New! View global litigation for patent families

USRE31395E - Aluminum polishing compositions - Google Patents

Aluminum polishing compositions Download PDF

Info

Publication number
USRE31395E
USRE31395E US06312482 US31248281A USRE31395E US RE31395 E USRE31395 E US RE31395E US 06312482 US06312482 US 06312482 US 31248281 A US31248281 A US 31248281A US RE31395 E USRE31395 E US RE31395E
Authority
US
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
acid
etch
solution
polishing
ring
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
US06312482
Inventor
Terence R. Rooney
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Albright and Wilson Ltd
Original Assignee
Albright and Wilson Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Grant date

Links

Images

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23FNON-MECHANICAL REMOVAL OF METALLIC MATERIAL FROM SURFACE; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL; MULTI-STEP PROCESSES FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL INVOLVING AT LEAST ONE PROCESS PROVIDED FOR IN CLASS C23 AND AT LEAST ONE PROCESS COVERED BY SUBCLASS C21D OR C22F OR CLASS C25
    • C23F3/00Brightening metals by chemical means
    • C23F3/02Light metals
    • C23F3/03Light metals with acidic solutions

Abstract

Aluminium polishing solutions containing phosphoric, nitric and sulphuric acids provide etched finishes if the proportion of sulphuric acid is increased. The invention inhibits such etching by addition to the bath of an aromatic ring compound, in which at least 2 hetero atoms are conjugated with the ring such as benztriazole. .Iadd.

Description

This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 134,758 filed Mar. 28, 1980, now abandoned, which, in turn, is an application for Reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 4,116,699, issued Sept. 26, 1978. .Iaddend.

The present invention relates to aluminium polishing compositions of the type which comprise a mixture of phosphoric and nitric acid and in particular those which additionally contain sulphuric acid.

The use of compositions of the above type is well known. Typically the essential ingredients are phosphoric and nitric acids, but because of the high cost of phosphoric acid it has been often found commercially advantageous to substitute cheaper sulphuric acid for a part of the phosphoric acid.

Typical polishing compositions of this type comprise about 70-76% by weight of phosphoric acid (specific gravity=1.75) about 15-20% concentrated sulphuric acid, about 5% concentrated nitric acid (specific gravity 1.50). Polishing baths also contain a small amount e.g. about 0.1% of heavy metal, which has been found necessary to provide a bright, attractive finish. Generally the heavy metal may be copper, nickel or iron, however in baths containing a substantial amount of sulphuric acid, the use of copper has been found essential. The compositions may also conveniently contain a small amount of boric acid and a wetting agent. Ammonium and substituted ammonium ions have also been included in aluminium polishing solutions to inhibit fuming.

It would be economically advantageous to increase the proportion of sulphuric acid, but a particular problem, common to phosphoric/sulphuric/nitric acid polishing compositions has prevented the commercial introduction of any composition containing more than about 24% by weight of sulphuric acid i.e. one part by weight of commercial concentrated (s.g. 1.84) sulphuric acid to three parts concentrated (s.g. 1.75) phosphoric acid. This problem is called "transfer etch".

Transfer etch occurs when the polished work is removed from the polishing bath and drained preparatory to being transferred to the next treatment stage (usually a rinsing stage). If the work is allowed to drain for too long, an unsightly, white, etched effect mars the surface of the work. In baths containing a high proportion of phosphoric acid the onset of transfer etch is generally sufficiently slow for it to be practical to transfer work before significant etching can occur. However, if the proportion of sulphuric acid is increased, the onset of transfer etch becomes more rapid, shortening the permissible time available for transferring the work until eventually it is impossible in practice to polish the work without a quite unacceptable degree of etching. Generally transfer etch becomes a serious problem when the proportion of sulphuric acid to phosphoric acid in the bath exceeds about 1:3 (measured as parts by weight of the commercial, concentrated acids).

We have now discovered that certain aromatic organic compounds have a beneficial effect in reducing the occurrence of transfer etch in aluminium polishing solutions. The presence of such etch inhibitors therefore permits the proportion of sulphuric acid in an aluminium polishing solution to be substantially increased.

Our invention therefore provides an aluminium polishing solution comprising phosphoric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid and dissolved copper, which additionally comprises as an etch inhibitor, an organic compound comprising an aromatic ring having at least two hetero atoms conjugated therewith.

The etch inhibitor may be any aromatic ring compound (including heteroaromatic rings) which has at least two hetero atoms in or conjugated with the aromatic ring. The aromatic ring is preferably a benzene ring but may alternatively be a naphthalene ring or a pyridine, pyrazine or other heteroaromatic ring. The heteroatoms are preferably nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur atoms having electron pairs conjugated with the aromatic ring.

Because of the aggressive nature of the polishing solution with its strongly acidic and nitrating character, the etch inhibitor effectively present in the solution must be sufficiently stable to withstand such a hostile medium. This we have found is sufficiently achieved by the presence of an aromatic ring system with its resonance stabilised structure. The resonance must extend to cover at least two hetero atoms which are capable of forming complexes and which are conjugated (or conjugable) in or with the ring. However, in view of the chemically active nature of solution, the etch inhibitor effectively present in the composition will in many instances differ appreciably from the compound originally added. Any compound which is converted by the medium to provide an etch inhibitor as hereinbefore defined may be used as a precursor. For example compounds which possess the essential ring nucleus together with oxidisable, or similarly vulnerable substituent groups may be used, if in practice the unstable substituents are destroyed to leave the effective nucleus with its conjugated hetero atoms. The hetero atoms may form part of any group which does not preclude them from conjugating with, or as part of, the aromatic ring. The nitration of the aromatic nucleus by the medium has not been found to have an adverse effect on the performance of the etch inhibitor. For example, when benztriazole, one of our preferred etch inhibitors, is added to the composition, the initial reddish colour is gradually replaced by a green colouration associated with the nitration of the benztriazole, but the performance of the etch inhibitor is not impaired.

The hetero atom may be part of an amino or imino group, hydroxyl group, the keto group of a quinone, or a heterocyclic ring, such as triazole, thiazole or thiadiazole ring.

Preferably the etch inhibitor has a benzene or benzo ring fused to a heterocyclic ring, e.g. a five membered heterocyclic ring, for example, benztriazole. ##STR1## is particularly effective. Substituted benztriazoles in which the benzene nucleus is substituted with for example, hydroxy, alkoxy, amino, nitro, or alkyl groups are also operative as are halo-substituted benztriazoles. Other triazole compounds which may be used include naphthalene triazole and naphthalene bistriazole.

Benzofuroxan ##STR2## and substituted benzofuroxans such as nitro, hydroxy alkoxy, amino, alkyl or halo benzofuroxans are also highly effective. Other compounds which are particularly effective include benzthiadiazole ##STR3## substituted benzthiadiazoles, benzthiazole and substituted benzthiazoles including benzthiazoles of the formula ##STR4## where R is hydrogen or an alkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, amino, mercapto, alkyl sulphide or other group, e.g. 2-mercapto benzthiazole. Benzimidazole and substituted benzimdazoles of the formula ##STR5## where R has the same significance as previously, are effective as are benzimidazoles having substituents on the benzene ring. Benzoxazole, substituted benzoxazoles of the formula ##STR6## where R has the same significance as before the nuclear substituted benzoxazoles are similarly effective as etch inhibitors.

Di and poly substituted benzenes in which at least two substituent groups are selected from amino, nitro, hydroxy and alkoxy groups are effective, such as o. phenylene diamine, o. amino phenol, m. phenylene diamine, catechol, dinitrobenzene. Similarly di- and poly-substituted naphthalenes, such as tetra amino naphthalenes are effective. Diaminonaphthalenes would doubtless be effective but have been avoided because of the risks of carcinogenic action o. and p. benzoquinone and their mono and di imines are effective, and so are heteroaromatic compounds containing one or more hetero atom in an aromatic ring system, such as, for example, hetero-substituted pyridines, pyrazine, substituted pyrazines and melamine.

From the foregoing it will be apparent that a very great variety of compounds will be effective as etch inhibitors according to our invention. In many instances the foregoing compounds will undergo chemical changes in the solution e.g. nitration, oxidation or coupling to form azo compounds, so that the effective etch inhibitor present in the solution may differ from the compound added to the composition. For this reason it is often possible to inhibit transfer etch by adding to the composition a compound which is not itself an etch inhibitor as defined above, but which is a precursor, converted to an etch inhibitor in situ by the acidic medium.

Effective etch inhibitors are readily identified by the presence of an aromatic ring system (usually, but not essentially, a six carbon ring) which is stable in the highly acidic medium, and at least two hetero atoms conjugated or conjugable with the ring. An aromatic system is essential for stability in the aggressive polishing solution. Compounds lacking an aromatic ring system, such as thiazole, thiadiazole, dimercaptothiadiazole or triazole are ineffective, probably due to instability in the medium. At least two hetero atoms, preferably nitrogen, oxygen or sulphur, especially nitrogen, stabilised by conjugation with ring, are necessary, probably to provide chelating power.

The etch inhibitor is preferably present in a proportion of from 0.05% by weight up to 0.7% or higher. Proportions above 0.5%, although not harmful, are usually unnecessary and therefore undesirable on commercial grounds. Proportions less than 0.05% usually give insufficient inhibition of transfer etch. Generally it is desirable to use higher proportions of the etch inhibitor in baths which have been used for some time, than are necessary in freshly prepared baths. For example, baths containing less than about 30 gm per liter dissolved aluminium work satisfactorily with from 2 to 4 gm per liter of etch inhibitor, while baths containing more than 30 gm per liter aluminium may conveniently contain from 4 to 6 gm per liter of the etch inhibitor.

The proportion of nitric acid in the baths of our invention may typically be the same as in conventional aluminium polishing baths, e.g. 3 to 10% by volume as concentrated (s.g.=1.42) nitric acid, or from 1.2 to 4.2% by weight of 100% nitric acid. It is preferred to adjust the proportion of nitric acid in accordance with the aluminium content of the solution. Typically a freshly prepared bath is in the upper part and fully aged bath (at equilibrium) is in the lower part, of a preferred range of from 4 to 8% v/v concentrated acid. Preferably the proportion of 100% nitric acid is 1.6 to 3.5% by weight and most preferably between 2.4 and 3.1%. The proportion of phosphoric to sulphuric acid in the baths of our invention may be as low as 1:2 by weight, measured as the commercial concentrated acids i.e. .[.40% P2 O5 .]. phosphoric acid (s.g.=1.75) and 98% sulphuric acid (s.g. 1.84). Lower proportions are preferably avoided due to the risk of reducing the sulphuric acid, giving rise to fumes of SO2 and H2 S, the deposition of sulphur on the work, and the precipitation of copper sulphide.

The maximum is not critical and may for example be up to 3:1 or even higher. However such high proportions are undesirable on econimic grounds. Moreover, transfer etch is not such a serious problem at high phosphoric acid levels. We therefore prefer to employ proportions of phosphoric to sulphuric less than 3:1, e.g. 1.5 to 1:1.5, preferably 1.2:1 to 1:1.2, typically 1:1. Sulphuric and phosphoric acid together usually constitute at least 90%, preferably at least 93% e.g. at least 95% of the weight of the composition.

The proportion of water is not critical and is usually below 5% by weight. If the composition is formulated in the usual way, using the ordinary technical, concentrated phosphoric, nitric and sulphuric acids, which contain small amounts of water, it is not normally necessary to add any further water. However if the proportion of phosphoric acid is high and/or the aluminium content rises to a high level, it may be necessary to add water to prevent the precipitation of aluminium phosphate. If the proportion of water is too high, there is a decline in specularity. Accordingly it is preferred to add the minimum amount of water required to prevent precipitation of aluminium phosphate, whilst maintaining good specularity.

The baths of our invention contain copper as an essential ingredient, e.g. in a proportion of up to 0.2% by weight, preferably 0.01% to 0.16%, most preferably 0.1 to 0.15%. The copper may conveniently be introduced by adding a copper salt, preferably of one of the acid anions of the system, for example from 1 to 10 g per liter, preferably 4 to 5 g per liter of hydrated copper sulphate.

Polishing baths of the present invention may optionally contain ammonium or substituted ammonium ions, in order to reduce fuming. For example, the bath may contain between 0.05 and 0.75 molar of ammonium or substituted ammonium ions preferably 0.2 to 0.4 molar. The concentration may conveniently be increased to excess of 0.75 molar, or 100 gpl expressed as (NH4)2 SO4, in replenishing solutions in order to maintain the concentration of ammonium or substituted ammonium ion in the bath at its optimum working level. The ammonium or substituted ammonium ion is preferably added as the ammonium salt if one of the acid components of the bath, e.g. ammonium sulphate or diammonium phosphate. Compositions of our invention may also optionally contain some boric acid.

In addition to the foregoing components, polishing baths conventionally contain wetting agents, and these are also preferably presebt in our novel bath. Any of the wetting agents used hitherto in polishing baths may be employed for example, non-ionic surfactants, such as alkyl polyethers. The wetting agent is normally present in trace quantities of for example up to 0.01% although higher proportions may be used.

After a period of use the bath also accumulates dissolved aluminium, which typically rises to an equilibrium valve, when fresh dissolution of aluminium in the bath is balanced by dragout losses. The equilibrium value depends to some extent upon the conditions of the operation of the bath but under normal conditions is about 30 gms--50 gms aluminium per liter of solution.

The normal operating temperature of our novel baths is about 90° C. to 115° C.

Our novel baths may be used to polish aluminium and a wide variety of aluminium containing alloys.

The work is typically immersed for from 0.5 to 5 minutes, depending on the alloy, most usually about 3 minutes.

It is also possible to use our novel solutions for electropolishing. The work, usually after a preliminary period of immersion in the bath, is made anodic with respect to the tank containing the bath or a separate electrode immersed in the bath.

The bath may be maintained by periodic topping up with fresh solution to replace drag out losses. Occasional additions of nitric acid or water to make good losses due to evaporation may be required.

The invention will be illustrated by the following examples:

EXAMPLE 1

A chemical polishing solution was prepared containing 45% w/w H3 PO4 (1.75 s.g.), 50% w/w H2 SO4 (1.84 s.g.), 1.5% w/w diammonium phosphate, 0.25% w/w copper sulphate, 2% nitric acid (1.50 s.g), the rest being water. The bath was aged to 30 gpl Al by dissolving aluminium and the nitric acid content readjusted to 2% w/w. Components of HE9 alloy and BA 211 bright trim alloy were polished in this bath for 3 minutes at 100° C. and subjected to various drainage times before rinsing in hot water. It was found that at drainage times greater than ten seconds a grey `transfer etch` appeared on the upper surface of components and could not be removed in 50% nitric acid desmutting solution.

To the above polishing solution 3 g per liter benztriazole was added and the tests carried out again. Transfer etch appeared only after a drainage time of 25 to 30 seconds, in contrast to the above solution without benztriazole. The solution was used for polishing until the aluminium content rose to 35 gpl and a further 2 gpl benztriazole was added. This solution continued to give good results and no loss of benztriazole could be detected. The solution was maintained in the usual way by adding fresh polishing solution and nitric acid as required. The replenishing solution contained 5 gpl benztriazole.

EXAMPLE 2

Composition of polishing solution employed:

______________________________________Constituent     w/w %______________________________________H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 s.g. 1.75           56.0H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 s.g. 1.84           38.5HNO.sub.3 s.g. 1.50           3.4CuSO.sub.4 SH.sub.2 O           0.25H.sub.2 O       1.85s.g. after ageing--1.80______________________________________

Samples of this composition were aged, i.e. their aluminium contents were raised to 30 g/l Al, a typical concentration found in working aluminium chemical polishing solutions.

A sample of the aged polishing solution was heated to 105° C. and adjusted to the optimum nitric acid content of 3% W/W SG 1.50 acid. Test pieces of an aluminium alloy suitable for chemical polishing (BA 211) were treated for 2 minutes by immersion in the solution whilst gently agitated. These test pieces were drained in air for (i) <1 second and (ii) 30 seconds before rinsing. The short draining time was too short for the transfer etch to manifest itself and was taken as a standard that the particular solution sample was performing satisfactorily. A transfer time of 30 seconds is the longest used in commercial practice and in solutions of the above composition produced a complete coating of light grey transfer etch over the whole surface of the test piece.

The compound to be tested was added to the sample in increments of 1 gpl and between such addition, after complete dissolution, test pieces were treated as above and drained in air for 30 seconds before rinsing in water. The efficiency of the compound at each concentration was estimated by visual estimation of the proportion of the area of the test piece covered with transfer etch to the nearest 10%. Additions were carried on until:

(i) 100% removal of transfer etch was obtained;

(ii) The transfer etch reached a minimum which was not reduced by subsequent additions;

(iii) No effect was observed in reducing transfer etch and additions totalled 10 gpl.

1, 2, 3 Benztriazole itself has been tested up to 50 gpl without any further effect upon performance being observed after complete suppression of transfer etch at 5 gpl.

The compounds are listed in decreasing order of image clarity (specular brightness) of the finish and increasing order of transfer etch.

______________________________________                             % Reduction                    Concen-  In TransferCompound Formula         tration  Etch______________________________________1,2,3, benztriazole     ##STR7##       5 gpl    100%benzofuroxan     ##STR8##       2 gpl    100%2-1-3-benzo- thiadiazole     ##STR9##       2 gpl    100%o-phenylene- diamine     ##STR10##      1 gpl    90%m-phenylene- diamine     ##STR11##      1 gpl    90%catechol     ##STR12##      1 gpl    90%o-amino- phenol     ##STR13##      1 gpl    90%2-mercapto- benzthiazole     ##STR14##      1 gpl    90%2-mercapto- benz- imidazole     ##STR15##      1 gpl    80%2-mercapto- benzoxazole     ##STR16##      1 gpl    70%melamine     ##STR17##      4 gpl    60%Comparative Example1,2,4-triazole     ##STR18##      10 gpl    0%2,5-dimercap- to-1,3,4-thia- diazole     ##STR19##      10 gpl    0%pentamethyl- ene tetrazole     ##STR20##      10 gpl    0%______________________________________

Claims (11)

We claim:
1. An aluminum polishing solution consisting essentially of
(a) phosphoric and sulphuric acid in a relative proportion of from 1.5 to 1:1.5, measured as .[.40 percent P2 O5 .]. phosphoric acid .Iadd.having a specific gravity of 1.75 .Iaddend.and 98 percent sulphuric acid and together constituting at least 90 percent of the total composition;
(b) nitric acid in a proportion by weight of from 1.2 to 4.2 percent as 100 percent nitric acid;
(c) dissolved copper in a concentration of from 0.01 to 0.2 percent by weight;
(d) dissolved aluminum in a concentration of between zero and saturation;
(e) from 0.05 percent to 0.7 percent by weight of an organic etch inhibitor which is a bath soluble organic compound having an aromatic ring selected from the group consisting of benzene, naphthalene, benzoquinone, pyridine, pyrazine, and melamine rings and at least 2 hetero atoms selected from the group constituting nitrogen oxygen and sulphur atoms conjugated with said aromatic ring; and
(f) the balance substantially of water.
2. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 wherein the etch inhibitor is an aromatic organic compound having an aromatic 6-carbon ring and at least 2 hetero atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur conjugated with said ring.
3. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 2 wherein the hetero atoms are present in any member of the group selected from amino-, imino-, hydroxy-, alkoxy- and quinone groups and a heterocyclic ring.
4. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 wherein the etch inhibitor is selected from unsubstituted and nitro-, hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, mercapto-, alkyl- and halo, substituted members of the group consisting of benzofuroxan, benzthiadiazole, benzthiazole, benzoxazole, and benzimidazole.
5. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 wherein the etch inhibitor is a substituted benzene having at least 2 substituent groups selected from the group consisting of amino-, nitro-, hydroxy-, and alkoxy groups.
6. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 wherein the etch inhibitor is a benzoquinone, or imine thereof.
7. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 containing from 0.05 to 0.75 molar ammonia.
8. An aluminum polishing solution as claimed in claim 1 wherein said proportion of phosphoric acid to sulphuric acid is from 1.2:1 to 1:1.2.
9. An aluminum polishing solution consisting essentially of
(a) phosphoric and sulphuric acid in a relative proportion of from 1:2 to 3:1, measured as .[.40 percent P2 O5 .]. phosphoric acid .Iadd.having a specific gravity of 1.75 .Iaddend.and 98 percent sulphuric acid and together constituting at least 90 percent of the total composition;
(b) nitric acid in a proportion by weight of from 1.2 to 4.2 percent as 100 percent nitric acid;
(c) dissolved copper in a concentration of from 0.01 to 0.2 percent by weight;
(d) dissolved aluminum in a concentration of between zero and saturation;
(e) from 0.05 percent to 0.7 percent by weight of an organic etch inhibitor which is a bath soluble organic compound having an aromatic ring selected from the group consisting of hydroxy-, amino-, alkoxy-, nitro-, alkyl-, and halo- substituted benztriazoles; and
(f) the balance substantially of water. .[.
10. An aluminium polishing solution as claimed in claim 9 wherein the etch inhibitor is benztriazole..].
11. An aluminum polishing solution as claimed in claim 9 wherein the proportion of phosphoric acid to sulphuric acid is from 1.5:1 to 1:1.5, and wherein said solution contains from 0.05 to 0.75 molar ammonia. .Iadd. 12. An aluminum polishing solution as claimed in claim 9 wherein said solution contains from 0.05 to 0.75 molar ammonia. .Iaddend..Iadd. 13. An aluminum polishing solution consisting essentially of
(a) phosphoric and sulphuric acid in a relative proportion of from 1:2 to 3:1, measured as phosphoric acid having a specific gravity of 1.75 and 98 percent sulphuric acid and together constituting at least 90 percent of the total composition;
(b) nitric acid in a proportion by weight of from 1.2 to 4.2 percent as 100 percent nitric acid;
(c) dissolved copper in a concentration of from 0.01 to 0.2 percent by weight;
(d) dissolved aluminum in a concentration of between zero and saturation;
(e) from 0.05 percent to 0.7 percent by weight of benztriazole;
(f) the balance substantially water. .Iaddend..Iadd. 14. An aluminum polishing solution as claimed in claim 13 wherein said solution contains from 0.05 to 0.75 molar ammonia. .Iaddend.
US06312482 1975-10-20 1981-10-19 Aluminum polishing compositions Expired - Lifetime USRE31395E (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB42902/75 1975-10-20
GB4290275A GB1565349A (en) 1975-10-20 1975-10-20 Aluminium polishing compositions

Related Parent Applications (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US05733508 Reissue US4116699A (en) 1975-10-20 1976-10-18 Aluminium polishing compositions
US06134758 Continuation 1980-03-28

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
USRE31395E true USRE31395E (en) 1983-09-27

Family

ID=10426479

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US05733508 Expired - Lifetime US4116699A (en) 1975-10-20 1976-10-18 Aluminium polishing compositions
US05843599 Expired - Lifetime US4251384A (en) 1975-10-20 1977-10-19 Aluminum polishing compositions
US06312482 Expired - Lifetime USRE31395E (en) 1975-10-20 1981-10-19 Aluminum polishing compositions

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
US05733508 Expired - Lifetime US4116699A (en) 1975-10-20 1976-10-18 Aluminium polishing compositions
US05843599 Expired - Lifetime US4251384A (en) 1975-10-20 1977-10-19 Aluminum polishing compositions

Country Status (7)

Country Link
US (3) US4116699A (en)
JP (1) JPS5643114B2 (en)
DE (1) DE2647315C3 (en)
ES (1) ES452521A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2328783B1 (en)
GB (1) GB1565349A (en)
NL (1) NL7611584A (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020106975A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-08-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US6489281B1 (en) 2000-09-12 2002-12-03 Ecolab Inc. Cleaning composition comprising inorganic acids, an oxidant, and a cationic surfactant

Families Citing this family (25)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4319955A (en) * 1980-11-05 1982-03-16 Philip A. Hunt Chemical Corp. Ammoniacal alkaline cupric etchant solution for and method of reducing etchant undercut
JPH0151548B2 (en) * 1981-04-06 1989-11-06 Metsuku Kk
US4521240A (en) * 1983-04-29 1985-06-04 Chevron Research Company 5-C-Alkyl-3-O-arylmethyl or substituted arylmethyl-1,2-O-alkylidene-α-
US4640713A (en) * 1984-11-19 1987-02-03 S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Tarnish remover/metal polish formulation comprising a metal iodide, an acid, and water
US4961867A (en) * 1985-10-15 1990-10-09 The Dow Chemical Company Process for preventing corrosion of metals by contacting them with compositions prepared from amino substituted pyrazines and carboxylic acids carboxylic acid anhydrides, carboxylic acid, esters or carboxylic acid halides
US4875972A (en) * 1988-07-27 1989-10-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Hydrogen peroxide compositions containing a substituted oxybenzene compound
US4915781A (en) * 1988-07-27 1990-04-10 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Stabilized hydrogen peroxide compositions
US4875973A (en) * 1988-07-27 1989-10-24 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Hydrogen peroxide compositions containing a substituted aminobenzaldehyde
US5200114A (en) * 1990-08-24 1993-04-06 Man-Gill Chemical Company Alkaline cleaner for reducing stain on aluminum surfaces
US5110494A (en) * 1990-08-24 1992-05-05 Man-Gill Chemical Company Alkaline cleaner and process for reducing stain on aluminum surfaces
US5607718A (en) * 1993-03-26 1997-03-04 Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba Polishing method and polishing apparatus
JP3397501B2 (en) * 1994-07-12 2003-04-14 株式会社東芝 Abrasive and polishing method
US6068787A (en) * 1996-11-26 2000-05-30 Cabot Corporation Composition and slurry useful for metal CMP
US5958288A (en) * 1996-11-26 1999-09-28 Cabot Corporation Composition and slurry useful for metal CMP
US6083419A (en) * 1997-07-28 2000-07-04 Cabot Corporation Polishing composition including an inhibitor of tungsten etching
US20050205522A1 (en) * 2000-03-03 2005-09-22 Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd. Chemical agent additives in copper CMP slurry
US6383065B1 (en) 2001-01-22 2002-05-07 Cabot Microelectronics Corporation Catalytic reactive pad for metal CMP
KR100742865B1 (en) 2001-09-06 2007-07-26 주식회사 포스코 Method For Seperating and Analyzing Strong Acid In Chemical Polishing Solution
US6911393B2 (en) * 2002-12-02 2005-06-28 Arkema Inc. Composition and method for copper chemical mechanical planarization
CN100509980C (en) 2002-12-02 2009-07-08 阿科玛股份有限公司 Composition and method for copper chemical mechanical planarization
US6884336B2 (en) * 2003-01-06 2005-04-26 General Motors Corporation Color finishing method
JP2007088258A (en) * 2005-09-22 2007-04-05 Fujifilm Corp Metal polishing solution and polishing method using it
EP1918322A1 (en) * 2006-11-03 2008-05-07 Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien Paint Stripper with Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminium
JP5723068B2 (en) * 2011-06-24 2015-05-27 アップル インコーポレイテッド How anodizing aluminum components and computing devices
CN103160909B (en) * 2011-12-15 2016-04-27 比亚迪股份有限公司 An electrical power etching solution and etching method of etching an amorphous alloy material for parts

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2694001A (en) * 1950-04-06 1954-11-09 Armco Steel Corp Polishing stainless steel
US3425881A (en) * 1965-06-28 1969-02-04 Samuel L Cohn Chemical polishing of aluminum and aluminum alloys
US3876371A (en) * 1970-09-25 1975-04-08 Ici Ltd Inhibition of corrosion

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2518109A (en) * 1947-07-02 1950-08-08 Monsanto Chemicals Pickling of metals
US3009849A (en) * 1958-06-04 1961-11-21 Conversion Chem Corp Aluminum brightening solution and method
GB1088287A (en) * 1963-12-30 1967-10-25 Albright & Wilson Mfg Ltd Brightening of aluminium and alloys thereof
GB1129337A (en) * 1965-12-10 1968-10-02 Pyrene Co Ltd Improvements relating to the cleaning of metals
FR1474572A (en) * 1966-04-05 1967-03-24 Colonial Alloys Company A method of chemical brightening aluminum alloys
US3663327A (en) * 1969-08-13 1972-05-16 Chemed Corp Formulation and method for brightening aluminum

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2694001A (en) * 1950-04-06 1954-11-09 Armco Steel Corp Polishing stainless steel
US3425881A (en) * 1965-06-28 1969-02-04 Samuel L Cohn Chemical polishing of aluminum and aluminum alloys
US3876371A (en) * 1970-09-25 1975-04-08 Ici Ltd Inhibition of corrosion

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Cotton et al., "Benzotriazole and Related Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Copper," Brit. Corr. Jour., vol. 2, 1967, pp. 1-5. *

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20020106975A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-08-08 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US20020109122A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-08-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US20020115384A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2002-08-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US6997781B2 (en) 1999-06-24 2006-02-14 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US6881129B2 (en) 1999-06-24 2005-04-19 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US20050199588A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2005-09-15 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US20060003675A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2006-01-05 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US20060009136A1 (en) * 1999-06-24 2006-01-12 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US7402094B2 (en) 1999-06-24 2008-07-22 Micron Technology, Inc. Fixed-abrasive chemical-mechanical planarization of titanium nitride
US6982241B2 (en) 2000-09-12 2006-01-03 Ecolab Inc. Cleaning composition comprising an inorganic acid mixture and a cationic surfactant
US6489281B1 (en) 2000-09-12 2002-12-03 Ecolab Inc. Cleaning composition comprising inorganic acids, an oxidant, and a cationic surfactant

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
US4116699A (en) 1978-09-26 grant
DE2647315A1 (en) 1977-04-28 application
DE2647315C3 (en) 1980-07-24 grant
FR2328783B1 (en) 1980-04-11 grant
US4251384A (en) 1981-02-17 grant
JPS5257033A (en) 1977-05-11 application
ES452521A1 (en) 1977-11-01 application
JP1097396C (en) grant
GB1565349A (en) 1980-04-16 application
FR2328783A1 (en) 1977-05-20 application
DE2647315B2 (en) 1979-11-08 application
NL7611584A (en) 1977-04-22 application
JPS5643114B2 (en) 1981-10-09 grant

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3373114A (en) Dry compositions for deoxidizing and desmutting aluminum and aluminum alloys
US3773465A (en) Inhibited treating acid
US4642221A (en) Method and composition for inhibiting corrosion in aqueous heat transfer systems
US2937940A (en) Selective stripping of electroplated metals
US3936316A (en) Pickling solution
US4314876A (en) Titanium etching solution
US3668131A (en) Dissolution of metal with acidified hydrogen peroxide solutions
US4444628A (en) Process for treating Al alloy casting and die casting
US5601695A (en) Etchant for aluminum alloys
US4222779A (en) Non-chromate conversion coatings
US4510018A (en) Solution and process for treating copper and copper alloys
US4367099A (en) Trivalent chromium passivate process
US3079345A (en) Propargyl compounds as corrosion inhibitors
US4744872A (en) Anodizing solution for anodic oxidation of magnesium or its alloys
Sease Benzotriazole: a review for conservators
US4051057A (en) Solutions for cleaning surfaces of copper and its alloys
US2391289A (en) Bright copper plating
US2959555A (en) Copper and iron containing scale removal from ferrous metal
US4264418A (en) Method for detersifying and oxide coating removal
US4306933A (en) Tin/tin-lead stripping solutions
US5538152A (en) Stabilizing composition for inorganic peroxide solutions
US4135991A (en) Bath and method for electroplating tin and/or lead
US4554219A (en) Synergistic brightener combination for amorphous nickel phosphorus electroplatings
US4347107A (en) Electroplating tin and tin alloys and baths therefor
US4849124A (en) Copper etching solution