US957221A - Hand for comptometers. - Google Patents

Hand for comptometers. Download PDF

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Publication number
US957221A
US957221A US52581409A US1909525814A US957221A US 957221 A US957221 A US 957221A US 52581409 A US52581409 A US 52581409A US 1909525814 A US1909525814 A US 1909525814A US 957221 A US957221 A US 957221A
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Prior art keywords
hand
keys
sockets
pins
machine
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US52581409A
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Sayers B Lamkin
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Sayers B Lamkin
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06CDIGITAL COMPUTERS IN WHICH ALL THE COMPUTATION IS EFFECTED MECHANICALLY
    • G06C27/00Computing machines characterised by the structural interrelation of their functional units, e.g. invoicing machines
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H13/00Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch
    • H01H13/70Switches having rectilinearly-movable operating part or parts adapted for pushing or pulling in one direction only, e.g. push-button switch having a plurality of operating members associated with different sets of contacts, e.g. keyboard

Description

S. B. LAMKIN.
HAND POR GOMPTOMETBRS.
APPLICATION FILED Nov. 1. 1909.
Patented May 10, 1910.
III',
ANDRE-,v B. GRAHAM co. PMoYc-Llwoenmmins. wAsmNcmN, DC,
s. B. LAMKIN.
HAND POR GOMPTOMEfIERS. kAPPLICATION FILED NOV. 1, 1909.
A 957,221. Patented May 10,1910.
E 3 2 SHEETS--SHEET 2.
2 H.ZW
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
SAYERS B. LAMKIN, 0F DAWSON, TERRITORY OF NEW MEXICO.
HAND FOR COMPTOMETERS.
ATo all whom it may concern:
Hands for Comptometers; and I hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, which form part of this specification.
This invention is a novel device for use with comptometers, or like calculating machines, to facilitate operations thereon; its object being to provide a mechanical assistant or hand for the operator wherewith he can perform operations on the machine with great rapidity, and with absolute accuracy so far as certain series of repeated key manipulating operations are concerned.
The hand is simple, and inexpensive; and will lessen the amount of finger work of the operator; and is readily adaptable for use with various kinds and makes of calculating machines.
I will explain the invention as embodied in the hand device illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which is particularly designed and adapted for use with a com tometer having ten vertical columns of nine keys numbered 1 to 9inclusive. Each column having separate calculating and additive carrying mechanism. The size of hand should be varied to correspond with size of comptometer-(the size of calculating machlne designated by the number of vertical columns).
I term the device a hand and it consists generally of a plate or frame, provided with a series of rows of holes or sockets in its under side,--corresponding in location and arrangement with the series of rows of keys in each set in the key-board of the machine,-and with a handle on its upper side by which it can be easily grasped and manipulated by the operator. The hand is also provided with removable pins which can be placed in the sockets corresponding to the keys it is desired to simultaneously depress, and after suitably arranging the pins, the operator places the hand over the key-board of the machine, and presses it thereupon, thereby causing the set pins to simultaneously depress the corresponding Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed November 1, 1909.
Patented May 10, 1910.
Serial No. 525,814.
keys, and perform at one operation of the hand a number of finger operations; the pins performing the work of the operators fingers; and when any given series of keys has to be repeatedly operated in making calculations, the advantages of the hand over finger' manipulation of the keys will be obvious.
I will explain the invention in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, and set forth in the claims the essential features of the invention for which I desire protection.
In said drawings-Figure 1 is a top view of an ordinary comptometer key-board and showing the hand in operative position thereover, partly in section and partly in dotted lines. of the hand. Fig. 3 is an enlarged side view of the hand as in operation. Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the hand detached; and Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view of the hand.
The hand as shown, comprises a plate l, provided on its under side with a series of rows of sockets la, the number of rows of sockets, and the number of sockets in a row, corresponding exactly with the number of rows of keys, and number of keys in a row, of the key-board of the comptometer or calculating machine with which the hand is to be used. As shown there are nine rows of sockets, and ten sockets in a row. The sockets are numbered correspondingly to the keys of the machine, but in reverse order, and with the digits in large figures in line with the sockets, and the co-digits in smaller figures above and to left of the digits; see Fig. 2. The complete hand as shown comprises the base plate and its attachments; and ten pins, one for each row of keys. Preferably the sockets for the even digits may be a sixteenth of an inch deeper than the sockets for the odd digits, to compensate for the concaved keys on odd digits of the compotometer, and enable the pins, hereinafter referred to, to be made of equal length.
A set of pins 2 is provided, each adapted to be detachably attached to the board by having its shank stuck into any of the sockets, as shown. The pins may be of about one and one-fourth inches in length, and have their Shanks formed to fit snugly in the sockets so that the pins will not drop out of place; the
Fig. 2 is a bottom plan view outer portions of the pins may be milled or roughened as indicated at 2, to facilitate their insertion and removal from the sockets; and they are preferably provided With rubber tips 2b on their outer ends, so as to cushion their contact With the keys, and lessen shock and noise. The pins may be of aluminum or other suitable metal and the sockets may be bushed With aluminum or other suitable metal if desired.
The base is provided at its upper edge, and under side, With a iiange 3, and at its left-hand edge and under side, with a flange 3, which flanges assist in correctly positioning the hand over the key-board of the machine; and when the upper flange 3 is brought against the side of the top row of keys on the machine, and the side flange against the side of the left-hand roiv of keys, all the pins are positioned accurately over the corresponding keys, (see Figs. 1 and 3) so that by thus locating and then depressing the hand the proper keys will be simultaneously operated.
The hand has a handle 4 on its top side, by which it can be readily manipulated.
The utility and mode of using the hand will be clearly understood from the following examples.
Operation: The hand is not designed to be used in the ordinary simple multiplying and dividing operations on the comptometer, although it can be used for any example large or small; but it is part-icularly adapted for long multiplication and division computations, such as in railroadoperating statements, in ascertaining cost per train mile against operating expenses, and their hundreds of sub-accounts Where a common divisor is used; or in mining calculation, in ascertaining the cost per ton of coal mined against the various operating expenses; or cost per ton of coke made against the various expenses. In such accountings the divisors are frequently in the hundreds of thousands, and can very seldom be simultaneously reached With the fingers, and never ivith swiftness and accuracy; and for this reason special rules have been devised for accomplishing division on the comptometer, when the divisor is of four or more digits, and even their Work is very slow and tedious. YVith my hand however adivisor of ten places can be Worked just as rapidly and accurately as a divisor of two digits. it is preferable to figure such division computations b v using a reciprocal and multiplying, as multiplication can be done on the comptometer faster than division, and the hand is invaluable in such Work. As an example of the utility of the hand assume the divisor to be 2,236,217.48 and the reciprocal is 0000004471836961; set the reciprocal (4471836961) in the hand as per rules governing the comptometer (see Fig. 2) and set the decimal point on the register as usual-then proceed with multiplication as usual, assuming the items to be as follows, viz:
Efvpcase 1' tems. Oost.
The reciprocal set into the hand forms the multiplicand and the expense items the multiplier. The first item computes a cost of 7 mills against say repairs to track; next item computes .0003 against repairs to bridges, and so on arriving at a total cost of .0154 against say operating account maintenance of Way. Generally only four decimal figures are shown in a statement; but to be absolutely accurate the extra decimals may be figured to determine the correct fourth decimal. 1n the foregoing example the decimals are carried to the extreme of ten counting digitsI in the reciprocal (16 places) to shoiv what the hand can accomplish in one shift. Eight significant terms in the reciprocal is what is generally used, but l can operate up to ten digits as readily as any less number. Of course for smaller key-boards, the chand7 could be made smaller, the feature thereof being that it is provided with sockets corresponding in number and arrangement With the keys of the key-board of the machine; and With a pin for each row of sockets. After the operator sets up the reciprocal on the hand by adjusting the proper number of pins in the proper rows; all he has to do in entering the reciprocal on the machine, is to press the hand down upon the key-board and he can perform this operation rapidly, Without any mental Worry as to its accuracy, and Without tiring his lingers, and With no possibility of error if he accurately sets the pins in the hand at the outset.
In Working division or multiplication, the operator should set up the divisor or multiplicand, respectively, in the hand and proceed in the usual manner. For example, if the quotient of 382561.47 and 897449 be required, set up the multiplicand in the hand, beginning with 3 at the right and Working to the left; this When inverted Will make the 382 fall over the first three columns to left of the machine. Strike the keys eight times, with the handg7 then move hand one column to right, which will place the partition side between the first two columns to left of machine, and strike nine times. Then move hand one column to right, and strike seven times; etc. until all digits of multiplier have been used; pointing ofi' in the usual way. Since multiplication is easier to accomplish on the comptometer than division it is often advantageous to work up a set of division computations by multiplication and when one divisor is common to several or numerous dividends, such as ascertaining (in railroad work) cost per freight train mile against the hundreds of freight operating expenses, it is an easy matter to find a reciprocal, or how many times the divisor is contained into $1.00 and multiplying such reciprocal by the various expenses. After finding the reciprocal set it up in the hand as already explained, set your decimal pointer on comptoineter behind the required decimal and use figures to left of such pointer. If cost is required to four places, it is not necessary to work out your reciprocal to more than six significant terms. In corporation accounting, however, many straight division computations are required of long dimensions such as ascertaining percentage of operating expenses to earnings, etc. F or example say the earnings for a certain period amounts to $318,198.65 against operating expenses amounting to $237,548.72. Strike ott' the dividend on machine according to the digits (large figures) beginning at the extreme left, causing 237548.72 to appear on the register. Set up the divisor in the hand according to the co-digits (small figures) beginning from extreme right column of hand and working to left, which when inverted will throw the 318 directly over the 237. Since 318v is not contained into 237 move the hand one column to right letting partition board slip between first and second columns of keys, then 2 being the first figure to left of' hand strike twice with the hand and keep on striking until the number of strokes agree with that figure which was formerly 2," then, without shifting to next column, keep on striking until the register shows a number smaller than 318; then shift to the next column which will place partition board of hand between the second and third columns of comptometer, and proceed as before; and so on through the series, and the register will show .7465219 (quotient)- 29739565 (remainder)--or .7465 answer. It is of course not necessary to carry out operations to such extremes for practical purposes but they should be carried out six decimals for absolute accuracy. An idea of how much time may be saved by using the hand in such computations can be gained by working out this example on a ten column comptometer to 7465422, and applying special rule laid down for division when divisor is over four places; it takes about one-hundred and eleven finger operations to work the example out seven places. lVith the hand it will require only thirty strokes. Time is also saved in manipulating the fingers for new trial divisors. When using the hand the divisor being set up, no manipulating is necessary. Another great advantage in using the hand is that it is not so trying on the eyes and brain or' the operator, as all he has to think about is how many times to strike; and since he does not have to manip ulate the keys in any way, he can work out computations in multiplication and division very rapidly.
Having described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent thereon is:
1. A key-operating attachment for comptometers and the like, comprising a plate provided with a plurality of' sockets on one face corresponding in arrangement with the keys of the machine, and a smaller number of adjustable pins adapted to be placed in any of said sockets and whereby predetermined keys of the machine may be simultaneously operated by manually placing the plate over the keys and depressing the same.
2. A key-operating attachment for comptoineters and the like comprising a hand consisting of a plate provided with a series of rows of sockets on one face corresponding in arrangement with a set of keys on a machine, and depending flanges on its under side whereby the plate may be properly positioned over the keys; with adjustable pins adapted to be removably engaged in any of said sockets whereby the predetermined keys on the machine may be simultaneously operated by placing the plate over the keys and depressing same.
3. A key-operating attachment for comptometers and the like comprising a plate having a plurality of rows of sockets on its under side corresponding in arrangement with the keys on the machine, said sockets being numbered correspondingly with the keys, and depending flanges on the lower face and top and side of the plate whereby it may be correctly positioned over the keys previous to depression thereof; with a set of removable pins each adapted to be detachably secured in any one of the sockets.
4. A key-operating attachment for comptometers and the like comprising a mechanical liand7 having a plurality of rows of sockets on its under side corresponding in number and arrangement with the keys on the machine, said sockets being numbered correspondingly with the keys; a handle on the top of the hand opposite the sockets whereby it may be manipulated by hand, and means on the lower face of the hand whereby it may be correctly positioned over the keys previous to depression thereof; with removable pins adapted to be detachably secured in any of the sockets.
A key-operating attachment for comptometers and the like comprising a mechanical hand having a plurality of sockets on its under side corresponding in arrangement with the keys on the machine; a set of removable pins each adapted to be detachably secured in any of the sockets, said pins having rubber tips on their outer ends, and the sockets corresponding to the concaved keys on the comptometer being shallower than the other sockets.
6. A manually operable key-operating attachment for comptometers and the like comprising` a plate having rows of sockets on its under side corresponding in arrangement with the keys on the machine, said sockets being numbered correspondingly-
US52581409A 1909-11-01 1909-11-01 Hand for comptometers. Expired - Lifetime US957221A (en)

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2516014A (en) * 1945-10-18 1950-07-18 Remington Rand Inc Data entering mechanism for card controlled accounting machines
US2535178A (en) * 1950-12-26 Auxiliary keyboard
US2588190A (en) * 1946-06-13 1952-03-04 Burroughs Adding Machine Co Analyzer and transfer unit in tabulating and like machines
US2906335A (en) * 1955-04-20 1959-09-29 Paul M Love Credit card punching device
DE1092042B (en) * 1957-03-22 1960-11-03 Wilhelm Ritzerfeld Rotary multiplier for printing lines that are spaced apart from one another on the printing form and appear to be close to one another or appear closed on the printed sheet
DE1097455B (en) * 1957-04-24 1961-01-19 Wilhelm Ritzerfeld Duplicating machine for duplicating printing forms in lines or sections
US3017076A (en) * 1957-12-31 1962-01-16 A Kimball Co Record perforating machines
US4135074A (en) * 1977-07-26 1979-01-16 Donald Gutkowski Automatic keyboard operator

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2535178A (en) * 1950-12-26 Auxiliary keyboard
US2516014A (en) * 1945-10-18 1950-07-18 Remington Rand Inc Data entering mechanism for card controlled accounting machines
US2588190A (en) * 1946-06-13 1952-03-04 Burroughs Adding Machine Co Analyzer and transfer unit in tabulating and like machines
US2906335A (en) * 1955-04-20 1959-09-29 Paul M Love Credit card punching device
DE1092042B (en) * 1957-03-22 1960-11-03 Wilhelm Ritzerfeld Rotary multiplier for printing lines that are spaced apart from one another on the printing form and appear to be close to one another or appear closed on the printed sheet
DE1097455B (en) * 1957-04-24 1961-01-19 Wilhelm Ritzerfeld Duplicating machine for duplicating printing forms in lines or sections
US3017076A (en) * 1957-12-31 1962-01-16 A Kimball Co Record perforating machines
US4135074A (en) * 1977-07-26 1979-01-16 Donald Gutkowski Automatic keyboard operator

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