38

Example 3 Modification of a Latex to a Hyperbranched Structure

To a 3-neck round bottom flask was charged a latex (Sample 100, 400 g) prepared from 20% styrene, 35% 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, 33.3% butyl methacrylate, 1.67% isooctyl mercaptopropionate, and 10% methacrylic acid. The latex was neutralized using 14% NH4OH solution (4.34 g). The neutralized latex was then heated to 85° C. and di-epoxide (Heloxy 107, 5.45 g) was added over 30 minutes. After the diepoxide addition the solution was held at 85° C. for 30 minutes, followed by the addition over 30 minutes of monofuncitonal epoxides (Heloxy 8, 11.48 g). The temperature was then raised 87° C. and held for 150 minutes to produce the modified latex. The modified latex (Sample 102) was then cooled and filtered to yield a material having 39.5% solids, a pH of 7.95, and a viscosity of 6 cps as measured at 50 rpm with a #2 spindle.

Example 4 Sample Modification of a Latex to a Hyperbranched Structure

To a 3-neck round bottom flask was charged a latex (Sample 101, 400 g) prepared from 20% styrene, 35% butyl acrylate, 10% methacrylic acid, and 1.93% isooctyl mercaptopropionate. The latex was neutralized using 14% ammonium hydroxide solution (4.39 g). The neutralized latex was then heated to 85° C. and di-epoxide (Erisys GE-24, 5.74 g) was added over 30 minutes. After the di-epoxide addition was completed, the latex was held at 85° C. for 30 minutes, followed by addition over 30 minutes of monofuncitonal epoxide, glycidyl methacrylate (7.57 g). The temperature was then raised 87° C. and held for 150 minutes to produce the modified latex. The modified latex (Sample 103) was then cooled and filtered to yield a material having 39.5% solids, a pH of 7.95, and a viscosity of 6 cps as measured at 50 rpm with a #2 spindle.

Example 5 Inks Prepared with Latexes Having a Hyperbranched Structure

Inks were prepared with each polymer in combination with Flexiverse BFD 1121, a commercially available phthalo blue pigment dispersion from Sun Chemical. The inks were prepared in a 150 mL plastic cup on the Speedmixer. The dispersion was added first to the cup, followed by polymer, and deionized water. The ink was then mixed for 30 seconds at 2400 RPM. The viscosities of four experimental inks prepared by this method were less than 27 seconds, as measured in a Signature Zahn # 2 cup, without any added water.

Each ink was hand-proofed side-by-side versus a standard ink base (Joncryl 2646) using a 360-line handproofer with a cell volume of 2.3 BCM. The inks were proofed on four different plastic substrates: Corona treated HDPE-42 Dyne; Corona treated LDPE-42 Dyne; Acrylic-coated OPP-44 Dyne; and Corona treated modified polylacticacid (Ecoflex)-43 Dyne.

After proofing, the prints were hand dried with a hair dryer for two seconds. After drying, the prints were allowed to sit overnight. Tape adhesion was measured using 3M 610 tape. The color density was also measured and compared to the standard.

TABLE 5
Formulation A B C D E
Standard 50.0
100 60.0
101 60.0
102 60.0
103 60.0
Flexiverse BFD 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0
1121
DI Water 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Viscosity 22.5 22.4 20.6 20.0 19.7
(seconds, Zahn # 2)

TABLE 6
Ink Results Data:
Formu- Formu- Formu- Formu-
lation lation lation lation
Standard 100 101 102 103
% Adhesion HDPE 100 100 100 100 100
%Adhesion LDPE 100 100 100 100 100
% Adhesion OPP 95 70 90 75 90
% Adhesion Ecoflex 75 60 75 60 75
Transfer Versus Standard −20.5% −12.3% −11.8% −9.4%
Standard on OPP
(Difference in
Color Density)

Example 6 Water-Based 2-Pack Using Hyperbranched Polymers

The HBNP used were made by reacting a low molecular weight acrylic polymer containing both carboxylic acid functionality and hydroxyl functionality with a di-epoxy funstional resin and then a mono-functional epoxy modifier. All reactions were done in water without solvent or additional catalyst. The epoxy functionality reacts with the acid functionality on the acrylic in a facile fashion at 85-90° C. The acrylic polymers in this study were made using a chain transfer emulsion process.

The low molecular weight acrylic polymer used has a Mn of about 6000 and an acid value of 65. This produces an average functionality of about 7 carboxyl groups per molecule. The acrylic polymer is a multi-functional acid that reacts with a di-functional epoxy. As the mole ratio of the acrylic and the epoxy are varied from 3:1 to 1:1, the molecular weight of the condensation polymer increases to and beyond the gel point. The monofunctional epoxy is added to lower the acid value and add hydroxyl functionality. One advantage of the size difference between the acrylic at 6000 Mn and the di-epoxy of 320 Mn is that the molecular weight change can be effected without using a larger amount of the epoxy based on weight percent. Another advantage is that because the reaction is done in the dispersed phase of the colloid particles, viscosity does not increase.

The acrylic polymer is characterized in terms of hydroxyl value, type of soft monomer, and Tg. Mole ratio is used to characterize the extent of hyperbrancing. HDI versus IPDI, and mole ratio is used to characterize the water-based isocyanates contribution. Hyperbranched polymers were placed in a jar agitation apparatus and the appropriate isocyanate was added along, with water to make a mixture having a final solids of 40%. Drawdowns on Leneta cards were done, and every hour thereafter, or until gel formed. At 1 hour after preparation an aluminum panel was also prepared for Konig and MEK resistance. The 1 and 3 hour Leneta charts were also tested for chemical resistance. Gloss values were taken on all charts as well.

The CTER used are shown in Table 7. Tg was varied along with hydroxyl value. Calculated Tg's were compared to the measured Tg to show the BA to be the harder monomer and significantly harder than the calculated value.

Each of the acrylic resins was used to make the standard HBNP by reaction with Heloxy 107 (H107) and Heloxy 8 (H8). Heloxy 107 is a diglycidyl ether of cyclohexane dimethanol and the Heloxy 8 is a mono glycidyl ether of a C12-C14 alcohol. Each of the polymers was made using 3 moles of the CTER and 2.5 moles of the H107 followed by 7 moles of the H8. Two more HBNP polymers were made from Sample 1, only changing the H107 to 2 and 3 moles while adjusting the H8 to 8 and 6 moles to keep the amount of ester the same. All of the data is in Table 8. The hydroxyl content of the final HBNP is the a combination of the hydroxyl content of the CTER and the added hydroxyls of the epoxy ring opening reactions. The epoxy ring opening most likely produces a secondary hydroxyl so it may not be as reactive as the HEMA used in the CTER. Also of interest is the HBNP particle size is not much different from the starting CTER particle size showing the reaction is most likely intra particle.

In the standard test, each of the HBNP was reacted with HW-180 at a 1:1 NCO:OH ratio. The two HBNP with the different mole ratios were also tested at 1.5:1 NCO:OH. The difference in BA:EHA ratio was explored in the reaction of IPDI types by using the Rhodocoat X EZ-D401 water-based isocyanate from Rhodia. Tables 9-11 summarize the results.

Example 7 UV Curable Resins

UV curable Hyperbranched resins were made according to the methods described above. Composition and characteristics of resins used are given in Table 12 and those of HBNPs made from these resins are given in Table 13.

Example 8 Formulation of UV Curable Coatings

UV curable coatings were formulated from UV curable HBNPs given in Table 13. The formula for the coating is given in Table 14. The coatings were prepared by mixing I-III followed by addition of IV. After 5 minutes, V was added, followed by VI, and then mixed for 5 minutes. Ingredients VII, VIII, IX and X were added sequentially. The mixture was stirred for 5 minutes. A coating formulated with HBNP of Example A-1 was cured at 10 meters/min with one 120 w/in lamp. The coating gave a Konig hardness of 94, a gloss of 92 at 60° and a flexibility of 4%.

TABLE 7
CTER PS Tg Tg
Sample Composition Solids pH Viscosity N/I AV OH# (Calc) (Meas) Mn Mw
1 39.2 EHA/24.5 MMA/15 Sty/10 39.8 5.8 49 64/100 65 43 22 25 6203 21117
HEMA/10 MAA/1.3 BMPA
2 39.2 BA/24.35 MMA/15 Sty/10 40.4 6 25 67/98  65 43 19 38 6328 20664
HEMA/10 MAA/1.45 BMPA
3 45 EHA/13.76 MMA/15 Sty/15 39.8 5.6 87 58/108 65 65 11 11 5875 21250
HEMA/10 MAA/1.24 BMPA
4 25 EHA 33.6 MMA 15 Sty 15 40.3 5.8 21 59/135 65 65 44 45 6036 19156
HEMA/10 MAA/1.4 BMPA

TABLE 8
HBNP CTER Moles wt % Moles wt % Moles wt %
Sample Sample CTER CTER H107 H107 H8 H8 Solids
5 1 3 86.5 2.5 3.8 7 9.7 38.8
6 2 3 86.5 2.5 3.8 7 9.7 39.8
7 1 3 86 2 3.1 8 11 39.2
8 1 3 87 3 4.6 6 8.3 39.5
9 3 3 86.5 2.5 3.8 7 9.7 38.5
10 4 3 86.5 2.5 3.8 7 9.7 41.2
HBNP PS CTER Epoxy HBNP AV Tg Tg
Sample pH Viscosity n/I OH# OH# OH# Calc Calc meas.
5 7.4 181 74/100 43 32 70 24 12
6 7.5 74 78/112 43 32 70 24 9
7 7.3 477 76/120 43 32 69 24 11
8 7.5 416 64/129 43 32 70 24 12
9 6.9 1616 86/110 65 32 89 24 3 −7
10 7.3 291 68/140 65 32 89 24 29 26

TABLE 9
CTER Study
HBNP OH CTER Mole Soft OH Isocyanate OH:NCO
Sample Sample Tg No Sample Tg Ratio Monomer No used Mole ratio
11 5 9 70 1 19 3:2.5:7 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
12 6 9 70 2 19 3:2.5:7 BA 43 HW-180 1:1
13 10 28 89 4 42 3:2.5:7 EHA 65 HW-180 1:1
14 9 0 89 3 9 3:2.5:7 EHA 65 HW-180 1:1
15 7 9 69 2 19 3:2:8 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
16 8 10 70 2 19 3:3:6 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
Isocyanate type
17 5 9 70 1 19 3:2.5:7 EHA 43 D-401 1:1
11 5 9 70 1 19 3:2.5:7 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
18 6 9 70 2 19 3:2.5:7 BA 43 D-401 1:1
12 6 9 70 2 19 3:2.5:7 BA 43 HW-180 1:1
Mole Ratio
15 7 9 69 2 19 3.2:8 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
19 7 9 69 2 19 3.2:8 EHA 43 HW-180   1:1.5
18 8 10 70 2 19 3:3:6 EHA 43 HW-180 1:1
20 8 10 70 2 19 3:3:6 EHA 43 HW-180   1:1.5

TABLE 10
CTER Study
10% 100% Brake
2 week 200 NaOH EtOH 70% IPA fluid Gas
Sample Konig MEK 1 hr 3 hr 1 hr 3 hr 1 hr 3 hr 1 hr 3 hr 1 hr 3 hr
11 37 sl brk th NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE NE NE NE
12 45 sl brk th NE NE sl rng sl rng sl rng sl rng sl stn sl stn sl rng sl rng
13 84 OK NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE NE NE NE NE
14 33 OK NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
15 35 OK NE NE sl rng sl rng sl rng NE NE NE sl rng sl rng
16 43 150 NE NE sl rng sl rng NE sl rng NE NE sl rng sl rng
Isocyanate type
17 65 sl brk th NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE sl stn NE sl rng sl rng
11 37 sl brk th NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE NE NE NE
18 71 sl brk th NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE sl stn sl stn blist NE
12 45 sl blk th NE NE sl rng sl rng sl rng sl rng sl stn sl stn sl rng sl rng
Mole Ratio
15 35 OK NE NE sl rng sl rng sl rng NE NE NE sl rng sl rng
19 41 OK NE NE sl rng sl rng sl rng sl rng NE NE sl rng sl rng
18 43 150 NE NE sl rng sl rng NE sl rng NE NE sl rng sl rng
20 48 OK NE NE sl rng sl rng NE NE NE NE NE NE

TABLE 11
Gloss 60/20
Sample In 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 6 hr next day
11 87/70 87/72 87/72 87/72 87/71 87/70 87/68 gel
12 88/75 88/75 88/76 88/76 88/74 88/71 88/71 gel
13 89/72 86/58 89/75 88/74 88/68 gel
14 87/70 87/71 86/69 87/70 86/68 86/66 86/67 gel
15 88/70 87/71 87/72 87/72 86/72 86/69 gel
16 88/74 88/74 88/73 87/73 87/71 87/71 gel
Isocyanate type
17 86/68 87/71 86/67 86/67 86/68 86/68 86/66 gel
11 87/70 8772 87/72 87/72 87/71 87/70 87/68 gel
18 86/69 86/69 86/64 83/63 81/61 60/36 55/29 gel
12 88/75 88/75 88/76 88/76 88/74 88/71 88/71 gel
Mole Ratio
15 88/70 87/71 87/72 87/72 86/72 86/69 gel
19 88/75 88/74 88/65 86/70 gel
18 88/74 88/74 88/73 87/73 87/71 87/71 gel
20 89/73 88/74 88/75 88/74 gel

TABLE 12
Resin %
Example Composition AV Mn Tg O2 Manufacture
21 49 MMA/27 STY/14 BA/10 AA 77 5126 78 23.5 SGO
22 44 STY/22 BA/16 MMA/10 AA/8 MAA 130 5025 75 18 SGO
23 45 EHA/13.76 MMA/15 STY/15 HEMA/ 64 5875 11 Emulsion
(also 3) 10 MAA/1.24 BMPA

TABLE 13
Example Resin Moles Resin Moles Epoxy Moles moles
Number Used used Epoxy used used GMA Other Epoxy used used
24 21 3 Erisys GE-24 2.5 9 none
25 22 3 Epon 825 2.5 6 Heloxy 8 6
26 21 3 Erisys GE-24 2.5 8 Allyl glycidyl ether 1
27 23 3 Heloxy 107 2.5 7 none

TABLE 14
UV Formulas
Reactant Amount
ID Reactant (wt %) Feature Source
I UV Polymer 40% in Water 87.5
II DIW 27
III Dynol 604 0.4 Surfactant Air
Products
IV Hexanediol diacrylate 5
V Tego 805 0.5 Defoamer Tego
Chemie
VI Darocure 1173 0.9 Initiator Ciba
VII Jonwax 26 3.2 Wax BASF
Dispersion Resins
VIII Tegoglide 440 0.2 Surfactant Tego
Chemie
IX Zonyl FSJ 0.1 Surfactant E I duPont
X DSX 1550 0.2 Rheology Cognis
Modifier

It is understood that the invention is not confined to the particular formulations and arrangements of parts herein illustrated and described, but embraces all such modified forms thereof as come within the scope of the following claims.

Claims (45)

What is claimed is:
1. A method comprising:
reacting an acid-functional acrylic resin or styrene-acrylic resin dispersed in water with a polyepoxy-functional resin having at least two epoxy groups to produce a first highly-branched polymer; and
subsequently reacting the first highly-branched polymer with a monoepoxy-functional resin to yeild an aqueous dispersion of a second highly-branched and further functionalized polymer;
wherein:
the acid-function acid-functional acrylic resin or styrene-acrylic resin has an acid value sufficient to allow for increased branching of the resin.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic, methacrylic, styrene-acrylic, or styrene-methacrylic resin.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the first highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the second highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin further comprises hydroxyl functionalities.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin has a number average molecular weight (Mn) of about 1000 to 10,000, an acid value of about 25 to 300, and a hydroxyl value of about 1 to 250.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the weight percent of the second highly-branched polymer in the aqueous dispersion is at least 40 wt. %.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic or methacrylic resin prepared from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, and 2,4-hydroxybutyl methacrylates.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the polyepoxy-functional resin having at least two epoxy groups is a diepoxy resin, a polyepoxy-functional resin, or a mixture thereof.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein the polyepoxy-functional resin has an epoxy value of about 100 to 1000.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the polyepoxy-functional resin having at least two epoxy groups is a diglycidyl ether resin, a cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether resin, a polypropylene oxide diglycidyl ether resin, or a biphenol A diglycidyl ether resin, or a mixture or blend of any two or more thereof.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is mono-functional.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is also hydroxy functional.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is a glycidyl ether resin, a glycidyl ester resin, or a mixture thereof.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is a glycidyl methacrylate, a glycidyl ester of neodecanoic acid, a biphenol A monoglycidyl ether, a2-ethylhexyl glycidyl ether, or a mixture of any two or more thereof.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic or methacrylic resin prepared from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2, 3-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2, 3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, 2, 4-hydroxybutyl methacrylates, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, n-propyl acrylate, i-propyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, s-butyl acrylate, i-butyl acrylate, t-butyl acrylate, n-amyl acrylate, i-amyl acrylate, isobornyl acrylate, n-hexyl acrylate, 2-ethylbutyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, n-octyl acrylate, n-decyl acrylate, methylcyclohexyl acrylate, cyclopentyl acrylate, cyclohexyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, n-propyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, i-propyl methacrylate, i-butyl methacrylate, n-amyl methacrylate, n-hexyl methacrylate, i-amyl methacrylate, s-butyl-methacrylate, t-butyl methacrylate, 2-ethylbutyl methacrylate, methylcyclohexyl methacrylate, cinnamyl methacrylate, crotyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, cyclopentyl methacrylate, 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate, or isobornyl methacrylates.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein the second highly-branched and further functionalized polymer has a Mn of about 2500 up to the gel point, an acid value of about 15 to 250, and a hydroxyl value of about 10 to 260.
18. The aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 1.
19. The aqueous dispersion of the second highly branched polymer of claim 18, wherein the second highly branched polymer is a microgel.
20. A printing ink comprising the aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 1.
21. The printing ink of claim 20, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic, methacrylic, styrene-acrylic. or styrene-methacrylic resin.
22. The printing ink of claim 20, wherein the first highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
23. The printing ink of claim 20, wherein the second highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
24. A UV curable coating comprising the aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 1.
25. The UV curable coating of claim 24, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic, methacrylic, styrene-acrylic, or styrene-methacrylic resin.
26. The UV curable coating of claim 24, wherein the first highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
27. The UV curable coating of claim 24, wherein the second highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
28. A 2-pack coating kit comprising:
a first pack containing the aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 1; and
a second pack containing an isocyanate.
29. A method comprising:
reacting an acid-functional acrylic resin or styrene-acrylic resin dispersed in water with a polyepoxy-functional resin to produce a first highly-branched polymer; and
reacting the first highly-branched polymer with a monoepoxy-functional resin to yield an aqueous dispersion of a second highly-branched and further functionalized polymer;
wherein:
the acid-functional acrylic resin or styrene-acrylic resin has an acid value sufficient to allow for increased branching of the resin.
30. A coating composition comprising:
the aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 29; and
an isocyanate.
31. The coating of claim 30, wherein the isocyanate is 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate.
32. The coating of claim 30, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic, methacrylic, styrene-acrylic, or styrene-methacrylic resin.
33. The coating of claim 30, wherein the first highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
34. The coating of claim 30, wherein the second highly-branched polymer is a microgel.
35. The coating of claim 30, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin further comprises hydroxyl functionalities.
36. The coating of claim 30, wherein the weight percent of the second highly-branched polymer in the aqueous dispersion is at least 40 wt. %.
37. The coating of claim 30, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic or methacrylic resin prepared from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, and 2,4-hydroxybutyl methacrylates.
38. The coating of claim 30, wherein the polyepoxy-functional resin is a diepoxy resin, a polyepoxy-functional resin, or a mixture thereof.
39. The coating of claim 30, wherein the polyepoxy-functional resin is a diglycidyl ether resin, a cyclohexanedimethanol diglycidyl ether resin polypropylene oxide diglycidyl ether resin, or a biphenol A diglycidyl ether resin, or a mixture or blend of any two or more thereof.
40. The coating of claim 30, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is mono-functional.
41. The coating of claim 30, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is also hydroxy functional.
42. The coating of claim 30, wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is a glycidyl ether resin, a glycidyl ester resin, or a mixture thereof.
43. The coating of claim 30 wherein the monoepoxy-functional resin is a glycidyl methacrylate, a glycidyl ester of neodecanoic acid, a biphenol A monoglycidyl ether, a 2-ethylhexyl glycidyl ether, or a mixture of any two or more thereof.
44. The coating of claim 30, wherein the acid-functional acrylic or styrene-acrylic resin is an acid-functional acrylic or methacrylic resin prepared from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid and one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2,3-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl acrylate, 2,4-hydroxybutyl methacrylates, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, n-propyl acrylate, i-propyl acrylate, n-butyl acrylate, s-butyl acrylate, i-butyl acrylate, t-butyl acrylate, n-amyl acrylate, i-amyl acrylate, isobornyl acrylate, n-hexyl acrylate, 2-ethylbutyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, n-octyl acrylate, n-decyl acrylate, methylcyclohexyl acrylate, cyclopentyl acrylate, cyclohexyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, n-propyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, i-propyl methacrylate, i-butyl methacrylate, n-amyl methacrylate, n-hexyl methacrylate, i-amyl methacrylate, s-butyl-methacrylate, t-butyl methacrylate, 2-ethylbutyl methacrylate, methylcyclohexyl methacrylate, cinnamyl methacrylate, crotyl methacrylate, cyclohexyl methacrylate, cyclopentyl methacrylate, 2-ethoxyethyl methacrylate, and isobornyl methacrylates.
45. A 2-pack coating kit comprising:
a first pack containing the aqueous dispersion of the second highly-branched polymer formed by the method of claim 29; and
a second pack containing an isocyanate.
US13756962 2007-07-30 2013-02-01 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers Active USRE44931E1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US95268907 true 2007-07-30 2007-07-30
US12181462 US7887626B2 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers
US13756962 USRE44931E1 (en) 2007-07-30 2013-02-01 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US13756962 USRE44931E1 (en) 2007-07-30 2013-02-01 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12181462 Reissue US7887626B2 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE44931E1 true USRE44931E1 (en) 2014-06-03

Family

ID=40305230

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12181462 Active 2029-05-11 US7887626B2 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers
US13756962 Active USRE44931E1 (en) 2007-07-30 2013-02-01 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US12181462 Active 2029-05-11 US7887626B2 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (2) US7887626B2 (en)
EP (2) EP2173791B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5389803B2 (en)
KR (1) KR101543813B1 (en)
CN (1) CN101842417B (en)
CA (1) CA2694758C (en)
ES (2) ES2562036T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2009018264A3 (en)

Families Citing this family (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2173791B1 (en) 2007-07-30 2014-06-18 BASF Corporation Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers
DE102009046922A1 (en) * 2009-11-20 2011-05-26 Evonik Röhm Gmbh Bulk polymerization of (meth) acrylate copolymers which are soluble in the aqueous alkaline
CN102627752B (en) * 2012-04-23 2013-07-10 苏州太湖电工新材料股份有限公司 Preparation method for waterborne epoxy resin emulsion
US20150093320A1 (en) * 2012-06-11 2015-04-02 Dow Global Technologies Llc Carbon precursor composition
US9040621B2 (en) * 2013-03-15 2015-05-26 Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc. Aqueous dispersions of microgel encapsulated particles utilizing hyperbranched acrylic polymers
WO2018075656A1 (en) * 2016-10-21 2018-04-26 Basf Se Methods for preparation of functional waterborne dispersions

Citations (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4414370A (en) 1981-01-09 1983-11-08 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Process for continuous bulk copolymerization of vinyl monomers
US4529787A (en) 1982-06-15 1985-07-16 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Bulk polymerization process for preparing high solids and uniform copolymers
GB2151637A (en) 1983-11-19 1985-07-24 Nippon Paint Co Ltd Branched type acrylic resin
US4546160A (en) 1984-02-29 1985-10-08 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Bulk polymerization process for preparing high solids and uniform copolymers
JPH02625A (en) 1987-11-16 1990-01-05 Sherwin Williams Co Reactive covering material containing acid functional compound, acid anhydrous functional compound, epoxy functional compound and hydroxy functional compound
JPH0673335A (en) 1992-07-07 1994-03-15 Bayer Ag Aqueous coating composition and its use for coating substrate
JPH06136317A (en) 1992-10-29 1994-05-17 Kansai Paint Co Ltd Water-based coating composition
EP0684294A1 (en) 1994-05-25 1995-11-29 The Glidden Company Coating compositions containing aqueous dispersed epoxy crosslinked microgel polymers
US5756596A (en) 1993-12-16 1998-05-26 Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation Increasing the molecular weight of polyamides
JPH10290851A (en) 1997-04-21 1998-11-04 Sumitomo Rubber Ind Ltd Racket frame
US5942563A (en) 1997-07-18 1999-08-24 The Glidden Company Aqueous dispersed acrylic-epoxy, branched epoxy protective coatings
US6034157A (en) 1997-05-01 2000-03-07 Imperial Chemical Industries, Plc. Process for producing a coating composition
US6194510B1 (en) 1997-11-12 2001-02-27 S. C. Johnson Commercial Markets, Inc. Aqueous dispersions of non-gelled polymeric compositions having designated amounts of reactive groups
JP2001247649A (en) 1999-12-28 2001-09-11 Dainippon Ink & Chem Inc Photosensitive resin, process for preparation thereof, and solder-resist ink composition
US6288208B1 (en) 1998-10-14 2001-09-11 Epox, Ltd. Highly branched oligomers, process for their preparation and applications thereof
KR20020026144A (en) 2001-12-27 2002-04-06 강신혁 Finishing Material using Ferrite Characteristics and High Energy Product Bond Magnet
US6541600B1 (en) 2001-07-31 2003-04-01 Eastman Kodak Company Water soluble and dispersible highly branched polyamides
US6552144B1 (en) 1999-07-14 2003-04-22 Johnson Polymer, Inc. Process for the continuous production of gel free polymers, and powder and liquid coating applications containing gel free polymers
KR20050099677A (en) 2004-04-12 2005-10-17 (주)코세코 Method for calculating an amount of materials
US7034081B2 (en) 2002-09-16 2006-04-25 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Highly branched diene polymers
WO2009018264A2 (en) 2007-07-30 2009-02-05 Basf Corporation Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Family Cites Families (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10009413A1 (en) * 2000-02-28 2001-08-30 Bayer Ag Binding agent for coating compositions for automobiles comprises binding agents dispersed in water, water soluble or dispersible polyhydroxyl compounds and blocked polyisocyanates and/or amino resins
US20040176541A1 (en) * 2003-02-21 2004-09-09 Jackson Michael L. Chlorine free and reduced chlorine content polymer and resin compositons for adhesion to plastics
KR20070057660A (en) 2005-12-01 2007-06-07 롬 앤드 하아스 컴패니 Aqueous polymer dispersions for stabilizing actives

Patent Citations (22)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4414370A (en) 1981-01-09 1983-11-08 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Process for continuous bulk copolymerization of vinyl monomers
US4529787A (en) 1982-06-15 1985-07-16 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Bulk polymerization process for preparing high solids and uniform copolymers
US4529787B1 (en) 1982-06-15 1987-07-07
GB2151637A (en) 1983-11-19 1985-07-24 Nippon Paint Co Ltd Branched type acrylic resin
US4546160A (en) 1984-02-29 1985-10-08 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Bulk polymerization process for preparing high solids and uniform copolymers
JPH02625A (en) 1987-11-16 1990-01-05 Sherwin Williams Co Reactive covering material containing acid functional compound, acid anhydrous functional compound, epoxy functional compound and hydroxy functional compound
JPH0673335A (en) 1992-07-07 1994-03-15 Bayer Ag Aqueous coating composition and its use for coating substrate
JPH06136317A (en) 1992-10-29 1994-05-17 Kansai Paint Co Ltd Water-based coating composition
US5756596A (en) 1993-12-16 1998-05-26 Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation Increasing the molecular weight of polyamides
EP0684294A1 (en) 1994-05-25 1995-11-29 The Glidden Company Coating compositions containing aqueous dispersed epoxy crosslinked microgel polymers
JPH10290851A (en) 1997-04-21 1998-11-04 Sumitomo Rubber Ind Ltd Racket frame
US6034157A (en) 1997-05-01 2000-03-07 Imperial Chemical Industries, Plc. Process for producing a coating composition
US5942563A (en) 1997-07-18 1999-08-24 The Glidden Company Aqueous dispersed acrylic-epoxy, branched epoxy protective coatings
US6194510B1 (en) 1997-11-12 2001-02-27 S. C. Johnson Commercial Markets, Inc. Aqueous dispersions of non-gelled polymeric compositions having designated amounts of reactive groups
US6288208B1 (en) 1998-10-14 2001-09-11 Epox, Ltd. Highly branched oligomers, process for their preparation and applications thereof
US6552144B1 (en) 1999-07-14 2003-04-22 Johnson Polymer, Inc. Process for the continuous production of gel free polymers, and powder and liquid coating applications containing gel free polymers
JP2001247649A (en) 1999-12-28 2001-09-11 Dainippon Ink & Chem Inc Photosensitive resin, process for preparation thereof, and solder-resist ink composition
US6541600B1 (en) 2001-07-31 2003-04-01 Eastman Kodak Company Water soluble and dispersible highly branched polyamides
KR20020026144A (en) 2001-12-27 2002-04-06 강신혁 Finishing Material using Ferrite Characteristics and High Energy Product Bond Magnet
US7034081B2 (en) 2002-09-16 2006-04-25 Bayer Aktiengesellschaft Highly branched diene polymers
KR20050099677A (en) 2004-04-12 2005-10-17 (주)코세코 Method for calculating an amount of materials
WO2009018264A2 (en) 2007-07-30 2009-02-05 Basf Corporation Water-based dispersions of highly-branched polymers

Non-Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Extended Search Report issued in European Patent Application No. 08796777.4 dated Mar. 25, 2011 (3 pages).
International Search Report and Written Opinion for PCT/US2008/071454 dated Feb. 17, 2009.
International Search Report and Written Opinion issued in International Patent Application No. PCT/US2008/071454 mailed Feb. 17, 2009 (10 pages).
Machine translation of JP 2001247649 A, provided by the JPO website (no date). *
Non-Final Office Action issued in U.S. Appl. No. 12/181,462 dated Jul. 12, 2010 (13 pages).
Notice of Allowance issued in U.S. Appl. No. 12/181,462 dated Oct. 7, 2010 (6 pages).
Office Action received in Japanese Application No. 2010-520126 dated Feb. 7, 2013 (6 pages)-English Translation provided.
Office Action received in Japanese Application No. 2010-520126 dated Feb. 7, 2013 (6 pages)—English Translation provided.

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
EP2778192A1 (en) 2014-09-17 application
CN101842417A (en) 2010-09-22 application
EP2173791B1 (en) 2014-06-18 grant
KR20100056469A (en) 2010-05-27 application
EP2778192B1 (en) 2015-12-23 grant
KR101543813B1 (en) 2015-08-11 grant
CN101842417B (en) 2013-07-31 grant
EP2173791A4 (en) 2011-04-27 application
CA2694758C (en) 2015-05-05 grant
JP2010535280A (en) 2010-11-18 application
ES2486297T3 (en) 2014-08-18 grant
CA2694758A1 (en) 2009-02-05 application
WO2009018264A2 (en) 2009-02-05 application
ES2562036T3 (en) 2016-03-02 grant
WO2009018264A3 (en) 2009-05-22 application
US20090036570A1 (en) 2009-02-05 application
US7887626B2 (en) 2011-02-15 grant
JP5389803B2 (en) 2014-01-15 grant
EP2173791A2 (en) 2010-04-14 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US5567761A (en) Aqueous two-part isocyanate-free curable, polyurethane resin systems
US6306934B1 (en) Aqueous coating composition
US4304701A (en) Aqueous acrylic polymer dispersions
US5508325A (en) Aqueous dispersed, acrylic grafted epoxy microgel protective coatings
US5349036A (en) Amphipathic copolymer pigment dispersants
US20020091195A1 (en) Aqueous binders based on epoxy resins
US20140058031A1 (en) Aqueous bio-renewable vinyl polymer composition
US6326449B1 (en) Polymer dispersants
US5750613A (en) Aqueous, crosslinkable binder dispersions having a low solvent content
US6005042A (en) Aqueous polymer dispersions as binders for elastic, nonblocking and scratch-resistant coatings
US5502113A (en) Stable aqueous metallic flake dispersion using phosphated acrylic polymer dispersant
WO2011073417A1 (en) Aqueous emulsion
WO2003076536A1 (en) Polymerization of a reactive diluent in the presence of an epoxy-amine material, and coating compositions prepared thereby
US20050203246A1 (en) Functionalized vegetable oil derivatives, latex compositions and coatings
US6503975B1 (en) Surfactant free aqueous emulsions
Parmar et al. High‐performance waterborne coatings based on epoxy‐acrylic‐graft‐copolymer‐modified polyurethane dispersions
CN101914185A (en) Hydroxy acrylic resin aqueous dispersion and water-based coating prepared therefrom
US5296541A (en) Polyazetidinol containing materials
Khan et al. Preparation of core-shell emulsion polymer and optimization of shell composition with respect to opacity of paint film
CN101602858A (en) Water soluble acrylic acid epoxy resin and preparation method thereof
JP2000239334A (en) Production of branched polymer
US7094826B2 (en) Aqueous hyperbranched macromolecule coating compositions
US6239214B1 (en) Graft copolymer emulsions and two-package waterborne urethane coatings
US20050176874A1 (en) Dual cure emulsions
Klein et al. Two-component aqueous epoxy binders free of volatile organic content (VOC)

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 4

MAFP

Free format text: PAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEE, 8TH YEAR, LARGE ENTITY (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: M1552); ENTITY STATUS OF PATENT OWNER: LARGE ENTITY

Year of fee payment: 8