New! View global litigation for patent families

USRE42076E1 - Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts - Google Patents

Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE42076E1
USRE42076E1 US11655816 US65581607A USRE42076E US RE42076 E1 USRE42076 E1 US RE42076E1 US 11655816 US11655816 US 11655816 US 65581607 A US65581607 A US 65581607A US RE42076 E USRE42076 E US RE42076E
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
include
material
includes
alkyl
display
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
US11655816
Inventor
Michael Bass
Kevin D. Belfield
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF)
Original Assignee
University of Central Florida Research Foundation Inc (UCFRF)
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/02Use of particular materials as binders, particle coatings or suspension media therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7772Halogenides
    • C09K11/7773Halogenides with alkali or alkaline earth metal
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09KMATERIALS FOR MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS, NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • C09K11/00Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials
    • C09K11/08Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials
    • C09K11/77Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7766Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic luminescent materials containing rare earth metals containing two or more rare earth metals
    • C09K11/7777Phosphates
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02FDEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS, THE OPTICAL OPERATION OF WHICH IS MODIFIED BY CHANGING THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE MEDIUM OF THE DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CONTROL OF THE INTENSITY, COLOUR, PHASE, POLARISATION OR DIRECTION OF LIGHT, e.g. SWITCHING, GATING, MODULATING OR DEMODULATING; TECHNIQUES OR PROCEDURES FOR THE OPERATION THEREOF; FREQUENCY-CHANGING; NON-LINEAR OPTICS; OPTICAL LOGIC ELEMENTS; OPTICAL ANALOGUE/DIGITAL CONVERTERS
    • G02F2/00Demodulating light; Transferring the modulation of modulated light; Frequency-changing of light
    • G02F2/02Frequency-changing of light, e.g. by quantum counters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G09EDUCATION; CRYPTOGRAPHY; DISPLAY; ADVERTISING; SEALS
    • G09FDISPLAYING; ADVERTISING; SIGNS; LABELS OR NAME-PLATES; SEALS
    • G09F13/00Illuminated signs; Luminous advertising
    • G09F13/20Illuminated signs; Luminous advertising with luminescent surfaces or parts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic or multiview television systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/04Picture reproducers
    • H04N13/0422Colour aspects
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04NPICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
    • H04N13/00Stereoscopic or multiview television systems; Details thereof
    • H04N13/04Picture reproducers
    • H04N13/0488Volumetric display, i.e. systems where the image is built up from picture elements distributed over a volume
    • H04N13/049Volumetric display, i.e. systems where the image is built up from picture elements distributed over a volume the picture elements emitting light where a pair of light beams intersect in a transparent material

Abstract

A two and three dimensional display medium having a novel transparent polymer composite containing particles of crystals doped with Yb3+ and other rare earth ions. The polymer composite creates homogeneously dispersed compositions without cracking or delamination of the film and can be used for various optical applications.

Description

This invention relates to composites, and in particular to a class of stabilized luminescent polymer(plastic) composites for use in two and three dimensional luminescent displays, and the invention is a Continuation-In-Part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,327,074, which has the same assignee as the subject invention, and a common inventor with the subject invention, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional application 60/109,837 filed Nov. 25, 1998, by the same assignee as the subject invention, and the invention was funded in part under U.S. Army Contract DAAD199910220.

BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ART

The doping of heavy metal luminophores in commercially available optical grade plastics, such as poly (methyl methacrylate) or polystyrene, generally results in the aggregation of the metal salt. This aggregation leads to excessive light scattering, weakening of the plastic's mechanical strength, and an inhomogenous composite that would be unsuitable for optical or display applications.

Using a monochromatic display has been well known. However, monochromatic displays do not offer adequate color type detail such as reds, greens and blue colors.

Displays using liquid crystals have been proposed for generating color displays. See for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,359,345 and 5,724,062 to Hunter. However, these patents require arranging individual pixels in rows and corresponding columns, column 4, lines 36-39. The devices described can be expensive and complicated to manufacture, and can have narrow angular view ranges with low brightness.

Additional display systems have been proposed with similar problems to those described above. See for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,791,415 to Takahashi; U.S. Pat. No. 4,871,231 to Garcia, Jr.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,184,114 to Brown; U.S. Pat. No. 5,192,946 to Thompson et al.; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,317,348 to Knize.

Several patents have been proposed for panel displays using two-frequency upconversion fluorescence. See for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,684,621; 5,764,403; 5,914,807; 5,943,160; and 5,956,172 all to Downing. The Downing '403 patent appears to be the most relevant to the subject invention. Downing '403 is primarily concerned with embodiments where the use of different layers for red, green and blue emitters, abstract, FIG. 6, and briefly describes some mixing of only crystal type materials in a single display media. However, for the single display media, Downing '403 uses nanometer sized particles, column 4, lines 33+, column 9, lines 42-45, which would inherently be difficult to form, handle and disperse in a display medium.

Other known patents such as U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,003,179 to Pollack; U.S. Pat. No. 5,051,278 to Paz-Pujalt; U.S. Pat. No. 5,154,962 to Mertens et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,245,623 to McFarlane; U.S. Pat. No. 5,622,807 to Cutler; U.S. Pat. No. 5,846,684 to Paz-Pujalt et al. also fail to overcome the problems with the other patents described above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The primary objective of this invention is to provide an inexpensive display medium for two and three dimensional displays.

The secondary objective of this invention is to provide a transparent polymer(plastic) containing particles doped with rare ions for use as display medium for two and three dimensional displays.

The third objective of this invention is to provide homogeneously dispersed compositions in a polymer composition without cracking or delamination

The fourth objective of this invention is to provide a display medium for the up conversion of near infrared light to the visible for two and three dimensional displays.

The fifth objective of this invention is to provide an inexpensive display medium that is versatile for various optical system applications.

The sixth objective of this invention is to provide homogeneously dispersed compositions in a polymer composition that can be used as plastic optical fiber amplifiers.

The invention can be used with up conversion displays with specific applications for two and three dimensional displays such as those described in parent patent applications Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, by the same assignee as the subject invention and of which is incorporated by reference.

A novel polymer composition for display mediums according to the subject invention can include a co-polymer composite of an alkyl material and a phosphonate material, and luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite, wherein the composition can be used for displays. The alkyl material can be an alkyl acrylate, and alkyl methacrylate. The phosphate material can be dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, and vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.

The composition can have a molar ratio of approximately 20% to approximately 95% acrylate material, and approximately 80% to approximately 5% phosphate material.

The luminescent metal ions can include rare earth compounds, and NaYF4:ErYb. The composite can be phosphorylated polymethyl methacrylate(p-PPMA).

The luminescent metal ions can include rare earth ions co-doped with Yb3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts. The doping ion can be Tm, Er, Ho, Nd, Pr, and Ce. The crystalline hosts can include NaYF4, KYF, YLF, and LuPO4.

A method of making a polymer composition is also disclosed and includes steps of forming a co-polymer from an alkyl material and a phosphonate material, and dispersing luminescent metal ions in the co-polymer without cracking and delaminating of the co-polymer.

Further objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of a presently preferred embodiment which is illustrated schematically in the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 shows the stabilization of the dispersed heavy element luminophores being accomplished through complexation with the phosphoryl moieties.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Before explaining the disclosed embodiment of the present invention in detail it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of the particular arrangement shown since the invention is capable of other embodiments. Also, the terminology used herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.

As previously described, the subject invention can be used with up conversion displays with specific applications for two and three dimensional displays such as those described in parent patent applications Ser. No. 09/448,657 filed Nov. 24, 1999, by the same assignee as the subject invention and of which is incorporated by reference.

The subject invention is for a class of luminescent polymer(plastic) composites for use in two and three dimensional luminescent displays. The polymer composite can contain phosphonate or phosphonic acid functional groups that complex the heavy metal luminophore, leading to a homogeneous dispersion of the luminophore. The polymer or plastic host facilitates formation of a stabilized luminescent, thermoplastic polymer composite that can be cast as conformal thin films, molded in sheets, conformal geometries, and the like. The conformal thin films can be plastic films that can be formed over any surface geometry, having thickness of approximately 1 mm to approximately 200 mm, and be formed from processes such as but not limited to spin coating, and the like. The molded Sheets can be Sheets of various thickness formed by melt processing, and the like, having thickness of approximately 0.1 mm to approximately 25 mm, and be formed from processes such as but not limited to melt processing, compression molding, and the like. The conformal geometries would include any geometry, planar or non planar.

The polymeric composites are prepared from commercially available materials and are low cost, and can include any acrylate material, any methacrylate, material, any styrene material, and the like. The low cost factor of these materials, can be approximately $20/kg.

FIG. 1 shows the stabilization of the dispersed heavy element luminophores being accomplished through complexation with the phosphoryl moieties.

Table 1 is a list of various crystals and co dopants and central wavelengths of the bands of visible emission detected following excitation with a diode laser source operating at 968 nm.

TABLE 1
Visible emission of Tm, Er and Ho after Yb excitation in different hosts
Doping ion Peak emission wavelength (nm)
Yb3+ + Crystal host blue green Red
Tm3+ NaYF4 450, 475 647, 698
KYF 481 652
YLF 483 648
LuPO4 475 649, 704
Er3+ NaYF4 411 540 660
KYF 550 654, 670
YLF 541, 549 654, 668
LuPO4 526, 550 657, 667
Ho3+ NaYF4 540 648
KYF 544 658

In Table 1, Yb3+ refers to ytterbium, Tm3+ refers to thulium, Er3+ refers to erbium, Ho3+ refers to holmium, NaYF4 refers to crystal sodium yttrium fluoride, and the supercript 3+ refers to the triply ionized state of the atom. Referring again to Table 1, KYF is short for KYF4 and refers to crystal, potassium yttrium fluoride. YLF is short for YliF4 and refers to the crystal, yttrium lithium fluoride. LuPO4 refers to the crystal, lutetium orthophosphate.

The crystals and dopants listed in Table 1 are illustrative of a few of the combinations that can be used. Other lanthanide(rare earth) atoms in the 3+ state can also be used as dopants. For example, Nd3+, Pr3+, Ce3+ and the like, can also be used. There can be other oxide and flouride crystals that can serve as host crystals. Transition metal dopants such as but not limited to Cr3+, Ti3+ and the like, can serve as dopants in these host crystals as well. Additionally, other crystals and activators that can be used for this invention can include those listed from pages 171 to page 311 listed in Laser Crystals by Alexander Kaminski,( Springer Verlag, N.Y.) SBN 0-387-09576-4, 1981. These crystals and their activators can include but are not limited to the following described activators and crystal combinations.

Activator Pr3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, Ca(NbO3)2, CaWO4, and SrMoO4.

Activator Nd3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, LiYO2, LiNbO3, LiNbP4O12, CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, LaF3, CeF3, NaF, NaCaYF6, NaCaCeF6, NaNdP4O12, YF3, CaYF, SrYF, CeO2, GdF3, YF3, LuF3, CdF2, KY(MoO4)2, KY(WO4)2, KNdP4O12, KGd(WO4)2, CaMg2Y2, CaAl4O7, CaAl12O19, CaSc2O4, Ca3(VO4)2, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, SrAl2O7, SrAl12O19, SrMoO4, SrWO4, Y2O3, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, Y2SiO5, YP5O14, Y3Sc2Al3O12, Y3Sc2Ga3O12, YVO4, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Lu)3Al5O12, Ba0.25Mg2.75Y2, LaBe2O5, La2O3, LaAlO3, LaP5O14, LaNbO4, CeP5O14, NdAl3(BO3)4, NdP5O14, Gd2O3, GdAlO3, GdP5O14, GdScO3, Gd3Sc2Al3O12, Gd3Sc2Ga3O12, Gd3Ga5O12, Gd2(MoO4)3, LuAlO3, Lu3Ga5O12, PbMoO4, Bi4Si3O12, Bi4Ge3O12, LiLa(MoO4)2, Li(Nd La)P4O12, Li(Nd, Gd)P4O12, LiGd(MoO4)2, NaLa(MoO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, Na3Nd(PO4)2, Na5Nd(WO4)2, Na3Gd(WO4)2, Na(Nd, Gd), Ka(MoO4)2, K3Nd(PO4)2, K3(Nd, La), K3Nd(MoO4)4, K5Bi(MoO4)4, CaY4(SiO4)3O, Ca0.25Ba0.75, CaLa4(SiO4)3O, CaLa(PO4)3O, CaGd4(SiO4)3O, YScO3, Y2Ti2O7, ZrO2—Y2O3, Ba2MgGe2O7, Ba2ZnGe2O7, (Nd, Sc)P5O14, (Nd, In)P5O14, (Nd, La)P5O14, (Nd, Gd)Al3, LuScO3, HfO2—Y2O3, Bi4(Si, Ge)3O12, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F, and La2O2S, CeCl3, Pb5(PO4)3F.

Activator Ho3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, Li(Y, Er)F4, LiNbO3, CaF2, LiHoF4, BaY2F8, Ba(Y,Er)2F8, HoF3, CaF2, YF3, ErF3, NaCaErF6, K(Y, Er)(WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, Y2SiO5, YVO4, Y3Fe5O12, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Er)Al3, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, LaNbO4, GdAlO3, Ho3Al5O12, Ho3Sc2Al3O12, Ho3Ga5O12, Er2O3, ErAlO3, Er2SiO5, Er3Sc2Al3O12, ErVO4, (Er, Tm, Yb)3, (Er, Lu)AlO3, Yb3Al5O12, LuAlO3, Lu3Al5O12, NaLa (MoO4)2, CaY4(SiO4)3O, SrY4(SiO4)3O, SrLa4(SiO4)3O, ZrO2—Er2O3, Ba2NaNb5O15, and Ca5(PO4)3F.

Activator Er3+ and crystals can include: LiYF4, LiErF4, CaF2, BaY2F8, Ba(Y,Er)2F8, LaF3, YF3, ErF3, K(Y, Er) (WO4)2, KGd(WO4)2, CaAl4O7, Ca(NbO3)2, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, GdAlO3, Er3Al5O12, (Er, Lu)3Al5O12, Yb3Al5O12, LuAlO3, and Lu3Al5O12.

Activator Ni2+ and crystals can include: MgF2, MnF2, and MgO. Activator V2+ and crystals can include: MgF2. Activator Co2+ and crystals can include: MgF2, KMgF2, and ZnF2. Activator Yb3+ and crystals can include: CaF2,:Nd3+, Y3Al5O12, Y3Ga5O12, (Y, Yb)3Al5O12, Gd3Sc2Al3O12, Gd3Ga5O12, (Yb, Lu)3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, Lu3Sc2Al3O12, and Lu3Ga5O12. Activator Sm2+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2. Activator Dy2+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2. Activator Dy3+ and crystals can include: Ba(Y,Er)2F8. Activator Tm2+ and crystals can include: CaF2.

Activator Tm3+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2, ErF3, NaCaErF6, LiNbO3, Ca(NbO3)2, CaMoO4, CaWO4, YAlO3, Y3Al5O12, YVO4, (Y, Er)Al3, (Y, Er)3Al5O12, GdAlO3, Er2O3, ErAlO3, Er3Al5O12, (Er, Yb)3Al5O12, (Er, Lu)AlO3, Lu3Al5O12, and ZrO2—Er2O3.

Activator U3+ and crystals can include: CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2. Activator Pr3+ and crystals can include: LaF3, LaCl3, LaBr3, PrCl3, and PrBr3. Activator Cr3+ and crystals can include: BeAl2O4, Al2O3, and Y3Al5O12. Activator Eu3+ and crystals can include: Y2O3, YVO4. Activator Gd3+ and crystals can include: Y3Al5O12.

Some of the dopant-host combinations can also emit useful infrared light through excitation by absorption of a single photon. This invention can also include systems that emit infrared light by this process of down-conversion(e.g. absorbing a high energy photon and emitting one of lower energy) as well as systems that are excited by such two photon processes as up-conversion(e.g. absorbing more than one low energy photons and emitting one or more higher energy photons).

Unprecedented doping levels of the heavy metal luminophore can be achieved whilst maintaining even dispersion of the luminophore. The physical and mechanical properties of the polymer composite can be tailored by controlling the monomer and luminophore dopant composition.

The polymer host can be comprised of a copolymer of alkyl acrylate or alkyl methacrylate and a dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate, alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester, or vinylbenzylphosphonic acid, as shown in FIG. 1. The ratios of the acrylate or methacrylate to the phosphonate can range from approximately 95:5 molar ratio to approximately 20:80 molar ratio, respectively. Luminescent heavy metal ions such as rare earth compounds(for example, NaYF4:ErYb) loading in the host polymer matrix can range from approximately 5 up to approximately 80 weight percent. Stabilization of the dispersed heavy element luminophores can be accomplished through complexation with the phosphoryl moieties, as shown in FIG. 1.

As described in the parent U.S. Patent applications previously cited, one can prepare the crystals as approximately 10 μm size particles and disperse them in a phosphorylated polymethylmethacrylate (p-PMMA) host. This results in a display medium that can be formed to any desired shape, can be transparent or not, as desired, and can be affixed to any desired substrate. Experiments have been conducted using several different rare earth ions co-doped with Yb3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts. The Yb3+ ions absorb light in a fairly broad band near approximately 975 nm in these crystals. They then can efficiently transfer the absorbed energy to levels of the co-dopant from which visible light can be emitted. This process, one in which sequential absorption of two photons of near infrared energy by donor ions which then transfer that energy to a single acceptor ion in such a manner as the acceptor can then emit visible light, is called up conversion.

An additional application of these composite materials can include their use as plastic optical fiber amplifiers, and the like.

While the invention has been described, disclosed, illustrated and shown in various terms of certain embodiments or modifications which it has presumed in practice, the scope of the invention is not intended to be, nor should it be deemed to be, limited thereby and such other modifications or embodiments as may be suggested by the teachings herein are particularly reserved especially as they fall within the breadth and scope of the claims here appended.

Claims (86)

1. A polymer composition for display mediums optical devices, comprising:
a co-polymer composite of an alkyl material and a phosphonate material; and
luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite, wherein the composition is used for displays .
2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the alkyl material includes:
alkyl acrylate.
3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the alkyl material includes:
alkyl methacrylate.
4. The composition of claim 1, wherein the phosphate material includes:
dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate.
5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the phosphate material includes:
alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester.
6. The composition of claim 1, wherein the phosphate material includes: vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composite has a molar ratio of:
approximately 20% to approximately 95% acrylate material; and
approximately 80% to approximately 5% phosphate material.
8. The composition of claim 1, wherein the luminescent metal ions include:
rare earth compounds.
9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the luminescent metal ions include:
NaYF4:ErYb.
10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the composite is:
phosphorylated polymethyl methacrylate (p-PPMA).
11. The composition of claim 1, wherein the luminescent metal ions include:
rare earth ions co-doped with Yb3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts.
12. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Tm.
13. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Er.
14. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Ho.
15. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Nd.
16. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Pr.
17. The composition of claim 11, wherein the doping ion further includes:
Ce.
18. The composition of claim 11, wherein the crystalline hosts include:
NaYF4.
19. The composition of claim 11, wherein the crystalline hosts include:
KYF.
20. The composition of claim 11, wherein the crystalline hosts include:
YLF.
21. The composition of claim 11, wherein the crystalline hosts include:
LuPO4.
22. A polymer composition for optical applications, comprising:
a co-polymer composite host of an alkyl material and a phosponate phosphonate material; and
luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite host without cracking and delamination of the composite host, wherein the composition is used for optical applications.
23. A method of making a polymer composition, comprising the steps of:
forming a co-polymer from an alkyl material and a phosphonate material; and
dispersing luminescent metal ions in the co-polymer without cracking and delaminating of the co-polymer.
24. A display comprising a polymer composition comprising a co-polymer composite of an alkyl material and a phosphonate material; and luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite.
25. The display of claim 24, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl acrylate.
26. The display of claim 24, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl methacrylate.
27. The display of claim 24, wherein the phosphonate material includes: dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate.
28. The display of claim 24, wherein the phosphonate material includes: alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester.
29. The display of claim 24, wherein the phosphonate material includes: vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
30. The display of claim 24, wherein the composite has a molar ratio of: approximately 20% to approximately 95 % acrylate material; and approximately 80 % to approximately 5 % phosphonate material.
31. The display of claim 24, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth compounds.
32. The display of claim 24, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: NaYF4 :ErYb.
33. The display of claim 24, wherein the composite is: phosphorylated polymethyl methacrylate (p-PPMA).
34. The display of claim 24, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth ions co-doped with Yb 3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts.
35. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Tm.
36. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Er.
37. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ho.
38. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Nd.
39. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Pr.
40. The display of claim 34, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ce.
41. The display of claim 34, wherein the crystalline hosts include: NaYF4.
42. The display of claim 34, wherein the crystalline hosts include: KYF.
43. The display of claim 34, wherein the crystalline hosts include: YLF.
44. The display of claim 34, wherein the crystalline hosts include: LuPO4.
45. An optical system comprising a polymer composition comprising a co-polymer composite of an alkyl material and a phosphonate material; and luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite.
46. The system of claim 45, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl acrylate.
47. The system of claim 45, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl methacrylate.
48. The system of claim 45, wherein the phosphonate material includes: dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate.
49. The system of claim 45, wherein the phosphonate material includes: alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester.
50. The system of claim 45, wherein the phosphonate material includes: vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
51. The system of claim 45, wherein the composite has a molar ratio of: approximately 20% to approximately 95 % acrylate material; and approximately 80 % to approximately 5 % phosphonate material.
52. The system of claim 45, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth compounds.
53. The system of claim 45, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: NaYF4 :ErYb.
54. The system of claim 45, wherein the composite is: phosphorylated polymethyl methacrylate (p-PPMA).
55. The system of claim 45, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth ions co-doped with Yb 3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts.
56. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Tm.
57. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Er.
58. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ho.
59. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Nd.
60. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Pr.
61. The system of claim 55, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ce.
62. The system of claim 55, wherein the crystalline hosts include: NaYF4.
63. The system of claim 55, wherein the crystalline hosts include: KYF.
64. The system of claim 55, wherein the crystalline hosts include: YLF.
65. The system of claim 55, wherein the crystalline hosts include: LuPO4.
66. An optical fiber amplifier comprising a polymer system comprising a co-polymer composite of an alkyl material and a phosphonate material; and luminescent metal ions dispersed in the composite.
67. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl acrylate.
68. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the alkyl material includes: alkyl methacrylate.
69. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the phosphonate material includes: dialkyl vinylbenzylphosphonate.
70. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the phosphonate material includes: alkyl vinylbenzylphosphonic acid monoester.
71. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the phosphonate material includes: vinylbenzylphosphonic acid.
72. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the composite has a molar ratio of: approximately 20% to approximately 95 % acrylate material; and approximately 80 % to approximately 5 % phosphonate material.
73. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth compounds.
74. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: NaYF4 :ErYb.
75. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the composite is: phosphorylated polymethyl methacrylate (p-PPMA).
76. The amplifier of claim 66, wherein the luminescent metal ions include: rare earth ions co-doped with Yb 3+ in fluoride and orthophosphate crystalline hosts.
77. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Tm.
78. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Er.
79. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ho.
80. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Nd.
81. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Pr.
82. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the doping ion further includes: Ce.
83. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the crystalline hosts include: NaYF4.
84. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the crystalline hosts include: KYF.
85. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the crystalline hosts include: YLF.
86. The amplifier of claim 76, wherein the crystalline hosts include: LuPO4.
US11655816 1998-11-25 2007-01-18 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts Active USRE42076E1 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10983798 true 1998-11-25 1998-11-25
US09448657 US6327074B1 (en) 1998-11-25 1999-11-24 Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US09919130 US6844387B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-07-31 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts
US11655816 USRE42076E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2007-01-18 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US11655816 USRE42076E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2007-01-18 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts

Related Parent Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US09919130 Reissue US6844387B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2001-07-31 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE42076E1 true USRE42076E1 (en) 2011-01-25

Family

ID=44653701

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US11655816 Active USRE42076E1 (en) 1998-11-25 2007-01-18 Composites of inorganic luminophores stabilized in polymer hosts

Country Status (1)

Country Link
US (1) USRE42076E1 (en)

Citations (31)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448547A (en) 1977-12-07 1984-05-15 Luxtron Corporation Optical temperature measurement technique utilizing phosphors
US4791415A (en) 1985-01-29 1988-12-13 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Digial driving type color display device
US4871231A (en) 1987-10-16 1989-10-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Three dimensional color display and system
US4978888A (en) 1989-07-18 1990-12-18 Thomas Electronics Incorporated Thick-film integrated flat fluorescent lamp
US5003179A (en) * 1990-05-01 1991-03-26 Hughes Aircraft Company Full color upconversion display
US5051278A (en) * 1989-07-10 1991-09-24 Eastman Kodak Company Method of forming metal fluoride films by the decomposition of metallo-organic compounds in the presence of a fluorinating agent
US5142388A (en) 1987-11-10 1992-08-25 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Color display device having liquid crystal cell and fluorescent display with two different luminous sections
US5154962A (en) * 1988-11-30 1992-10-13 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Indicia-receptive low adhesion backsize
US5184114A (en) 1982-11-04 1993-02-02 Integrated Systems Engineering, Inc. Solid state color display system and light emitting diode pixels therefor
US5192946A (en) 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5245623A (en) * 1991-12-02 1993-09-14 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared-to-visible upconversion display system and method operable at room temperature
US5317348A (en) 1992-12-01 1994-05-31 Knize Randall J Full color solid state laser projector system
US5359345A (en) 1992-08-05 1994-10-25 Cree Research, Inc. Shuttered and cycled light emitting diode display and method of producing the same
US5583393A (en) 1994-03-24 1996-12-10 Fed Corporation Selectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith
US5622807A (en) * 1994-11-14 1997-04-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Phosphor film composition for use in image capture
US5746942A (en) 1996-01-31 1998-05-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Erbium-doped low phonon hosts as sources of fluorescent emission
US5786102A (en) 1994-01-25 1998-07-28 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5801792A (en) 1995-12-13 1998-09-01 Swz Engineering Ltd. High resolution, high intensity video projection cathode ray tube provided with a cooled reflective phosphor screen support
US5956172A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-09-21 3D Technology Laboratories, Inc. System and method using layered structure for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US5985990A (en) * 1995-12-29 1999-11-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Use of pendant free-radically polymerizable moieties with polar polymers to prepare hydrophilic pressure sensitive adhesive compositions
US5989799A (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-11-23 Agfa-Gevaert. N.V. Radiographic UV/blue intensifying screen-film combination
US6028977A (en) 1995-11-13 2000-02-22 Moriah Technologies, Inc. All-optical, flat-panel display system
US6061179A (en) 1996-01-23 2000-05-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Stereoscopic image display apparatus with two-/three-dimensional image display switching function
US6117529A (en) 1996-12-18 2000-09-12 Gunther Leising Organic electroluminescence devices and displays
US6128131A (en) 1997-11-13 2000-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Scaleable tiled flat-panel projection color display
US6276801B1 (en) 1994-08-04 2001-08-21 Digital Projection Limited Display system
US6501590B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2002-12-31 University Of Central Florida Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US6654161B2 (en) * 1998-11-25 2003-11-25 University Of Central Florida Dispersed crystallite up-conversion displays
US6897999B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-05-24 The Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida Optically written display
US7075707B1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2006-07-11 Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida, Incorporated Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US7101061B2 (en) 2002-10-17 2006-09-05 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Light emission apparatus

Patent Citations (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4448547A (en) 1977-12-07 1984-05-15 Luxtron Corporation Optical temperature measurement technique utilizing phosphors
US5184114A (en) 1982-11-04 1993-02-02 Integrated Systems Engineering, Inc. Solid state color display system and light emitting diode pixels therefor
US4791415A (en) 1985-01-29 1988-12-13 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Digial driving type color display device
US4871231A (en) 1987-10-16 1989-10-03 Texas Instruments Incorporated Three dimensional color display and system
US5142388A (en) 1987-11-10 1992-08-25 Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K. Color display device having liquid crystal cell and fluorescent display with two different luminous sections
US5154962A (en) * 1988-11-30 1992-10-13 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Indicia-receptive low adhesion backsize
US5192946A (en) 1989-02-27 1993-03-09 Texas Instruments Incorporated Digitized color video display system
US5051278A (en) * 1989-07-10 1991-09-24 Eastman Kodak Company Method of forming metal fluoride films by the decomposition of metallo-organic compounds in the presence of a fluorinating agent
US4978888A (en) 1989-07-18 1990-12-18 Thomas Electronics Incorporated Thick-film integrated flat fluorescent lamp
US5003179A (en) * 1990-05-01 1991-03-26 Hughes Aircraft Company Full color upconversion display
US5245623A (en) * 1991-12-02 1993-09-14 Hughes Aircraft Company Infrared-to-visible upconversion display system and method operable at room temperature
US5359345A (en) 1992-08-05 1994-10-25 Cree Research, Inc. Shuttered and cycled light emitting diode display and method of producing the same
US5317348A (en) 1992-12-01 1994-05-31 Knize Randall J Full color solid state laser projector system
US5846684A (en) * 1994-01-25 1998-12-08 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5786102A (en) 1994-01-25 1998-07-28 Eastman Kodak Company Device for converting invisible and visible radiation to visible light and/or UV radiation
US5583393A (en) 1994-03-24 1996-12-10 Fed Corporation Selectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith
US6276801B1 (en) 1994-08-04 2001-08-21 Digital Projection Limited Display system
US5622807A (en) * 1994-11-14 1997-04-22 Hewlett-Packard Company Phosphor film composition for use in image capture
US5956172A (en) 1995-05-08 1999-09-21 3D Technology Laboratories, Inc. System and method using layered structure for three-dimensional display of information based on two-photon upconversion
US6028977A (en) 1995-11-13 2000-02-22 Moriah Technologies, Inc. All-optical, flat-panel display system
US5801792A (en) 1995-12-13 1998-09-01 Swz Engineering Ltd. High resolution, high intensity video projection cathode ray tube provided with a cooled reflective phosphor screen support
US5985990A (en) * 1995-12-29 1999-11-16 3M Innovative Properties Company Use of pendant free-radically polymerizable moieties with polar polymers to prepare hydrophilic pressure sensitive adhesive compositions
US6061179A (en) 1996-01-23 2000-05-09 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Stereoscopic image display apparatus with two-/three-dimensional image display switching function
US5746942A (en) 1996-01-31 1998-05-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Erbium-doped low phonon hosts as sources of fluorescent emission
US6117529A (en) 1996-12-18 2000-09-12 Gunther Leising Organic electroluminescence devices and displays
US5989799A (en) * 1997-07-11 1999-11-23 Agfa-Gevaert. N.V. Radiographic UV/blue intensifying screen-film combination
US6128131A (en) 1997-11-13 2000-10-03 Eastman Kodak Company Scaleable tiled flat-panel projection color display
US6501590B2 (en) 1998-11-25 2002-12-31 University Of Central Florida Display medium using emitting particles dispersed in a transparent host
US6654161B2 (en) * 1998-11-25 2003-11-25 University Of Central Florida Dispersed crystallite up-conversion displays
US6897999B1 (en) 1998-11-25 2005-05-24 The Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida Optically written display
US7075707B1 (en) * 1998-11-25 2006-07-11 Research Foundation Of The University Of Central Florida, Incorporated Substrate design for optimized performance of up-conversion phosphors utilizing proper thermal management
US7101061B2 (en) 2002-10-17 2006-09-05 Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Light emission apparatus

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Alexander A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, vol. 14, p. 170-311, Springer Series in Optical Science, 1981. *

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Blasse et al. Investigations on Bi3+‐activated phosphors
US4038204A (en) Alkaline-earth metal halophosphate luminescent composition activated by divalent europium and method of preparing same
US3322682A (en) Rare earth oxide and vanadate phosphors
US7474286B2 (en) Laser displays using UV-excitable phosphors emitting visible colored light
US7060371B2 (en) Mechanoluminescence material, producing method thereof, and usage thereof
US6753649B1 (en) Plasma picture screen with UV light reflecting front plate coating
Page et al. Upconversion-pumped luminescence efficiency of rare-earth-doped hosts sensitized with trivalent ytterbium
US3507804A (en) Method of coprecipitating mixed rare-earth orthophosphates suitable for making phosphor
Dorenbos Systematic behaviour in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies
US5898720A (en) Optical element
Sun et al. New phosphor (Gd 2− x Zn x) O 3− δ: Eu 3+ with high luminescent efficiency and superior chromaticity
Tanabe et al. Excited-state absorption mechanisms in red-laser-pumped uv and blue upconversions in Tm 3+-doped fluoroaluminate glass
US5240885A (en) Rare earth-doped, stabilized cadmium halide glasses
US20090050847A1 (en) Stress-Stimulated Luminescent Material, Manufacturing Method Thereof, Composite Material Including the Stress-Stimulated Luminescent Material, and Base Material Structure of the Stress-Stimulated Luminescent Material
Rico et al. Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb: NaGd (WO 4) 2
JP2005112922A (en) Oxynitride phosphor
Blasse Chemistry and physics of R-activated phosphors
US5670839A (en) Thin-film luminescence device utilizing Zn.sub.(1-x) Mgx S host material compound activated by gadolinium or a gadolinium compound
US5543237A (en) Inorganic thin film electroluminescent device having an emission layer
Kim et al. Phosphors for plasma display panels
US20110141150A1 (en) Display screens having optical fluorescent materials
Ballato et al. Display applications of rare-earth-doped materials
US3905912A (en) Rare earth activated hafnium phosphate luminescent materials
US5156764A (en) Phosphor
US7959827B2 (en) Persistent phosphor

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 8

FPAY Fee payment

Year of fee payment: 12