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US9602122B2 - Process variable measurement noise diagnostic - Google Patents

Process variable measurement noise diagnostic Download PDF

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US9602122B2
US9602122B2 US13631048 US201213631048A US9602122B2 US 9602122 B2 US9602122 B2 US 9602122B2 US 13631048 US13631048 US 13631048 US 201213631048 A US201213631048 A US 201213631048A US 9602122 B2 US9602122 B2 US 9602122B2
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noise
process
sensor
signal
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Jason Harold Rud
Loren Michael Engelstad
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Rosemount Inc
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Rosemount Inc
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H03BASIC ELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY
    • H03MCODING; DECODING; CODE CONVERSION IN GENERAL
    • H03M1/00Analogue/digital conversion; Digital/analogue conversion
    • H03M1/10Calibration or testing
    • H03M1/1071Measuring or testing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B23/00Testing or monitoring of control systems or parts thereof
    • G05B23/02Electric testing or monitoring
    • G05B23/0205Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults
    • G05B23/0218Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults characterised by the fault detection method dealing with either existing or incipient faults
    • G05B23/0221Preprocessing measurements, e.g. data collection rate adjustment; Standardization of measurements; Time series or signal analysis, e.g. frequency analysis or wavelets; Trustworthiness of measurements; Indexes therefor; Measurements using easily measured parameters to estimate parameters difficult to measure; Virtual sensor creation; De-noising; Sensor fusion; Unconventional preprocessing inherently present in specific fault detection methods like PCA-based methods

Abstract

A process variable transmitter, includes an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter that receives a sensor signal provided by a sensor that senses a process variable and converts the sensor signal to a digital signal. A processor receives the digital signal and provides a measurement output indicative of the digital signal. A noise detector receives the sensor signal and generates a first value indicative of a number of positive noise events relative to a positive threshold value and a second value indicative of a number of negative noise events relative to a negative threshold value. The processor evaluates the noise count and generates a noise output, indicative of detected noise, based on the first and second values.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to process variable transmitters used to measure temperature in process control and monitoring systems. More specifically, the present invention relates to monitoring a noise level within a measurement circuit as the measurement of the process variable is being digitized.

Process variable transmitters are used to measure process parameters in a process control or monitoring system. Microprocessor-based transmitters often include a sensor, an analog-to-digital converter for converting an output from the sensor into a digital form, a microprocessor for compensating the digitized output, and an output circuit for transmitting the compensated output. Currently, this transmission is normally done over a process control loop, such as 4-20 milliamp control loop, or wirelessly.

One exemplary parameter that is measured by such a system is temperature, which is sensed by measuring the resistance of a resistive temperature device (RTD), which is also sometimes called a platinum resistance thermometer or (PRT) or the voltage output by a thermocouple. Of course, these types of temperature sensors are only exemplary and others can be used as well. Similarly, temperature is only one exemplary process variable and a wide variety of other process control parameters can be measured as well, such as pressure, flow, pH, etc. Therefore, while the present discussion proceeds with respect to a temperature sensor, it will be appreciated that the discussion could just as easily proceed with respect to other sensors.

There are a number of connection points, in conventional measurement circuitry, between a temperature sensor and a measurement transmitter that can fail or become degraded. In many temperature measurement applications, it can be very important for the user to understand when the temperature measurement is degraded for any reason, before using the measurement in a control strategy. Degraded conditions can be due to a variety of different reasons, including lead/sensor breakage, excessive line resistance, corroded or loose connections, etc.

A number of diagnostics have been implemented in temperature transmitters in order to evaluate static conditions, such as lead resistance, excessive DC voltage, or sensor breakage. However, any of these static conditions can become transient, dynamic, or non-persistent states that occur during the processing of the measurement. This can lead to a number of sources of measurement inaccuracy.

For instance, during the digitizing process, the voltage input to a measurement analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is averaged, and no information about the noise over the digitization process is provided. Asymmetric noise can cause measurement inaccuracy in the output provided to a control system.

In addition, noise can currently be evaluated from sample-to-sample within a transmitter at the update rate of the transmitter, but in some cases, this can be too slow. Measurement noise that occurs at a higher frequency than the update rate can therefore cause inaccuracy as well.

In addition, excessive line resistance or measurement capacitance (either on the sensor line or internal to the transmitter) can affect the settling time of the measurement circuit. If the settling time is not set long enough, measurement inaccuracies beyond the transmitter's accuracy specification can occur. However, increasing the settling time directly reduces the measurement update rate. Therefore, there can be a tradeoff between the measurement update rate and measurement inaccuracies that occur due to a settling time that is too short.

SUMMARY

A process variable transmitter, includes an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter that receives a sensor signal provided by a sensor that senses a process variable and converts the sensor signal to a digital signal. A processor receives the digital signal and provides a measurement output indicative of the digital signal. A noise detector receives the sensor signal and generates a first value indicative of a number of positive noise events relative to a positive threshold value and a second value indicative of a number of negative noise events relative to a negative threshold value. The processor evaluates the noise count and generates a noise output, indicative of detected noise, based on the first and second values.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a simplified diagram showing an industrial process control system including a temperature sensor configured to sense a temperature of a process fluid.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing the transmitter of FIG. 1 in more detail.

FIG. 3 is a partial block diagram, partial schematic diagram, showing an analog-to-digital converter with a noise detector.

FIG. 4 is a flow diagram illustrating one embodiment of the operation of the analog-to-digital converter shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a diagram of a noise count accumulator in a noise detection component.

FIGS. 6-8 show graphical plots of counts versus voltage.

FIG. 9 is a block diagram similar to that shown in FIG. 3, except with multiple sensors.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A noise level detector detects both positive and negative noise events in a process variable transmitter. The detector can do this even while a measurement is being taken so that noise events that change during the measurement can be detected. The detector outputs an indication of the noise to a processor which can characterize the noise and suggest maintenance.

FIG. 1 is a simplified diagram of an industrial process control system 5. In FIG. 1, process piping 7 carries a process fluid. A process variable transmitter 10 is configured to couple to the process piping 7. Transmitter 10 includes a process variable sensor 18 which, in one embodiment, comprises a thermocouple or other temperature sensor. However, this is exemplary only. Transmitter 10 transmits information to a remote location, such as a process control room 6. The transmission can be over a process control loop such as a two-wire control loop 11. The process control loop can be in accordance with any desired format including, for example, a 4-20 mA process control loop, a process control loop which carries digital communications, a wireless process control loop, etc. In the example shown in FIG. 1, the process control loop 11 is powered by a power supply 6A at control room 6. This power is used to provide power to the process variable transmitter 10. A sense resistor 6B can be used to sense the current flowing through loop 11, although other mechanisms can be used as well.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a portion of industrial process control system 5, shown in FIG. 1, and transmitter 10 is shown in greater detail. In FIG. 2, sensor 18 is illustratively a process variable sensor that receives input 14 from a process being sensed. The input 14 is illustratively the process fluid flowing through piping 7, and sensor 18 is illustratively a temperature sensor. However, sensor 18 could also be a different type of sensor, such as one for sensing pressure, pH, flow, etc. Sensor 18 could also be one of a number of different types of temperature sensors. For instance, sensor 18 can be a thermocouple or a resistive temperature device (RTD). In the latter case, transmitter 10 also includes a controllable current source that provides an excitation current to sensor 18. In any of these embodiments, sensor 18 illustratively provides an analog output 20, indicative of the sensed parameter, to an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter 22 in transmitter 10.

In one embodiment, it should be noted that the output 20 from sensor 18 can illustratively be provided to a circuit (not shown) that amplifies and filters the analog signal, as appropriate. This can be part of sensor 18 or transmitter 10, or a separate circuit. The amplified and filtered signal 20 is then provided to A/D converter 22. A/D converter 22 provides a digitized output to processor 24, which is a digital representation of the analog signal 20 provided by sensor 18. Processor 24 has associated memory and clock circuitry, and provides information regarding the sensed parameter over process control loop 11. It should be noted that processor 24 can include an input/output (I/O) circuit, or an I/O circuit can be provided separately, that transmits information in a digital format on loop 11, or in an analog format by controlling current flow through loop 11.

The embodiment shown in FIG. 2 illustrates that A/D converter 22 also includes noise detection component 26. Noise detection component 26 monitors the noise level in the sensor output 20 and is disposed either internally, or externally, to A/D converter 22. Component 26 is shown internal to A/D converter 22 in the example shown in FIG. 2, but this is shown by way of example only. Noise detection component 26 monitors the noise as the input signal 20 is being digitized by A/D converter 22.

FIG. 3 is a more detailed diagram of A/D converter 22, and noise detection component 26. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 3, A/D converter 22 illustratively includes a differential amplifier 30 and a sigma delta converter 32. Sigma delta converter 32 is shown by way of example, and other conversion mechanisms can be used as well.

FIG. 3 also shows that noise detection component 26 illustratively includes noise detector 34, switch S1 and capacitor C1. FIG. 3 shows that sensor 18 has two leads 36 and 38 which can be coupled to input terminals 40 and 42, respectively. In one embodiment, the voltage across terminals 40 and 42 is indicative of the temperature sensed by sensor 18. FIG. 3 also shows that sensor 18 can illustratively be a four lead sensor with additional leads 44 and 46 coupled to additional terminals 48 and 50. Or, additional sensors can be coupled to those terminals and a multiplexor can be used to select input signals for measurement. However, for the sake of the present example, the description will proceed with respect to sensor 18 having two leads connected to terminals 40 and 42, respectively.

A more detailed operation of noise detection component 26 is described below with respect to FIGS. 4 and 5. Briefly, however, voltage Vinput is developed across terminals 40 and 42 and represents the temperature sensed by sensor 18. This input voltage is provided to differential amplifier 30 where it is amplified and provided to converter 32 for conversion into a digital signal, that is provided to processor 24. Vinput is also latched, at a specified rate, and held, across capacitor C1. This is done by closing switch S1. Vinput is compared, in noise detector 34, to a transmitter-specified threshold voltage over a number of clock periods. Two accumulators (or counters) are used. If the voltage difference between Vinput and the transmitter-specified threshold is greater than or less than a threshold value, one of the two accumulators is incremented. One of the accumulators is incremented for noise events in the positive direction, while the other is incremented for noise events in the negative direction. The values in the accumulators are referred to as noise counts 41. Once Vinput has been digitized by converter 32, the noise counts 41 are provided from noise detector 34 to processor 24 for use in characterizing the types of noise detected.

FIG. 4 is a more detailed block diagram of noise detector 34. FIG. 5 is a flow diagram illustrating the operation of noise detection component 26 in greater detail. FIGS. 4 and 5 will now be described in greater detail in conjunction with one another.

Prior to describing the operation illustrated in FIG. 5, the elements of FIG. 4 will first be briefly discussed. Vinput in FIG. 4 is the input voltage developed across sensor 18 (in FIG. 3) and applied between leads 40 and 42. Vinput _ latched is the voltage across capacitor C1 (again in FIG. 3) when switch S1 is closed. Vos _ thresh is a voltage set point that is used by positive and negative threshold generators 60 and 62 to generate positive and negative thresholds (Vpos _ adjust and Vneg _ adjust). In the embodiment shown, the threshold generators are comprised of a set of summing nodes 60 and 62. Vinput _ latched is added to noise threshold Vos _ thresh at summing node 60 and Vos _ thresh is subtracted from Vinput _ latched at summing node 62. It should also be noted that the noise threshold Vos _ thres can be determined empirically or it can vary from implementation-to-implementation. Similarly, two different thresholds could be used to generate Vpos _ adjust and Vneg _ adjust. In one embodiment, the value(s) of Vos _ thresh is set in firmware or at manufacturing time so the user need not set it or adjust it. Further, it can be adjustable by the user and the decision as to the particular threshold voltage can be made during implementation. Also, the threshold values can be variable based on a variety of different parameters, such as the value of the sensor signal, or other parameters.

The resultant positive and negative threshold voltages (Vpos _ adjust and Vneg _ adjust) are provided to comparators 64 and 66 where they are compared with Vinput. The output of comparators 64 and 66 are provided to the input of counters 68 and 70, respectively, which receive a clock input from clock 72. When Vinput exceeds Vpos _ adjust in the positive direction, and when clock 72 provides a clock pulse, counter 68 will increment by one. Similarly, when Vinput exceeds Vneg _ adjust in the negative direction, and when clock 72 provides a clock pulse to counter 70, then counter 70 will increment by one. In essence, during every clock cycle of clock 72, the output of comparators 64 and 66 are evaluated and noise registers (or counters) 68 and 70 are used to accumulate counts corresponding to both positive and negative noise events if the positive and negative noise threshold voltages (Vpos _ adjust and Vneg _ adjust) are exceeded. Refresh counter 73 is also clocked by clock 72 and provides a method to refresh Vinput _ latch at a predetermined rate. The refresh counter counts up to the refresh period where it refreshes the voltage latched across capacitor C1 at a refresh rate based on the output from counter 73.

The embodiment shown in FIG. 4 is only one illustrative embodiment, and others could be used as well. For instance, in some applications only a single noise counter can be used and incremented with a positive noise event and decremented with a negative noise event. This could be used to characterize noise symmetry, for example.

With this explanation of FIG. 4, the overall operation of A/D converter 22 in detecting noise will now be described with respect to FIG. 5. FIGS. 3-5 will be described in conjunction with one another.

In one embodiment, before detecting noise, processor 24 provides a reset signal to counters 68 and 70, to reset the noise counters. This is indicated by block 80 in FIG. 5, Processor 24 also illustratively resets refresh counter 73. This is indicated by block 82 in FIG. 5.

Processor 24 then latches Vinput across capacitor C1 by closing switch S1. This is indicated by block 84 in FIG. 5. Vinput can be latched across capacitor C1 at some point in time during which converter 32 is performing the analog-to-digital conversion on Vinput. In one embodiment, it is latched at the beginning of the conversion process, but it can be refreshed intermittently, as well. That is, processor 24 can open switch S1 and close it again every X number of counts output by refresh counter 73. The particular refresh rate can be set empirically, or adjusted based on a given application, or otherwise. It can be set in firmware or at manufacturing time, so the user need not set the refresh rate. Further, the user can be provided with the ability to reset the refresh rate, as desired.

In any case, once Vinput is latched across capacitor C1, summing nodes 60 and 62 generate the positive and negative threshold voltages Vpos _ adjust and Vneg _ adjust which are applied to comparators 64 and 66. As briefly mentioned above, when Vinput exceeds Vpos _ adjust in the positive direction, then counter 68 is incremented for each clock cycle of clock 72. Similarly, when Vinput exceeds the negative threshold Vneg _ adjust in the negative direction, then counter 70 is incremented for each clock cycle of clock 72. Testing the positive and negative noise output and incrementing counters 68 and 70, as needed, is indicated by block 86 in FIG. 5. After each clock cycle, it is determined whether refresh counter 73 has reached a count value that indicates that the latched voltage Vinput _ latched should be refreshed. If so, processing reverts to block 82 where refresh counter 73 is set to zero. Making the determination of whether the refresh counter is to be reset is indicated by block 88 in FIG. 5.

If, at block 88 it is determined that the refresh counter need not be reset yet, then processor 24 determines whether converter 32 has completed its measurement of Vinput. This is indicated by block 90 in FIG. 5. If not, processing reverts back to block 86 where detector 34 continues to test the positive and negative noise outputs and increment counters 68 and 70, as needed.

However, if, at block 90, it is determined that the A/D conversion has been completed, then the counts 41 provided by counters 68 and 70 are output to processor 24. This is indicated by block 92 in FIG. 5. Processor 24, in turn, can characterize the noise detected based on the counts 41.

Processor 24 can then output the noise characteristics that it has identified, based on the counts 41 from counters 68 and 70. Outputting the noise characteristics is indicated by block 94 in FIG. 5.

While there are a wide variety of different noise characteristics that can be identified by processor 24, based upon counts 41, a number of them will now be described for the sake of example only.

A first noise characteristic is referred to as noise symmetry. If both the positive and negative counters 68 and 70 provide counts that are equal, and those counts do not exceed a threshold value (i.e., they are not excessive), then processor 24 can determine that the noise is symmetric. This can provide an indication that the measurement output will be impacted by the measurement noise, but it allows processor 24 to provide an indication to the user that a degraded condition may exist. This type of noise can be induced by degrading thermocouples in a plant environment where noise currents are causing measurable voltages to be developed on higher impedance lines. This can inform the user that they are to provide maintenance to their sensor measurement loop, or other maintenance.

A second characteristic is reflective of noise frequency. That is, processor 24 can consider the refresh rate that defines the period that Vinput is latched across capacitor C1, and also the quantity of counts output by counters 68 and 70. Given these parameters, the approximate noise frequency can be determined. If a new voltage level is latched periodically within the measurement process, but noise counts are still accumulated, this allows processor 24 to estimate, at least roughly, the quantity of noise that is in the given measurement.

Yet another noise characteristic is the noise level. The noise level can be estimated by the quantity of counts output by counters 68 and 70, and the selected voltage threshold level Vos _ thresh. The threshold level may be adjusted to provide information to processor 24, and ultimately to the user, as to how much noise exists in the system. This can be important when thermal electromotive forces (EMFs) are generated on RTD measurement lines. If connection points are corroded or frayed, and the temperature gradient exists across this connection, a dynamic EMF condition can be induced on the RTD measurement. In this case, the user can be made aware of this, so that they can perform maintenance on the measurement loop. Processor 24 can generate a message that informs the user of this maintenance need.

Yet another noise characteristic is reflective of whether the settling time is sufficient. That is, if the measurement voltage Vinput is latched across capacitor C1 at the beginning of the digitization process performed by converter 32, and assuming there are a relatively large number of noise counts in the positive or negative direction (but not both), then processor 24 can determine that the settling time needs to be adjusted. After adjusting the settling time, a new measurement can be calculated. This process can help initialize settling time for the connected measurement loop to provide the highest level of accuracy with the best update rate.

FIGS. 6-8 are plots of counters 68 and 70 along the x axis versus voltage along the y axis. FIGS. 6-8 illustrate some of the noise characteristics. In FIG. 6, Vinput is indicated by line 100 and Vpos _ adjust is indicated by line 102, while Vneg _ adjust is indicated by line 104. FIG. 6 illustrates what might be a reflection of normal measurement noise. That is, Vinput varies well within the thresholds established by threshold voltages 102 and 104. It can be seen that the output from counters 68 and 70 are both zero, because Vinput has not crossed either threshold 102 or 104 during the measurement cycle.

FIG. 7 is similar to FIG. 6, and similar items are similarly numbered. However, it can be seen in FIG. 7 that Vinput 100 does cross the threshold voltages 102 and 104 by a certain number of times. The positive count from counter 68 is 29 counts while the negative count from counter 70 is 25 counts. This indicates that the noise is slightly asymmetrical in the positive direction.

FIG. 8 is also similar to FIG. 6, and similar items are similarly numbered. However, FIG. 8 shows that, other than the very beginning of the measurement cycle, Vinput is above positive threshold 102 the entire time. Therefore, the positive counts output by counter 68 are 380, while there are no negative counts. This tends to indicate that the settling time is inaccurate and needs to be adjusted.

Referring again to FIG. 5, having processor 24 output an indication of noise characteristics corresponding to noise symmetry is indicated by block 110. Outputting a noise characteristic corresponding to noise frequency is indicated by block 112, while outputting an indication as to noise level is indicated by block 114, and outputting an indication that reflects a settling time issue is indicated by block 116. Of course, processor 24 can generate other outputs 118 as well, indicative of other noise characteristics.

It will be appreciated that processor 24, or other components of transmitter 10, can perform other actions as well based upon the counts output by counters 68 and 70. Performing these other actions is indicated by block 120 in FIG. 5. For instance, processor 24 can adjust the settling time as indicated by block 122, or it can allow the user to adjust the integration period for the measurement cycle as indicated by block 124. Similarly, processor 24 can generate a profile of the measurement system based on the noise characteristics identified from counts 41 output by counters 68 and 70. This is indicated by block 126 in FIG. 5. Generating a profile can be done in a wide variety of ways. For instance, using a learning process, such as statistical process monitoring, processor 24 can generate a profile of the measurement system which can be referred to over time. This can help understand what noise level, refresh rate, and settling time should be used to configure each specific user installation. The noise level at startup can be used as a baseline for comparison of other measurement sample periods over time, as well. Transmitter 10, or other components can take a variety of other actions as well, and this is indicated by block 128 in FIG. 5.

Similarly, the counts can be used to detect line frequency that the measurement loop may be exposed to. For instance, in some user installations, a line frequency (such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz) may be coupled to the measurement lines. In such an installation, a user may be provided with a settable parameter that allows the measurement to be integrated over this period of time.

It will also be appreciated that a plurality of noise detection components 26 can be provided in a given transmitter 10. Each can be configured to process a different noise characteristic during the measurement cycle. For example, one noise detection component 26 can be configured to specifically identify settling time issues, while another can focus on noise frequency and yet another on noise level, etc.

In addition, noise detection component 26 can be used to continuously monitor the noise on each of a plurality of different sensors, independently, even when a given sensor output is not currently being measured by transmitter 10. FIG. 9 shows such an embodiment, which is similar to that shown in FIG. 2, except that a second sensor 19 is shown as well. Of course, a plurality of additional sensors can be provided and FIG. 9 shows only two sensors for the sake of example. In the embodiment in FIG. 9, it may be that transmitter 10 receives one sensor input at a time through a multiplexor. Thus it may be that transmitter 10 is not measuring the output of sensor 18 because it is measuring the output of sensor 19. In that case, however, noise detection component 27 is still detecting the noise on the output of sensor 18. Therefore, while noise detection component 26 is detecting the noise on the sensor 19 that is currently being measured by converter 22, the noise on the output of sensor 18 is also being detected by noise detection component 27, because detecting noise on the output of a sensor when it is not being measured can be meaningful and helpful as well. This embodiment can also allow the system to characterize noise differences among the different sensors.

The system can also help to accurately compensate for the sensed noise. Once the noise is characterized, compensation becomes more accurate. Further, the clock signal used to clock the counters can be controlled to obtain more information. If the clock frequency is increased, higher frequency noise components can be detected. Therefore, the clock frequency can be controlled as desired.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments, workers skilled in the art will recognize that changes may be made in form and detail without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (21)

What is claimed is:
1. A process variable transmitter, comprising:
a process variable sensor configured to sense a process variable of an industrial process and responsively provide a sensor signal representative of the sensed process variable;
an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter receiving the sensor signal provided by the process variable sensor that senses the process variable and converts the sensor signal to a digital signal at a conversion rate;
a processor that receives the digital signal and provides a measurement output indicative of the process variable based upon the digital signal; and
a noise detector that receives the sensor signal at a refresh rate that is greater than the conversion rate, and generates a first value indicative of a number of positive noise events relative to a positive threshold value, and a second value indicative of a number of negative noise events relative to a negative threshold value, the processor evaluating the positive noise events and the negative noise events and generating a noise output that is indicative of detected noise based on the first and second values,
wherein the noise detector comprises:
a positive noise threshold generator that receives the sensor signal and generates the positive threshold value as a positive voltage threshold; and
a negative noise threshold generator that receives the sensor signal and generates the negative threshold value as a negative voltage threshold.
2. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the noise detector further comprises:
a positive noise counter that receives the sensor signal, a clock input and the positive voltage threshold and accumulates the positive noise events with each clock pulse on the clock signal when the sensor signal exceeds the positive voltage threshold in a positive direction.
3. The process variable transmitter of claim 2 wherein the noise detector further comprises:
a negative noise counter that receives the sensor signal, a clock input and the negative voltage threshold and accumulates the negative noise events with each clock pulse on the clock signal when the sensor signal exceeds the negative voltage threshold in a negative direction.
4. The process variable transmitter of claim 3 wherein the processor generates the noise output based on the accumulation of the positive and negative noise events.
5. The process variable transmitter of claim 4 wherein the processor generates the noise output as a characterization of noise based on the accumulation of the positive and negative noise events.
6. The process variable transmitter of claim 5 wherein the processor generates the characterization of noise as the A/D converter is converting the sensor signal to the digital signal.
7. The process variable transmitter of claim 5 wherein the processor generates the noise output by analyzing the first and second values to identify noise symmetry, noise frequency and noise level.
8. The process variable transmitter of claim 6 wherein the A/D converter converts the sensor signal to the digital signal over a settling time and wherein the processor generates the noise output to identify whether settling time is contributing to measurement inaccuracies.
9. The process variable transmitter of claim 5 wherein the processor generates a noise profile for the process variable transmitter based on characterizations of the noise over time.
10. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the processor intermittently latches the sensor signal across a storage capacitor at the refresh rate and wherein the positive and negative noise threshold generators receive, as the sensor signal, the voltage across the storage capacitor.
11. The process variable transmitter of claim 10 wherein the noise detector further comprises:
a refresh counter, wherein the processor refreshes the sensor signal latched across the storage capacitor based on an output from the refresh counter.
12. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the noise detector is a part of the A/D converter.
13. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the noise detector is separate from the A/D converter.
14. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the processor provides the measurement output over a process control loop.
15. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the sensor comprises at least one temperature sensor selected from a group comprising a resistive temperature device and a thermocouple.
16. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the noise output is indicative of line noise.
17. The process variable transmitter of claim 1 wherein the noise detector monitors noise from a plurality of sensor signals.
18. A method of sensing a process variable in a process variable transmitter, comprising:
sensing the process variable with a process variable sensor and responsively providing an analog sensor signal;
receiving the analog sensor signal from the sensor indicative of the process variable;
converting the analog sensor signal to a digital signal with an analog to digital converter at a conversion rate;
during conversion of the analog sensor signal to the digital signal, accumulating positive noise counts in a positive noise accumulator with a noise count accumulator that are indicative of noise events that exceed a positive noise threshold, and negative noise counts in a negative noise accumulator that are indicative of noise events that exceed a negative noise threshold, at a refresh rate that is greater than the conversion rate;
characterizing noise on the analog sensor signal based on the positive noise counts and the negative noise counts with a processor; and
generating an output on a process control loop indicative of the digital signal and the characterization of the noise on the analog sensor signal.
19. The method of claim 18 wherein accumulating positive noise counts comprises generating the positive noise threshold based on the sensor signal and wherein accumulating negative noise counts comprises generating the negative noise threshold based on the sensor signal.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein generating the output indicative of characterization of the noise comprises:
generating the output to identify at least one of an estimate of noise symmetry, noise frequency, noise level, a source of the noise, and a noise profile for the process variable transmitter.
21. A process variable transmitter, comprising:
a process temperature sensor configured to sense a process temperature of an industrial process, and responsively provide a process temperature sensor signal;
an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter receiving the process temperature sensor signal provided by the process temperature sensor that senses a process temperature and converts the temperature sensor signal to a digital signal at a conversion rate;
a processor that receives the digital signal and controls current on a process control loop to provide a measurement output indicative of the digital signal; and
a noise detector that receives the process temperature sensor signal and generates, during conversion of the process temperature sensor signal to the digital signal at a refresh rate that is greater than the conversion rate, a first count value indicative of a number of positive noise events relative to a positive threshold value and a second count value indicative of a number of negative noise events relative to a negative threshold value, the processor generating a noise output that is indicative of a characteristic of detected noise based on the first and second count values,
wherein the noise detector comprises:
a positive noise threshold generator that receives the process temperature sensor signal and generates the positive threshold value as a positive voltage threshold; and
a negative noise threshold generator that receives the process temperature sensor signal and generates the negative threshold value as a negative voltage threshold.
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US13631048 US9602122B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2012-09-28 Process variable measurement noise diagnostic
CN 201210513583 CN103712707B (en) 2012-09-28 2012-12-04 Noise diagnostic process variable measurements
CN 201220660266 CN203148583U (en) 2012-09-28 2012-12-04 Process variable transmitters
JP2015534580A JP6039087B2 (en) 2012-09-28 2013-09-23 Process variable measurement noise diagnosis
CA 2886533 CA2886533C (en) 2012-09-28 2013-09-23 Process variable measurement noise diagnostic
EP20130771343 EP2901226A1 (en) 2012-09-28 2013-09-23 Process variable measurement noise diagnostic
RU2015115909A RU2609758C2 (en) 2012-09-28 2013-09-23 Process parameter measurement noise diagnostics
PCT/US2013/061170 WO2014052232A1 (en) 2012-09-28 2013-09-23 Process variable measurement noise diagnostic

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