USRE19128E - Adhesive tape - Google Patents

Adhesive tape Download PDF

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USRE19128E
USRE19128E US19128DE USRE19128E US RE19128 E USRE19128 E US RE19128E US 19128D E US19128D E US 19128DE US RE19128 E USRE19128 E US RE19128E
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paper
adhesive
material
rubber
glue
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09JADHESIVES; NON-MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF ADHESIVE PROCESSES IN GENERAL; ADHESIVE PROCESSES NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; USE OF MATERIALS AS ADHESIVES
    • C09J7/00Adhesives in the form of films or foils
    • C09J7/20Adhesives in the form of films or foils characterised by their carriers
    • C09J7/21Paper; Textile fabrics
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09JADHESIVES; NON-MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF ADHESIVE PROCESSES IN GENERAL; ADHESIVE PROCESSES NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; USE OF MATERIALS AS ADHESIVES
    • C09J2203/00Applications
    • C09J2203/30Use of the adhesive tape
    • C09J2203/31Use of the adhesive tape as a masking tape for painting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C09DYES; PAINTS; POLISHES; NATURAL RESINS; ADHESIVES; MISCELLANEOUS COMPOSITIONS; MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS
    • C09JADHESIVES; NON-MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF ADHESIVE PROCESSES IN GENERAL; ADHESIVE PROCESSES NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE; USE OF MATERIALS AS ADHESIVES
    • C09J2400/00Presence of inorganic and organic materials
    • C09J2400/20Presence of organic materials
    • C09J2400/28Presence of paper
    • C09J2400/283Presence of paper in the substrate
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/28Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and having an adhesive outermost layer
    • Y10T428/2835Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and having an adhesive outermost layer including moisture or waterproof component
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T428/00Stock material or miscellaneous articles
    • Y10T428/28Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and having an adhesive outermost layer
    • Y10T428/2839Web or sheet containing structurally defined element or component and having an adhesive outermost layer with release or antistick coating

Description

April 3, 193.4. R. GbREw Re. 19,128

ADHES IVE TAPE Original Filed May 28. 1928 ZQ'ifizess; I W@ 0% M m Reissued Apr. 1934 ADHESIVE TAPE Richard Gurley Drew, St. Paul, Minn,

by mesne assignments, to Minnesota asslgnor, Mining a Manufacturing Company, St. Paul, Minn, a corporation of Delaware Original No. 1,760,820, dated May 27, 1930, Serial No. 281,104, May 28,1928. Application for reissue April 18, 1932, Serial No. 606,061

Claims.

My invention relates in general to adhesives,

' adhesive compositions or adhesive sheets or coatings; more particularly, to pressure energizable adhesives, adhesive sheets or coatings, prefer- 5 ably water insoluble and normally non-drying.

My invention is a continuation-in-part of my prior application, S. N. 182,893, filed April 11, 1927, for Adhesives in the form of sheets or the like and method of making the same.

While my invention has a broad field of usefulness, I have found it of peculiar utility for producing an adhesive coating for limiting the application of the spray of liquid finishing material, such as, for example, lacquers or painting materials used in operations in automobile body paint shops and therefore find it convenient to describe the invention in connection with such practice and product, it being understood, however,,that such fields of specific description are 2-0 employed purely for purposes of illustration of an example of the utility of this invention in its several phases, besides other novel phases as may appear or be hereinafter pointed out.

In the work referred to specifically above, my improved material may be used directly as a coating or as an adhesive material for holding protective paper aprons or masksagainst surfaces on which it is not desired to apply a lacquer, paint, paint spray or lacquer spray, such as, for example, glass windows, upholstery, rubber mats, running boards, bright metal parts and wrapping material in general, and the like.

My product may also be applied to a surface which, in a subsequent step, is to be finished by an application of a lacquer spray or painting or to a surface which has been finished in order to prevent mingling of the colors, as for example, in two color work. My improved material may be applied to paper or similar fabric material in sheeted form and is capable of being stored in piled sheets or in laminations, as formed by rolling layers of material, such as tape, or such other form as may be proper for the purpose contemplated. V

For certain preferred work, for advantages hereinafter pointed out, my improved material may be applied to paper to impart minimum point contact and inherent'elasticity by applying the same to paper which is. toweled or 'crimped or otherwise shaped to present a surface other than flat and which has an extensibility beyond that of the flat paper web. Further," my improved material may be applied to completely or partially cover a backing material such as paper, to present a surface which has minimum adhering surface, yet satisfies'the requirements of acompletely coated backing material.

It is to be observed that in finishing automobile I bodies with lacquers, paints or the like of a plurality of colors, difllculty is found in limiting the application owing to the diffusion of the spray, where such is used, or requiring skillful application of the paint brush, when the latter is used. In order to obtain a clear and cleancut line of demarcation between several colors or within limited areas pr applying a coating material within limited areas, masks or aprons in the form. of adhesive tape have been used. These are of the general types comprising an insoluble zinc oxide adhesive coating and the rubber base adhesive coating as one group, both of which use a cloth backing, and the ordinary gummed paper tape, which forms an example of the other type. Both types of tape referred to present certain marked objections. As to the latter type, ordinary gum base tape is energized by wetting, objectionable in that it requires this wetting opera tion before application and still more objectionable in that it adheres so tenaciously that to remove the same requires softening of the adhesive material with large quantities of water for a long time and where this practice is resorted to the paper material becomes so weak as to laminate and tear and, to effect removal, sometimes necessitating scraping, tending to mar the underlying surface.

In the case of cloth backing, adhesive coated material, a rather expensive item is involved in the use of the cloth backing but this material is still further objectionable for use for the purpose contemplated in that the woven fabric is distensible to an extent which will make its edges ir.- regular and unsuitable for stripping. Furthermore, the cloth is permeable to the solvents normally used in connection with lacquer wherebythe adhesive coating will be disengaged and be left as a residue upon the body of the material.

Still further, a woven fabric, such as cloth, tends to unravel or leave a feathered edge and is, furthermore, of such thickness asto present a blurred effect at marginal edges of the paint or lacquer coating.

Still further, adhesive coatings, such as cloth back zinc oxide or rubber base type tapes are not only permeable to the solvents used in lacquering or painting operations tending to disengage the adhesive and leave the same upon the work but when stacked in rolls or sheets, they are more permeable to atmospheric oxidation, tending to cause an unduly rapid deterioration of the adhesive material with a consequent loss of their power of adhering to the object to which they are intended to be combined.

While for simplicity in describing the invention and as an example for 'makng the same, I have refered to a rubber base adhesive, it is understood that it is contemplated to employ a non-drying, pressureaggressive adhesive material and that this expression is used in the specification and claims in its broadest sense.

Amorig the objects of my invention are the provision of an adhesive or coating material which is non-drying or becomes aggressive by the application of pressure; the provision of an adhesive coating or coating material which becomes energizable by the application of pressure and without modification of the same by solvents or heat; the provision of an adhesive or coating material upon an inexpensive base, such as sheeted material of paper, the same being nondrying and energizable by the application of pressure without the use of solvents or heat; the provision of an adhesive upon a base of relatively non-distensible material such as paper, which may be applied to a lacquered, painted or varnished surface merely by the application of pressure of this member thereto and will present a straight edge; furthermore, the provision 'of or leaving a residuum of the an adhesive upon a base or backing, the backing serving as an impermeable member to the solvents of such materials as paints or varnishes whereby an adhesive material applied to such work as the body of an automobile will not have the adhesive coating thereof disengaged by the solvents of the lacquer, paint or varnish applied thereover; the provision of an adhesive coating material upon a base or backing, such as paper, which may be applied merely by the application of pressure and which may be retained in superimposed layers thereof, such as stacks or piles or rolls without the use of slip sheeting whereby the back of the sheeting may be removed from the adherent coat of an adjacent layer; the provision of a sheeted material having an adhesive coating, which is normally non-drying and pressure aggressive'but which is so formed as to contact with work upon which it is applied to have sufficient adhesiveness for its intended function of holding a sheeted material in position but without marring the work to which it is applied, characterized by coating a base or backing of paper which is creped, toweled or otherwise formed to lessen contact over its entire area; the provision of a sheeted material having an adhesive coating thereon to limit the contact of the adhesive coating as by forming the paper by crepeing or toweling or localized application of the adhesive coating to the surface of the sheeted material; the} provision of a sheeted material having a pressure aggressive adhesive material which may be adhesively applied to a surface and separated therefrom without splitting of the paper or marring of the body to which it is applied adhesive particularly after use in a painting operation by application of solvents for the paint to the back side of the same.

A still further object of my invention resides in the provision of a sheeted material having a pressure aggressive coating thereon, the whole of which is relatively somewhat stretchable and somewhat resilient, characterized by form ng the backing from creped or toweled paper; the provision of a sheeted material having a paper or like base treated to render the same impermefused in lacquers,

able to coating materials, such as lacquers, paints, varnishes or the like whereby solvents paints, varnishes or the like will not disengage the adhesive material which may be mounted thereon; the provision of a sheeted adhesive material having a paper base treated whereby a pressure aggressive adhesive may be applied thereto without permeating to the other side thereof; the provision of a sheeted adhesive material having a calendered, or a bibulous uncalendered paper base saturated with an adhesive material whereby an adhesive coating may be applied to the same for adhesively attaching the same to a surface by the application of pressure and capable of being separated from such surface without tearing or splitting of the paper or leaving a residuum of the adhesive material upon the surface to which it is applied.

My invention still further has for an object thereof the provision of a sheeted material having a base such as paper, including on one surface thereof a non-drying adhesive coating comprising rubber and a resinous material, the adhesive being energizable by the application of pressure and which is capable of retaining the adhesive character under the most adverse atmospheric conditions, the sheet being characterized by freedom from loss of adhesiveness and material change of the rubber and which may be further stacked or piledwithout the use of slip sheeting characterized by the absence of permeation of the adhesive coating to the back surface of the sheet.

The invention still further has for an object thereof the provision of an adhesive tape materialhaving a paper base in which the filamentary material of the paper is locked and is resistant to tearing and splitting when in contact with an adhesive surface; the provision of adhesive tape material having a paper base in which the filamentary'material of the paper is locked and is resistant to tearing and splitting when in contact with an adhesive surface characterized by sur face treating and saturating the paper with a glue or gelatin base material; the provision of a sheeted adhesive material having a paper base insoluble pressure aggressive coating whereby sheets may be rolled or stacked without the use a of intermediate slip sheeting; the provision of a sheeted material having a paper base, surface treated or saturated with a glue or gelatin base composition and a flexibility augmenting agent including glycerine whereby the surface thereof may be substantially non-adherent to a non-drying, pressure aggressive adhesive material, such as zinc oxide or rubber base adhesives, to provide a material capable of being stacked, piled or rolled without the use of intermediate'slip sheeting; the provision of a sheeted material having a paper base, having an adhesive applied to limited portions thereof, such as predetermined edges of one surface whereby limited adhesiveness may be had with covering capacity of the entire sheet.

To attain these objects and such further obpointedout, I make reference to the accompanying drawingforminga part'hereof, in which Figure 1 is a perspective view illustrating my invention as applied for use in connection with a painters mask;

Figure 2 is a section taken on the line 2.-2 of Figure' 1;

Figure 3 is a perspective view of another embodiment of my invention.

One embodiment of my invention is in the form of a sheeted material in the nature of a tape 10, of a paper base of the character hereinafter referred to and described and treated in accordance with an inventiondisclosed in my applications. N. 182,893, filed April 11, 1927, and is pref erably a paper saturated with a glue or gelatin base and is coated on one face with a non-dryand it is positioned so that-a portion 14 projects beyond the edges 13. The projecting portion 14 may thereafterbe applied to fasten the mask or apron wherever desired, duplicating the afiixation of the attaching strip at opposite edges of this mask, it'bein'g understood, however, that the strip itself may be used to cover surfaces of its own width.

In Figure 3 I have illustrated another embodiment of my invention comprising an adhesive sheeted material in the nature of the tape 10a of a paper base of the character hereinafter described or treated in accordance with the process outlined in my. application aforementioned. One face 11a has thereon edge strips of adhesive material 12a, preferably mounted upon an interposed p'riming coat layer 13a, thus forming spaced adhesive portions and intermediate, non-adhesive portion 14a, thereby providing a tape or sheet of limited-adhesive contacting surface, though of covering capacity equivalent to the full width of the tape or sheet.

The paper base 10 may be any of the following, which I cite by way of example:

.(a) Craft paper, regular sulfate paper, straight Wood pulp;

(b) Sulfite paper containing a goodly portion of cotton stock, suitably sized and maintained soft by additions of small quantities of glycerine;

(c) A parchmentized paper;

(11) A paper base which is preferably absorbent, approaching blotting paper, calendered or uncalendered; preferably, however, this paper base is of'the unsized, uncalendere'd variety and is pressed, molded or otherwise formed with rugosities or corrugations to have the appearance of toweled fabric, such as by crimping or crepeing the same.

Paper of the character above described may have directly applied to one surface thereof a water insoluble, non-drying adhesive, preferably energizable or active merely by the application of pressure, so-called a zinc oxide or rubber base adhesive for surgeon's or industrial tape. This adhesive material may be given as follows:

Example A A rubber compound and tackiness augmenting agent in the form of a synthetic resin. Proportions suitable for ordinary temperate climates may comprise:---

10 lbsFbf plasticized, first quality plantation rubber, such as clear crepe or smoked sheets,

. material.

' 2 lbs. of cumaron gum or resin, ii lb. of zinc oxide pigment.

The cumaron gum or resinis preferably'an artificial resinous material coming under the group name of cumaron and indene resins, which is the polymerization product of coal tar derivatives. The above ingredients are compounded on a rubber rolling mill to a plastic condition and i then cut to desired body or consistency, using a'rubber solvent such as benzol or a petroleum solvent, such as high test gasoline.

-In lieu of a synthetic resin I may employ a low boiling point natural resin, e. g., Burgundy pitch or pine oil foots. Burgundy pitch is soluble in both alcohol and benzol.

Example B 2 lbs. of plantation rubber 5 lbs. of Mexican-or wild rubber, high in natural resin content 1 lb. of zinc oxide pigment.

The ingredients above enumerated are compounded on a rubber mixing roll and then cut to the desired consistency in a rubber solvent, based upon .the necessary viscosity for spreading this Ordinarily, in both Examples A and B, the solvent is calculated by the number of pounds ofsolid compound in one gallon of solvent, such as, for instance, 8 lbs. of solid or compounded material and 1 gallon of benzol, which is commonly referred to as an 8. pound cut. The variations in proportions of solvent added will depend upon the desired thickness of the adhesive coating required in the residuum.

It will be understood that the examples above given are for purposes of getting the requisite adhesiveness in temperate climates. An increase in resinous material or wild rubber may be made for material to be used in colder climates and in warmer climates the resin component may be reduced.

The resinous component may also be varied in its characteristics in its reactions to solvents by choice of the resinous material. Thus, for purposes of removal of the adhesive from some body to which it may be applied, it may be made soluble to various organic solvents, either benzol, gasoline, acetone or alcohol. Thus, where it is desirable to make a surgeons tape, which is soluble in'alcohol, an alcohol soluble resin is added in the examples above cited. Such resin may be Burgundy pitch. This will permit alcohol to be used in removing a piece of adhesive tape. from any surface, such as from the skin of a patient, by merely soaking the backing of the tape in alcohol. The rubber, in any event, merely acts as a vehicle for the resin and the character of the adhesive in its reaction to solvents will be dependent upon the character of the resin incor porated with the rubber.

The rubber resin compounds in their solvents may be spread upon the paper backing directly, utilizing a knife spreader to uniformly and equally distribute this material upon the base or backing. The solvent may thereafter be-removed by evaporation, preferably without recovering the solvent and leaving the rubber mixture upon the paper backing.

Though I may directly apply the rubber in its solvent upon a paper backing, particularly of the character above indicated as craft or white paper, it is preferred to preliminarily treat the paper with sizing coats, priming coats or separator coats.

Though, as above described, I may use the craft paper, white paper or parchmentized paper di- J50 rectly for a base or backing for the rubber adhesive, it is preferred to treat one side of the paper with a rubber primer and the opposite side of the paper with a rubber finisher and then applying the ru ber adhesive to theside of the paper first treate with the ruber primer, after first preferably treating the paper, especially where that hereinabove examplified as A, B or the suggested modifications thereof is used, with a glue-glycerine solution insolublized and preferably flexiblized by the process herein described and more particularly referred to in my application, S. N. 182,893.

The rubber primer is preferably a very light solution of rubber, which will leave a very thin residue of rubber, preferably tacky and to render the adhesive coating more amenable toadhesion therewith. The rubber finisher is preferably a solution of rubber which will leave a modified rubber deposit, such as chlorinated rubber or vul-,

canized rubber, thus leaving a residuum of rubber which is non-tacky andnon-adherent to the touch of the hand or when stacked or rolled, will be capable of ready separation from the adhesive face. Tape so made can be wound up in rolls without slip sheeting and unwound successfully.

An example of a rubber primer as above used is as follows:

100 parts by weight of milled plantation rubber,

7 parts by weight of phenolsulphonic acid.

This combination is formed in sheets and subjected to an oven temperature of 135 to 140 degrees centigrade for approximately six hours. The

resulting product is flexible, and when dissolved in benzol'forms an extremely liquid solution.

Untreated, smoked sheets, when out in benzol, will form a very heavy, viscous and gelatinous solution.

Conversion of rubber into thermoplastic products, can also be accomplished by using other reagents, such as toluensulphonyl chloride and toluenesulphonic acid.

An example of a rubber finisher as above referred to may be made as follows:

Plantation rubber dissolved in a suitable solvent, such as benzol, is placed in an agitator into which a small stream of chlorine gas is allowed to flow.) The temperature is checked by artificial refrigeration, and the chlorine treatment continued until the rubber solution has become about 55% chlorine saturated. Beyond this point free chlorine escapes, which is not desirable.

It will be understood that I may, for certain purposes, substitute for the rubber finisher coat a treatment such as outlined in my application S. N. 182,893 and the means therein described for assuring separation between the back of one sheet and the adhesive surface on the opposite side of an adjacent layer.

In the practice of my invention utilizing parchmentized'paper, the adhesive base may be applied directly thereto. It is preferred to treat the back with glycerine or a glue-glycerine mixture and the opposite side, before applying the rubber adhesive, with a rubber priming coat-still further, by substituting for the glue-glycerine back size a rubber finisher coat as in the example above described. The back of the parchmentized paper,

whether including a back size or rubber finisher coat, or not, may be improved during its manufacture or subsequently,.by the addition thereto of a thin coating of glycerine.

Unsized craft paper or the creped, toweled pa-.

per above referred to may be used directly for applying thereto the rubber adhesive, preferably first interposing the finishing coat on the back and the priming coat on the front before applying this adhesive coating. Preferably, where the paper is of the unsized, uncalendered variety, the fibres thereof may be strengthened by treatment with a glue-glycerine solution to completely bond the fibres and may be insolubilized or tanned and have the flexibility thereof augmented by the process described in my application S. N. 182,893. Paper so treated, particularly as a result of first saturating with glue-glycerine and treatment with formaldehyde, forms a splendid base for the rubber primer, it being understood that I may treat the paper with glycerineor glue-glycerineafter first applying a rubber priming coat, in which caseit forms a layer to seal the surface of the paper, preventing the glycerine or glue-glycerine from penetrating into the rubber primer, and thus weakening the adhesiveness of the rubber. The fibrous material of the paper is bonded against lamination and is'highly flexible. Economy is also effected in the amount of glue and glycerine necessary for saturating the paper base. I find that where the back of the paper is so treated, the primer adheres more firmly thereto.-

A paper base of the character above described may be treated with a glue base saturating solution or an insoluble solution. For this purpose, the paper base is first sized with a. solution of a polyhydric resin, a synthetic resinous material resulting from the reaction, condensation or poly merization of polyhydric alcohols or their anhydrides or similar compounds or polyhydric acids or their anhydrides. This center sizing material for the paper base may have its flexibilityv suitably augmented and upon evaporation of the vehicle there may be applied the rubber adhesive layer, preferably by first treating one side 108 pounds (approx. 16 Twaddel1) glue solution.

1Cxiimplete swelling is permitted, assisted by warm- To this is then added 108 pounds 'of 'yellow glycerine.

108 pounds (approx.'16 Twaddell) glue solution 108 pounds pale yellow glycerine 216 pounds glue-glycerine water. solution To this is added 216 pounds of water.

216 pounds of glue-glyc'erine water solution 216 pounds water I .432 pounds.

The paper above described is preferably con-- tinuously submerged and passed through a bath of the saturating solution as above prepared and then passed through pressure rolls to squeeze off the excess and then dried by heating. It will be observed that just complete saturation is preferred as this step is closely related to the success or failure of the treatment. An insufficient saturation will be characterized by failure to completely'bond the fibres of the unsized paper nor will the saturating solution bepmeent on the back side. An oversuflicient saturation of pound breaks down to liberate formaldehyde, set-.

the paper will render the, surface u'nflt for subsequent coating, which will be observed as this description proceeds.

A paper so treated will be found to have the fibres thereof locked to materially strengthen the,

paper web and provide a highly flexible sheet. Where I use the toweled orcreped variety of paper, this sheet will be found to be substantially elastic and resistant to. tearing by shock, as where using the same for wrapping purposes.

Prior to the drying step above mentioned, in one form of the practice of my invention, after the paper has been saturated and passed through the pressure rolls, the web of material is subjected to a treatment tending to insolubilize ,or tan the glue. The insolubilizing or tanning agents maybe formaldehyde in solution or as a vapor, sodium carbonate solution of gallic and tannic acids, chromium trioxide and chrome alum or other chrome and aluminum salts.

My preferred practice is to submerge the paper in a bath consisting of one part commercial formaldehyde and nine parts water by volume. The lapse of time between saturating with glue-glycerine water solution and formaldehyde does not seem to materially affect the quality ofthe paper.- Formaldehyding on one side only, that is, the application of formaldehyde to one face of the previously treated paper, is preferred for purposes which will hereinafter appear where it is desired to further coat the untreated surface and leave the opposite'surface substantially inactive. Y

The formaldehyding on one face only has'the advantage that immediate insolubilizing or tanning may be practiced and further, treating one side only is less strain on a paper than complete submersion, particularly where the formaldehyde is in the form of a solution and the saturated paper before the excess water is evaporated is of.

low tensile strength and therefore more subject to tear or break. The treated surface is then submitted to a neutralizing action and where formaldehyde is used for the insolubilizing or tanning action, I may accomplish neutralization A by subjecting the paper to a lime water treatment. It is preferred, however, to submit the formaldehyded web to a heat treatment. A temperature of 140 to 160F. is used to thoroughly dry and volatilize all surplus formaldehyde.

It will be observed that I have described the saturation and the insolubilizing or tanning of the glue base as separate steps. However, the tanning or insolubilizing agent may be incorporated in the saturating solution above described, the tanning action" or insolubilizing action of the glue being accomplished simultaneously with the drying of the saturating solution. For this purpose there is added to the saturating solution the tanning or insolubilizing agent.

Where I use formaldehyde, I put an aldehyde compound into the glue solution prior to the saturation step. It is preferred to retard the action of the aldehyde so' that the insolubilizing er tanning of the glue is accomplished in the drying step. This retarding activity is accomplished by taking any aldehyde compound, such as femaldehyde, and adding ammonia thereto. In practice,- equal molecular percentages of formaldehyde and ammonia are used in amounts equivalent to 5% of the aldehyde to the dry weight of the. glue.

The saturating solution thus modified is used in the manneij previously described. In the drying of the paper, the aldehyde-ammonia comting up, insolubilizing ortanning the. glue;

' Though mere exposure by air drying of the g saturated paper will sufllciently insolubiliz'e the glue. due to the decomposition of the ammoniato use a temperature between 100. to 120 C.,

which has been found to sufliciently set the glue iwith a. speed of operation conducive to best pracice.

The sheet so saturated and heat treated will have the glue or gelatine base substantially insoluble and, in a sense, waterproof- The paper base will be particularly strengthened and be resistant to sudden shock-or stress, making it. admirably suited for wrapping purposes. Particu-, larly desirable elastic properties will be obtained where the paper base is of the toweled or creped variety wherein actual elasticity is imparted to the paper in that it retains thecrimping or crepe ing originally formed or molded in the paper and the and is tougher in a wet state when carrying its minimum amount of water content, apparently due to a vulcanizing or glueing together of the fibres of the paper into a solid mass. The flexibility augmenting agent further provides a sheeted material resistant to tearing when sharply folding the same. I

Where I have described the use of dry glue with pale yellow glycerine, it will be observed that good results have been obtained with cheaper material such as low-grade glue and using the crude rather than'the pale yellow glycerine. Other flexibility augmenting agents as a modifier for the glue in place of the glycerine may be used.

tensile strength is materially increased For certain purposes, particularly as will here'incheck, to a certain extent, the tendency to absorb and carry too much water. While I may use hygroscopic agents in general, for modifying the glue to retain a certain amount of water content inducing flexibility, it'is preferred to use organic modiflerand for this purpose a sugar content fused in the glycerine of the saturating liquid has been found to be particularly desirable. A paper .web saturated with glue, formaldehyded or tanned as above described, has been .found to be waterproof and particularly suitable as a base for form.- ing the adhesive tape previously described when non-drying rubber scribed.

By normally pressure sensitive adhesive" I mean to include a coating which normally is adbase adhesive previously de- 13G- there is coated thereover the pressure aggressive,-

hesive by pressure, as in applying a tapetoa body material in which adhesion is effected without the necessity of energizing the adhesive by a moistening agent.

I By a unified cellulosic backing I mean to inelude a-web of fabric comprising paper chosen from the materials herein described including gelatinized cellulosic sheets, such as parchmentized paper, preferably treated with glycerine; paper treated with a composition consisting of glue, preferably modified by a softening agent, such as giycerine; paper surfaced with an insoluble rubber, such as chlorinated rubber; paper surfaced with an insoluble varnish compound, such as I an. insoluble resinous condensation product, the

products whereof have the materials of the sheet ma condition so that when coated with a normally pressure'sensitive adhesive, the elements of the sheet will be protected and held together against separation and with greater adhesion inter se than'the adhesive coating has for the material to which the adhesive coating is affixed, to permit removal of the sheet from work to which it is applied or from rolls of stacks of such sheets, without substantial splitting or lamination of the sheet.

By a unified pressure sensitive adhesive I mean to include a coating which is normally adhesive by pressure as in applying a tape to a body material in which adhesion is effected without' the necessity of energizing the adhesive by a moistening agent, and which has greater adhesion to .the backing to which it is applied and cohesion inter se than adhesion to the surface to which it is temporarily applied, to permit its use for the purposes herein outlined, without substantial breaking, separation orlamination.

The'specially treated paper and its adhesive coating duplicate results attainable heretofore only with cloth backing and, in addition, has marked advantages thereover. The paper base adhesive tape- (1) Produces a flexible sheet with more body and density than cloth, particularly where a creped or toweled paper is used;

(2) High tensile strength is obtained by load ing the paper with glue, particularly'when acted upon by an insolubilizingtanning or formaldehyding agent. This renders the glue incapable of dissolving in water, which permits it to retain a considerable amount of its strength when in contact with water and hygroscopic materials which may constitute the adhesive film. When glycerine or other modifying elements are used, the saturated sheet is particularly flexible and resistant to breaking thereof by bending;

(3) The saturating and coating accomplish an action of welding, vulcanizing or glueing together of the paper fibres into one solid sheet, which makes impossible any laminating or splitting of the tape when removed from a surface to which it has been applied for some time or when put up in rolls without the use of slip sheeting;

(4) The-treatment, particularly the saturating treatment of the paper, particularly when accompanied by insolubilizing, tanning or formaldehyd- I, ing, also makes impossible any surface fibres breaking away or tearing away from the backing and sticking to the adhesive film when unwound from a roll. .Thus, no modification of the adhesive film is effected.

(5) The hygroscopic-agent, such as glycerine, retained in the saturated paper, maintains a water content in the paper-backing of which it is a part. The adhesive film is therefore prevented from anchoring itself too securely to the reverse side of the backing, that is, a non-drying adhesive secures a hold or adheres to a dry surface much more thoroughly than to one which is moist or damp. Also, as the glue saturated paper has been insolubilized, tanned or formaldehyded, the adhesive coating will not unite with the backing as there is no solution possible between the rubber base adhesive and an insolubilized gelatin.

6) The paper affords a material cheaper than cloth, which will not stretch as cloth does and, in a painting operation, which enables the user to preserve the same for striping and the like painting or finishing operations. The paper base base and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating or backing being relatively thin, permits sharper definition in a painting operation for two tone color jobs as it lies substantially in the plane of 'the body to which it is aflixed. Furthermore,

' adhesion, permitting an economy in the adhesive coating, a ready removal from the body to which itisapplied, avoiding the danger of marring the surface to which it is applied, may be unrolled or separated from an adjacent sheet with great facility and, in general, the paper backed adhesive tape widens the field of utility due to cheapening the cost of the entire article.

Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-

1. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material including a creped or toweled fabric on' one face thereof.

2. As a new article of manufacture, a removable adhesive tape comprising a paper backing, formed with rugosities by crepeing or toweling and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one face thereof.

3. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive sheet comprising a unified cellulosic backing and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating united to one surface of the backing. 4 4. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive sheet comprising a unified cellulosic back? ing and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating united to one surface of the backing, the other surface of the backing being repellent to the adhesive.

5. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material including a water insoluble unified pressure sensitive adhesive united to one surface of a cellulosic backing, the opposite surface of said backing being unified by a repellent for said adhesive.

6. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive sheet comprising bibulous paper substantially saturated and unified with a substantially solidified mass of a solution of glue-glycerine composition, and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one face thereof.

7. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive sheet comprising a bibulous paper impregnated with a quantity of a substantially solidified mass of a solution of glue-glycerine in proportions of such solution to thepaper, unifyexposedrapidlyaggressive adhesivecoating united to one surface thereof.

8. As a new article of manufacture an adhesive article, a paper backing impregnated with a uni fying material'in proportions of such material to the paper, unifying the fibres of the paper and a water insoluble exposed rapidly aggressive adhesive surface on one face thereof.

9. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive article, a paper backing impregnated'with an unifying impregnating agent in proportions of such 14.5

agent to the paper, unifying the fibres, the impregnating agent comprising a set glue-glycerine composition and an exposed rapidly aggressive adhesive coating united to one face thereof.

10. In an adhesive article,

in combination with a paper backing impregnated with a fiexibilized gelatinous unifying composition, of a pressure sensitive adhesive coating united to the backing.

11. In an adhesive article, in combination with a paper backing impregnated with a solidified flexibilized gelatinous composition, of a water insoluble, pressure sensitive adhesive coating united to the backing.

12. As a new article of manufacture, paper backing formed with rugosities by crepeing or toweling impregnated with an unifying composition and water insoluble exposed rapidly aggressive adhesive surface on one face thereof.

13. As a new article of manufacture, a paper backing impregnated with a flexibilized gelatinous composition set to an unifying consistency .nd formedswith rugosities by crepeing or towelling and .an' exposed rapidly aggressive adhesive coating united to one face thereof.

14. In an adhesive article, in combination with a paper backing impregnated with a solidified flexibilized unifying composition for the fibres of the backing, of a pressure sensitive adhesive coating united to the backing on one surface thereof.

15. As a new article of manufacture, an adhesive article comprising a paper backing saturated with a unifying composition comprising a substantially solidified glue-glycerine composition and a pressure sensitive coating on one face thereof.

16. A gum treated paper comprising a base material forming the backing and treated with a gum and an adhesive coating on said base comprising a mixture of two resinous gums having dissimilar rates of solubility.

17. As a new article of manufacture. a sheeted material including toweled or creped paper impregnated with a composition comprising glue and a flexibility augmenting agent and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof. x

18. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material including a toweled or creped paper impregnated with a composition comprising glue and an organic agent adapted to augment the flexibility of the glue and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof.

19. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material including a bibulous, uncalendered paper impregnated to bond the fibres with a composition comprising glue, glycerine and water to render the sheet flexible and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof;

20. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one'surface thereof.

21. As a-new article of manufacture, a sheeted material including a creped paper impregnated without excess with glue and a flexibility augmenting agent therefor, said glue being insolubilized and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof.

'22. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material comprising a bibulous paper baseJ impregnated without excess with a gelatin solution including a flexibility augmenting agent, said sheet having one face thereof rendered water resistant, and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof, the adhesive layer being on the opposite face to said water resistant face.

23. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material comprising a bibulous paper base impregnated without excess with a gelatin solution including a flexibility augmenting agent, said sheet having one face thereof rendered water resistant by a layer of formo-gelatine, and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one surface thereof, the adhesive layer being on the opposite face to said water resistant face.

24. As a new article of manufacture, a sheeted material comprising a bibulous paper base impregnated without excess with a gelatine solution including a flexibility augmenting agent, said sheet having one face thereof rendered water resistant by a layer of formo-gelatine and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating attached to the sheet thus formed and positioned to be interposed between and in direct contact with layers of said paper base and water resistant face when said sheeted material is formed into rolls or stacks. 1

25. As a new article of manufacture, a readily removable and reusable adhesive sheet comprising bibulous paper containing rugosities substantially saturated and unified with a substantially solidified mass of a solution of distortable unifying composition, and a pressure sensitive adhesive coating on one face thereof, said rugosities serving to afford an interrupted contacting surface and thus facilitating removal of the sheet from a surface to which it may be applied.

RICHARD GURLEY DRIEW.

USRE19128E Adhesive tape Expired USRE19128E (en)

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Cited By (16)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2438195A (en) * 1946-12-05 1948-03-23 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Pressure-sensitive adhesive tape
US2444830A (en) * 1938-04-04 1948-07-06 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Adhesive sheet and method of making
US2492689A (en) * 1948-06-30 1949-12-27 Plymouth Rubber Company Inc Friction tape
US2494351A (en) * 1947-12-17 1950-01-10 Modesto P Montero Fiber-reinforced bowling pin
US2565509A (en) * 1946-07-27 1951-08-28 Balys C Marcin Manufacture of tapes and sheets with adhesive coatings on opposite sides thereof
US2599359A (en) * 1946-03-21 1952-06-03 American Cyanamid Co Adhesive materials and processes of assembling sheet materials
US2632495A (en) * 1949-11-04 1953-03-24 Floyd A Agee Apparatus for making pleated material
US2964438A (en) * 1956-12-18 1960-12-13 Fiore A Masse Masking paper
US5067207A (en) * 1990-08-07 1991-11-26 William Semons Zipper attachment assembly
US5311648A (en) * 1991-12-02 1994-05-17 William Semons Closure attachment assembly
US5356503A (en) * 1991-12-30 1994-10-18 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Masking assembly and masking method for protecting surfaces from radiant heat
US5658632A (en) * 1995-05-23 1997-08-19 Geocel Corporation Masking device
US6355323B1 (en) 1999-01-27 2002-03-12 Matthew L. Iwen Masking barriers
US6548163B1 (en) * 1994-02-14 2003-04-15 Speedarrive Projects Ltd. Sealing strip and method of sealing
US20060099374A1 (en) * 2004-11-08 2006-05-11 Henkel Consumer Adhesives, Inc. Composite masking tape and method of using same
US8272549B1 (en) 2009-09-30 2012-09-25 Corkren Steven M Offset, double-sided tape dispenser

Cited By (20)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2444830A (en) * 1938-04-04 1948-07-06 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Adhesive sheet and method of making
US2599359A (en) * 1946-03-21 1952-06-03 American Cyanamid Co Adhesive materials and processes of assembling sheet materials
US2565509A (en) * 1946-07-27 1951-08-28 Balys C Marcin Manufacture of tapes and sheets with adhesive coatings on opposite sides thereof
US2438195A (en) * 1946-12-05 1948-03-23 Minnesota Mining & Mfg Pressure-sensitive adhesive tape
US2494351A (en) * 1947-12-17 1950-01-10 Modesto P Montero Fiber-reinforced bowling pin
US2492689A (en) * 1948-06-30 1949-12-27 Plymouth Rubber Company Inc Friction tape
US2632495A (en) * 1949-11-04 1953-03-24 Floyd A Agee Apparatus for making pleated material
US2964438A (en) * 1956-12-18 1960-12-13 Fiore A Masse Masking paper
US5067207A (en) * 1990-08-07 1991-11-26 William Semons Zipper attachment assembly
US5311648A (en) * 1991-12-02 1994-05-17 William Semons Closure attachment assembly
US5472559A (en) * 1991-12-30 1995-12-05 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Surface protecting assembly and method
US5356503A (en) * 1991-12-30 1994-10-18 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Masking assembly and masking method for protecting surfaces from radiant heat
US6548163B1 (en) * 1994-02-14 2003-04-15 Speedarrive Projects Ltd. Sealing strip and method of sealing
US5658632A (en) * 1995-05-23 1997-08-19 Geocel Corporation Masking device
US6355323B1 (en) 1999-01-27 2002-03-12 Matthew L. Iwen Masking barriers
US20020045020A1 (en) * 1999-01-27 2002-04-18 Rexam Flexible Packaging Apparatus and method for installing masking barriers
US6833038B2 (en) 1999-01-27 2004-12-21 Tyco International (Us), Inc. Apparatus and method for installing masking barriers
US20060099374A1 (en) * 2004-11-08 2006-05-11 Henkel Consumer Adhesives, Inc. Composite masking tape and method of using same
US20080193723A1 (en) * 2004-11-08 2008-08-14 Henkel Consumer Adhesives, Inc. Composite masking tape and method of using same
US8272549B1 (en) 2009-09-30 2012-09-25 Corkren Steven M Offset, double-sided tape dispenser

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