USRE42389E1 - Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management - Google Patents

Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE42389E1
USRE42389E1 US12/171,005 US17100508A USRE42389E US RE42389 E1 USRE42389 E1 US RE42389E1 US 17100508 A US17100508 A US 17100508A US RE42389 E USRE42389 E US RE42389E
Authority
US
United States
Prior art keywords
up
conversion
display
conversion material
recited
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
US12/171,005
Inventor
Alexandra Rapaport-Zoubir
Anne Janet Milliez
Michael Bass
Hans P. Jenssen
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF)
Original Assignee
University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10983798P priority Critical
Priority to US09/448,657 priority patent/US6327074B1/en
Priority to US09/919,130 priority patent/US6844387B2/en
Priority to US09/919,131 priority patent/US6654161B2/en
Priority to US10/841,188 priority patent/US7075707B1/en
Priority to US12/171,005 priority patent/USRE42389E1/en
Application filed by University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF) filed Critical University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF)
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of USRE42389E1 publication Critical patent/USRE42389E1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/60Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing iron, cobalt or nickel
    • C09K11/602Chalcogenides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/61Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine or unspecified halogen elements
    • C09K11/615Halogenides
    • C09K11/616Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7704Halogenides
    • C09K11/7705Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7706Aluminates; Silicates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7709Phosphates
    • C09K11/771Phosphates with alkaline earth metals
    • C09K11/7711Phosphates with alkaline earth metals with halogens
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7756Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing neodynium
    • C09K11/7757Halogenides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7756Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing neodynium
    • C09K11/7758Aluminates; Silicates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7767Chalcogenides
    • C09K11/7769Oxides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7772Halogenides
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7772Halogenides
    • C09K11/7773Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7774Aluminates; Silicates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7776Vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; COMPOSITIONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7777Phosphates
    • C09K11/7778Phosphates with alkaline earth metals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F2/00Demodulating light; Transferring the modulation of modulated light; Frequency-changing of light
    • G02F2/02Frequency-changing of light, e.g. by quantum counters

Abstract

Methods and compositions for using an up-conversion phosphor as an emitting material in a reflective displays and Polymer compositions for display mediums, and blue green red (BRG) display mediums. Roles of the pumping duration and character on the temperature and the efficiency of the up-conversion process in (Ytterbium, Erbium or Thulium) co-doped fluoride crystals are set forth. Methods, compositions and display mediums for using up-conversion phosphors in both reflective and transmissive displays in which the substrate and pixel shapes are designed to maximally remove heat deposited in the emitting material and thereby improve the efficiency of up conversion.

Description

This invention is a This is a reissue application of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/841,188 filed May 7, 2004, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,075,707, which is a Continuation-In-Part of U.S. applications Ser. No. 09/919,130 filed Jul. 31, 2001, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,844,387 and Ser. No. 09/919,131 filed Jul. 31, 2001, now issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,654,161, which are Continuation-In-Part applications of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,327,074, which claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application 60/109,837 filed Nov. 25, 1998.

This invention was funded in part under U.S. Army Contract DAAD199910220.

FIELD OF INVENTION

This invention relates to the up-conversion efficiency of donor-acceptor doubly doped crystals dispersed in a stabilized polymer or other passive hosts and in particular to a class of fluoride crystals co-doped with ytterbium and erbium or thulium to provide composites and methods for use in luminescent displays.

BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ART

Displays using liquid crystals have been proposed for generating color displays (see for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,359,345 and 5,724,062 to Hunter). However, these patents require arranging individual pixels in rows and corresponding columns, (column 4, lines 36-39). The devices described can be expensive and complicated to manufacture, and can have narrow angular view ranges with low brightness. Additional display systems have been proposed with similar problems to those described above (see for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,791,415 to Takahashi; U.S. Pat. No. 4,871,231 to Garcia, Jr.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,184,114 to Brown; U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,946 to Thompson et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,317,348 to Knize).

Several patents have been proposed for displays using two-frequency up-conversion fluorescence (see for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,684,621; 5,764,403; 5,914,807; 5,943,160; and 5,956,172 all to Downing). The Downing '403 patent appears to be the most relevant to the subject invention. Downing '403 is primarily concerned with embodiments where the use of different layers for red, green and blue emitters, abstract, FIG. 6, and briefly describes some mixing of only crystal type materials in a single display media. However, for the single display media, Downing '403 uses nanometer sized particles, column 4, lines 33+, column 9, lines 42-45, which would inherently be difficult to form, handle and disperse in a display medium.

Other relevant known patents such as U.S. Pat. No. 5,003,179 to Pollack; 5,051,278 to Paz-Pujalt; U.S. Pat. No. 5,154,962 to Mertens et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,245,623 to McFarlane; U.S. Pat. No. 5,622,807 to Cutler; U.S. Pat. No. 5,846,684 to Paz-Pujalt et al. also fail to overcome the problems with the other patents described above.

The concept of frequency up-conversion (UC) of infrared-to-visible light in rare-earth (RE) doped materials was reported more than forty years ago for the first time. The efficiency that was observed or expected for this process was low in singly doped media, but it was quickly noticed that the mechanism could be made one or two orders of magnitude more efficient by using ytterbium (Yb) as a sensitizer ion in addition to the active ion: erbium (Er), holmium (Ho), or thulium (Tm). Efficient UC materials were extensively investigated, as they could be used for several potentially useful photonic applications, such as in UC lasers (visible lasers that are pumped by infrared diode lasers), or in display applications. However, because no powerful source existed in the 980-nm region in order to excite those up-converters, no practical product came out of the research. With the development of powerful 980-nm diode lasers lead by the telecommunication industry, a technology that appeared to be too inefficient in the past now has legitimate practical applications.

It has been noticed in the past that pumping conditions caused heating of the material and that higher efficiencies were obtained with low duty cycle excitation. It was also reported that for a same average input power, higher efficiencies were expected in pulsed excitation mode than in continuous wave (cw) excitation due to the quadratic nature of the process. The effect of the pumping conditions for display applications of UC materials need to be understood, as several technologies might be used to form the image. The infrared source can either be scanned (vector-addressed or raster-scan), or the image can be directly projected using Digital Micromirror Devices (MEMS) such as in the Texas Instrument Digital Light Processing (DLP™) technology. In the latter case the materials would be undergoing pulse-excitation, whereas they would be quasi-continuously excited in the second case.

As earlier noted, the development of powerful diode lasers emitting near 980-nm by the telecommunication industry is an enabling technology that allows up conversion to be used in displays. In the past no good pump source was available. Now these diodes provide for practical applications when the efficiency of up-conversion materials are enhanced to provide useful levels of fluorescence.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A primary objective of this invention is to provide an inexpensive display medium for two and possibly three dimensional displays.

A secondary objective of this invention is to provide a transparent polymer (plastic) containing particles doped with rare earth ions for use as display medium for two and three dimensional displays.

A third objective of this invention is to provide homogeneously dispersed rare earth doped crystalline particles in a polymer and illuminated with light with wavelength near 980 nm so illuminated and provided with thermal management to result in enhanced luminescence efficiency.

A fourth objective of this invention is to provide a display medium for the up-conversion of 980-nm light to the visible for two and three dimensional displays.

The invention can be used with up-conversion displays with specific applications for two and three dimensional displays such as those described in parent patent application Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,327,074, by the same assignee as the subject invention and of which is incorporated by reference thereto.

Novel display media according to this invention includes a method for using an up-conversion phosphor as the emitting material in a reflective display comprising the step of designing the shape of said display to maximally remove any heat developed in the emitting material whereby the emittance level of said phosphor is markedly increased.

Further objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the following detailed descriptions of the presently preferred embodiments which are described in the following text.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 shows emission spectra of approximately 0.4% Tm, approximately 25% Yb:YLF with the sample holder made of acrylic resin.

FIG. 2 shows the temperature of the emitting powder for various output powers in a sample of approximately 0.4% Tm, 25% Yb:YLF.

FIG. 3 shows the normalized output power from the red, green and blue up-conversion materials as a function of temperature.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Before explaining the disclosed embodiment of the present invention in detail it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of the particular arrangements shown since the invention is capable of other embodiments. Also, the terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.

It has been found in accordance with this invention that pumping with pulses as either by the irradiation or scanning process in a display, and providing proper means for thermal management of the emitting materials, both contribute to making efficient up-conversion displays with diode laser pumping attractive for display applications. This disclosure explains the techniques to achieve the desired higher efficiency.

As previously described, the subject invention can be used with up conversion displays with specific applications for two and three dimensional displays such as those described in parent patent applications U.S. application Ser. Nos. 09/919,130 and 09/919,131 both filed Jul. 31, 2001, now U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,844,387 and 6,654,161, respectively, and Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,327,074, all to the same assignee as that of the subject invention and all of which are incorporated herein by reference thereto.

Table 1 is a list of various crystals and co-dopants and central wavelengths of the bands of visible emission detected following excitation with a diode laser source operating at approximately 968 nm.

TABLE 1 Doping ion Peak emission wavelength (nm) Yb3++ Crystal host blue green Red Tm3+ NaYF4 450, 475 647, 698 KYF 481 652 YLF 483 648 LuPO4 475 649, 704 Er3+ NaYF4 411 540 660 KYF 550 654, 670 YLF 541, 549 654, 668 LuPO4 526, 550 657, 667 Ho3+ NaYF4 540 648 KYF 544 658 Table 1: Visible emission of Tm, Er and Ho after Yb excitation in different hosts

In Table 1, Yb3+ refers to ytterbium, Tm3+ refers to thulium, Er3+ refers to erbium, Ho3+ refers to holmium, NaYF4 refers to crystal sodium yttrium fluoride, and the supercript 3+ refers to the triply ionized state of the atom. Referring again to Table 1, KYF is short for KYF4 and refers to crystal, potassium yttrium fluoride. YLF is short for YliF4 and refers to the crystal, yttrium lithium fluoride. LuPO4 refers to the crystal, lutetium orthophosphate.

The crystals and dopants listed in Table 1 are illustrative of a few of the combinations that can be used. Other lanthanide (rare earth) atoms in the 3+ state can also be used as dopants. For example, Nd3+, Pr3+, Ce3+ and the like, can also be used. There can be other oxide and flouride crystals that can serve as host crystals. Transition metal dopants such as but not limited to Cr3+, Ti3+ and the like, can serve as dopants in these host crystals as well. Additionally, other crystals and activators that can be used for this invention can include those listed from pages 171 to page 311 listed in Laser Crystals by Alexander Kaminski, (Springer Verlag, New York) SBN 0-387-09576-4, 1981. These crystals and their activators can include but are not limited to the following described activators and crystal combinations.

Activator Pr3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, Ca(NbO3)2, CaWO4, and SrMoO4.

Activator Nd3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, LiYO2, LiNbO3, LiNbP4O12, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, LaF3, CeF3, NaF, NaCaYF6, NaCaCeF6, NaNdP4O12, YF3, CaYF, SrYF, CeO2, GdF3, YF3, LuF3, CdF2, KY(MoO4)2, KY(WO4)2, KNdP4O12, KGd(WO4)2, CaMg2Y2, CaAl4O7, CaAl12O19, Activator Nd3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, LiYO2, LiNbO3, LiNbP4O12, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, LaF3, CeF3, NaF, NaCaYF6, NaCaCeF6, NaNdP4O12, YF3, CaYF, SrYF, CeO2, GdF3, YF3, LuF3, CdF2, KY(MoO4)2, KY(WO4)2, KNdP4O12, KGd(WO4)2, CaMg2Y2, CaAl4O7, CaAl12O19, CaSc2O4, Ca3(VO4)2, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, SrA12O7, SrAl12O19, SrMoO4, SrWO4, Y2O3, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, Y2SiO5, YP5O14, Y3Sc2Al3O12, Y3Sc2Ga3O12, YVO4, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Lu)3Al5O12, Ba0.25Mg2.75Y2, LaBe2O5, La2O3, LaAlO3, LaP5O14, LaNbO4, CeP5O14, NdAl3(BO3)4, NdP5O14, Gd2O3, GdAlO3, GdP5O14, GdScO3, Gd3Sc2Al3O12, Gd3Sc2Ga3O12, Gd3Ga5O12, Gd2(MoO4)3, LuAlO3, Lu3Ga5O12, PbMoO4, Bi4Si3O12, Bi4Ge3O12, LiLa(MoO4)2, Li(Nd, La)P4O12, Li(Nd, Gd)P4O12, LiGd(MoO4)2, NaLa(MoO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, Na3Nd(PO4)2, Na5Nd(WO4)2, Na3Gd(WO4)2, Na(Nd, Gd), Ka(MoO4)2, K3Nd(PO4)2, K3(Nd, La), K3Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, CaY4(SiO4)3O, Ca0.25Ba0.75, CaLa4(SiO4)3O, CaLa(PO4)3O, CaGd4(SiO4)3O, YScO3, Y2Ti2O7, ZrO2—Y2O3, Ba2MgGe2O7, Ba2ZnGe2O7, (Nd, Sc)P5O14, (Nd, In)P5O14, (Nd, La)P5O14, (Nd, Gd)Al3, LuScO3, HfO2—Y2O3, Bi4(Si, Ge)3O12, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PP4)3F, and La2O2S, CeCl3, Pb5(PO4)3F.

Activator Ho3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, Li(Y, Er)F4, LiNbO3, CaF2, LiHoF4, BaY2F8, Ba(Y, Er)2F8, HoF3, CaF2, YF3, ErF3, NaCaErF6, K(Y, Er)(WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, Y2SiO5, YVO4, Y3Fe5O12, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Er)Al3, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, LaNbO4, GdAlO3, Ho3Al5O12, Ho3Sc2Al3O12, Ho3Ga5O12, Er2O3, ErAlO3, Er2SiO5, Er3Sc2Al3O12, ErVO4, (Er, Tm, Yb)3, (Er, Lu)AlO3, Yb3Al5O12, LuAlO3, Lu3Al5O12, NaLa (MoO4)2, CaY4(SiO4)3O, SrY4(SiO4)3O, SrLa4(SiO4)3O, ZrO2—Er2O3, Ba2NaNb5O15, and Ca5(PO4)3F.

Activator Er3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, LiErF4, CaF2, BaY2F8, Ba(Y, Er)2F8, LaF3, YF3, ErF3, K(Y, Er) (WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2, CaAl4O7, Ca(NbO3)2, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, GdAlO3, Er3Al5O12, (Er, Lu)3Al5O12, Yb3Al5O12, LuAlO3, and Lu3Al5O12.

Activator Ni2+ and crystals can include: MgF2, MnF2, and MgO. Activator V2+ and crystals can include: MgF2. Activator Co2+ and crystals can include: MgF2, KMgF2, and ZnF2. Activator Yb3+ and crystals can include: CaF2,:Nd3+, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Yb)3Al5O12, Gd3Sc2Al3O12, Gd3Ga5O12, (Yb, Lu)3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, Lu3Sc2Al3O12, and Lu3Ga5O12. Activator Sm2+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2. Activator Dy2+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2. Activator Dy3+ and crystals can include: Ba(Y,Er)2F8. Activator Tm2+ and crystals can include: CaF2.

Activator Tm3+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2, ErF3, NaCaErF6, LiNbO3, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, YVO4, (Y, Er)Al3, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, GdAlO3, Er2O3, ErAlO3, Er3Al5O12, (Er, Yb)3Al5O12, (Er, Lu)AlO3, Lu3Al5O12, and ZrO2—Er2O3.

Activator U3+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2. Activator Pr3+ and crystals can include: LaF3, LaCl3, LaBr3, PrCl3, and PrBr3. Activator Cr3+ and crystals can include: BeAl2O4, Al2O3, and Y3Al5O12. Activator Eu3+ and crystals can include: Y2O3, YVO4. Activator Gd3+ and crystals can include: Y3Al5O12.

Some of the dopant-host combinations can also emit useful infrared light through excitation by absorption of a single photon. This invention can also include systems that emit infrared light by this process of down-conversion(e.g. absorbing a high energy photon and emitting one of lower energy) as well as systems that are excited by such two photon processes as up-conversion(e.g. absorbing more than one low energy photons and emitting one or more higher energy photons).

The rare earth doped crystalline particles are dispersed in a passive polymer host that can be comprised of a copolymer of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate and a dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid. The ratios of the acrylate or methacrylate to the phosphonate can range from approximately 95:5 molar ratio to approximately 20:80 molar ratio, respectively. Luminescent heavy metal ions such as rare earth compounds (for example, NaYF4:ErYb) loading in the host polymer matrix can range from approximately 5 up to approximately 80 weight percent. Stabilization of the dispersed heavy element luminophores can be accomplished through complexation with the phosphoryl moieties.

One can prepare the crystals as approximately 10 μm size particles and disperse them in a phosphorylated polymethylmethacrylate (p-PMMA) host. This results in a display medium that can be formed to any desired shape, e.g., as a pixel, can be transparent or not, as desired, and can be affixed to any desired substrate; preferably a heat conductive substrate capable of maximally heat removal.

In this disclosure of the invention, the role of temperature on the efficiency of our up-conversion materials is set forth as well as the effect of various substrate materials, pumping rates and duration on the performance of three of our best performing up-conversion (UC) materials. The materials used for the up-conversion material are characterized by color: green (Yb, Er doped sodium yttrium fluoride or Yb,Er:NYF4): red (Yb, Br doped yttrium fluoride or Yb,Er: YF3); and, blue (Yb, Tm doped yttrium lithium fluoride or Yb,Tm:YLF4).

The results of the investigation are hereafter set forth.

The performance of the blue up-conversion material was altered when pumping with a continuous source compared to when using short pulse excitation. An early analysis that solved the rate equations numerically illustrated that this behavior could be explained when temperature-dependent transfer and cross-relaxation rates were included. In order to better understand thermal effects, the emission spectra obtained for the three color up-conversion materials when pumped with various intensities and pulse durations was recorded. Reference should now be made to FIG. 1 where a typical result for the blue emitter is shown. Emission spectra of approximately 0.4% Tm, approximately 25% Yb:YLF4. The sample holder was made in acrylic. Three conditions of excitation were used: bold line corresponds to continuous pumping, the thin line represents approximately 5 ms pulse at a repetition rate of approximately 30 Hz, and the dotted line represents approximately 2 ms pulse at a repetition rate of approximately 30 Hz. The output luminance in the blue was the same in the three excitation conditions(approximately 58 mLm). The output power was the same in the three excitation conditions.

The peaks at approximately 463 nm and approximately 481 nm originate from the same upper energy level but different Stark splittings sub-levels. Those sub-levels are thermalized and the spectral distribution is therefore a signature of the temperature inside the sample. It can be shown from FIG. 1 that the temperature of the sample is much higher when continuous pumping is used than when pulsed excitation is used.

By using a hot plate and a thermocouple, the emission spectra after excitation with a low energy pulse the emission spectra can be recorded (no heating due to the excitation) at different pre-determined temperatures. From those measurements, one can determine the temperature in the sample at different output powers for various pump durations.

Reference should now be made to FIG. 2 which shows the resulting temperatures for two types of powder holders: acrylic and copper. The temperatures of the emitting powder for various output power in a sample of approximately 0.4% Tm, approximately 25% Yb: YLF4 was recorded to establish if the nature of the holders was significant. Two sample holders were used: acrylic(solid lines) and copper(dashed lines). The solid symbols correspond to cw(continuous wave) excitation, the hollow symbols are for an approximately 30 Hz, approximately 5 ms pulse. The powder was contained in a cylinder hole of approximately 750 micron diameter, approximately 500 micron deep. There are two conclusions that can be drawn from that plot: first, for a given output power (or brightness), the temperature reached when pumping continuously is higher than when a short excitation pulse is used. Second, using a substrate that extracts the heat produced (high heat diffusion coefficient) significantly reduces the heating of the powder.

Finally, the total output power as the temperature of the sample was measured. The results are shown in FIG. 3 for the three red, green and blue (RGB) emitters in which the normalized output power from the red, green and blue up-conversion materials as a function of temperature are plotted. FIG. 3 shows normalized output power at low incident pump intensity from the red(thin line and solid stars), green(thin line and solid squares), and blue(thick line and hollow triangles) up-conversion materials as a function of temperature.

Through the green phosphor is only slightly affected by heating, the blue and the red emitters' performance greatly diminish when operated at the temperature reached when no thermal management is included in the design of a display. Experimental results show that lowering the operating temperature is the key to optimizing up-conversion materials performance. As shown by the graph of FIG. 3, the three color up-conversion material has a maximum normalized output at a temperature of approximately 20 C when the same pulse excitation is applied to the three color up-conversion material. Preliminary simulations using Femlab™ show that using a material with high heat-diffusion-coefficient such as metals (copper) for reflective displays or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond for both reflective and transmissive displays, as a substrate, reducing the pixel size to less than approximately 250 microns, and using pixels in the form of inverted cones to hold the up converting medium, will enable the use of up-conversion materials at temperatures within approximately 20° C. of room-temperature which can be considered approximately room temperature.

Photonic displays based on up-conversion materials have numerous advantages that make the technology appealing: the phosphors emit very narrow lines (˜40 nm wide) which produce a very wide color gamut (That is, they define area of the color response diagram much greater than that of conventional cathode ray tube phosphors) and saturated colors, high-brightness (several kCd/m2) can be achieved without damage to the phosphors, and no vacuum nor high-voltage is required. However, improving the materials' efficiency is paramount to making this technology able to compete with existing display technologies. In this work, one important step was identified in order to optimize the performance of the up-conversion phosphors: using heat-conductive substrate such as copper or aluminum or CVD diamond will reduce the operating temperature of the powder and improve the efficiency (efficiency is the ratio of the light power output of the display to the total power input to the display) of the display.

While the invention has been described, disclosed, illustrated and shown in various terms of certain embodiments or modifications which it has presumed in practice, the scope of the invention is not intended to be, nor should it be deemed to be, limited thereby and such other modifications or embodiments as may be suggested by the teachings herein are particularly reserved especially as they fall within the breadth and scope of the claims here appended.

Claims (44)

1. A method for using an up-conversion phosphor as an emitting material in a reflective display comprising the step of :
designingconfiguring a shape of said display to hold said up-conversion phosphor;
pumping said display from a source with an intensity and a duration to excite said up-conversion phosphor; and
selectingconfiguring said display to maximally remove any heat developed in the up-conversion phosphor in the emitting material during said pumping to optimize a performance of said up-conversion phosphor, wherein the luminescent efficiency of said up-conversion phosphor is substantially increased.
2. The method according to claim 1 wherein said reflective display is a pixel.
3. The method according to claim 1 wherein said reflective display is a substrate.
4. The method according to claim 3 wherein said reflective display is heat conductive.
5. The method according to claim 3 wherein said reflective display is copper.
6. The method according to claim 3 wherein said reflective display is aluminum.
7. The method according to claim 3 wherein said reflective display is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond.
8. A method for using an up-conversion phosphor as an emitting material in a transmissive display comprising the step of:
designing a shape and material of said display to maximally remove any heat developed in the emitting material when pumped with an intensity and a duration, wherein the luminescent efficiency of said up-conversion phosphor is substantially increased.
9. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is a pixel.
10. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is a substrate.
11. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is heat conductive.
12. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is copper.
13. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is aluminum.
14. The method according to claim 8 wherein said transmissive display is chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond.
15. A blue green red (BRG) display medium comprising:
(a) pixels having a blue, a green and a red emitter dispersed on a high heat conductive substrate; and,
(b) means for pulsing said pixels with a beam of light with wavelength near approximately 980 μm, wherein said high heat conductive substrate provides thermal management to optimize performance of said pixels to emit appropriate blue, green and red luminescence when pumped with the 980 μm wavelength beam of light.
16. The blue green red (BRG) display medium according to claim 15 wherein said means is by short pulse excitation.
17. An up conversion display comprising:
a three color up-conversion material having three different emitters;
a heat-conductive substrate configured to reduce the operating temperature of the three color up-conversion material, wherein the substrate has a shape configured to hold the three color up-conversion material; and
a pumping source for providing configured to provide a pulse having an intensity and a duration for exciting the three color up-conversion material, wherein the three color up-conversion material and the pulse intensity and pulse duration are selected to optimize the up-conversion process to emit the three colors and improve the efficiency of the display.
18. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein said substrate comprises copper.
19. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein said substrate comprises aluminum.
20. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein said substrate comprises chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond.
21. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a green up-conversion material.
22. The up conversion display recited in claim 21, wherein the green up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Er doped sodium yttrium fluoride, and Yb,Er:NYF 4 .
23. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a red up-conversion material.
24. The up conversion display recited in claim 23, wherein the red up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Er doped yttrium fluoride and Yb,Er:YF 3.
25. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a blue up-conversion material.
26. The up conversion display recited in claim 25, wherein the blue up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Tm doped yttrium lithium fluoride and Yb,Tm:YLF 4.
27. The up conversion display recited in claim 17, wherein the three color up-conversion material having three different emitters further comprises a passive polymer host.
28. The up conversion display recited in claim 27, wherein the passive polymer host comprises at least one copolymer, comprising:
residues of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate; and
residues of dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
29. The up conversion display recited in claim 27, wherein the molar ratio of the residues of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate to the residues of dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid is from about 95:5 to about 20:80.
30. A method for using an up-conversion phosphor as an emitting material in a reflective display comprising:
configuring said display with a heat-conductive substrate to hold said up-conversion phosphor; and
pumping said display from a source with an intensity and a duration to excite said up-conversion phosphor and to enable removal of heat developed in the up-conversion phosphor during said pumping, thereby increasing the luminescent efficiency of said up-conversion phosphor.
31. The method recited in claim 30, wherein said substrate comprises copper.
32. The method recited in claim 30, wherein said substrate comprises aluminum.
33. The method recited in claim 30, wherein said substrate comprises chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond.
34. The method recited in claim 30, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a green up-conversion material.
35. The method recited in claim 34, wherein the green up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Er doped sodium yttrium fluoride, and Yb,Er:NYF4.
36. The method recited in claim 30, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a red up-conversion material.
37. The method recited in claim 36, wherein the red up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Er doped yttrium fluoride and Yb,Er:YF3.
38. The method recited in claim 30, wherein the up-conversion material comprises a blue up-conversion material.
39. The method recited in claim 38, wherein the blue up-conversion material comprises at least one of Yb, Tm doped yttrium lithium fluoride and Yb,Tm:YLF4.
40. The method recited in claim 30, wherein the method is used on a three color up-conversion material having three different emitters and a passive polymer host.
41. The method recited in claim 40, wherein the passive polymer host comprises at least one copolymer, comprising:
residues of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate; and
residues of dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
42. The method recited in claim 41, wherein the molar ratio of the residues of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate to the residues of dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid is from about 95:5 to about 20:80.
43. A method of using a three color up-conversion material having three different emitters and a pumping source in a reflective display, comprising:
configuring said display with a heat-conductive substrate to reduce the operating temperature of the three color up-conversion material, wherein the substrate has a shape configured to hold the three color up-conversion material; and
pumping said display to provide a pulse having an intensity and a duration for exciting the three color up-conversion material, wherein the pulse intensity and pulse duration are selectable to substantially optimize the up-conversion process to emit the three colors and improve the efficiency of the display.
44. A photonic display device, comprising:
at least one up-conversion material comprising:
at least one activator;
at least one co-dopant; and
a passive polymer host;
a heat conducting substrate for thermal management; and
a pumping source.
US12/171,005 1998-11-25 2008-07-10 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management Expired - Fee Related USRE42389E1 (en)

Priority Applications (6)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10983798P true 1998-11-25 1998-11-25
US09/448,657 US6327074B1 (en) 1998-11-25 1999-11-24 Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US09/919,130 US6844387B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-07-31 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts
US09/919,131 US6654161B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-07-31 Dispersed crystallite up-conversion displays
US10/841,188 US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2004-05-07 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US12/171,005 USRE42389E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2008-07-10 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US12/171,005 USRE42389E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2008-07-10 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/841,188 Reissue US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2004-05-07 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE42389E1 true USRE42389E1 (en) 2011-05-24

Family

ID=36644123

Family Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/841,188 Active 2020-05-25 US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2004-05-07 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US12/171,005 Expired - Fee Related USRE42389E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2008-07-10 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Family Applications Before (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US10/841,188 Active 2020-05-25 US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2004-05-07 Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (2) US7075707B1 (en)

Families Citing this family (78)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6897999B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-05-24 The Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida Optically written display
USRE42076E1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2011-01-25 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts
US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2006-07-11 Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida, Incorporated Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US7959949B2 (en) 2006-04-27 2011-06-14 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Functionalized nanoceria composition for ophthalmic treatment
US8916199B1 (en) 2008-04-25 2014-12-23 University of Central Florida Research Foundation, Ind. Inhibition of angiogenesis associated with ovarian cancer by nanoparticles of cerium oxide
US8419189B1 (en) 2006-06-07 2013-04-16 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Emissive fibers containing up converters excited by GaAs based semiconductor light sources
US9119391B1 (en) 2007-07-16 2015-09-01 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Polymer coated ceria nanoparticles for selective cytoprotection
US7899093B1 (en) 2007-05-24 2011-03-01 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Combination of up-converting materials with semiconductor light sources
EP2288258A4 (en) * 2008-04-25 2012-10-31 Univ Oklahoma Inhibition of neovascularization by cerium oxide nanoparticles
US9127202B1 (en) * 2008-07-18 2015-09-08 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Biocompatible nano rare earth oxide upconverters for imaging and therapeutics
US8883519B1 (en) 2009-03-17 2014-11-11 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Oxidase activity of polymeric coated cerium oxide nanoparticles
US8899776B2 (en) 2012-05-07 2014-12-02 Lighting Science Group Corporation Low-angle thoroughfare surface lighting device
US9585840B1 (en) 2009-07-10 2017-03-07 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Redox active cerium oxide nanoparticles and associated methods
US9157581B2 (en) 2009-10-05 2015-10-13 Lighting Science Group Corporation Low profile luminaire with light guide and associated systems and methods
US9581756B2 (en) 2009-10-05 2017-02-28 Lighting Science Group Corporation Light guide for low profile luminaire
US8795731B1 (en) 2009-10-12 2014-08-05 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Cerium oxide nanoparticle-based device for the detection of reactive oxygen species and monitoring of chronic inflammation
DE102010026627A1 (en) * 2010-07-09 2012-01-12 Giesecke & Devrient Gmbh Alkali metal and alkaline earth metal niobates and tantalates as security feature substances
RU2570670C2 (en) 2010-07-09 2015-12-10 Гизеке Унд Девриент Гмбх Protective sign
US9532423B2 (en) 2010-07-23 2016-12-27 Lighting Science Group Corporation System and methods for operating a lighting device
US9174067B2 (en) 2012-10-15 2015-11-03 Biological Illumination, Llc System for treating light treatable conditions and associated methods
US8743023B2 (en) 2010-07-23 2014-06-03 Biological Illumination, Llc System for generating non-homogenous biologically-adjusted light and associated methods
US9827439B2 (en) 2010-07-23 2017-11-28 Biological Illumination, Llc System for dynamically adjusting circadian rhythm responsive to scheduled events and associated methods
US8877207B2 (en) 2010-09-17 2014-11-04 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Nanoparticles of cerium oxide targeted to an amyloid-beta antigen of Alzheimer's disease and associated methods
US8401231B2 (en) 2010-11-09 2013-03-19 Biological Illumination, Llc Sustainable outdoor lighting system for use in environmentally photo-sensitive area
US8384984B2 (en) 2011-03-28 2013-02-26 Lighting Science Group Corporation MEMS wavelength converting lighting device and associated methods
US9151482B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2015-10-06 Lighting Science Group Corporation Sealed electrical device with cooling system
US9360202B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2016-06-07 Lighting Science Group Corporation System for actively cooling an LED filament and associated methods
US8608348B2 (en) 2011-05-13 2013-12-17 Lighting Science Group Corporation Sealed electrical device with cooling system and associated methods
US9185783B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2015-11-10 Lighting Science Group Corporation Wireless pairing system and associated methods
US8547391B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2013-10-01 Lighting Science Group Corporation High efficacy lighting signal converter and associated methods
US9173269B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2015-10-27 Lighting Science Group Corporation Lighting system for accentuating regions of a layer and associated methods
US8729832B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2014-05-20 Lighting Science Group Corporation Programmable luminaire system
US8760370B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2014-06-24 Lighting Science Group Corporation System for generating non-homogenous light and associated methods
US8674608B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2014-03-18 Lighting Science Group Corporation Configurable environmental condition sensing luminaire, system and associated methods
US9648284B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2017-05-09 Lighting Science Group Corporation Occupancy sensor and associated methods
US8754832B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2014-06-17 Lighting Science Group Corporation Lighting system for accenting regions of a layer and associated methods
US9420240B2 (en) 2011-05-15 2016-08-16 Lighting Science Group Corporation Intelligent security light and associated methods
US8951539B1 (en) 2011-06-07 2015-02-10 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Methods of promoting angiogenesis using cerium oxide nanoparticles
US8847436B2 (en) 2011-09-12 2014-09-30 Lighting Science Group Corporation System for inductively powering an electrical device and associated methods
US8408725B1 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-04-02 Lighting Science Group Corporation Remote light wavelength conversion device and associated methods
US8465167B2 (en) 2011-09-16 2013-06-18 Lighting Science Group Corporation Color conversion occlusion and associated methods
US9161950B2 (en) 2011-09-21 2015-10-20 University Of Central Florida Foundation, Inc. Neuronal protection by cerium oxide nanoparticles
US8492995B2 (en) 2011-10-07 2013-07-23 Environmental Light Technologies Corp. Wavelength sensing lighting system and associated methods
US8515289B2 (en) 2011-11-21 2013-08-20 Environmental Light Technologies Corp. Wavelength sensing lighting system and associated methods for national security application
US8439515B1 (en) 2011-11-28 2013-05-14 Lighting Science Group Corporation Remote lighting device and associated methods
US9220202B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2015-12-29 Biological Illumination, Llc Lighting system to control the circadian rhythm of agricultural products and associated methods
US8963450B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2015-02-24 Biological Illumination, Llc Adaptable biologically-adjusted indirect lighting device and associated methods
US9913341B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2018-03-06 Biological Illumination, Llc LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light including a cyan LED
US9024536B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2015-05-05 Biological Illumination, Llc Tunable LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light and associated methods
US9289574B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2016-03-22 Biological Illumination, Llc Three-channel tuned LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light
US8841864B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2014-09-23 Biological Illumination, Llc Tunable LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light
US8686641B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2014-04-01 Biological Illumination, Llc Tunable LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light
US8866414B2 (en) 2011-12-05 2014-10-21 Biological Illumination, Llc Tunable LED lamp for producing biologically-adjusted light
US8545034B2 (en) 2012-01-24 2013-10-01 Lighting Science Group Corporation Dual characteristic color conversion enclosure and associated methods
US9681522B2 (en) 2012-05-06 2017-06-13 Lighting Science Group Corporation Adaptive light system and associated methods
US8901850B2 (en) 2012-05-06 2014-12-02 Lighting Science Group Corporation Adaptive anti-glare light system and associated methods
US9366409B2 (en) 2012-05-06 2016-06-14 Lighting Science Group Corporation Tunable lighting apparatus
US8680457B2 (en) 2012-05-07 2014-03-25 Lighting Science Group Corporation Motion detection system and associated methods having at least one LED of second set of LEDs to vary its voltage
US9006987B2 (en) 2012-05-07 2015-04-14 Lighting Science Group, Inc. Wall-mountable luminaire and associated systems and methods
US9402294B2 (en) 2012-05-08 2016-07-26 Lighting Science Group Corporation Self-calibrating multi-directional security luminaire and associated methods
US9127818B2 (en) 2012-10-03 2015-09-08 Lighting Science Group Corporation Elongated LED luminaire and associated methods
US9322516B2 (en) 2012-11-07 2016-04-26 Lighting Science Group Corporation Luminaire having vented optical chamber and associated methods
US9463437B2 (en) 2013-02-14 2016-10-11 University Of Central Florida Research Foundation, Inc. Methods for scavenging nitric oxide using cerium oxide nanoparticles
US9303825B2 (en) 2013-03-05 2016-04-05 Lighting Science Group, Corporation High bay luminaire
US9353935B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2016-05-31 Lighting Science Group, Corporation Rotatable lighting device
US9347655B2 (en) 2013-03-11 2016-05-24 Lighting Science Group Corporation Rotatable lighting device
US9459397B2 (en) 2013-03-12 2016-10-04 Lighting Science Group Corporation Edge lit lighting device
US9018854B2 (en) 2013-03-14 2015-04-28 Biological Illumination, Llc Lighting system with reduced physioneural compression and associate methods
US8899775B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-12-02 Lighting Science Group Corporation Low-angle thoroughfare surface lighting device
US9157618B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-10-13 Lighting Science Group Corporation Trough luminaire with magnetic lighting devices and associated systems and methods
US20140268731A1 (en) 2013-03-15 2014-09-18 Lighting Science Group Corpporation Low bay lighting system and associated methods
US9255670B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2016-02-09 Lighting Science Group Corporation Street lighting device for communicating with observers and associated methods
US9222653B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-12-29 Lighting Science Group Corporation Concave low profile luminaire with magnetic lighting devices and associated systems and methods
US9151453B2 (en) 2013-03-15 2015-10-06 Lighting Science Group Corporation Magnetically-mountable lighting device and associated systems and methods
US9429294B2 (en) 2013-11-11 2016-08-30 Lighting Science Group Corporation System for directional control of light and associated methods
CN105885835B (en) * 2014-12-17 2018-03-06 温州大学 It is a kind of using halogen-phosphate as red light material of matrix and preparation method thereof
WO2017195954A1 (en) * 2016-05-09 2017-11-16 선문대학교 산학협력단 Polycrystalline transparent upconverting α-sialon ceramics and preparation method therefor
WO2018097350A1 (en) * 2016-11-24 2018-05-31 선문대학교 산학협력단 TRIPLE-DOPED POLYCRYSTALLINE TRANSPARENT UPCONVERTING α-SIALON CERAMICS AND METHOD FOR PREPARING SAME

Citations (34)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448547A (en) 1977-12-07 1984-05-15 Luxtron Corporation Optical temperature measurement technique utilizing phosphors
US4791415A (en) 1985-01-29 1988-12-13 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Digial driving type color display device
US4871231A (en) 1987-10-16 1989-10-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Three dimensional color display and system
US4978888A (en) 1989-07-18 1990-12-18 Thomas Electronics Incorporated Thick-film integrated flat fluorescent lamp
US5003179A (en) 1990-05-01 1991-03-26 Hughes Aircraft Company Full color upconversion display
US5051278A (en) 1989-07-10 1991-09-24 Eastman Kodak Company Method of forming metal fluoride films by the decomposition of metallo-organic compounds in the presence of a fluorinating agent
US5142388A (en) 1987-11-10 1992-08-25 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Color display device having liquid crystal cell and fluorescent display with two different luminous sections
US5154962A (en) 1988-11-30 1992-10-13 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Indicia-receptive low adhesion backsize
US5184114A (en) 1982-11-04 1993-02-02 Integrated Systems Engineering, Inc. Solid state color display system and light emitting diode pixels therefor
US5192946A (en) 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5245623A (en) 1991-12-02 1993-09-14 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared-to-visible upconversion display system and method operable at room temperature
US5317348A (en) 1992-12-01 1994-05-31 Knize Randall J Full color solid state laser projector system
US5359345A (en) 1992-08-05 1994-10-25 Cree Research, Inc. Shuttered and cycled light emitting diode display and method of producing the same
US5583393A (en) 1994-03-24 1996-12-10 Fed Corporation Selectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith
US5622807A (en) 1994-11-14 1997-04-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Phosphor film composition for use in image capture
US5684621A (en) 1995-05-08 1997-11-04 Downing; Elizabeth Anne Method and system for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US5724062A (en) 1992-08-05 1998-03-03 Cree Research, Inc. High resolution, high brightness light emitting diode display and method and producing the same
US5746942A (en) 1996-01-31 1998-05-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Erbium-doped low phonon hosts as sources of fluorescent emission
US5764403A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-06-09 Downing; Elizabeth A. Panel display using two-frequency upconversion fluorescence
US5786102A (en) 1994-01-25 1998-07-28 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5801792A (en) 1995-12-13 1998-09-01 Swz Engineering Ltd. High resolution, high intensity video projection cathode ray tube provided with a cooled reflective phosphor screen support
US5985990A (en) 1995-12-29 1999-11-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Use of pendant free-radically polymerizable moieties with polar polymers to prepare hydrophilic pressure sensitive adhesive compositions
US5989799A (en) 1997-07-11 1999-11-23 Agfa-Gevaert. N.V. Radiographic UV/blue intensifying screen-film combination
US6028977A (en) * 1995-11-13 2000-02-22 Moriah Technologies, Inc. All-optical, flat-panel display system
US6061179A (en) 1996-01-23 2000-05-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Stereoscopic image display apparatus with two-/three-dimensional image display switching function
US6117529A (en) 1996-12-18 2000-09-12 Gunther Leising Organic electroluminescence devices and displays
US6128131A (en) 1997-11-13 2000-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Scaleable tiled flat-panel projection color display
US6276801B1 (en) 1994-08-04 2001-08-21 Digital Projection Limited Display system
US6327074B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-12-04 University Of Central Florida Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US6654161B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2003-11-25 University Of Central Florida Dispersed crystallite up-conversion displays
US20040129946A1 (en) * 2002-10-17 2004-07-08 Hideo Nagai Light emission apparatus
US6844387B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-01-18 University Of Central Florida Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts
US6897999B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-05-24 The Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida Optically written display
US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2006-07-11 Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida, Incorporated Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management

Patent Citations (40)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448547A (en) 1977-12-07 1984-05-15 Luxtron Corporation Optical temperature measurement technique utilizing phosphors
US5184114A (en) 1982-11-04 1993-02-02 Integrated Systems Engineering, Inc. Solid state color display system and light emitting diode pixels therefor
US4791415A (en) 1985-01-29 1988-12-13 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Digial driving type color display device
US4871231A (en) 1987-10-16 1989-10-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Three dimensional color display and system
US5142388A (en) 1987-11-10 1992-08-25 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Color display device having liquid crystal cell and fluorescent display with two different luminous sections
US5154962A (en) 1988-11-30 1992-10-13 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Indicia-receptive low adhesion backsize
US5192946A (en) 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5051278A (en) 1989-07-10 1991-09-24 Eastman Kodak Company Method of forming metal fluoride films by the decomposition of metallo-organic compounds in the presence of a fluorinating agent
US4978888A (en) 1989-07-18 1990-12-18 Thomas Electronics Incorporated Thick-film integrated flat fluorescent lamp
US5003179A (en) 1990-05-01 1991-03-26 Hughes Aircraft Company Full color upconversion display
US5245623A (en) 1991-12-02 1993-09-14 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared-to-visible upconversion display system and method operable at room temperature
US5359345A (en) 1992-08-05 1994-10-25 Cree Research, Inc. Shuttered and cycled light emitting diode display and method of producing the same
US5724062A (en) 1992-08-05 1998-03-03 Cree Research, Inc. High resolution, high brightness light emitting diode display and method and producing the same
US5317348A (en) 1992-12-01 1994-05-31 Knize Randall J Full color solid state laser projector system
US5846684A (en) 1994-01-25 1998-12-08 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5786102A (en) 1994-01-25 1998-07-28 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5583393A (en) 1994-03-24 1996-12-10 Fed Corporation Selectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith
US6276801B1 (en) 1994-08-04 2001-08-21 Digital Projection Limited Display system
US5622807A (en) 1994-11-14 1997-04-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Phosphor film composition for use in image capture
US5956172A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-09-21 3D Technology Laboratories, Inc. System and method using layered structure for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US5764403A (en) 1995-05-08 1998-06-09 Downing; Elizabeth A. Panel display using two-frequency upconversion fluorescence
US5684621A (en) 1995-05-08 1997-11-04 Downing; Elizabeth Anne Method and system for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US5914807A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-06-22 3D Technology Laboratories, Inc. Method and system for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US5943160A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-08-24 3D Technology Laboratories, Inc. System and method for co-doped three-dimensional display using two-photon upconversion
US6028977A (en) * 1995-11-13 2000-02-22 Moriah Technologies, Inc. All-optical, flat-panel display system
US5801792A (en) 1995-12-13 1998-09-01 Swz Engineering Ltd. High resolution, high intensity video projection cathode ray tube provided with a cooled reflective phosphor screen support
US5985990A (en) 1995-12-29 1999-11-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Use of pendant free-radically polymerizable moieties with polar polymers to prepare hydrophilic pressure sensitive adhesive compositions
US6061179A (en) 1996-01-23 2000-05-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Stereoscopic image display apparatus with two-/three-dimensional image display switching function
US5746942A (en) 1996-01-31 1998-05-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Erbium-doped low phonon hosts as sources of fluorescent emission
US6117529A (en) 1996-12-18 2000-09-12 Gunther Leising Organic electroluminescence devices and displays
US5989799A (en) 1997-07-11 1999-11-23 Agfa-Gevaert. N.V. Radiographic UV/blue intensifying screen-film combination
US6128131A (en) 1997-11-13 2000-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Scaleable tiled flat-panel projection color display
US6501590B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2002-12-31 University Of Central Florida Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US6327074B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-12-04 University Of Central Florida Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US6654161B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2003-11-25 University Of Central Florida Dispersed crystallite up-conversion displays
US7075707B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2006-07-11 Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida, Incorporated Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US6844387B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-01-18 University Of Central Florida Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts
US6897999B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-05-24 The Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida Optically written display
US20040129946A1 (en) * 2002-10-17 2004-07-08 Hideo Nagai Light emission apparatus
US7101061B2 (en) 2002-10-17 2006-09-05 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Light emission apparatus

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Kaminskii, "Laser Crystals," Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Jan. 1, 1981, 14, pp. 170-311.

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US7075707B1 (en) 2006-07-11

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Wickersheim et al. Luminescent behavior of the rare earths in yttrium oxide and related hosts
US3599109A (en) Second photon visible emitting phosphor and device utilizing same
Auzel Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids
Richards Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion
Xie et al. Preparation and luminescence spectra of calcium‐and rare‐earth (R= Eu, Tb, and Pr)‐codoped α‐SiAlON ceramics
Chen et al. Bright upconversion white light emission in transparent glass ceramic embedding Tm 3+∕ Er 3+∕ Yb 3+: β-YF 3 nanocrystals
Auzel Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems
Jüstel et al. New developments in the field of luminescent materials for lighting and displays
TWI309673B (en) Phosphors containing oxides of alkaline-earth and group-iiia metals and light sources incorporating the same
Wegh et al. Visible quantum cutting via downconversion in LiGdF4: Er3+, Tb3+ upon Er3+ 4f11→ 4f105d excitation
Zhang et al. Recent progress in quantum cutting phosphors
Blasse The physics of new luminescent materials
Rao Tm3+ activated lanthanum phosphate: a blue PDP phosphor
Wegh et al. Quantum cutting through downconversion in rare-earth compounds
TWI627260B (en) New phosphors, such as new narrow-band red emitting phosphors, for solid state lighting
US6559598B2 (en) Plasma picture screen with UV light emitting layer
DE60031483T2 (en) Manganese activated green emitting SrAl12O19 phosphor
JP3643868B2 (en) Activated and lanthanum silicon nitride phosphor of the cerium ion
JP2006012770A (en) Light-emitting device and image display device using this light-emitting device
KR20080089486A (en) Light emitting device with a eu-comprising phosphor material
Xu et al. Upconversion fluorescence spectroscopy of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped lead oxyfluorosilicate glass
Meyer et al. Photoluminescent Materials for Solid‐State Lighting: State of the Art and Future Challenges
KR100858269B1 (en) Method of producing aluminate fluorescent substance, a fluorescent substance and a device containing a fluorescent substance
Lee et al. Visible quantum cutting through downconversion in green-emitting K 2 Gd F 5: Tb 3+ phosphors
Kaminskii Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
CC Certificate of correction
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FEPP

Free format text: MAINTENANCE FEE REMINDER MAILED (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: REM.)

LAPS Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees

Free format text: PATENT EXPIRED FOR FAILURE TO PAY MAINTENANCE FEES (ORIGINAL EVENT CODE: EXP.)