USRE117E - Improvement in electro-magnetic telegraphs - Google Patents

Improvement in electro-magnetic telegraphs Download PDF


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United States
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S. F. B. Morse
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Na. 117. v Vlmlsstnan JUNE 1a, 184s.'
s; r. B. nonsn.
- 4 BHEBTHBBB! 1,'
4 insu-'sinn 4.
- g s. F. B. MORSE, oF PoUGHKEnrsIE, NEW YORK.
Speeillcatiou forming pnrt of Letters Patent No.. 1,647, dated June 20, 1840 Reissue No. 72), lated January 15,
1846;;Reissue No. 117, dated June 13, 1848.
To all whom it may concern: v
Be it known that I, Smum. F. B. MORSE; now of Poughkeepsie, in the county of Duchess,
in the State of New York, have vinvented a newV and useful apparatus for and a system of transmitting intelligence between distant points by means of electro-magnetism, which puts in motion machinery for producing sounds or signs,
and recording said signs upon paper or other' suitable materiah'which invention I denominate the American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the principle or character thereof, which distinguishes it from all other telegraphs previously known, and of the manner of making and constructing said apparatus and applying said system, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, making part of this specification, in whicht 1- Examples 1, 2, and 3 shew my system of signs, consisting of a-combination of dots and spaces, and of dots, spaces, and horizontal' Fig. 3, aside elevation of the trainof wheels moving the paper and regulating its motion; Fig. 4, a sectional elevation of the registering lever and yparts appended thereto; Fi g. 5, alarm. apparatus. Example 11 is a diagram showin g the relative positions of the different parts'of` an approved form of apparatus, including a combination of circuits.
Prior to my rst' application for a patent it had been essayedA to use the currents of electricity or galvanism for telegraphic purposes, either by decomposition or the action or exeroise of the deective force of a current. upon a magnetizedbar or needle, which dceomposition or deflection required to be noted by occular inspection at the instant the sign was made.
By my invention the intelligence can be transmitted and imprinted onpaper or other `suitable substance without requiring the aid or any known generator of galvanisin or electricity, a galvanic or electric circuit composed of any known conductors of electricity, a portrule and signal-lever or other contrivanoe for closing and breaking the circuit, al1 in combination with an electro-magnet or device by which the .motive power of the electric or galvanic current, which I call electromagnetism, may be developed and applied to give motion to other machinery for the purpose of marking' or imprinting intelligible characters, signs, or letters at any distances. The con duetors may be suspended in the air upon pos'ts or otherwise, or buried in the ground, being always well insulated at the posts or inA the ground. in the annexed drawings in example 11', Fig. 2, where'D indicates the battery; a a, the circuit; E, the 'port-rule; B, the signal-lever, andV C the electro-magnet.
The new parts and the operation of this portion of my apparatus I thus further describe viz:
At any convenient point iu the circuit (generally near the generator) a break is made in the conductor, and the two ends thereof are immersed in mercury-cups, as shown in the drawings at E E, Fig. 1, example 8. To connect the circuit I employ an inverted U-formed piece ot' metal orother proper connector, A, suspended over the mercuryzups E E on the end of a horizontal lever, denominated lin said draivi ing the signal-lever, whose fulcrum is at a, so that when the connector A is dipped into the cups the circuit is completed. Between the fulerum and connector Athereis' axed to the under side of the lever, and projecting downward, a triangular tooth, b, which bears ou the upper surface of the types about to be described and is raised or lowered by them.
The leJer may be couuterbalanced by a weight or its equivalent, as at C, to make it move easily.
My apparatus for this This combination is illustrated The types are composed of dat straight strips of metal, as shown in examples 4 and 5' of the drawin s hereunto annexed, having theiriipier hedges indented t6 suit the character tobfe representedand which will be hereinafter more fully set forth in the description of the operation of the machine. The indentations are made of sufficient depth to allow the connector Ato beplun ged into the mercury,
cups, and the highest surface raises it from Itis obvious that the forms of the upper sur-l face of the types maybe reversed and the cog b placed on the other side of the fnlcrum, and the same e'ect would be produced.
The types are setup and confined -in a rule to form any required sentences in one long line.. This rule, demominated in the drawings, leirample S, a type-rule, has on its under side a rack that gears into a pinion, on a shaft under the grooved railways D, of common construction, o'n which said rule slides,and is directed underthe cog bien the lever. The types are advanced at a regular speed by the application of any convenent'power to the pinion and bring the @@hes or raised and depressed parts successively under the cog b.
The merc l f y-cupsnay be Adispensed with, and any othl convenient metallic contact be made 'to acqiign-plish the same end, and the closing and'f-breaking of the circuit may be et'- fected by applying the hand or any other machinery to the signal-lever, or by any other mode adapted to the same end. The closing 'of the circuit by the depression of the signallever causes the'electric current to run upon the circuit a a, example 11, Fig. 2, and through the helices of the electro-magnet C, which is thus charged with powerto move any machinery which may be connected with it in a` proper manner. f
The second part of my invention consists of a register for recording the characters, signs or letters transmitted from any distance, an is composed of the following parts in combination, viz: I A bent lever, A, as shown most distinctly in example 10 Fig.` 4. To one arm of this lever there is attached one or more pencils, fountain-pens, or othery suitable marking-instruments,]3, directly under which is placed a.
suitable cylinder, D, over which the paperV passes 'on which the markings fory signs are made. This cylinder turns on its axis, and is connected bya train of wheels and pinions, with a barrel, m, Fig'. 3, example 10, of common construction, which is driven by a weight and cord wound thereon, and also with a ily,
UK, of same ligure, which regulates its motion.
To the other arm of the lever (which is also an armature) is affixed a spiralspri ng, i, as seen in example 10, Figs. 1 and 4. v
Near the cylinder I) a 'reel or spool, d, is placed, on which a strip of paperor other markable material is wound, the end of which is carried over the cylinder D, and is confined thereon by. means of two tapes and endless se't in motion.
I bands or their equivalents, one at eachxd-ge,
whichY pass around. two pulleys, b b, one on each side of cylinder D. This is clearly represented inFigs. 2.and 4, example 310:11? cl'eck-work -iskeptafrest by detcpt contactwitli4 tily-'wlieel kin Figs-3, 1 nected with the lever, as shown in Fig. 5.
`To the register may be attached Van alarmbell, as shown in example 1U, Fig. 5, the ma-l chinery for striking which may bc variously modiiied,'and thereforeneed not be described.
The register or second part of my invention is operated upon by the first part yin the following manner, rv`viz': The short end of the penlever in the second'part, as seen in example 10, Fig. 4, is anarmatnre, f, which is brought in proximity to the electro-magnet C in the, circuit a a, as shown in example il, Fig.2, and in example 10, Fig. 4. The electro-magnet C, being charged byelosing the circuit, attracts the armature, bringing it nearly in contact,
thus imparting a movement' to the lever A. By'this movement of the lever thedetent, Fig. 5, example 10, is removed from the ily-wheel,
and the clock-work begins to move, carrying the paper over the cylinder D, and at the sa me l time tlie'fountain-pen, pencil, o r other marking-instrument is by the action of the lever The circuit being broken, the lever is brought back to its position by the spiral spring i, and by the closing and breaking of the-circuit more or. less rapidlydots and spaces and marks of any required length are made upon the paper, and in any required combinations.
My system of characters consists of dots, spaces, and lines variously combined to form letters and other characters, a specimen of which is represented in examples 1, 2, and 3.4
To make a dot, a notch or indentation-is required in the types, into which the cogy or toothpon the signal-lever will fall and instantly rise from as the types move onwalldi and when aline is to be formed on the paper at the register as a sign'v the notch in the type is extended, so that the lever will remain down for a space Aof time sniiicient to make the line required.
The alarm-bell '(shown at A, example 1U,
Fig. 5) may be struck bymeans of a hammer actuated by a supplementaryelectromagnet placed in the same circuit as thatiirst named.
Any convenient number of registers and registering-stations may be connected with the same circuit, all constructed and operating as above described.
'I'o'extend more e'ectnally the communication by my apparatus, I adopt the following arrangement, whereby I can use any number of additional batteries orgcnerators of elec tricity, and by which I can connect progressively any number of consecutive circuits, viz: I place at any point in the rst circuit an electro-magnet, and opposite its poles I place an armature on a lever like that described for registering; but instead of using the said lever tomark with', I usc it to close and break' i is used to'clzose-and break. the first circuit.
The second 'circuit has an independent 4ba'ttery, and may be used to work aregister or other apparatus for registering, or to close and break a thiidcircuit, or both, and thus Aby a combination of circuits the requisite'. power 'can be obtained at any distances ad infin itu m.
This combination is shown inA example 11, Fig. 1.
It will be observed thatmy vocabulary system of signs or secret writing by cipher can be conveniently used in communicating by- 4 in the foregoing description of the first principal partpf m'y invent-ion, as means ofk operating or giving. lnotion to machinery which may be used to imprint signals upon paper or l other suitable material, or to produce sounds inA any desired manner-for the purpose ot' telegraphic communication at. any distances. (The only ways'in which the galvanic current had been proposed to be used prior to my'in- -vention and improvement were by bubbles resulting from decomposition and the action or exercise of electrical power upon a magnetized bar or needle and the bubbles, and the deflections of the needles thus produced were th'e subjects ot' inspection, and had no power, or were not applied tn record the communica# tion. I therefore icharacterize my invention as the first recording or printing telegraph by means of electro-magnetism. There are various known modes of 'prmlucing motions by electro-magnetism;- but' none of these 'had been applied'prior to my 'invention and improvement to nctuate or give motion to printing or recording machinery, which is the chief pointot' my invention and improvement.)
2. 'Fhc employment of the machinery called the regi ster or recordilig-instrument, com
posed of the train -ofvv clock-wheels, cylinders, and other apparatus, or their equivalents, for
moving the material upon which the characters are tobe imprinted, and for imprinting said characters, substantially asf set forth in the foregoing description of' the second principal part of my invention.
3. The combination of the machinery herein described, consisting of the generator of electricity, the circuit of conductors, thecontrivance for closing and breaking the circuit, the electro-magnet, the pen or contrivance for marking, and the inachinery for sustaining and moving the paper, all together constituting one apparatus or tele-graphic machine, which I denominate the American Electro- Magnetic telegraph.
l 4. The combination of two or more galvanic orele'ctric circuits with independent batteries, substantially by the means 'h erein described,
for the purpose of obviating the diminished force of electro-magnetism in long circuits, and enabling me to command suicient power to put in mot-ion registering or recording machinery at any distances.
5. The system of signs consisting of dots andspaces, an d of dots, spaces, and horizontal lines, for numerals, letters,words, or sentences, substantially as herein set forth and illustrated, for telegraphic purposes.
(i. 'lheisystem of signs consisting of dots and spaces, and of dots, spaces, and horizontal lines, substantially as herein set forth and illustratcd, in combination with machinery for recording them, as signals for telegraphic purposes.
7. The types or their equivalent and the type-rule and port-rule, in combination with the signal lever or its equivalent, as herein described, for the purpose of closingand 'breaking the circuit of galvanic or electric conductors. l
specific machiner Y or parts of machinery deseribedin the foregoing specification and claims, the essence of myinvention being the use of the motive power of the electric or galvanic current, which I call electro-magnetism, however developed, for marking or printing intelligible characters, signs, or letters at any distances, being a new application -off-that power of which l claim to be the first inventor or discovercr.
In, presence of- GEo. 'ooo, J. READ lBAiLEY.
8. Ido not propose to limit myself to the



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