USRE44219E1  Adaptive receiving system and method for MIMO  Google Patents
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 USRE44219E1 USRE44219E1 US12/727,007 US72700710A USRE44219E US RE44219 E1 USRE44219 E1 US RE44219E1 US 72700710 A US72700710 A US 72700710A US RE44219 E USRE44219 E US RE44219E
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 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L25/00—Baseband systems
 H04L25/02—Details ; Arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines
 H04L25/03—Shaping networks in transmitter or receiver, e.g. adaptive shaping networks ; Receiver end arrangements for processing baseband signals
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 H04L25/03012—Arrangements for removing intersymbol interference operating in the time domain
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 H04L25/03057—Arrangements for removing intersymbol interference operating in the time domain adaptive, i.e. capable of adjustment during data reception with a recursive structure

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 H04B—TRANSMISSION
 H04B7/00—Radio transmission systems, i.e. using radiation field
 H04B7/02—Diversity systems; Multiantenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas
 H04B7/04—Diversity systems; Multiantenna system, i.e. transmission or reception using multiple antennas using two or more spaced independent antennas

 H—ELECTRICITY
 H04—ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
 H04L—TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
 H04L25/00—Baseband systems
 H04L25/02—Details ; Arrangements for supplying electrical power along data transmission lines
 H04L25/03—Shaping networks in transmitter or receiver, e.g. adaptive shaping networks ; Receiver end arrangements for processing baseband signals
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Abstract
Description
This application is a Reissue of Application No. 10/829,909 filed on Apr. 21, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No., 7,346,104 issued on Mar. 18, 2008, and claims the benefit of Korean Patent Application No. 200373341 filed on Oct. 21, 2003, in the Korean Intellectual Property Office. The disclosures of Application No. 10/829,909 and Korean Patent Application No. 200373341 are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
This application claims priority to and the benefit of Korea Patent Application No. 200373341 filed on Oct. 21, 2003 in the Korean Intellectual Property Office, the content of which is incorporated herein by reference.
(a) Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to an adaptive receiving system and method for a MIMO (multiinput multioutput). More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for detecting transmit signals when channels are timevarying in wireless communication systems which use multiple transmit and receive antennas for highspeed data transmission.
(b) Description of the Related Art
As industries and personal lives using communication technologies have become activated, the importance of image and data transmission has grown while needs of highspeed data transmission have also increased. Therefore, techniques which increase data rates per bandwidth are required since the bandwidth for highspeed data transmission is insufficient.
MIMO systems for using multiple transmit and receive antennas and transmitting data in parallel have been aggressively studied so as to raise the data rates, and the VBLAST (Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space Time) scheme has been developed as effective receivers for the MIMO systems.
The VBLAST scheme increases bandwidth efficiency in proportion to the number of antennas when the number of antennas at a receiver is more than the number of antennas at a transmitter, and a channel is not varied for one packet duration.
However, the actual wireless mobile communication channels are varying, and computational complexity is abruptly increased when the VBLAST scheme is applied to the channelvarying environment. That is, it is needed to estimate a MIMO channel and calculate a nulling vector corresponding to the MIMO channel in order to perform VBLAST detection. Calculation of the nulling vector is performed once for each frame when the channel is not varying within the frame, and it is needed to calculate the nulling vector for each symbol when the channel is varying.
Methods for approximately updating the nulling vector and tracking the channel when using a VBLAST receiver in the timevarying channel have been proposed so as to reduce the computational complexity.
A single frame is divided into several small blocks, the channel tracking is applied to each block, and the nulling vector is updated in the approximation method for updating the nulling vector and tracking the channels.
Since the abovenoted method has a tradeoff between complexity and detection performance according to sizes of the blocks divided from the single frame, the detection performance is steeply worsened when the channels are varied quickly.
It is an advantage of the present invention to provide a MIMO adaptive receiving system and method for reducing complexity compared to the existing VBLAST scheme, by optimally deciding filter tap coefficients of the equalizer and symbol detecting order in the timevarying channel environment.
To achieve the advantage, the symbol detecting order for the equalizer are determined based on the RLS algorithm, and the filter tap coefficient vectors of the equalizer are updated depending on the detecting order.
In one aspect of the present invention, an adaptive receiving MIMO system for transmitting and receiving transmit and receive symbol vectors through channels between multiple transmit and receive antennas, comprises:
a linear equalizer for canceling interference added when passed through the channel from the receive symbol vectors and extracting transmit symbol vectors by performing an initial detection;
a plurality of parallel decision feedback equalizers for canceling signal interference from the signals detected by the linear equalizer and the receive symbol vectors according to a filter tap coefficient and a symbol detecting order updated for each predetermined period, and detecting the transmit symbol vectors; and
an adaptive block for deciding the symbol detecting order of the linear equalizer and the parallel decision feedback equalizers, and updating the filter tap coefficients based on the RLS (recursive least square) algorithm according to the decided symbol detecting order.
The adaptive receiving system further comprises a reordering unit for reordering the signals sequentially detected through the equalizer according to the symbol detecting order on a plurality of receive symbol vectors decided by the adaptive block.
The linear equalizer comprises: a feedforward filter for receiving the first receive symbol vector from among the receive symbol vectors received through the receive antennas, and filtering error signals; and a decision unit for applying the optimal filter tap coefficient to signals output by the feedforward filter according to a predetermined decision reference, and outputting a decision value.
The parallel decision feedback equalizer comprises:
a feedforward filter for receiving the receive symbol vector from the receive antennas, and performing filtering by using a feedforward filter tap coefficient decided by the adaptive block;
a feedback filter for receiving detected signals from among the receive symbol vectors, and performing filtering by using a feedback filter tap coefficient decided by the adaptive block;
an adder for adding the respective signals output by the feedforward filter and the feedback filter, and outputting added values; and
a decision unit for applying the optimal filter tap coefficient to the added values output by the adder according to a predetermined decision reference, and outputting decision values.
The feedback filter increases by an order by one when a detection on the receive symbol vectors from the second symbol to the last symbol is repeated.
The adaptive block defines the reference for deciding the tap coefficient by errors of between the transmit symbol vector transmitted by the transmit antennas and the output of the equalizer, and defines the optimal filter tap coefficient as a filter coefficient for minimizing the errors.
In another aspect of the present invention, an adaptive receiving method in an adaptive receiving system for a MIMO for allowing an equalizer to detect transmit symbol vectors when the transmit symbol vectors transmitted from multiple transmit antennas are input as receive symbol vectors through multiple receive antennas, comprises:
(a) the equalizer detecting an error signal by allowing the initial receive symbol vector to be passed through a feedforward filter, and detecting the transmit symbol vectors according to a predetermined decision reference, when the receive symbol vectors are input; and
(b) allowing the equalizer to apply an optimal filter tap coefficient to the feedforward filter and a feedback filter, canceling interference from the receive symbol vectors and detected signals according to a predetermined symbol detecting order, and detecting the transmit symbol vectors when (a) is finished.
The step (b) comprises: allowing the feedforward filter and the feedback filter to update the optimal filter tap coefficient based on the RLS algorithm, and deciding the symbol detecting sequence on the equalizer so that a symbol for minimizing the summation of weights of square errors may be estimated.
The optimal filter tap coefficient is a filter coefficient for minimizing errors between the transmit symbol vector transmitted by the transmit antenna and the estimated transmit symbol vector output by the equalizer.
The optimal filter tap coefficient w_{t,i},(n), i=1, . . . , M is recursively found.
The symbol detecting order k_{i }of the equalizer is decided to detect the symbol for minimizing the summation of weights of square errors.
The step (a) comprises deciding a value {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n) on the first transmit symbol vector by using a value {tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n) generated when the receive symbol vector y_{t,i}(n) is input to the feedforward filter and is then output therefrom.
The step (b) comprises:
(i) using the cross correlation vector obtained by crossing a first value and a second value to define a cross correlation matrix G(n), the first value being obtained when the receive symbol vector is passed through the feedforward filter, and the second value being obtained when the detected signal is fed back through the feedback filter;
(ii) calculating the optimal filter tap coefficient of {v_{1,j}(n), j=1, 2, . . . , M} applied to the feedforward filter and the feedback filter when (i) is finished;
(iii) deciding the symbol detecting order of the equalizer, and updating the filter tap coefficients when (ii) is finished; and
(iv) applying the symbol detecting order decided in (iii) and the filter tap coefficient to the next receive symbol vector, detecting the transmit symbol vector, and repeating (iv).
The substep (iii) comprises obtaining the cross correlation vector, calculating the summation of weights of square errors, and deciding the symbol detecting order of each equalizer.
The step (b) comprises deciding the symbol detecting order of the equalizer at intervals of a constant γ.
When inputting the n^{th }receive symbol vector, it comprises:
(i) when ‘n’ is a multiple of the constant γ, obtaining the cross correlation vector z_{i,j}(n), calculating the summation ε_{i,j}(n) of weights of square errors, and deciding the symbol detecting order
k_{i}=arg
of each equalizer; and
(ii) when ‘n’ is not a multiple of the constant γ, updating the filter tap coefficient by use of subsequent equations, and using the previous (n−1) symbol detecting order for the symbol detecting sequence of each equalizer.
The step (b) comprises updating the filter tap coefficient and deciding the symbol detecting order for each symbol time according to the speed of the channel varying during a predetermined period, and deciding the symbol detecting order once with the interval of the constant γ, and updating the filter tap coefficient and maintaining the symbol detecting order during a residual period.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate an embodiment of the invention, and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention:
In the following detailed description, only the preferred embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, simply by way of illustration of the best mode contemplated by the inventor(s) of carrying out the invention. As will be realized, the invention is capable of modification in various obvious respects, all without departing from the invention. Accordingly, the drawings and description are to be regarded as illustrative in nature, and not restrictive.
A MIMO adaptive receiving system according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to
As shown, the adaptive receiving system comprises an equalizer 100, an adaptive block 200, and a reordering unit 300. The equalizer 100 is classified as a linear equalizer 150, shown in
The equalizer 100 is coupled in parallel by the number of the transmit antennas, and is classified as a linear equalizer and parallel equalizers for ease of description.
The i^{th }equalizer comprises an N^{th}order feedforward filter 110, an (i−1)^{th}order feedback filter 120, an adder 130, and a decision unit 140.
The feedforward filter 110 receives (N×1) receive symbol vectors through N receive antennas and filters error signals, and the feedback filter 120 filters the error signals from the detected signals from among (N×1) receive symbol vectors and feeds results back.
The adder 130 adds respective signals output by the feedforward filter 110 and the feedback filter 120 and outputs an added value, and the decision unit 140 applies the optimal filter tap coefficient to the added value according to a predetermined decision reference and outputs a decision value, that is, a transmit symbol vector.
The adaptive block 200 updates the tap coefficient and the symbol detecting order of the equalizer 100 based on the RLS (recursive least square) algorithm for each symbol, and decides the symbol detecting sequence of the equalizer 100 by using a summation of square errors.
The reordering unit 300 reorders transmit symbol vectors sequentially detected through the equalizer 100 according to a symbol detecting order decided by the adaptive block 200.
The configuration of the adaptive receiving system for the MIMO will now be described.
When using M transmit antennas and N receive antennas, an (M×1) transmit symbol vector d(n)=[d_{1}(n), d_{2}(n), . . . , d^{M}(n)]^{T }is transmitted through the transmit antennas, and an (N×1) receive symbol vector y(n)=[y_{1}(n), y_{2}(n), . . . , y_{N}(n)]^{T }is received through the receive antennas.
When the transmit symbol vector is passed through an (N×M) channel matrix H(n) caused by channel gains between the respective transmit and receive antennas, and the noise vector u(n)=[u_{1}(n), u_{2}(n), . . . , u_{N}(n)]^{T }is added thereto, the receive symbol vector is given as Equation 1.
y(n)=H(n)d(n)+u(n) Equation 1
The receive symbol vector is input to the equalizer 100, is passed through the feedforward filter 110 which corresponds to the nulling vector of the VBLAST scheme, interference is cancelled from the receive symbol vector by using detected signals and the feedback filter 120, and is detected.
The symbol detecting order and the filter tap coefficient vector of the equalizer 100 are updated for each symbol time, and the operation for updating the filter tap coefficient is referred to as a time update.
As shown, the linear equalizer 150 comprises a feedforward filter 110 and a decision unit 140, and the parallel equalizer 100 comprises a feedforward filter 110, a feedback filter 120, a correlator 130, and a decision unit 140.
The first parallel equalizer provided after the linear equalizer 150 has a firstorder feedback filter using a detected {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }, the second parallel equalizer has a secondorder feedback filter using {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }and {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 2 }, and the last equalizer has an (M−1)^{th}order feedback filter.
Referring to
The concurrently transmitted M transmit symbol vectors are sequentially detected through the equalizer 100, and in further detail, they are detected by the linear equalizer 150 in the first stage, and then are detected by the parallel decision feedback equalizers 100 which increase the order of the feedback filter 120 by one as the detection is repeated.
A set for indicating the symbol detecting order of the transmit symbol vectors d(n) is defined as S={k_{1}, k_{2}, . . . , k_{M}} where s is a set generated by changing the sequence of elements in {1, 2, . . . , M}.
The parallel decision feedback equalizers 100 have a superimposed configuration of equalizers in parallel, the number of the equalizers corresponding to the number of transmit antennas, and the equalizers starting from the top equalizer to the bottom equalizer sequentially detect the transmit symbol vectors according to the symbol detecting order.
The result of detecting the transmit symbol vectors by the decision unit 140, that is, the decision unit is defined to be {circumflex over (d)}(n)=[{circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n), {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n), . . . , {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i1 }(n)]^{T}.
The adaptive block 200 updates coefficients of the feedforward filter 110 and the feedback filter 120 for each symbol time based on the RLS algorithm, calculates summation of weights of square errors for the respective equalizers 100, and decides the symbol detecting order.
The integrated filter coefficient vector w_{t,i}(n) and the integrated input signal vector y_{t,i}(n) are defined in Equations 2 and 3.
An operation of the MIMO adaptive receiving system according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to a drawing.
As shown, it is required to find the optimal filter tap coefficient of the equalizer 100 when the M transmit symbol vectors are input in the adaptive receiving method for the MIMO.
For this, the adaptive block 200 defines a decision reference as an error of between the transmit symbol vector transmitted from the transmit antenna and the equalizer output of the receiver, and defines the filter coefficient for minimizing the error as the optimal filter tap coefficient.
To define the optimal filter tap coefficient, the outputs of the i^{th }equalizer is defined as Equation 4, and the cost function is given in Equation 5.
{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)=w_{t,i} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n) Equation 4
The optimal filter tap coefficient for minimizing J_{i}(n) is given as Equation 6.
w_{t,i}(n)=Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n)z_{i,k} _{ i }(n) Equation 6
where Φ_{i}(n) is an autocorrelation matrix, and z_{i,k} _{ i }(n) is a cross correlation vector, respectively given as Equations 7 and 8.
The optimal filter tap coefficient is found recursively by using the RLS algorithm as given in Equation 9.
where ξ_{i}(n) is an a priori estimation error which is given in Equation 10.
ξ_{i}(n)={circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)−w_{t,i} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n) Equation 10
A large amount of calculation of the optimal filter tap coefficient using the RLS algorithm is needed since the RLS algorithm is independently applied to the M equalizer filter tap coefficients w_{t,i}(n), i=1, . . . , M.
When the autocorrelation matrix Φ_{i+1}(n) is defined as Equation 11, Φ_{2} ^{−1}(n), . . . , Φ_{M} ^{−1}(n) are recursively calculated by using the autocorrelation matrix through Equation 12.
where it is given that α_{j }
Since it is given that y_{t,i+1}(n)=[y_{t,i} ^{T}(n), {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)]^{T }from Equations 11 and 12, q_{i+1}(n) is recursively calculated as expressed in Equation 13 when substituting Equation 12 and an expansion of y_{t,i+1}(n) for q_{i}(n) of Equation 9. Here, note that q_{1}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)y(n).
Equation 13 is applicable when the symbol detecting order is known.
The symbol detecting order is to be decided after the optimal filter coefficient of the equalizer is calculated.
In general, it is known as the symbol detecting sequence of minimizing the symbol error probability in the VBLAST scheme to detect the signal which has the largest SNR (signaltonoise ratio) in each stage. An equivalent SNR is found by using the summation of weights of square errors given as Equation 14 in the RLS algorithm.
The equalizer 100 detects the symbol which minimizes the summation of weights of square errors given as Equation 14 in each detecting stage as given in Equation 15.
k_{i}=arg
When it is defined that v_{i,j}(n)=Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n)z_{i,j}(n), v_{i,j }corresponds to Equation 6 considering that k_{i }is changed to j in w_{i,j}(n) of Equation 6. The summation of the square error is given as Equation 16.
ε_{i,j}(n)=α_{j}(n)−v_{i,j} ^{H}(n)z_{i,j}(n) Equation 16
For example, when the number of transmit antennas is four, and the symbol detecting sequence at the receiver is given as S={4, 3, 2, 1}, Φ_{i} ^{−1 }is recursively found using Equation 12, the optimal symbol detecting sequence is decided using Equation 15, and the optimal filter tap coefficient v_{i,j}(n) is found as shown in
The method for updating the optimal filter tap coefficient shown in
Assuming that the calculation on v_{i,j}(n)=Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n)z_{i,j}(n) is finished, z_{i,j}(n) is defined as Equation 17 since Equation 12 for calculating Φ_{i+1} ^{−1 }and an update equation of z_{i+1,j}(n) are needed to calculate v_{i+1,j}(n)=Φ_{i+1} ^{−1}(n)z_{i+1,j}(n).
z_{i,j}(n)=[g_{1,j}(n), . . . , g_{N,j}(n), g_{N+k} _{ 1 } _{,j}(n), . . . , g_{N+k} _{ i−1 } _{,j}(n)]^{T} Equation 17
Noting that
z_{i+1,j}(n) can be given as an update equation of Equation 18.
z_{i+1,j}(n)=[z_{i,j} ^{T}(n), g_{N+k} _{ i } _{,j}(n)]^{T} Equation 18
Since α_{j}(n) corresponds to g_{N+j,j}(n), the summation of square error can be given as Equation 19.
ε_{i,j}(n)=g_{N+j,j}(n)−v_{i,j} ^{H}(n)z_{i,j}(n) Equation 19
Also, an (N+M)×N cross correlation matrix is defined in Equation 20 by using Equation 8 which has defined z_{i,j}(n).
Noting from Equation 20 that g_{i,j}(n) is the (i,j)^{th }element of G(n), z_{i,j}(n) in Equation 18 is obtained through G(n). In addition, a detected transmit symbol vector {circumflex over (d)}(n) is required so as to obtain G(n).
The abovenoted (n−1) filter tap coefficient and the symbol detecting order are used as shown in Equations 21 and 22 for the transmit symbol vector {circumflex over (d)}(n).
{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)=w_{t,i} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n) Equation 21
{circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)=decision {{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)} Equation 22
When G(n) is given, Equations 12 and 18 are used to recursively find v_{i+1,j}(n) as Equation 23.
In Equation 23, note that jεS_{i+1}=S_{i}−{k_{i}}, S_{1}={1, . . . , M}, and v_{1,j}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n)z_{1,j}(n), j=1,2, . . . , M is calculated according to the existing method.
The detecting process on the adaptive receiving method for the MIMO is summarized as follows.
<Algorithm 1>
In the first stage, all the parameters are initialized so as to start the detection.
n=1
k_{i}=i, for all i
Φ_{1} ^{−1}(0)=δ^{−1}I, G(0)=0
w_{f,i}(0)=1, w_{b,i}(0)=0, v_{1,i}(0)=0, for all i
where δ is a small positive constant.
In the second stage, the receive symbol vector input through a receive antenna is output through the feedforward filter 110 and the feedback filter 120, and the decision unit 140 outputs a decision value, that is, a transmit symbol vector where i=1, 2, . . . , M.
{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)=w_{t,i} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n)
{circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)=decision{{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)}
y_{t,i+1}(n)=[y^{T}(n), {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n), . . . , {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)]^{T }
In the third stage, the adder 130 uses output values of the feedforward filter 110 and the feedback filter 120 to update the cross correlation matrix.
G(n)=λG(n−1)+[y^{T}(n), {circumflex over (d)}^{T}(n)]^{T}{circumflex over (d)}^{H}(n)
In the fourth stage, the adaptive block 200 updates the filter tap coefficient and the detecting order for each symbol time.
(I) Calculation of {v_{1,j}(n), j=1, 2, . . . , M} by using a timeupdate of filter tap coefficients
q_{1}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)y(n)
Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n)=λ^{−1}Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)−λ^{−1}k_{1}(n)q_{1} ^{H}(n)
v_{1,j}(n)=v_{1,j}(n−1)+k_{1}(n)(d_{j}(n)−v_{1,j} ^{H}(n−1)y(n))*
(II) Decision of symbol detecting sequences and update of filter tap coefficients
i) Obtainment of z_{i,j}(n)=[g_{1,j}(n), . . . , g_{N,j}(n), g_{N+k} _{ 1 } _{,j}(n), . . . , g_{N+k} _{ i−1,j }(n)]^{T }
ii) Calculation of the summation of the square errors
ε_{i,j}(n)=g_{N+j,i}(n)−v_{i,j} ^{H}(n)z_{i,j}(n)
iii) Decision of the symbol detecting sequence
k_{i}=arg
w_{t,i}(n)=v_{i,k} _{ i }(n)
In the fifth stage (n=n+1), the stages starting from the second stage are repeated until all the detections on the M transmit symbol vectors transmitted from the transmit antenna are finished.
In algorithm 1, the second stage can be omitted since previously known data are transmitted during the initial period. When the terminal moves slowly and the channel is varying slowly, it frequently occurs that the symbol detecting order is not changed for each symbol time, and the symbol detecting order used during detecting d(n−1) is not varied while detecting d(n).
In algorithm 2, a constant γ is defined, the symbol detecting order is established for each time with the interval of γ, and the predefined symbol detecting order is maintained in another time without updating the symbol detecting order for each symbol time as shown in algorithm 1.
<Algorithm 2>
Similar to algorithm 1, but (II) of the fourth stage is modified as below.
In (II) for updating the filter tap coefficients of the fourth stage, (II) is performed when ‘n’ is a multiple of γ, and w_{t,i}(n) is calculated by using Equation 24 when ‘n’ is not a multiple of γ.
q_{1}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)y(n) Equation 24
w_{t,i}(n)=w_{t,i}(n−1)+k_{i}(n)({circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)−w_{t,i} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n))*
It will be described that how much of the amount of calculation in the adaptive receiving system and method for the MIMO according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention is reduced in the timevarying channel environment compared to the existing VBLAST method.
It is assumed that the VBLAST method uses the method of “Modified Decorrelating DecisionFeedback Detection of BLAST SpaceTime System,” in Proc. ICC 2002 by Wei Zha and Steven D. Blostein which provides simple calculation, and channel estimation results are tracked by using the conventional RLS method.
Assuming that the number of transmit antennas and that of receive antennas are respectively M, the number of times of multiplication and addition of complex numbers is given as follows according to whether the symbol detecting order is varied.
The number of times of multiplication and addition of complex numbers is given as Table 1 when the symbol detecting order is varied while detecting d(n) and d(n+1).
The number of times of multiplication and addition of complex numbers is given as Table 2 when the symbol detecting order is the same while detecting d(n) and d(n+1).
Table 3 shows operations of the multiplication and addition of complex numbers as number values according to the number of antennas, and shows corresponding decrease information.
A channel model by W. C. Jakes is used for the simulation, and it is assumed that no correlation is provided between the respective transmit and receive antennas, and the number of transmit and receive antennas is four.
A frame includes 160 transmit symbol vectors, 32 top transmit symbol vectors thereof are allocated to the training period to have the signals of the transmit antennas cross each other, and the signals modulated by the QPSK are transmitted to the receive axis (note that λ=0.95).
As shown, algorithm 1 with a simpler amount of calculation shows the same performance as that of the VBLAST scheme.
When comparing the performance of algorithm 1 with the result of applying the VBLAST scheme assuming that the channel of the lowest performance is completely known in
The method for inserting a midamble by the ratio of 1/4, and tracking the channel by blocks produces performance lower than that of the preferred embodiment.
As shown, the simulation environment by algorithm 2 corresponds to that of
As described, the MIMO adaptive receiving system and method decides the optimal filter tap coefficients and the symbol detecting order in the timevarying channel environment to reduce complexity, provide easy realization, and produce similar performance compared to the conventional VBLAST scheme, and further, it is applicable to other types of MIMO receivers.
While this invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed embodiments, but, on the contrary, is intended to cover various modifications and equivalent arrangements included within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
Claims (31)
q_{1}(n)=Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n)
Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n)=λ^{−1}Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n−1)−λ^{−1}k_{1}(n)q_{l} ^{H}(n)
w_{t,l}(n)+w_{t,l}(n−1)+k_{l}(n)ξ_{l*}(n)
ξ_{l}(n)={circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ i }(n)−w_{l,t} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,l}(n).
{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n)=w_{l,t} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,i}(n)
{circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n)=decision{{tilde over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n)}
y_{t,i+1}(n)=[y^{t}(n),{circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n), . . . , {circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n)]^{t}.
G(n)=λG(n−1)+[y^{T}(n),{circumflex over (d)}(n)]^{T}{circumflex over (d)}^{H}(n);
q_{1}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)y(n)
Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n)=λ^{−1}Φ_{i} ^{−1}(n−1)−λ^{−1}k_{1}(n)q_{l} ^{H}(n)
v_{1,l}(n)=v_{1,l}(n−1)+k_{1}(n)(d_{l}(n)−v_{1,l} ^{H}(n−1)y(n))
z_{i,j}(n)=[g_{l,j}(n), . . . g_{N,j}(n),g_{N+k} _{ lj }(n)]^{T }
ε_{i,j}(n)=g_{N+J,J}(n)z_{i,j}(n)
w_{l,l}(n)=v_{i,k} _{ l }(n)
z_{i,j}(n)=[g_{l,j}(n), . . . g_{N,j}(n),g_{N+k} _{ lj }(n_{n})]^{T }
ε_{i,j}(n)=g_{N+J,J}(n)z_{i,j}(n)
w_{l,l}(n)=v_{i,k} _{ 1 }(n)
q_{1}(n)=Φ_{1} ^{−1}(n−1)y(n)
w_{t,j}(n)=w_{t,j}(n−1)+k_{1}(n)({circumflex over (d)}_{k} _{ 1 }(n)−w_{t,j} ^{H}(n−1)y_{t,j}(n))
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