USRE44313E1 - Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil - Google Patents

Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE44313E1
USRE44313E1 US10/671,435 US67143597A USRE44313E US RE44313 E1 USRE44313 E1 US RE44313E1 US 67143597 A US67143597 A US 67143597A US RE44313 E USRE44313 E US RE44313E
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
wing
aircraft
slot
trailing edge
fuselage
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US10/671,435
Inventor
Robert H. Kelley-Wickemeyer
Gerhard E. Seidel
Peter Z. Anast
James Douglas McLean
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Boeing Co
Original Assignee
Boeing Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US2885396P priority Critical
Application filed by Boeing Co filed Critical Boeing Co
Priority to US10/671,435 priority patent/USRE44313E1/en
Priority to PCT/US1997/019048 priority patent/WO1998017529A1/en
Priority to US09/284,122 priority patent/US6293497B1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of USRE44313E1 publication Critical patent/USRE44313E1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C3/00Wings
    • B64C3/10Shape of wings
    • B64C3/14Aerofoil profile
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C3/00Wings
    • B64C3/10Shape of wings
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C9/00Adjustable control surfaces or members, e.g. rudders
    • B64C9/14Adjustable control surfaces or members, e.g. rudders forming slots
    • B64C9/16Adjustable control surfaces or members, e.g. rudders forming slots at the rear of the wing
    • B64C9/20Adjustable control surfaces or members, e.g. rudders forming slots at the rear of the wing by multiple flaps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C3/00Wings
    • B64C3/10Shape of wings
    • B64C3/14Aerofoil profile
    • B64C2003/149Aerofoil profile for supercritical or transonic flow
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/10Drag reduction
    • Y02T50/12Overall configuration, shape or profile of fuselage or wings
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T50/00Aeronautics or air transport
    • Y02T50/30Wing lift efficiency
    • Y02T50/32Optimised high lift wing systems

Abstract

Slotted cruise airfoil technology allows production of a substantially unswept wing that achieves the same cruise speed as today's conventional jet airplanes with higher sweep. This technology allows the wing boundary layer to negotiate a strong recovery gradient closer to the wing trailing edge. The result is about a cruise speed of Mach=0.78, but with a straight wing. It also means that for the same lift, the super velocities over the top of the wing can be lower. With very low sweep and this type of cruise pressure distribution, natural laminar flow will be obtained. In addition, heat is transferred from the leading edge of the wing and of the main flap to increase the extent of the natural laminar flow. The slotted cruise wing airfoil allows modularization of the wing and the body for a family of airplanes. The unsweeping of the wing significantly changes the manufacturing processes, reduces manufacturing costs and flow time from detail part fabrication to airplane delivery. The system architecture is all new for cost reduction. A high wing arrangement allows more freedom for installation of higher bypass ratio advanced geared fan engines. A low is wing in conjunction with aft body mounted engines will have a similar effect. Aerodynamic efficiency and engine fuel burn efficiency result in considerable lower emission of noise and greenhouse gases.

Description

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/028,853, filed Oct. 22, 1996.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an aircraft configuration and, more particularly, to a commercial jet aircraft utilizing a slotted cruise airfoil and a wing with very low sweep compared to the sweep of more conventional jet aircraft, achieving the same cruise speed.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to an aircraft configuration utilizing improved laminar flow. If laminar flow is achieved, aircraft drag, manufacturing aims, and operating costs are substantially reduced. U.S. Pat. No. 4,575,030, entitled, “Laminar Flow Control Airfoil” by L. B. Gratzer, and is assigned to the assignee of this invention. The Gratzer patent provides information on development which includes, among other techniques, suction surfaces and slots to promote natural laminar flow over a main box region of a wing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An aspect of the wing of this invention is that it incorporates a slotted cruise airfoil. Slotted cruise airfoil technology that we have developed allows us to produce an unswept, or substantially unswept, wing that achieves the same cruise speed as today's conventional airplanes with higher sweep.

This invention, this technology allows the wing boundary layer to negotiate a strong recovery gradient closer to the wing trailing edge. The result is about a cruise speed of Mach=0.78, but with a straight wing. It also means that for the same lift, the super velocities over the top of the wing can be lower. With very low sweep and this type of cruise pressure distribution, natural laminar flow can easily be obtained. Lower-surface Krueger flaps are installed to increase lift capability for low-speed operation and to protect the wing leading edge from bugs during takeoff and landing to prevent spoiling natural laminar flow.

In another aspect of the invention, heat is transferred from the leading edges of the wing and/or of the main flap to increase the extent of the natural laminar flow.

In still another aspect of this invention, a high wing arrangement allows more freedom for installation of higher bypass ratio engines. An advanced geared fan engine, by-pass ratio 12 or higher, is a possibility that could be easily installed under the high wing. The lower super velocities of the slotted cruise airfoil make the body shock problem associated with many high wing airplanes less of a concern here.

The slotted cruise wing airfoil and the straight wing allow us to modularize the wing and the body so that we can develop a family of airplanes by intermixing different bodies with different wings.

Another aspect of this invention is to reduce costs. The unsweeping of the wing significantly changes the manufacturing processes, reduces manufacturing costs and flow time from detail part fabrication to airplane delivery. The system architecture is all new rather than a major remodeling of a systems architecture from an exiting airplane. It is a top down approach geared towards the requirements of this airplane. Components from existing products will be used whenever they satisfy the requirements of this airplane. The payload systems allow for flexible interiors and extensive use of molded panels.

Still another aspect of this invention is that the expected fuel bum per seat for this type of an airplane is 20% to 30% less than on current jet airplanes, this can be associated with considerable reduction of emission of greenhouse gases.

There is very little difference in ditching capability between a low wing airplane and a high wing airplane. In both cases, the body provides the vast majority of the flotation. The wing provides some stability to prevent the ditched airplane from rolling over.

Another aspect of this invention is that a low wing version with aft mounted engines is also possible. It would feature many, if not most of the above advantages.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1a through 1c compare the straight wing arrangements with the conventional wing.

FIGS. 2a through 2c compare the effect of the straight wing on the configurations with the conventional wing.

FIG. 3 is an isometric view of the high wing version of FIGS. 1 and 2 with a ‘T’-tail.

FIG. 4 is an isometric view of the high wing version of FIGS. 1 and 2 with an alternative ‘V’-tail empennage arrangement.

FIG. 5 is an isometric view of the low wing version of FIGS. 1 and 2.

FIGS. 6a and 6b illustrate the details of the slotted airfoil.

FIGS. 7a and 7b compare the pressure distributions for a conventional airfoil and slotted airfoil (7a is conventional).

FIG. 8 shows a drag rise comparison between a conventional airfoil and a slotted airfoil.

FIG. 9, the pie-chart illustrates the recurring cost distribution for a conventional wing.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The illustrations on FIGS. 1 and 2 serve for the explanation between an existing, prior art airplane configuration as a reference, and two different new arrangements that are the subject of this patent application.

On the prior art reference airplane, FIGS. 1a and 2a, a swept wing 1 is attached to the bottom of the fuselage 5. The basic components of the wing 1 consist of a structural box, which is divided into a left-hand exposed part 2, a center section 3, and a right-hand exposed part 4. Medium bypass ratio engines 6 are attached to struts 7 below the wing. The main landing gear 8 is suspended from the wing 1. Its support by means of a trunnion requires space within a wing trailing edge extension 9, also called a ‘Yehudi’. Wing leading edge devices 10 are of the common type, slats or Krueger flaps or a combination thereof. Trailing edge devices are flaps 11, spoilers 12 and ailerons 13. The length of the main landing gear 8 is determined by engine 6 ground clearance and rotation angle of the airplane. The aft fuselage 5 also shows an ‘upsweep’ angle 36 for airplane rotation during take-off and landing.

On the ‘high wing’ example of the invention, FIG. 1b and 2b, an unswept wing 14 is attached to the top of the fuselage 15. Its structural box 16 is a single part, reaching from wing tip to wing tip. It is formed by the rear spar 39, front spar 82, upper 83 and lower 84 wing skins. Additional spars in intermediate positions between the rear spar 39 and the front spar 82 could also be included. High bypass ratio engines 17 are attached to struts 18 below the while. The main landing gear 19 is attached to the fuselage 15, not requiring additional space in the wing platform 14. Wing leading edge devices 20 are Krueger flaps. Spoilers 21 are of the same type as on the reference airplane. However, the flaps 23 represent the ‘vane-main’ feature with the addition of a slot that is permanent for all flap positions and is a unique key to this invention. More detail is shown on FIG. 6. The slots are extended outboard throughout the ailerons 22. Heat is transferred from the leading edge of the wing 14 and/or of the main flap 23 to increase the extent of natural laminar flow. The Main landing gear 19 is shorter than the gear on the reference airplane. The aft fuselage 15 is more symmetric, ends in a vertical blade shape, and features less upsweep angle 37 and less drag than on the reference airplane due to the features of the ‘slotted wing’ 14. Compared to a low wing, the high wing 14 allows for a better distribution of the cast Aluminum passenger doors 24, with unobstructed escape slides. The lower deck cargo compartment 25 capacity is also increased because of the absence of the wing box.

On the ‘low wing’ example of the invention, FIGS, 1c and 2c, an unswept wing 26 is attached to the bottom of the fuselage 27. Its structural box 28 is a single part, reaching from tip to tip. High bypass ratio engines 29 are attached to struts 30 at both sides of the aft fuselage 27. The main landing gear 31 is attached to the fuselage 27, of requiring additional space in the wing platform 26. Wing leading edge devices 20, spoilers 21 and ailerons 22 are of the same type and shape as on the previous airplane. The flaps 23 represent the ‘vane-main’ feature with the addition of a slot that is permanent for all flap positions and is a unique key to this invention. More detail is shown on FIG. 6. These are of the same type and shape as on the previous airplane. The slots are also extended outboard throughout the ailerons. Heat is transferred from the leading edge of the wing 26 and/or of the main flap 23 to increase the extent of natural laminar flow. The main landing gear 31 is shorter than the gear on the reference airplane. The aft fuselage 27 is more symmetric, ends in a vertical blade shape, and features less upsweep angle 38 and less drag than on the reference airplane due to the features of the ‘slotted wing’ 26. Basically, the shape and size of the wing 26 and the fuselage 27 are similar to the airplane in FIGS. 1b and 2b.

The embodiments of the whole airplane configurations are shown on FIGS. 3 through 5. All three figures represent examples of this invention.

FIG. 3 is an isometric view of the high wing version, FIGS. 1b and 2b. The empennage arrangement resembles a ‘T’-tail 32. The nose landing gear 33 is shorter than on the Reference airplane, because of the close ground proximity.

FIG. 4 is another isometric view of the high wing 14 version, FIGS. 1b and 2b with an alternative empennage arrangement. The ‘T’-tail arrangement of FIG. 3 has been replaced by a ‘V’-shape 34.

FIG. 5 is an isometric view of the low wing 26 version, FIGS. 1c and 2c. The nose landing gear 35 is shorter than on the reference airplane, because of the close ground proximity.

FIG. 6 is extracted from the concurrent patent application Ser. No. 08/735,233, filed Oct. 22, 1996 entitled, “Slotted Cruise Trailing Edge Flap” by G. L. Siers. The two views, FIGS. 6a and 6b illustrate the two extreme positions of the trailing edge flap.

Of particular interest is the wing rear spar 39 shown in combination with the rear fragment of a wing 14 or 26. The components of the flap 23 are generally located aft of, and are structurally supported by, the wing rear spar 39.

In general, a slotted cruise trailing edge flap 23 formed in accordance with the application Ser. No. 08/735,233 has a single-slotted configuration during cruise, FIG. 6a and a double-slotted configuration during takeoff(not shown) and landing, FIG. 6b. This is accomplished by a flap assembly 23 that is movable between a stowed position and an extended position. In the stowed position a single slot is present, and in the extended position two slots are present. More specifically, flap assembly 23 includes two airfoil elements, a vane element and a main element, that are arranged in fixed relation to one another. The space between the airfoil elements forms a permanent single slot. At various support locations along the wing trailing edge, the flap assembly 23 is movably connected to an extension assembly 40 that is secured to the wing rear spar 39.

The extension assembly 40 includes a support structure to which the flap assembly 23 is translatable and rotatably connected. The extension assembly 40 further includes an actuation mechanism that moves the flap assembly 23 relative to the support structure. In a stowed position, the vane element of flap 23 nests into the wing 14 or 26 such that the permanent single slot remains available to direct airflow from regions below the wing to regions above the wing. In an extended position, the vane and main elements of flap 23 form a double-slotted arrangement by rotating downward and translating rearward relative to the wing 14 or 26.

Physical factors limiting the performance of transonic cruise airfoils

In the following discussion, “airfoil” refers to the cross-sectional shape of a wing in planes that are substantially longitudinal and vertical, which plays a major role in determining the aerodynamic performance of said wing. “Transonic cruise” refers to operation of the wing at high subsonic speed such that the airflow past the wing contains local regions of supersonic flow. “Mach number” refers to the ratio of the flow speed to the speed of sound.

The performance of an airfoil in transonic cruise applications can be characterized by four basic measures:

    • 1) The airfoil thickness, usually expressed as the maximum-thickness ratio (maximum thickness divided by chord length). Thickness is beneficial because it provides the room needed for fuel and mechanical systems and because a wing structure with greater depth can be lighter for the same strength.
    • 2) The speed or Mach number at the preferred operating condition The Mach number capability of the airfoil, modified by a factor related to the sweep angle of the wing, contributes directly to the cruise speed of the airplane.
    • 3) The lift coefficient at the preferred operating condition. Increased lift coefficient is advantageous because it could allow increased weight (e.g. more fuel for longer range) or a higher cruise altitude.
    • 4) The drag coefficient at the preferred operating condition and at other operating conditions that would be encountered in the mission of an airplane. Reducing the drag reduces fuel consumption and increases range.

Other measures such as the pitching-moment characteristics and the lift capability at low Mach numbers are also significant, but are less important than the basic four.

Together, the four basic performance measures define a level of performance that is often referred to as the “technology level” of an airfoil. The four basic performance measures impose conflicting requirements on the designer in the sense that design changes intended to improve one of the measures tend to penalize at least one of the other three. A good design therefore requires finding a favorable compromise between the four measures.

At any given technology level, it is generally possible to design a wide range of individual airfoils tailored to different preferred operating conditions and representing different trade-offs between the four basic performance measures. For example, one airfoil could have a higher operating Mach number than another, but at the expense of lower lift and higher drag. Given modern computational fluid dynamics tools, designing different airfoils at a given technology level is generally a straightforward task for a competent designer. On the other hand, improving the technology level, say by improving one of the basic performance measures without penalizing any of the other three, tends to be more difficult, and the more advanced the technology level one starts with, the more difficult the task becomes. Starting with an airfoil that is at a technology level representative of the current state of the art, it can be extremely difficult to find significant improvements.

The main factors that limit performance are associated with the physics of the flow over the upper surface of the airfoil. To understand these factors, it helps to look at a typical transonic cruise airfoil pressure distribution, plotted in terms of the pressure coefficient CP on a negative scale, as shown in FIG. 7(a). For reference, the shape of the airfoil is shown just below the pressure-distribution plot. On the CP scale shown, CP=0 is the static pressure of the freestream flow far from the airfoil, which is assumed to be at a subsonic speed. At each point on the surface, the value of CP, in addition to defining the pressure, corresponds to a particular value of the floss velocity just outside the thin viscous boundary layer on the surface. Negative CP (above the horizontal axis) represents lower pressure and higher velocity than the freestream. while positive CP (below the horizontal axis) corresponds to higher pressure and lower velocity. A particular level of negative CP corresponds to sonic velocity and is shown by the dotted line 41.

The lower curve 42 on the pressure-distribution plot represents the pressure on the lower surface 43, or high-pressure side, and the upper curve 44 represents pressure on the upper-surface 45. The vertical distance between the two curves indicates the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces, and the area between the two curves is proportional to the total lift generated by the airfoil. Note that near the leading edge there is a highly positive spike in the CP distribution 46 at what is called the “stagnation point” 47, where the oncoming flow first “attaches” to the airfoil surface, and the flow velocity outside the boundary layer is zero. Also, note that the upper- and lower-surface CP distributions come together at the trailing edge 48, defining a single value of CP 49 that is almost always slightly positive. This level of CP at the trailing edge, as will be seen later, has an important impact on the flow physics. Because the trailing-edge CP is dictated primarily by the overall airfoil thickness distribution, and the thickness is generally constrained by a number of structural and aerodynamic factors, trailing-edge CP is something over which the designer has relatively little control. Away from the leading-edge stagnation point and the trailing edge, the designer, by varying the airfoil shape, has much more control over the pressure distribution.

For a given airfoil thickness and Mach number, the problem of achieving a high technology level boils down to the problem of maximizing the lift consistent with a low drag level. Increasing the lift solely by increasing the lower-surface pressure is generally not possible without reducing airfoil thickness. Thus the designer's task is to reduce the upper-surface pressure so as to produce as much lift as possible, but to do so without causing a large increase in drag. In this regard, the pressure distribution shown in FIG. (7a) is typical of advanced design practice. The operating condition shown is close to the preferred operating condition that might be used for the early cruise portion of an airplane mission. The drag at this condition is reasonably low, but at higher Mach numbers and/or lift coefficients, the drag would increase rapidly.

Note that the upper-surface CP 44 over the front half of the airfoil is above the dotted line 41, indicating that the flow there is mildly supersonic. Just aft of midchord, this supersonic zone is terminated by a weak shock, indicated on the surface as a sudden increase in CP 50 to a value characteristic of subsonic flow. The CP distribution in the supersonic zone 51 is deliberately made almost flat, with only an extremely gradual pressure rise, in order to keep the shock from becoming stronger and causing increased drag at other operating conditions. The shock is followed by a gradual pressure increase 52, referred to as a “pressure recovery”, to a slightly-positive CP 49 at the trailing edge. The location of the shock and the pressure distribution in the recovery region are carefully tailored to strike a balance between increased lift and increased drag.

Trying to increase the lift will tend to move the airfoil away from this favorable balance and increase the drag. For example, one way of adding lift would be to move the shock 50 aft. This, however, would require a steeper recovery (because the immediate post-shock CP and the trailing-edge CP are both essentially fixed), which would cause the viscous boundary layer to grow thicker or even to separate from the surface, either of which would result in a significant drag increase. The other obvious way to increase lift would be to lower the pressure ahead of the shock even further (move the CP curve 51 upward over the forward part of the airfoil and increase the supersonic flow velocity there), but this would increase the pressure jump across the shock, which would result in an increase in the so-called shock drag. For single-element transonic airfoils at the current state of the art, this compromise between lift and drag has reached a high level of refinement, and it is unlikely that any large improvement in technology level remains to be made.

Potential technology advantage of the slotted airfoil

The shape and resulting pressure distribution of a slotted transonic cruise airfoil are shown in FIGS. (6) and (7b). The airfoil 23 consists of two elements (a forward element 60 and an aft element 61) separated by a curved channel (62, the slot) through which air generally flows from the lower surface 84 to the upper surface 64. In this example, the slot lip (65, the trailing edge of the forward element) is just aft of 80 percent of the overall chord from the leading edge, and the overlap of the elements is about 3 percent of the overall chord. Pressure distributions are shown for both elements, so that the pressure distributions overlap where the airfoil elements overlap. As with the conventional airfoil, the upper curves 66,67 give the CP distributions on the upper surfaces 64,83, and the lower curves 68,69 give CP on the lower surfaces 84,70. Note that there are two stagnation points 71,72 and their corresponding high-pressure spikes 73,74, one on each element, where the oncoming flow attaches to the surface near each of the leading edges.

To begin the consideration of the flow physics, note that the preferred operating condition for the slotted airfoil shown is faster than that of the single-element airfoil (Mach 0.78 compared with 0.75), and that the lift coefficient is slightly higher, while both airfoils have the same effective thickness for structural purposes. At the slotted airfoil's operating condition, any single-element airfoil of the same thickness would have extremely high drag. The slotted airfoil's substantial advantage in technology level results from the fact that the final pressure recovery 75 is extremely far aft, beginning with a weak shock 76 at about 90 percent of the overall chord. Such a pressure distribution would be impossible on a single-element airfoil because boundary-layer separation would surely occur, preventing the shock from moving that far aft. The mechanism, loosely termed the “slot effect”, by which the slot prevents boundary-layer separation, combines several contributing factors:

    • 1) The boundary layer on the upper surface 83 of the forward element is subjected to a weak shock 77 at the slot lip 65, but there is no post-shock pressure recovery on the forward element. This is possible because the aft element 61 induces an elevated “dumping velocity” at the trailing edge of the forward element (The trailing-edge CP 78 on the forward element is strongly negative, where on a single-element airfoil the trailing-edge CP is generally positive).
    • 2) The upper- and lower-surface boundary layers on the forward element combine at the trailing edge 65 to form a wake that flows above the upper surface 64 of the aft element and that remains effectively distinct from the boundary layer that forms on the upper surface of the aft element. Over the of part of the aft element, this wake is subjected to a strong pressure rise 75,76, but vigorous turbulent mixing makes the wake very resistant to flow reversal.
    • 3) The boundary layer on the upper surface 64 of the aft element has only a short distance over which to grow, starting at the stagnation point 72 near the leading edge of the aft element, so it is very thin when it encounters the final weak shock 76 and pressure recovery 75, and is able to remain attached. With regard to its pressure distribution and boundary-layer development, the aft element is, in effect, a separate airfoil in its own right, with a weak shock and pressure recovery beginning at about the mid-point of its own chord, for which we would expect attached flow to be possible.

The upper-surface pressure distribution of FIG. 7(b) is a relatively extreme example of what the slot effect makes possible. A range of less-extreme pressure distributions intermediate between that shown in FIG. 7(b) and the single-element pressure distribution of FIG. 7(a) can also take advantage of the slot effect. The shock on the forward element does not have to be all the way back at the slot lip, and there does not have to be a supersonic zone on the upper surface of the aft element. In fact, the airfoil of FIG. 7(b) displays a sequence of such intermediate pressure distributions when operating at lower Mach numbers and lift coefficients than the condition shown. The slot effect is still needed to prevent flow separation at these other conditions.

One way of comparing the technology levels of airfoils is to plot the drag-rise curves (drag coefficient versus Mach number at constant lift coefficient), as shown in FIG. (8). Here the dashed curve 80 is for the single-element airfoil of FIG. 7(a) at a lift coefficient Cl of 0.75, and the solid curve 81 is for the slotted airfoil of FIG. 7(b) at a slightly higher Cl of 0.76. It is clear that the low-drag operating range of the slotted airfoil extends up to 0.03 Mach faster than the single-element airfoil, with slightly higher lift and the same thickness. Of course the slotted airfoil could be redesigned to use this technology advantage for purposes other than higher speed, for example, to achieve even higher lift at the same speed as the single-element airfoil.

The pressure distribution on the lower surface also contributes to the technology level of the slotted airfoil of FIG. 7(b). Compare the pressure distribution 68 on the lower surface 84 of the forward element of the slotted airfoil with the corresponding pressure distribution 42 on the lower surface 43 of the single-element airfoil of FIG. 7(a). The flatter pressure distribution on the slotted airfoil results in less curvature of the lower surface of the airfoil and greater depth of the airfoil at the locations where the front and rear spars of the main structural box would be placed (typically about 15 percent and 64 percent of the overall chord). Flatter lower-surface skins and deeper spars are both favorable to the structural effectiveness of the main box structure. In the design of the airfoil of FIG. 7(b) this advantage was traded so as to contribute to the improved Mach number and lift coefficient, while keeping the structural effectiveness (bending strength) of the wing box the same as that of the single-element airfoil of FIG. 7(a).

The unsweeping of the wing significantly changes the manufacturing processes, reduces manufacturing costs and flow time from detail part fabrication to airplane delivery. Conventional commercial jet airplane wings are built with structural splices where the stringers and spars change direction, generally at the side of body. With an unswept wing, one of the spars has no changes in direction and no splice. Wing box structural stringers (skin panel stiffeners) are parallel to the straight spar and do not have splices. As with the spar and stringers, the wing structural skin does not require spanwise splicing although chord wise splicing will be used when the limits of raw material make single piece wing skins impractical. Building the wing as a single piece rather than a left wing a right wing and a wing stub eliminates the parts associated with splicing and the labor and flow time required to join the left and right wing to the wing stub. Significant reductions in the quantity of parts and manufacturing labor are a result of unsweeping the wing. FIG. 9 represents conventional wing recurring costs, the outboard wing cost represented by 91 will be reduced by 30%. This savings is the combination of eliminating the wing joints, and the reduction of wing shear and dihedral. Another 12% cost reduction could be realized with low cost graphite construction. The wing stub cost represented by 92 will be reduced by 90% because it is not required.

Unsweeping the wing 14 changes the wing relationship with the main landing gear 19. Conventional swept wing commercial jet airplanes integrate the landing gear into the portion of the wing aft of the rear spar 9. With the unswept high wing commercial jetliner configuration shown in FIGS. 1 through 5, the landing gear 19 is not integrated into the wing at all, reducing the plan area of the wing and simplifying the wing aft of the rear spar 9. The cost reduction is relative to FIG. 9, the recurring cost of the fixed trailing edge (the non-moving parts of the wing aft of the rear spar) represented by 93 is reduced by 25%. One disadvantage of reducing the area of the fixed trailing edge is the reduction in wing thickness at the rear spar 39. This may result in a requirement for a mid spar or spars with more depth. The spoilers 21, fixed leading edge, moveable leading edge 20 and moveable trailing edge 23 costs represented by 94 are not expected to change. The additional cost associated with designing the slot 62 into the airfoil is expected to be offset by the elimination of an inboard aileron and the simplification of the high lift system.

Structural design advantages of the unswept wing include higher loading of the front spar 82 and thereby unloading the rear spar 39 and aft part of the wing skins 83 and 84. This load redistribution results in the ability to increase the structural aspect ratio of the wing while maintaining the same stress levels. Utilizing a mid spar or spars may increase the wing aspect ratio further with out increasing stress levels.

The slotted cruise wing airfoil and the straight wing allow us to modularize the wing 14 and the body 15, so that we can develop a family of airplanes by intermixing different bodies with different wings.

Aspect Ratio is the ratio of (span)2 divided by wing area. Structural Aspect Ratio is the ratio of (structural span)2 divided by structural wing area.

While preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described, it will be appreciated that various changes can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (76)

What is claimed is:
1. A commercial jetplane capable of flying at a cruise speed of Mach=0.78 or above, comprising:
a fuselage;
a landing gear mounted on said fuselage;
a single wing attached to said fuselage, said single wing being substantially unswept with a high aspect ratio, and including:
a forward airfoil element having an upper surface and a lower surface;
an aft airfoil element having an upper surface and a lower surface;
an internal structure comprising at least two spars extending from one tip to an opposing tip of said single wing, with a rear one of the spars being straight and unswept in plan view;
an airfoil structure having a slot that allows airflow from the forward airfoil element to the aft airfoil element, wherein during cruising flight of the airplane, said airfoil structure having said slot diverts some of the air flowing along the lower surface of the forward airfoil element to flow over the upper surface of the aft airfoil element, and where the lower surface of the forward airfoil element and the lower surface of the aft airfoil element are shaped to provide an efficient cross section for a main structural box of the single wing; and
said wing and said fuselage being constructed of at least one of aluminum and graphite composite.
2. The airplane of claim 1 wherein said airfoil structure having a slot produces natural laminar flow over the aft airfoil element of said single wing.
3. The airplane of claim 1 wherein said airfoil structure having said slot produces natural laminar flow over the forward airfoil element of said single wing.
4. The airplane of claim 1 wherein heat is transferred from a leading edge of at least one of said wing and main flap to increase the extent of said natural laminar flow.
5. An airplane of claim 1 which comprises a “T”-tail type empennage.
6. The airplane of claim 1 which comprises a “V”-tail type empennage.
7. The airplane of claim 1 which comprises a low tail type empennage.
8. The airplane of claim 7, wherein at least two high bypass ratio engines are attached to the airframe.
9. The airplane of claim 8 wherein said high bypass engines are geared fan engines or unducted fans which are energy efficient with reduced fuel consumption, noise and greenhouse gas emissions.
10. The airplane of claim 1 wherein the reduced rotation angle also decreases the aft body upsweep and reduces drag.
11. An airplane of claim 1 wherein said single wing is attached to the top of said fuselage and the engines are attached below the wing.
12. An airplane of claim 1 wherein said single wing is attached to the bottom of said fuselage and said engines are attached to the aft end of the fuselage.
13. An aircraft, comprising:
a fuselage;
at least one wing attached to the fuselage, the wing having an upper surface, a lower surface, and an internal structure including at least one spar;
a trailing edge device carried by the wing, the trailing edge device having an upper surface and a lower surface, the upper surface of the trailing edge device being recessed away from an aft-extended contour of the wing upper surface in a thickness direction along its entire length when in a neutral, undeflected, undeployed position, at least one of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device having a spanwise slot that allows airflow from the at least one wing to the trailing edge device, the slot having an aft-facing exit opening at an offset between the upper surfaces of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device, the offset being in the thickness direction, wherein during cruising flight of the aircraft, the slot diverts some of the air flowing along the lower surface of the at least one wing through the slot to flow over the upper surface of the trailing edge device, the lower surface of the at least one wing and the lower surface of the trailing edge device being shaped to provide an efficient cross section for a main structural box of the at least one wing; and
landing gear depending from the fuselage.
14. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing is at least approximately unswept.
15. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the slot is configured to remain open at all flight conditions.
16. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing is configured to operate at a cruise Mach number of 0.78 or higher.
17. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one spar includes a forward spar and an aft spar forming portions of opposing sides of a wing box.
18. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing includes a forward spar and an aft spar and wherein at least one of the forward and aft spars is at least approximately unswept.
19. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one spar extends in an at least generally straight line from one side of the fuselage to the other.
20. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing includes a single wing having a common structure extending from a first side of the fuselage to a second side of the fuselage.
21. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing includes a single wing having a unitary structure extending from a first side of the fuselage to a second side of the fuselage.
22. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing includes a structure extending from a first side of the fuselage to a second side of the fuselage without a splice.
23. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the slot extends over less than an entire span of the at least one wing.
24. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the wing includes an aileron, and wherein the slot extends spanwise through a region of the at least one wing containing the aileron.
25. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the at least one wing includes a single wing extending from a first tip on a first side of the fuselage to a second tip on a second side of the fuselage, and wherein the at least one wing further includes forward and aft spars, the forward spar extending from a first position at least proximate to the first tip to a second position at least proximate to the second tip, the aft spar extending from a third position at least proximate to the first tip to a fourth position at least proximate to the second tip.
26. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the slot is a first slot, and wherein the trailing edge device is movable relative to the at least one wing to form a second slot forward of the first slot and divert additional air from the lower surface of the wing to the upper surface of the trailing edge device.
27. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein at least one of the upper surface and lower surface of at least one of the wing and the trailing edge device includes a composite material.
28. The aircraft of claim 13, further comprising a propulsion system depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage.
29. The aircraft of claim 13, further comprising an empennage aft of the at least one wing.
30. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a critical Mach number of the aircraft.
31. The aircraft of claim 13 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a maximum cruise speed of the aircraft.
32. An aircraft, comprising:
a fuselage,
at least one wing attached to the fuselage, the at least one wing including:
a forward airfoil element having an upper surface and a lower surface;
at least one spar positioned within the forward airfoil element and extending in an at least generally straight line from one side of the fuselage to the other;
an aft airfoil element having an upper surface and a lower surface, the aft airfoil element being coupled to the forward airfoil element, the aft airfoil element having a leading edge spaced apart from a portion of the forward airfoil element with a slot positioned between the portion of the forward airfoil element and the leading edge of the aft airfoil element, the slot being configured to be open during cruise flight to divert some of the air flowing along the lower surface of the forward airfoil element to flow over the upper surface of the aft airfoil element;
a propulsion system depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage; and
landing gear depending from the fuselage.
33. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the at least one wing is configured for a subsonic cruise speed of at least Mach 0.78.
34. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the at least one wing has an at least approximately unswept leading edge.
35. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the at least one spar is at least approximately unswept.
36. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a critical Mach number of the aircraft.
37. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a maximum cruise speed of the aircraft.
38. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the at least one wing includes a single wing having a unitary structure extending from a first side of the fuselage to a second side of the fuselage.
39. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the slot extends over less than an entire span of the at least one wing.
40. The aircraft of claim 32 wherein the at least one wing, includes an aileron, and wherein the slot extends spanwise through a region of the at least one wing containing the aileron.
41. An aircraft system, comprising:
at least one wing having an upper surface shaped to include at least one transonic region during cruise flight; and
a flap assembly that includes a forward airfoil element having an upper surface portion and a lower surface portion, and an aft airfoil element coupled to the forward airfoil element, the aft airfoil element having an upper surface portion and a lower surface portion, at least a part of the aft airfoil element being spaced apart from a part of the forward airfoil element by a fixed first slot, the first slot being configured to be open during cruise flight to divert some of the air flowing along the lower surface portion of the wing to flow over the upper surface portion of the aft airfoil element, the first slot having an aft-facing exit opening at an offset between the upper surface of the wing and the upper surface portion of the aft airfoil element, the offset being in the thickness direction, and wherein the forward airfoil element and the aft airfoil element are movable as a unit relative to the at least one wing to open a second slot between the forward airfoil element and the at least one wing, the forward and aft airfoil elements having a fixed angular relationship with each other when the second slot is open and when the second slot is closed.
42. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the at least one wing is shaped to be efficient at a transonic condition.
43. The aircraft system of claim 41, further comprising:
a fuselage coupled to the at least one wing,
a propulsion system depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage; and
landing gear depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage.
44. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the at least one wing is at least approximately unswept.
45. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the at least one wing overlaps the trailing edge assembly by three percent of a combined chord length of the at least one wing and the flap assembly when the flap assembly is stowed.
46. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the slot extends over less than an entire span of the at least one wing.
47. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the at least one wing includes an aileron, and wherein the slot extends spanwise through a region of the at least one wing containing the aileron.
48. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a critical Mach number of the aircraft.
49. The aircraft system of claim 41 wherein the slot is configured to divert air sufficient to increase a maximum cruise speed of the aircraft.
50. An aircraft system, comprising:
at least one wing having a leading edge, an upper surface, and a lower surface, the upper surface being shaped to include at least one transonic region during cruise flight; and
a trailing edge device carried by the at least one wing, the trailing edge device having an upper surface and a lower surface, the upper surface of the trailing edge device being recessed away from an aft-extended contour of the at least one wing upper surface in a thickness direction along its entire length when in a neutral, undeflected position, at least one of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device having a spanwise slot, the slot having an aft-facing exit opening at an offset between the upper surfaces of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device, the offset being in the thickness direction, the slot being configured to be open during cruise flight to divert some of the air flowing along the lower surface of the at least one wing to flow over the upper surface of the trailing edge device, the slot being positioned to increase a Mach number at which the at least one wing undergoes transonic drag rise by about 0.03 compared with a wing having generally similar shape without the slot, the Mach number corresponding to a component of flow travelling generally normal to the leading edge of the at least one wing.
51. The aircraft system of claim 50, further comprising:
a fuselage coupled to the at least one wing;
a propulsion system depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage; and
landing gear depending from at least one of the at least one wing and the fuselage.
52. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the at least one wing is shaped to be efficient at a transonic condition.
53. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the at least one wing is at least approximately unswept.
54. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the slot is configured to remain open at all flight conditions.
55. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the at least one wing includes at least one spar that is at least approximately unswept.
56. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the slot extends over less than an entire span of the at least one wing.
57. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the at least one wing includes an aileron, and wherein the slot extends spanwise through a region of the at least one wing containing the aileron.
58. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the slot is a first slot and wherein the trailing edge device includes a forward portion and an aft portion, the forward portion and the aft portion being movable as a unit relative to the at least one wing to form a second slot forward of the first slot and divert additional air from the lower surface of the at least one wing to the upper surface of the trailing edge device.
59. The aircraft system of claim 50 wherein the at least one wing overlaps the trailing edge device by a distance at least approximately equal to three percent of a combined chord length of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device.
60. An aircraft system, comprising:
at least one wing, the at least one wing having an upper surface and a lower surface;
an internal structure including at least one spar; and
an airfoil structure including a trailing edge device carried by the at least one wing, the trailing edge device having an upper surface and a lower surface, the upper surface of the trailing edge device being recessed away from an aft-extended contour of the at least one wing upper surface in a thickness direction along its entire length when in a neutral, undeflected, undeployed position, at least one of the at least one wing and the trailing edge device having a spanwise slot that allows airflow from the at least one wing to the trailing edge device, wherein during cruising flight of the at least one wing, the airfoil structure diverts some of the air flowing along the lower surface of the at least one wing through the slot to flow over the upper surface of the trailing edge device.
61. The aircraft system of claim 60 wherein the slot extends over less than an entire span of the at least one wing.
62. The aircraft system of claim 60 wherein the at least one wing includes an aileron, and wherein the slot extends spanwise through a region of the at least one wing containing the aileron.
63. A method for manufacturing an aircraft system, comprising coupling a trailing edge device to an aircraft wing, with the aircraft wing overlapping the trailing edge device by a distance at least approximately equal to three percent of a combined chord length of the aircraft wing and the trailing edge device, and with a spanwise slot positioned between at least part of the aircraft wing and at least part of the trailing edge device, the slot being configured to be open during cruise flight to divert some of the air flowing along a lower surface of the aircraft wing to flow over an upper surface of the trailing edge device, the upper surface of the trailing edge device being recessed away from an aft-extended contour of the aircraft wing upper surface in a thickness direction along its entire length when in a neutral, undeflected, undeployed position, the slot having an aft-facing exit opening at an offset between an upper surface of the aircraft wing and the upper surface of the trailing edge device, the offset being in the thickness direction.
64. The method of claim 63, further comprising:
attaching the aircraft wing to a fuselage;
connecting a propulsion system to at least one of the aircraft wing and the fuselage; and
coupling landing gear to at least one of the aircraft wing and the fuselage.
65. The method of claim 63 wherein coupling a trailing edge device to an aircraft wing includes coupling the trailing edge device to an at least approximately unswept aircraft wing.
66. The method of claim 63, further comprising configuring the slot to remain open at all flight conditions.
67. The method of claim 63, further comprising supporting the aircraft wing with at least one spar that is at least approximately unswept.
68. The method of claim 63, further comprising positioning the slot to extend over less than an entire span of the aircraft wing.
69. The method of claim 63, further comprising attaching an aileron to the aircraft wing and positioning the slot to extend spanwise through a region of the aircraft wing containing the aileron.
70. A method for manufacturing an aircraft system, comprising:
coupling a trailing edge device to an aircraft wing; and
positioning a slot between at least part of the aircraft wing and at least part of the trailing edge device to increase a Mach number at which the aircraft wing undergoes transonic drag rise by about 0.03 compared with an aircraft wing having a generally similar shape without the slot, the Mach number corresponding to a component of flow travelling generally normal to the leading edge of the aircraft wing, the slot being configured to be open during cruise flight to divert some of the air flowing along a lower surface of the aircraft wing to flow over an upper surface of the trailing edge device.
71. The method of claim 70, further comprising:
attaching the aircraft wing to a fuselage;
connecting a propulsion system to at least one of the aircraft wing and the fuselage; and
coupling landing gear to at least one of the aircraft wing and the fuselage.
72. The method of claim 70 wherein coupling a trailing edge device to an aircraft wing includes coupling a trailing edge device to an at least approximately unswept wing.
73. The method of claim 70, further comprising configuring the slot to remain open at all flight conditions.
74. The method of claim 70, further comprising supporting the aircraft wing with at least one spar that is at least approximately unswept.
75. The method of claim 70, further comprising positioning the slot to extend over less than an entire span of the aircraft wing.
76. The method of claim 70, further comprising attaching ailerons to the wing and positioning the slot to extend spanwise through a region of the wing containing the ailerons.
US10/671,435 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil Expired - Lifetime USRE44313E1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US2885396P true 1996-10-22 1996-10-22
US10/671,435 USRE44313E1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil
PCT/US1997/019048 WO1998017529A1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil
US09/284,122 US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10/671,435 USRE44313E1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/284,122 Reissue US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE44313E1 true USRE44313E1 (en) 2013-06-25

Family

ID=21845857

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/284,122 Expired - Lifetime US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil
US10/671,435 Expired - Lifetime USRE44313E1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09/284,122 Expired - Lifetime US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 1997-10-22 Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil

Country Status (5)

Country Link
US (2) US6293497B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0932548B1 (en)
AU (1) AU5239098A (en)
DE (2) DE69718659D1 (en)
WO (1) WO1998017529A1 (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150184629A1 (en) * 2013-12-31 2015-07-02 Google Inc. Airfoil for a Flying Wind Turbine
US20160059952A1 (en) * 2014-08-26 2016-03-03 The Boeing Company Torque tube door

Families Citing this family (28)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE69718659D1 (en) 1996-10-22 2003-02-27 Boeing Co Plane with ungepfeiltem slot wing for cruise
DE19916132C1 (en) * 1999-04-09 2000-08-03 Daimler Chrysler Aerospace Double side fins for the tail end of a large passenger aircraft fuselage have a horizontal torque box at the deck floor for the U-shape of the double fins to increase aerodynamic effects at the aircraft tail
US6796534B2 (en) 2002-09-10 2004-09-28 The Boeing Company Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a leading edge device having a flexible flow surface
ES2360354T3 (en) 2002-10-09 2011-06-03 The Boeing Company Slotted wing aircraft.
US7048228B2 (en) * 2002-10-09 2006-05-23 The Boeing Company Slotted aircraft wing
US7048235B2 (en) * 2002-10-09 2006-05-23 The Boeing Company Slotted aircraft wing
US6905092B2 (en) * 2002-11-20 2005-06-14 Airfoils, Incorporated Laminar-flow airfoil
US6935592B2 (en) * 2003-08-29 2005-08-30 Supersonic Aerospace International, Llc Aircraft lift device for low sonic boom
US6824092B1 (en) * 2003-10-30 2004-11-30 Supersonic Aerospace International, Llc Aircraft tail configuration for sonic boom reduction
US6921045B2 (en) 2003-10-30 2005-07-26 Supersonic Aerospace International, Llc Supersonic aircraft with channel relief control
US6799739B1 (en) 2003-11-24 2004-10-05 The Boeing Company Aircraft control surface drive system and associated methods
DE102004033068B4 (en) * 2004-07-08 2008-09-25 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Airliner with a main deck and a lower deck
US7494094B2 (en) 2004-09-08 2009-02-24 The Boeing Company Aircraft wing systems for providing differential motion to deployable lift devices
US7264206B2 (en) 2004-09-30 2007-09-04 The Boeing Company Leading edge flap apparatuses and associated methods
US7338018B2 (en) 2005-02-04 2008-03-04 The Boeing Company Systems and methods for controlling aircraft flaps and spoilers
US7721999B2 (en) 2005-05-20 2010-05-25 The Boeing Company Aerospace vehicle fairing systems and associated methods
US7475854B2 (en) 2005-11-21 2009-01-13 The Boeing Company Aircraft trailing edge devices, including devices with non-parallel motion paths, and associated methods
US7708231B2 (en) 2005-11-21 2010-05-04 The Boeing Company Aircraft trailing edge devices, including devices having forwardly positioned hinge lines, and associated methods
US7954769B2 (en) 2007-12-10 2011-06-07 The Boeing Company Deployable aerodynamic devices with reduced actuator loads, and related systems and methods
US7766282B2 (en) 2007-12-11 2010-08-03 The Boeing Company Trailing edge device catchers and associated systems and methods
US10144499B2 (en) * 2008-09-17 2018-12-04 Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. Aerofoil accessories and method for modifying the geometry of a wing element
FR2936490B1 (en) * 2008-09-30 2011-05-20 Airbus France Avion has at least two motors
US8511603B2 (en) 2009-01-14 2013-08-20 Lewis E. Blomeley Roadable aircraft with collapsible wings and ductless fan
US8651813B2 (en) * 2009-05-29 2014-02-18 Donald James Long Fluid dynamic body having escapelet openings for reducing induced and interference drag, and energizing stagnant flow
US8382045B2 (en) 2009-07-21 2013-02-26 The Boeing Company Shape-changing control surface
CN103895853B (en) * 2014-04-11 2015-10-14 北京理工大学 Design Method of opening a buried tank
CN104590542A (en) * 2014-12-19 2015-05-06 成都飞机设计研究所 Low-RCS embedded cabin door mechanism
US10035609B2 (en) 2016-03-08 2018-07-31 Harris Corporation Wireless engine monitoring system for environmental emission control and aircraft networking

Citations (209)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US1724456A (en) 1928-04-24 1929-08-13 Louis H Crook Aerodynamic control of airplane wings
US1770575A (en) 1927-12-03 1930-07-15 Ksoll Joseph Aeroplane with supporting surface subdivided by gaps
US1785620A (en) 1927-10-26 1930-12-16 Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd Control surface for aircraft, submersibles, and the like
FR705155A (en) 1930-11-05 1931-06-02 Improvements to air navigation equipment
US1913169A (en) 1931-03-27 1933-06-06 Emil F Martin Wing and like member for aircraft
US2086085A (en) 1935-05-14 1937-07-06 Handley Page Ltd Aircraft control gear
US2138952A (en) 1935-08-31 1938-12-06 Arado Flugzeugwerke Gmbh Auxiliary wing for aircraft
US2169416A (en) 1936-06-12 1939-08-15 United Aircraft Corp Slotted deflector flap
US2207453A (en) 1937-10-02 1940-07-09 Arado Flugzeugwerke Gmbh Aircraft supporting wing
US2282516A (en) 1938-07-11 1942-05-12 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Airplane wing structure
US2289704A (en) 1940-02-26 1942-07-14 Charles H Grant Aircraft wing
US2319383A (en) 1942-01-19 1943-05-18 Edward F Zap Linkage mounting for aerodynamic members
US2347230A (en) 1938-12-16 1944-04-25 Daniel R Zuck Airplane with nonstalling and glide angle control characteristics
US2383102A (en) 1942-02-13 1945-08-21 Edward F Zap Aerodynamic member
US2387492A (en) 1943-03-22 1945-10-23 Curtiss Wright Corp Hydraulically operated split flap
US2406475A (en) 1944-02-19 1946-08-27 Samuel H Pearis Slotted airplane wing
US2421694A (en) * 1942-07-02 1947-06-03 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airplane control surface
US2422296A (en) 1941-08-22 1947-06-17 Curtiss Wright Corp Slat and flap control system
US2444293A (en) 1943-06-18 1948-06-29 Curtiss Wright Corp Gap seal for flaps
US2458900A (en) 1942-08-10 1949-01-11 Curtiss Wright Corp Flap operating means
US2502315A (en) 1946-02-26 1950-03-28 Beech Aircraft Corp Operating mechanism for high lift devices for airplanes
US2518854A (en) 1943-06-14 1950-08-15 Douglas Aircraft Co Inc Wing high lift flap device
US2549760A (en) 1949-04-14 1951-04-24 Adams George Kenneth Aerodynamic flap balance and auxiliary airfoil
US2555862A (en) 1947-05-23 1951-06-05 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) High-lift appliance for largely sweptback wings
US2563453A (en) 1951-08-07 Device fob controlling the trailing
FR56121E (en) 1942-12-29 1952-09-17 Improvement in aircraft wings slot-lift
FR57988E (en) 1946-12-03 1953-09-18 Improvements to the high lift air navigation equipment
US2652812A (en) 1952-05-13 1953-09-22 Gen Electric Combined manual and automatic hydraulic servomotor apparatus
US2665085A (en) 1950-06-13 1954-01-05 Blackburn & Gen Aircraft Ltd Selective dual aileron control for aircraft
US2665084A (en) 1949-11-14 1954-01-05 Northrop Aircraft Inc Flap actuator and control system
US2743887A (en) 1952-11-12 1956-05-01 Willy A Fiedler Split aircraft wing
US2864239A (en) 1956-10-04 1958-12-16 Sperry Rand Corp Electro-hydraulic servo system for steering dirigible craft
US2891740A (en) 1957-06-27 1959-06-23 John P Campbell External-flow jet flap
US2892312A (en) 1958-01-27 1959-06-30 Deere & Co Demand compensated hydraulic system
US2920844A (en) 1957-04-12 1960-01-12 North American Aviation Inc Aircraft boundary-layer control system
US2938680A (en) 1957-07-02 1960-05-31 North American Aviation Inc Multiple position airfoil slat
US2990144A (en) 1956-11-05 1961-06-27 Gen Electric Integrated hydraulic power actuator
US2990145A (en) 1956-11-05 1961-06-27 Gen Electric Integrated hydraulic power actuator
US3102607A (en) 1960-12-19 1963-09-03 Charles E Roberts Carrier system for transport and delivery along a trackway
US3112089A (en) 1960-10-12 1963-11-26 Dornier Werke Gmbh Airplane wing flaps
US3136504A (en) 1963-07-02 1964-06-09 William F Carr Electrical primary flight control system
US3203647A (en) 1961-12-06 1965-08-31 Alvarez-Calderon Alberto High lift fdaps for aircraft wings
US3362659A (en) * 1965-07-06 1968-01-09 Razak Charles Kenneth Method and apparatus for landing jet aircraft
US3375998A (en) 1962-04-16 1968-04-02 Alberto Alvarez Calderon Leading edge flap and apparatus thereof
US3447763A (en) 1964-12-11 1969-06-03 Power Jet Research & Dev Ltd Flap systems for aircraft
US3486720A (en) 1967-12-07 1969-12-30 Boeing Co Continuous slot forming leading edge slats for cranked wings
US3493196A (en) 1968-01-24 1970-02-03 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Airplane flap assembly
GB1181991A (en) 1967-04-14 1970-02-18 Edward M Lanier Aircraft Lift-Increasing Device
US3504870A (en) 1967-12-08 1970-04-07 Boeing Co Aircraft wing variable camber leading edge flap
US3528632A (en) 1967-05-16 1970-09-15 Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd High lift flaps for aircraft
US3539133A (en) 1968-05-20 1970-11-10 Robertson Aircraft Corp Inherently stable tapered wing flaperon airplane
US3556439A (en) 1968-11-22 1971-01-19 Boeing Co Methods and high lift systems for making an aircraft wing more efficient for takeoffs and landings
US3583660A (en) 1969-08-18 1971-06-08 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Lift and control augmenter for airfoils
US3589648A (en) 1969-01-02 1971-06-29 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Means for controlling the vertical path of an aircraft
US3642234A (en) 1968-12-30 1972-02-15 Dassault Avions Aircraft
US3653611A (en) 1970-03-24 1972-04-04 Mason Trupp Slotted delta wing aircraft
US3677504A (en) 1969-08-28 1972-07-18 Ver Flugtechnische Werke Control flap arrangement
US3704828A (en) 1969-12-16 1972-12-05 Hamburger Flugzeubau Gmbh Aircraft fan with outflow deflectors
US3704843A (en) 1970-06-11 1972-12-05 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Aircraft control system
US3743219A (en) 1971-06-30 1973-07-03 Boeing Co High lift leading edge device
US3767140A (en) 1971-11-03 1973-10-23 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Airplane flaps
US3776491A (en) 1971-06-25 1973-12-04 R Oulton Aircraft with compound wing
US3790106A (en) * 1973-01-24 1974-02-05 J Morris Flap system
US3794276A (en) 1971-10-07 1974-02-26 Lucas Aerospace Ltd Electro-hydraulic actuating systems for aircraft control surfaces
US3831886A (en) 1973-01-26 1974-08-27 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airfoil with extendible and retractable leading edge
US3836099A (en) 1973-09-28 1974-09-17 Us Navy Airfoil camber change system
US3837601A (en) 1973-03-09 1974-09-24 Boeing Co Aerodynamic slot closing mechanism
US3853289A (en) 1973-02-15 1974-12-10 Boeing Co Trailing edge flap and actuating mechanism therefor
US3862730A (en) 1973-10-23 1975-01-28 United Aircraft Corp Fas actuation system
US3874617A (en) 1974-07-17 1975-04-01 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Stol flaps
US3887147A (en) * 1972-08-12 1975-06-03 Mtu Muenchen Gmbh Apparatus and method for augmenting the lift of an aircraft having short take-off and landing capabilities
US3897029A (en) 1973-07-09 1975-07-29 Alberto Alvarez Calderon Variable camber multi-slotted flaps
US3904152A (en) 1974-03-13 1975-09-09 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Variable area, variable camber wing for aircraft
US3910530A (en) 1973-11-07 1975-10-07 Boeing Co Leading edge flap
US3917192A (en) 1973-07-09 1975-11-04 Alvarez Calderon Alberto Flap mechanisms and apparatus
US3941334A (en) 1975-03-28 1976-03-02 The Boeing Company Variable camber airfoil
US3941341A (en) 1974-12-13 1976-03-02 Brogdon Jr Glenn F Quick-release roller attachment for supporting a rope or hose and the like on an aerial ladder
US3968946A (en) 1975-03-31 1976-07-13 The Boeing Company Extendable aerodynamic fairing
US3985319A (en) 1975-02-03 1976-10-12 The Boeing Company Variable pivot trailing edge flap
US3987983A (en) 1974-12-20 1976-10-26 The Boeing Company Trailing edge flaps having spanwise aerodynamic slot opening and closing mechanism
US3992979A (en) 1974-12-20 1976-11-23 Joseph Lucas (Industries) Limited Hydraulic actuating arrangements
US3994451A (en) 1974-03-28 1976-11-30 The Boeing Company Variable camber airfoil
US4015787A (en) 1975-11-17 1977-04-05 Fairchild Industries Inc. Aircraft wing
US4049219A (en) 1975-02-03 1977-09-20 The Boeing Company Variable pivot trailing edge flap
US4117996A (en) 1975-06-23 1978-10-03 Sherman Irving R Variable aerodynamic compression flaps
US4120470A (en) 1976-09-28 1978-10-17 The Boeing Company Efficient trailing edge system for an aircraft wing
US4131253A (en) 1977-07-21 1978-12-26 The Boeing Company Variable camber trailing edge for airfoil
US4146200A (en) 1977-09-14 1979-03-27 Northrop Corporation Auxiliary flaperon control for aircraft
US4171787A (en) 1977-07-21 1979-10-23 Zapel Edwin J Variable camber leading edge for airfoil
US4172575A (en) 1975-03-24 1979-10-30 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Airfoil flap conical extension mechanism
US4189120A (en) 1977-12-14 1980-02-19 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Variable camber leading edge flap
US4189121A (en) 1978-01-23 1980-02-19 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Variable twist leading edge flap
US4189122A (en) 1978-07-21 1980-02-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Wide angle gimbal system
US4200253A (en) 1977-04-06 1980-04-29 British Aerospace Aircraft wing drooping leading edge device
US4240255A (en) 1978-06-01 1980-12-23 Les Applications Hydrauliques R. Sarrazin S.A. Integrated control device for a fluid circuit and applications thereof
US4248395A (en) 1975-03-24 1981-02-03 The Boeing Company Airplane wing trailing-edge flap-mounting mechanism
US4262868A (en) 1979-05-29 1981-04-21 The Boeing Company Three-position variable camber flap
US4275942A (en) 1978-12-26 1981-06-30 The Boeing Company Stowage bin mechanism
US4283029A (en) 1979-01-02 1981-08-11 Rudolph Peter K C Actuating apparatus for a flap system having an upper surface blowing powered lift system
US4285482A (en) 1979-08-10 1981-08-25 The Boeing Company Wing leading edge high lift device
US4293110A (en) 1979-03-08 1981-10-06 The Boeing Company Leading edge vortex flap for wings
US4312486A (en) 1979-09-20 1982-01-26 The Boeing Company Variable camber trailing edge for airfoil
US4351502A (en) 1980-05-21 1982-09-28 The Boeing Company Continuous skin, variable camber airfoil edge actuating mechanism
US4353517A (en) 1980-10-07 1982-10-12 The Boeing Company Flap assembly for aircraft wing
US4358077A (en) 1980-06-16 1982-11-09 Coronel Paul K Transverse wing actuation system
US4365774A (en) 1980-08-08 1982-12-28 Coronel Paul K Convertible delta wing aircraft
US4368937A (en) 1981-02-17 1983-01-18 The Boeing Company Overhead stowage bin mechanism
US4384693A (en) 1980-10-16 1983-05-24 Societe Nationale Industrielle Et Aerospatiale Aircraft wing provided with a high-lift system in its leading edge
US4395008A (en) 1980-01-22 1983-07-26 British Aerospace Public Limited Company Aircraft wing and flap arrangement
US4427168A (en) 1981-09-29 1984-01-24 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge mechanism with Krueger flap
EP0103038A1 (en) 1982-09-13 1984-03-21 The Boeing Company Continuous skin, variable camber airfoil edge actuating mechanism
US4441675A (en) 1982-06-25 1984-04-10 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation High lift surface actuation system
US4444368A (en) 1981-10-30 1984-04-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Slotted variable camber flap
US4461449A (en) 1980-05-01 1984-07-24 The Boeing Company Integral hydraulic blocking and relief valve
US4471925A (en) 1981-12-15 1984-09-18 Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm Gesellschaft Mit Beschraenkter Haftung Apparatus for closing an air gap between a flap and an aircraft
US4471927A (en) 1981-09-29 1984-09-18 The Boeing Company Trailing edge flap assembly
US4475702A (en) 1982-12-28 1984-10-09 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge assembly for an airfoil
US4485992A (en) 1981-09-10 1984-12-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Leading edge flap system for aircraft control augmentation
US4496121A (en) 1982-09-21 1985-01-29 The Boeing Company Control surface lock for flutter constraint
US4498646A (en) 1981-07-01 1985-02-12 Dornier Gmbh Wing for short take-off and landing aircraft
GB2144688A (en) 1983-08-06 1985-03-13 British Aerospace Underwing engine installation for aircraft
US4533096A (en) 1982-12-30 1985-08-06 The Boeing Company High lift system control assembly
US4575030A (en) 1982-09-13 1986-03-11 The Boeing Company Laminar flow control airfoil
US4576347A (en) 1984-10-30 1986-03-18 The Boeing Company Flap torque tube slot seal
US4605187A (en) 1984-03-09 1986-08-12 The Boeing Company Wing flap mechanism
US4637573A (en) 1983-12-06 1987-01-20 Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale Arrowlike aircraft wing equipped with a high-lift system and with a pylon for suspending the engine
US4650140A (en) 1985-12-30 1987-03-17 The Boeing Company Wind edge movable airfoil having variable camber
US4700911A (en) 1982-02-09 1987-10-20 Dornier Gmbh Transverse driving bodies, particularly airplane wings
US4702442A (en) 1984-12-06 1987-10-27 The Boeing Company Aircraft trailing edge flap apparatus
US4702441A (en) 1984-12-31 1987-10-27 The Boeing Company Aircraft wing stall control device and method
US4706913A (en) 1982-12-28 1987-11-17 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge assembly for an airfoil
US4717097A (en) 1986-03-03 1988-01-05 The Boeing Company Aircraft wings with aileron-supported ground speed spoilers and trailing edge flaps
US4729528A (en) 1983-02-28 1988-03-08 Northrop Corporation Aeroelastic control flap
US4763862A (en) 1985-06-22 1988-08-16 Mbb Gmbh Flap drive system for air foils
US4784355A (en) 1986-11-10 1988-11-15 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Flap system for short takeoff and landing aircraft
US4786013A (en) 1986-06-21 1988-11-22 Mbb Gmbh Flap drive with variable torque limiting
US4834326A (en) 1987-01-27 1989-05-30 Mbb Gmbh Wing flap operation
US4856735A (en) 1981-10-10 1989-08-15 Dornier Gmbh Wing sections, in particular lift-wing sections for aircraft
US4899284A (en) 1984-09-27 1990-02-06 The Boeing Company Wing lift/drag optimizing system
US4962902A (en) 1989-03-20 1990-10-16 The Boeing Company Aircraft control surface linkage
US5046688A (en) 1988-10-28 1991-09-10 The Boeing Company Wing major assembly jig
US5074495A (en) 1987-12-29 1991-12-24 The Boeing Company Load-adaptive hybrid actuator system and method for actuating control surfaces
US5082208A (en) 1989-09-29 1992-01-21 The Boeing Company System and method for controlling an aircraft flight control member
US5088665A (en) 1989-10-31 1992-02-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces
US5094412A (en) 1989-10-13 1992-03-10 Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Flaperon system for tilt rotor wings
US5094411A (en) 1990-10-19 1992-03-10 Vigyan, Inc. Control configured vortex flaps
US5100082A (en) 1987-09-17 1992-03-31 The Boeing Company Hydraulic power supplies
US5114100A (en) 1989-12-29 1992-05-19 The Boeing Company Anti-icing system for aircraft
US5129597A (en) 1989-02-06 1992-07-14 Deutsche Airbus Gmbh Ceiling luggage compartment combination for the passenger cabin of an aircraft
US5158252A (en) 1991-10-24 1992-10-27 The Boeing Company Three-position variable camber Krueger leading edge flap
US5167383A (en) 1990-08-18 1992-12-01 Yoshio Nozaki STOL aircraft
US5203619A (en) 1990-11-07 1993-04-20 Intermetro Industries Corporation Storage system including a vertically retractable storage unit
US5207400A (en) 1989-07-06 1993-05-04 Short Brothers Plc Flap assembly
US5244269A (en) 1991-09-14 1993-09-14 Deutsche Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Overhead baggage compartment with a lowerable trough
US5259293A (en) 1991-02-21 1993-11-09 Heilmeier & Weinlein Fabrik Fuer Oel-Hydraulik Gmbh & Co. Kg Hydraulic control device
US5351914A (en) 1991-06-14 1994-10-04 Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Hydraulic control system for aircraft
US5441218A (en) 1992-03-20 1995-08-15 Deutsche Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Overhead luggage compartment system for passenger aircraft
US5474265A (en) 1992-09-24 1995-12-12 Societe Nationale Industrielle Et Aerospatiale Rigid kruger nose for the leading edge of an aircraft wing
US5535852A (en) 1994-08-17 1996-07-16 Bishop; David J. Lift apparatus
US5544847A (en) 1993-11-10 1996-08-13 The Boeing Company Leading edge slat/wing combination
US5600220A (en) 1993-08-20 1997-02-04 Lucas France System for servo-controlling an aircraft flight control member
US5609020A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-03-11 The Boeing Company Thrust reverser synchronization shaft lock
US5680124A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-10-21 The Boeing Company Skew and loss detection system for adjacent high lift devices
US5686907A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-11-11 The Boeing Company Skew and loss detection system for individual high lift devices
US5735485A (en) 1994-12-26 1998-04-07 Aerospatiale Societe Nationale Industrielle Variable slot airbrake for aircraft wing
US5740991A (en) 1994-06-27 1998-04-21 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method and apparatus for optimizing the aerodynamic effect of an airfoil
US5743490A (en) 1996-02-16 1998-04-28 Sundstrand Corporation Flap/slat actuation system for an aircraft
US5788190A (en) 1996-10-22 1998-08-04 The Boeing Company Slotted cruise trailing edge flap
US5875998A (en) 1996-02-05 1999-03-02 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method and apparatus for optimizing the aerodynamic effect of an airfoil
US5921506A (en) 1997-09-25 1999-07-13 Northrop Grumman Corporation Extendible leading edge flap
US5927656A (en) 1996-06-26 1999-07-27 The Boeing Company Wing leading edge flap and method therefor
US5934615A (en) 1997-08-25 1999-08-10 Hexcel Corporation Luggage bins with articulating mechanism
US5984230A (en) 1997-12-15 1999-11-16 Orazi; Paul Wing assemblies for aircraft
US6015117A (en) 1996-04-13 2000-01-18 Broadbent; Michael C Variable camber wing mechanism
US6045204A (en) 1998-10-13 2000-04-04 Hexcel Corporation Overhead stowage bins in aircraft
US6073624A (en) 1996-07-25 2000-06-13 Aktiebolaget Electrolux Supporting arrangement, for ovens or the like, suspended on parallel links
US6076776A (en) 1997-03-21 2000-06-20 Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luft-Und Raumfahrt E.V. Profile edge of an aerodynamic profile
US6076767A (en) 1996-09-18 2000-06-20 Dowty Boulton Paul Limited Flight control surface actuation system
US6109567A (en) 1998-01-14 2000-08-29 Munoz Saiz; Manuel Flight controls with automatic balance
US6161801A (en) 1998-04-30 2000-12-19 Daimlerchrysler Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method of reducing wind gust loads acting on an aircraft
US6213433B1 (en) 1998-05-21 2001-04-10 The Boeing Company Leading edge for an aircraft
US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 2001-09-25 The Boeing Company Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil
US6328265B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2001-12-11 Faruk Dizdarevic Slot forming segments and slot changing spoilers
US6349798B1 (en) 1998-10-28 2002-02-26 Lucas Industries Limited Brake assembly
US6364254B1 (en) 1999-03-10 2002-04-02 Daimlerchrysler Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Aircraft airfoil with close-mounted engine and leading edge high lift system
US20020046087A1 (en) 2000-12-18 2002-04-18 John Hey Method of drawing attention to advertisements
US6375126B1 (en) 2000-11-16 2002-04-23 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge for an airfoil
US6443394B1 (en) 2000-09-21 2002-09-03 The B.F. Goodrich Company Inflatable airfoil device
US6484969B2 (en) 2000-01-13 2002-11-26 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Lowerable baggage compartment for a passenger cabin
US6499577B2 (en) 2000-06-01 2002-12-31 Komatsu Ltd. Valve apparatus for controlling hydraulic pressure for a clutch or a brake and method for controlling hydraulic pressure
US6536714B2 (en) 2000-04-17 2003-03-25 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Pressure control system for a pressure-expandable displacement element
US6547183B2 (en) 2001-08-02 2003-04-15 The Boeing Company Moveable closet
US6554229B1 (en) 1997-12-18 2003-04-29 Lawrence Y. Lam Aileron for fixed wing aircraft
US6591169B2 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-07-08 The Boeing Company Method and computer program product for controlling the actuators of an aerodynamic vehicle
US20030132860A1 (en) 2001-09-21 2003-07-17 Honeywell International, Inc. Interface for visual cueing and control for tactical flightpath management
US6598829B2 (en) 2001-04-10 2003-07-29 Stork Products Engineering B.V. Hand luggage locker assembly with reduced-pressure means
US6598834B2 (en) 2000-02-14 2003-07-29 Aerotech Services Inc. Method for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft
US6601801B1 (en) 2002-04-24 2003-08-05 The Boeing Company Gapped trailing-edge control surface for an airfoil
US6622972B2 (en) 2001-10-31 2003-09-23 The Boeing Company Method and system for in-flight fault monitoring of flight control actuators
US6625982B2 (en) 2000-06-28 2003-09-30 Airbus France Electronically controlled hydraulic actuating system
US6644599B2 (en) 2000-11-11 2003-11-11 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Mechanism for at least regionally adjusting the curvature of airfoil wings
US6651930B1 (en) 1998-12-28 2003-11-25 Aerospatiale Matra Process and control system for an aircraft control surface actuated by multiple hydraulic jacks and with modular power
US20040004162A1 (en) 2002-07-02 2004-01-08 Beyer Kevin W. Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a gapped trailing edge device having a flexible flow surface
US20040059474A1 (en) 2002-09-20 2004-03-25 Boorman Daniel J. Apparatuses and methods for displaying autoflight information
EP0947421B1 (en) 1997-03-26 2004-04-21 Airbus UK Limited Fairing arrangements for aircraft
US6796534B2 (en) 2002-09-10 2004-09-28 The Boeing Company Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a leading edge device having a flexible flow surface
US6799739B1 (en) 2003-11-24 2004-10-05 The Boeing Company Aircraft control surface drive system and associated methods
US20050011994A1 (en) 2003-06-03 2005-01-20 Seiya Sakurai Multi-function trailing edge devices and associated methods
US20050017126A1 (en) 2002-10-09 2005-01-27 Mclean James D. Slotted aircraft wing

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4669687A (en) * 1985-03-06 1987-06-02 The Boeing Company Airfoil flap member with flap track member

Patent Citations (210)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2563453A (en) 1951-08-07 Device fob controlling the trailing
US1785620A (en) 1927-10-26 1930-12-16 Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd Control surface for aircraft, submersibles, and the like
US1770575A (en) 1927-12-03 1930-07-15 Ksoll Joseph Aeroplane with supporting surface subdivided by gaps
US1724456A (en) 1928-04-24 1929-08-13 Louis H Crook Aerodynamic control of airplane wings
FR705155A (en) 1930-11-05 1931-06-02 Improvements to air navigation equipment
US1913169A (en) 1931-03-27 1933-06-06 Emil F Martin Wing and like member for aircraft
US2086085A (en) 1935-05-14 1937-07-06 Handley Page Ltd Aircraft control gear
US2138952A (en) 1935-08-31 1938-12-06 Arado Flugzeugwerke Gmbh Auxiliary wing for aircraft
US2169416A (en) 1936-06-12 1939-08-15 United Aircraft Corp Slotted deflector flap
US2207453A (en) 1937-10-02 1940-07-09 Arado Flugzeugwerke Gmbh Aircraft supporting wing
US2282516A (en) 1938-07-11 1942-05-12 Messerschmitt Boelkow Blohm Airplane wing structure
US2347230A (en) 1938-12-16 1944-04-25 Daniel R Zuck Airplane with nonstalling and glide angle control characteristics
US2289704A (en) 1940-02-26 1942-07-14 Charles H Grant Aircraft wing
US2422296A (en) 1941-08-22 1947-06-17 Curtiss Wright Corp Slat and flap control system
US2319383A (en) 1942-01-19 1943-05-18 Edward F Zap Linkage mounting for aerodynamic members
US2383102A (en) 1942-02-13 1945-08-21 Edward F Zap Aerodynamic member
US2421694A (en) * 1942-07-02 1947-06-03 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airplane control surface
US2458900A (en) 1942-08-10 1949-01-11 Curtiss Wright Corp Flap operating means
FR56121E (en) 1942-12-29 1952-09-17 Improvement in aircraft wings slot-lift
US2387492A (en) 1943-03-22 1945-10-23 Curtiss Wright Corp Hydraulically operated split flap
US2518854A (en) 1943-06-14 1950-08-15 Douglas Aircraft Co Inc Wing high lift flap device
US2444293A (en) 1943-06-18 1948-06-29 Curtiss Wright Corp Gap seal for flaps
US2406475A (en) 1944-02-19 1946-08-27 Samuel H Pearis Slotted airplane wing
US2502315A (en) 1946-02-26 1950-03-28 Beech Aircraft Corp Operating mechanism for high lift devices for airplanes
FR57988E (en) 1946-12-03 1953-09-18 Improvements to the high lift air navigation equipment
FR58273E (en) 1946-12-03 1953-11-18 Improvements to the high lift air navigation equipment
US2555862A (en) 1947-05-23 1951-06-05 Onera (Off Nat Aerospatiale) High-lift appliance for largely sweptback wings
US2549760A (en) 1949-04-14 1951-04-24 Adams George Kenneth Aerodynamic flap balance and auxiliary airfoil
US2665084A (en) 1949-11-14 1954-01-05 Northrop Aircraft Inc Flap actuator and control system
US2665085A (en) 1950-06-13 1954-01-05 Blackburn & Gen Aircraft Ltd Selective dual aileron control for aircraft
US2652812A (en) 1952-05-13 1953-09-22 Gen Electric Combined manual and automatic hydraulic servomotor apparatus
US2743887A (en) 1952-11-12 1956-05-01 Willy A Fiedler Split aircraft wing
US2864239A (en) 1956-10-04 1958-12-16 Sperry Rand Corp Electro-hydraulic servo system for steering dirigible craft
US2990144A (en) 1956-11-05 1961-06-27 Gen Electric Integrated hydraulic power actuator
US2990145A (en) 1956-11-05 1961-06-27 Gen Electric Integrated hydraulic power actuator
US2920844A (en) 1957-04-12 1960-01-12 North American Aviation Inc Aircraft boundary-layer control system
US2891740A (en) 1957-06-27 1959-06-23 John P Campbell External-flow jet flap
US2938680A (en) 1957-07-02 1960-05-31 North American Aviation Inc Multiple position airfoil slat
US2892312A (en) 1958-01-27 1959-06-30 Deere & Co Demand compensated hydraulic system
US3112089A (en) 1960-10-12 1963-11-26 Dornier Werke Gmbh Airplane wing flaps
US3102607A (en) 1960-12-19 1963-09-03 Charles E Roberts Carrier system for transport and delivery along a trackway
US3203647A (en) 1961-12-06 1965-08-31 Alvarez-Calderon Alberto High lift fdaps for aircraft wings
US3375998A (en) 1962-04-16 1968-04-02 Alberto Alvarez Calderon Leading edge flap and apparatus thereof
US3136504A (en) 1963-07-02 1964-06-09 William F Carr Electrical primary flight control system
US3447763A (en) 1964-12-11 1969-06-03 Power Jet Research & Dev Ltd Flap systems for aircraft
US3362659A (en) * 1965-07-06 1968-01-09 Razak Charles Kenneth Method and apparatus for landing jet aircraft
GB1181991A (en) 1967-04-14 1970-02-18 Edward M Lanier Aircraft Lift-Increasing Device
US3528632A (en) 1967-05-16 1970-09-15 Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd High lift flaps for aircraft
US3486720A (en) 1967-12-07 1969-12-30 Boeing Co Continuous slot forming leading edge slats for cranked wings
US3504870A (en) 1967-12-08 1970-04-07 Boeing Co Aircraft wing variable camber leading edge flap
US3493196A (en) 1968-01-24 1970-02-03 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Airplane flap assembly
US3539133A (en) 1968-05-20 1970-11-10 Robertson Aircraft Corp Inherently stable tapered wing flaperon airplane
US3556439A (en) 1968-11-22 1971-01-19 Boeing Co Methods and high lift systems for making an aircraft wing more efficient for takeoffs and landings
US3642234A (en) 1968-12-30 1972-02-15 Dassault Avions Aircraft
US3589648A (en) 1969-01-02 1971-06-29 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Means for controlling the vertical path of an aircraft
US3583660A (en) 1969-08-18 1971-06-08 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Lift and control augmenter for airfoils
US3677504A (en) 1969-08-28 1972-07-18 Ver Flugtechnische Werke Control flap arrangement
US3704828A (en) 1969-12-16 1972-12-05 Hamburger Flugzeubau Gmbh Aircraft fan with outflow deflectors
US3653611A (en) 1970-03-24 1972-04-04 Mason Trupp Slotted delta wing aircraft
US3704843A (en) 1970-06-11 1972-12-05 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Aircraft control system
US3776491A (en) 1971-06-25 1973-12-04 R Oulton Aircraft with compound wing
US3743219A (en) 1971-06-30 1973-07-03 Boeing Co High lift leading edge device
US3794276A (en) 1971-10-07 1974-02-26 Lucas Aerospace Ltd Electro-hydraulic actuating systems for aircraft control surfaces
US3767140A (en) 1971-11-03 1973-10-23 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Airplane flaps
US3887147A (en) * 1972-08-12 1975-06-03 Mtu Muenchen Gmbh Apparatus and method for augmenting the lift of an aircraft having short take-off and landing capabilities
US3790106A (en) * 1973-01-24 1974-02-05 J Morris Flap system
US3831886A (en) 1973-01-26 1974-08-27 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Airfoil with extendible and retractable leading edge
US3853289A (en) 1973-02-15 1974-12-10 Boeing Co Trailing edge flap and actuating mechanism therefor
US3837601A (en) 1973-03-09 1974-09-24 Boeing Co Aerodynamic slot closing mechanism
US3917192A (en) 1973-07-09 1975-11-04 Alvarez Calderon Alberto Flap mechanisms and apparatus
US3897029A (en) 1973-07-09 1975-07-29 Alberto Alvarez Calderon Variable camber multi-slotted flaps
US3836099A (en) 1973-09-28 1974-09-17 Us Navy Airfoil camber change system
US3862730A (en) 1973-10-23 1975-01-28 United Aircraft Corp Fas actuation system
US3910530A (en) 1973-11-07 1975-10-07 Boeing Co Leading edge flap
US3904152A (en) 1974-03-13 1975-09-09 Lockheed Aircraft Corp Variable area, variable camber wing for aircraft
US3994451A (en) 1974-03-28 1976-11-30 The Boeing Company Variable camber airfoil
US3874617A (en) 1974-07-17 1975-04-01 Mc Donnell Douglas Corp Stol flaps
US3941341A (en) 1974-12-13 1976-03-02 Brogdon Jr Glenn F Quick-release roller attachment for supporting a rope or hose and the like on an aerial ladder
US3987983A (en) 1974-12-20 1976-10-26 The Boeing Company Trailing edge flaps having spanwise aerodynamic slot opening and closing mechanism
US3992979A (en) 1974-12-20 1976-11-23 Joseph Lucas (Industries) Limited Hydraulic actuating arrangements
US3985319A (en) 1975-02-03 1976-10-12 The Boeing Company Variable pivot trailing edge flap
US4049219A (en) 1975-02-03 1977-09-20 The Boeing Company Variable pivot trailing edge flap
US4248395A (en) 1975-03-24 1981-02-03 The Boeing Company Airplane wing trailing-edge flap-mounting mechanism
US4172575A (en) 1975-03-24 1979-10-30 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Airfoil flap conical extension mechanism
US3941334A (en) 1975-03-28 1976-03-02 The Boeing Company Variable camber airfoil
US3968946A (en) 1975-03-31 1976-07-13 The Boeing Company Extendable aerodynamic fairing
US4117996A (en) 1975-06-23 1978-10-03 Sherman Irving R Variable aerodynamic compression flaps
US4015787A (en) 1975-11-17 1977-04-05 Fairchild Industries Inc. Aircraft wing
US4120470A (en) 1976-09-28 1978-10-17 The Boeing Company Efficient trailing edge system for an aircraft wing
US4200253A (en) 1977-04-06 1980-04-29 British Aerospace Aircraft wing drooping leading edge device
US4131253A (en) 1977-07-21 1978-12-26 The Boeing Company Variable camber trailing edge for airfoil
US4171787A (en) 1977-07-21 1979-10-23 Zapel Edwin J Variable camber leading edge for airfoil
US4146200A (en) 1977-09-14 1979-03-27 Northrop Corporation Auxiliary flaperon control for aircraft
US4189120A (en) 1977-12-14 1980-02-19 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Variable camber leading edge flap
US4189121A (en) 1978-01-23 1980-02-19 Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Variable twist leading edge flap
US4240255A (en) 1978-06-01 1980-12-23 Les Applications Hydrauliques R. Sarrazin S.A. Integrated control device for a fluid circuit and applications thereof
US4189122A (en) 1978-07-21 1980-02-19 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Wide angle gimbal system
US4275942A (en) 1978-12-26 1981-06-30 The Boeing Company Stowage bin mechanism
US4283029A (en) 1979-01-02 1981-08-11 Rudolph Peter K C Actuating apparatus for a flap system having an upper surface blowing powered lift system
US4293110A (en) 1979-03-08 1981-10-06 The Boeing Company Leading edge vortex flap for wings
US4262868A (en) 1979-05-29 1981-04-21 The Boeing Company Three-position variable camber flap
US4285482A (en) 1979-08-10 1981-08-25 The Boeing Company Wing leading edge high lift device
US4312486A (en) 1979-09-20 1982-01-26 The Boeing Company Variable camber trailing edge for airfoil
US4395008A (en) 1980-01-22 1983-07-26 British Aerospace Public Limited Company Aircraft wing and flap arrangement
US4461449A (en) 1980-05-01 1984-07-24 The Boeing Company Integral hydraulic blocking and relief valve
US4351502A (en) 1980-05-21 1982-09-28 The Boeing Company Continuous skin, variable camber airfoil edge actuating mechanism
US4358077A (en) 1980-06-16 1982-11-09 Coronel Paul K Transverse wing actuation system
US4365774A (en) 1980-08-08 1982-12-28 Coronel Paul K Convertible delta wing aircraft
US4353517A (en) 1980-10-07 1982-10-12 The Boeing Company Flap assembly for aircraft wing
US4384693A (en) 1980-10-16 1983-05-24 Societe Nationale Industrielle Et Aerospatiale Aircraft wing provided with a high-lift system in its leading edge
US4368937A (en) 1981-02-17 1983-01-18 The Boeing Company Overhead stowage bin mechanism
US4498646A (en) 1981-07-01 1985-02-12 Dornier Gmbh Wing for short take-off and landing aircraft
US4485992A (en) 1981-09-10 1984-12-04 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Leading edge flap system for aircraft control augmentation
US4427168A (en) 1981-09-29 1984-01-24 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge mechanism with Krueger flap
US4471927A (en) 1981-09-29 1984-09-18 The Boeing Company Trailing edge flap assembly
US4856735A (en) 1981-10-10 1989-08-15 Dornier Gmbh Wing sections, in particular lift-wing sections for aircraft
US4444368A (en) 1981-10-30 1984-04-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Slotted variable camber flap
US4471925A (en) 1981-12-15 1984-09-18 Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm Gesellschaft Mit Beschraenkter Haftung Apparatus for closing an air gap between a flap and an aircraft
US4700911A (en) 1982-02-09 1987-10-20 Dornier Gmbh Transverse driving bodies, particularly airplane wings
US4441675A (en) 1982-06-25 1984-04-10 Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation High lift surface actuation system
EP0103038A1 (en) 1982-09-13 1984-03-21 The Boeing Company Continuous skin, variable camber airfoil edge actuating mechanism
US4575030A (en) 1982-09-13 1986-03-11 The Boeing Company Laminar flow control airfoil
US4496121A (en) 1982-09-21 1985-01-29 The Boeing Company Control surface lock for flutter constraint
US4475702A (en) 1982-12-28 1984-10-09 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge assembly for an airfoil
US4706913A (en) 1982-12-28 1987-11-17 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge assembly for an airfoil
US4533096A (en) 1982-12-30 1985-08-06 The Boeing Company High lift system control assembly
US4729528A (en) 1983-02-28 1988-03-08 Northrop Corporation Aeroelastic control flap
GB2144688A (en) 1983-08-06 1985-03-13 British Aerospace Underwing engine installation for aircraft
US4637573A (en) 1983-12-06 1987-01-20 Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale Arrowlike aircraft wing equipped with a high-lift system and with a pylon for suspending the engine
US4605187A (en) 1984-03-09 1986-08-12 The Boeing Company Wing flap mechanism
US4899284A (en) 1984-09-27 1990-02-06 The Boeing Company Wing lift/drag optimizing system
US4576347A (en) 1984-10-30 1986-03-18 The Boeing Company Flap torque tube slot seal
US4702442A (en) 1984-12-06 1987-10-27 The Boeing Company Aircraft trailing edge flap apparatus
US4702441A (en) 1984-12-31 1987-10-27 The Boeing Company Aircraft wing stall control device and method
US4763862A (en) 1985-06-22 1988-08-16 Mbb Gmbh Flap drive system for air foils
US4650140A (en) 1985-12-30 1987-03-17 The Boeing Company Wind edge movable airfoil having variable camber
US4717097A (en) 1986-03-03 1988-01-05 The Boeing Company Aircraft wings with aileron-supported ground speed spoilers and trailing edge flaps
US4786013A (en) 1986-06-21 1988-11-22 Mbb Gmbh Flap drive with variable torque limiting
US4784355A (en) 1986-11-10 1988-11-15 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Flap system for short takeoff and landing aircraft
US4834326A (en) 1987-01-27 1989-05-30 Mbb Gmbh Wing flap operation
US5100082A (en) 1987-09-17 1992-03-31 The Boeing Company Hydraulic power supplies
US5074495A (en) 1987-12-29 1991-12-24 The Boeing Company Load-adaptive hybrid actuator system and method for actuating control surfaces
US5046688A (en) 1988-10-28 1991-09-10 The Boeing Company Wing major assembly jig
US5129597A (en) 1989-02-06 1992-07-14 Deutsche Airbus Gmbh Ceiling luggage compartment combination for the passenger cabin of an aircraft
US4962902A (en) 1989-03-20 1990-10-16 The Boeing Company Aircraft control surface linkage
US5207400A (en) 1989-07-06 1993-05-04 Short Brothers Plc Flap assembly
US5082208A (en) 1989-09-29 1992-01-21 The Boeing Company System and method for controlling an aircraft flight control member
US5094412A (en) 1989-10-13 1992-03-10 Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Flaperon system for tilt rotor wings
US5088665A (en) 1989-10-31 1992-02-18 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces
US5114100A (en) 1989-12-29 1992-05-19 The Boeing Company Anti-icing system for aircraft
US5167383A (en) 1990-08-18 1992-12-01 Yoshio Nozaki STOL aircraft
US5094411A (en) 1990-10-19 1992-03-10 Vigyan, Inc. Control configured vortex flaps
US5203619A (en) 1990-11-07 1993-04-20 Intermetro Industries Corporation Storage system including a vertically retractable storage unit
US5259293A (en) 1991-02-21 1993-11-09 Heilmeier & Weinlein Fabrik Fuer Oel-Hydraulik Gmbh & Co. Kg Hydraulic control device
US5351914A (en) 1991-06-14 1994-10-04 Fuji Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Hydraulic control system for aircraft
US5244269A (en) 1991-09-14 1993-09-14 Deutsche Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Overhead baggage compartment with a lowerable trough
US5158252A (en) 1991-10-24 1992-10-27 The Boeing Company Three-position variable camber Krueger leading edge flap
US5441218A (en) 1992-03-20 1995-08-15 Deutsche Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Overhead luggage compartment system for passenger aircraft
US5474265A (en) 1992-09-24 1995-12-12 Societe Nationale Industrielle Et Aerospatiale Rigid kruger nose for the leading edge of an aircraft wing
US5600220A (en) 1993-08-20 1997-02-04 Lucas France System for servo-controlling an aircraft flight control member
US5544847A (en) 1993-11-10 1996-08-13 The Boeing Company Leading edge slat/wing combination
US5740991A (en) 1994-06-27 1998-04-21 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method and apparatus for optimizing the aerodynamic effect of an airfoil
US5535852A (en) 1994-08-17 1996-07-16 Bishop; David J. Lift apparatus
US5735485A (en) 1994-12-26 1998-04-07 Aerospatiale Societe Nationale Industrielle Variable slot airbrake for aircraft wing
US5686907A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-11-11 The Boeing Company Skew and loss detection system for individual high lift devices
US5680124A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-10-21 The Boeing Company Skew and loss detection system for adjacent high lift devices
US5609020A (en) 1995-05-15 1997-03-11 The Boeing Company Thrust reverser synchronization shaft lock
US5875998A (en) 1996-02-05 1999-03-02 Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method and apparatus for optimizing the aerodynamic effect of an airfoil
US5743490A (en) 1996-02-16 1998-04-28 Sundstrand Corporation Flap/slat actuation system for an aircraft
US6015117A (en) 1996-04-13 2000-01-18 Broadbent; Michael C Variable camber wing mechanism
US5927656A (en) 1996-06-26 1999-07-27 The Boeing Company Wing leading edge flap and method therefor
US6073624A (en) 1996-07-25 2000-06-13 Aktiebolaget Electrolux Supporting arrangement, for ovens or the like, suspended on parallel links
US6076767A (en) 1996-09-18 2000-06-20 Dowty Boulton Paul Limited Flight control surface actuation system
US5788190A (en) 1996-10-22 1998-08-04 The Boeing Company Slotted cruise trailing edge flap
US6293497B1 (en) 1996-10-22 2001-09-25 The Boeing Company Airplane with unswept slotted cruise wing airfoil
US6076776A (en) 1997-03-21 2000-06-20 Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luft-Und Raumfahrt E.V. Profile edge of an aerodynamic profile
EP0947421B1 (en) 1997-03-26 2004-04-21 Airbus UK Limited Fairing arrangements for aircraft
US5934615A (en) 1997-08-25 1999-08-10 Hexcel Corporation Luggage bins with articulating mechanism
US5921506A (en) 1997-09-25 1999-07-13 Northrop Grumman Corporation Extendible leading edge flap
US5984230A (en) 1997-12-15 1999-11-16 Orazi; Paul Wing assemblies for aircraft
US6554229B1 (en) 1997-12-18 2003-04-29 Lawrence Y. Lam Aileron for fixed wing aircraft
US6109567A (en) 1998-01-14 2000-08-29 Munoz Saiz; Manuel Flight controls with automatic balance
US6161801A (en) 1998-04-30 2000-12-19 Daimlerchrysler Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Method of reducing wind gust loads acting on an aircraft
US6213433B1 (en) 1998-05-21 2001-04-10 The Boeing Company Leading edge for an aircraft
US6045204A (en) 1998-10-13 2000-04-04 Hexcel Corporation Overhead stowage bins in aircraft
US6349798B1 (en) 1998-10-28 2002-02-26 Lucas Industries Limited Brake assembly
US6651930B1 (en) 1998-12-28 2003-11-25 Aerospatiale Matra Process and control system for an aircraft control surface actuated by multiple hydraulic jacks and with modular power
US6364254B1 (en) 1999-03-10 2002-04-02 Daimlerchrysler Aerospace Airbus Gmbh Aircraft airfoil with close-mounted engine and leading edge high lift system
US6328265B1 (en) 1999-05-25 2001-12-11 Faruk Dizdarevic Slot forming segments and slot changing spoilers
US6484969B2 (en) 2000-01-13 2002-11-26 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Lowerable baggage compartment for a passenger cabin
US6598834B2 (en) 2000-02-14 2003-07-29 Aerotech Services Inc. Method for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft
US6536714B2 (en) 2000-04-17 2003-03-25 Airbus Deutschland Gmbh Pressure control system for a pressure-expandable displacement element
US6499577B2 (en) 2000-06-01 2002-12-31 Komatsu Ltd. Valve apparatus for controlling hydraulic pressure for a clutch or a brake and method for controlling hydraulic pressure
US6625982B2 (en) 2000-06-28 2003-09-30 Airbus France Electronically controlled hydraulic actuating system
US6443394B1 (en) 2000-09-21 2002-09-03 The B.F. Goodrich Company Inflatable airfoil device
US6644599B2 (en) 2000-11-11 2003-11-11 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Mechanism for at least regionally adjusting the curvature of airfoil wings
US6375126B1 (en) 2000-11-16 2002-04-23 The Boeing Company Variable camber leading edge for an airfoil
US20020046087A1 (en) 2000-12-18 2002-04-18 John Hey Method of drawing attention to advertisements
US6598829B2 (en) 2001-04-10 2003-07-29 Stork Products Engineering B.V. Hand luggage locker assembly with reduced-pressure means
US6547183B2 (en) 2001-08-02 2003-04-15 The Boeing Company Moveable closet
US20030132860A1 (en) 2001-09-21 2003-07-17 Honeywell International, Inc. Interface for visual cueing and control for tactical flightpath management
US6591169B2 (en) 2001-09-27 2003-07-08 The Boeing Company Method and computer program product for controlling the actuators of an aerodynamic vehicle
US6622972B2 (en) 2001-10-31 2003-09-23 The Boeing Company Method and system for in-flight fault monitoring of flight control actuators
US6601801B1 (en) 2002-04-24 2003-08-05 The Boeing Company Gapped trailing-edge control surface for an airfoil
US20040004162A1 (en) 2002-07-02 2004-01-08 Beyer Kevin W. Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a gapped trailing edge device having a flexible flow surface
US6796534B2 (en) 2002-09-10 2004-09-28 The Boeing Company Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a leading edge device having a flexible flow surface
US20040059474A1 (en) 2002-09-20 2004-03-25 Boorman Daniel J. Apparatuses and methods for displaying autoflight information
US20050017126A1 (en) 2002-10-09 2005-01-27 Mclean James D. Slotted aircraft wing
US20050011994A1 (en) 2003-06-03 2005-01-20 Seiya Sakurai Multi-function trailing edge devices and associated methods
US6799739B1 (en) 2003-11-24 2004-10-05 The Boeing Company Aircraft control surface drive system and associated methods

Non-Patent Citations (17)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
* Drella, Mark, "Design and Optimization Method for Multi-Element Airfoils," MIT Department of Aeornautics and Astronautics, Copyright 1993, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. (pp. 1-11).
* Junkers JU 52/3M (2 pages) http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/outdoor/od16 [Accessed Aug. 7, 2003].
* The High Speed Frontier, Chapter 2: The High-Speed Airfoil Program, "Supercritical" Airfoils, 1957-1978 (4 pages) http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-445/ch2-5.
* Whitcomb, Richard T., "Review of NASA Supercritical Airfoils," National Aeornautics and Space Administration, Aug. 1974 (pp. 8-18).
Drela, M., "Optimization Techniques In Airfoil Design," MIT Aero & Astro, 29 pages.
Drella, Mark, "Design and Optimization Method for Multi-Element Airfoils," MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp. 7 and 9, figures 3, 7, and 8.
Drella, Mark, "Design and Optimization Method for Multi-Elements Airfoils," MIT Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, pp. 7 and 9, figures 3, 7, and 8.
European Supplementary Search Report for European Patent Application No. EP97947269, search completed May 19, 2000, 1 page.
Hansen, H., "Application of Mini-Trailing-Edge Devices in the Awiator Project," Airbus Deutschland, EGAG, Hunefeldstr. 1-5, D-28199 Bremen, Germany, 9 pages.
International Search Report for International Application No. PCT/US97/19048, mailed Feb. 23, 1998, 3 pages.
International Search Report, PCT/US03/19724/ Sep. 11, 2003, 5 pages.
Moog, Component Maintenance Manual, May 1994 (2 pages).
Petrov, A.V., "Certain Types of Separated Flow over Slotted Wings," Fluid Mechanics-Soviet Research, vol. 7, No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1978.
Petrov, A.V., "Certain Types of Separated Flow over Slotted Wings," Fluid Mechanics—Soviet Research, vol. 7, No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1978.
TU 1-44 Canard, 1 pg, date unknown.
U.S. Appl. No. 10/454,417, Neal V. Huynh.
Whitcomb, Richard T., "Review of NASA Supercritical Airfoils," National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Aug. 1974 (pp. 8-18).

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20150184629A1 (en) * 2013-12-31 2015-07-02 Google Inc. Airfoil for a Flying Wind Turbine
US9709026B2 (en) * 2013-12-31 2017-07-18 X Development Llc Airfoil for a flying wind turbine
US20160059952A1 (en) * 2014-08-26 2016-03-03 The Boeing Company Torque tube door
US9623957B2 (en) * 2014-08-26 2017-04-18 The Boeing Company Torque tube door

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP0932548A1 (en) 1999-08-04
WO1998017529A1 (en) 1998-04-30
DE69718659T2 (en) 2003-05-22
EP0932548A4 (en) 2000-07-12
DE69718659D1 (en) 2003-02-27
EP0932548B1 (en) 2003-01-22
US6293497B1 (en) 2001-09-25
AU5239098A (en) 1998-05-15

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Jha et al. Morphing aircraft concepts, classifications, and challenges
US3831886A (en) Airfoil with extendible and retractable leading edge
EP0781704B1 (en) Vortex leading edge flap assembly for supersonic airplanes
US5056741A (en) Apparatus and method for aircraft wing stall control
US4360176A (en) Wing leading edge slat
US5407153A (en) System for increasing airplane fuel mileage and airplane wing modification kit
US4429844A (en) Variable camber aircraft wing tip
US3375998A (en) Leading edge flap and apparatus thereof
US6575406B2 (en) Integrated and/or modular high-speed aircraft
US4285482A (en) Wing leading edge high lift device
US6722615B2 (en) Wing tip extension for a wing
US4575030A (en) Laminar flow control airfoil
Rudolph High-lift systems on commercial subsonic airliners
US4813631A (en) Laminar flow control airfoil
US4205810A (en) Minimum drag wing configuration for aircraft operating at transonic speeds
US20040046087A1 (en) Method and apparatus for controlling airflow with a leading edge device having a flexible flow surface
US3064928A (en) Variable sweep wing aircraft
US5348256A (en) Supersonic aircraft and method
US6431498B1 (en) Scalloped wing leading edge
US4245804A (en) Minimum drag wing configuration for aircraft operating at transonic speeds
US5082204A (en) All wing aircraft
US5842666A (en) Laminar supersonic transport aircraft
US4739957A (en) Strake fence flap
US5253828A (en) Concealable flap-actuated vortex generator
EP2397403B1 (en) Morphing control surface transition